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Purdue e-Pubs
International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Conference
School of Mechanical Engineering
1992
Exergy Analysis on a Vapor Compression
Refrigerating System Using R12, R134a and R290
as Refrigerants
X. Xu
Ecole des Mines de Paris; France
D. Clodic
Ecole des Mines de Paris; France
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Xu, X. and Clodic, D., "Exergy Analysis on a Vapor Compression Refrigerating System Using R12, R134a and R290 as Refrigerants"
(1992). International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. Paper 160.
http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/iracc/160
\
EXERGY ANALYSIS ON A VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATING
SYSTEM USING R12, AND R290 AS REFRIGERANTS
X. XU and D. CLODIC
Centre d'Energetique, Ecole des Mines de Paris,
60, Bd St·Michel. 75006 Paris, France
ABSTRACT
This. paper describes an exergetic analysis on a vapor compression refrigerating system.
The exergetic relations have been defined. A mathematical model for carrying out exergy
analysis by computer has been developed. An experiment an exergy analysis on 3
refrigerators/freezers using R12, R134a and R290 have been carried out to illustrate the
various exergy losses occurring in the different components, and to display the potential
improvements.
·
COP coefficient of
e specific excrf(y (kf kg-1)
E aergy (kf!
h specific enthalpy (kf kg· I)
m mass flow (kg sec-1)
Q heat (k/)
s specific entropy (k/ kg· I K·l)
T temperature (K)
w work (kf kg· 1)
W work (kj)
Greek
.1 exergy loss
11cx exergy efficiellcy
S11bscripts
air or surrounding
condenser
NOMENCLATURE
camp
e
Jr
Is
m
,71
p
v
!IS
X
0
1...10
INTRODUCTION
compressor
evaporator
lul•ricanl oil
defrosting
capil/arv
· liquid in suhwoler
motor
COT!Ilect i ng pipe
compression
heat emission in air
subwoler
superheating in suction pipe
vapor in subcooler
dcSllpahcatillg in discharge
reference state
state points
According to the MONTREAL PROTOCOL, the refrigerant Rl2 will be abandoned by 1995,
due to its high ODP and GWP level. For domestic refrigeration, R134a and R290 are
possible substitutes known. Their interest is that they can be applied by some simple
alterations of materials since they have near thermodynamic properties with R12.
Therefore, a comparison of performance within R12, R134a and R290 has been carried out
with the help of exergetic analysis method in this paper.
Exergetic analysis has showed a great interest in recent years due to the fact that it combines
the application of the first and the second law of thermodynamic. This analysis helps to
understand clearly irreversibility influences in thermodynamic process. It permits to
identify and calculate the various exergy losses in different components, and hence leads to
improve thermodynamic efficiency.
·
The aim of this paper is to introduce an exergetic analysis method on vapor compression
refrigerating system in order to compare the performance between 3 refrigerators/freezers
231
using Rl2, R134a and R290 as the refrigerants, hence to find an appropriate substitute of
Rl2. In this paper, an exergetic 11nalysis model by micro-computer has been developed.
Experiment with 3 refrigerators/freezers has been carried out. The exergy analysis resultats
are reported. The means for reducing the various exergy losses in different components are
also discussed.
REVIEW OF EXERGY CONCEPTS
Exergy defiuition
Exergy at a given state is equal to the maximum work that can be obtained when operating
reversibly between the given state and the reference state:
e=(h-ho)-T
0
(s-so)
(1)
For a heat Qat a constant temperature T, exergy can be also calculated by
(2)
The reference state is often the surrounding of system.
E:rergy loss and e:rergy efficitmcy
Figure 1 Exergy balance
According to the second law of thermodynamic, irreversibilities in process cause always
some thermodynamic losses. Therefore, for a steady process with a ·mechanical input w
(Figure 1), the exergy input flow is always greater than the exergy outflow. The exergy loss
of this process can be calculated by exergy balance:
(3)
In particular, for a reversible process
(4)
Since w>w,, the irreversibilities absorbe a portion of mechanical energy input. for
compensating the exergy losses. For appreciating the perfection degree of an irreversible
process in comparing its correspondent reversible process, we introduce an exergy
efficiency:
Exergy efficiency
work requested by correspondent reversible process
work consummated by irreversible process
(5)
The exergy effidency is equal to 1 when process is reversible, and is less than 1 in else case.
232
EXERGY ANALYSIS OF VAfOR COMPRESSION SYSTEM
The refrigerator system consists of a compressor, a condenser, a subcooler, a capillary and
an evaporator (Figure 2). For the freezer system, after compression the refrigerant encircles
the joint of freezer door for defrosting (Figure 3).
Condenser
4
Figure 2 Refrigerator circuit
Condenser
4
Defrosting
6
Frgure 3 Freezer circuit
233
1 analysis of components
In condenser and in subcooler, exergy losses are caused by heat transfer between different
temperature levels.
Condenser
(6)
Subcooler
(7)
Evaporator.
In evaporator, exergy loss is caused by different temperature levels and pressure loss
(8)
Capillary
In capillary, exergy loss is caused by irreversible expansion.
(9)
Compressor
The exergy analysis of motor-compressor is Taking electric efficiency of motor
(60%-80%) into account, a considerable part of electric power is transformed into heat flow
absorbed by lubricant oil. A part of this heat flow is used to superheat refrigerant vapor
between the compressor inlet and the suction of compressor piston. The rest is get free in
the surrounding. For reason of simplification, the compression is assumed adiabatic.
Between piston discharge and compressor outlet, refrigerant is desuperheated by yielding
heat flow into lubricant oil, finally into the surrounding. By the same ways above, we carry
out an exergy analysis in compressor.
Loss of motor
In the motor, a part of electric power is transformed into heat flow by magnetic and
mechanical losses. According to the second law of thermodynamic, the quality of electric
energy and of heat is different. Hence, the exergy loss can be calculated by
To To

ThJWm"' Th Wm
- (10)
With heat flow
Superlreati11g i11 suction pipe
(11)
234
With superheating flow W v=(hl-hJO)m
Heat emission in surro1mdiug
Wr=Wm-Wv
To To
Ll.Er=Ehr-Ear=O- Th)W ,-0- Tal3)W r
(12)
Compression
The irreversibility of compress10n causes an increase of entropy, hence an exergy loss:
(13)
superheating iu discharge pipe
(14)
The total exergy loss of compressor is
(15)
For freezer system, we have to take into account the exergy losses in desuperheating and in
defrosting upstream from condenser.
Desuperheating ill couuectiug pipe
(16)
Defrosting
(17)
2 Exergy balance of system
After exergy analysis of each component, we can make an exergy balance of this
refrigeration system. For a close system, the exergy gains are ega! to the sum of exergy
losses:
(18)
Considering the above exergy equations .of each component, we can finally obtain the
exergy balance of this refrigeration system:
W=(Ll.Em+t.Ev+Ll.E,+t.Ep+Ll.Ex+6E;,+Ll.E;+tJ.Ec:+Ll.EJ+Ll.E
5
+t.Ecl (19)
+(<Ear+ Eax+ Ean + Ea;+ Eacl-Eael
We remark that electric comsumption of compressor is used to:
235
(i) Raise the exergy ot system from the system source at a low temperature (cold
room) to the system sink at a high temperature (surrounding). ·
(ii) Compensate total exergy losses due to irreversibilities in system.
3 COP and exergy efficiency
The coefficient of performance is calculated by
Pr
COP=w
Where Pr is the refrigerating capacity of system.
(20)
(22)
In order to calculate th<> exergy efficiency given by equation (5), we have to calculate at first
the reversible power of system. Therefore, we determine an equivalent average
temperature for the source cf. J and for the sink (T;;) from their exergy·. Here T, is the
average air temperature in ClJld room and T;; is the average air temperature of system
surrounding. In this way, the COP of CARNOT and the reversil(le power of system can be
calculated :
T,
COP carnot=- . -
Tk -T,
w.- coPc."''"t
the exergy coefficient is
Wr COP
Ttc, = W - COPcarnot
(23)
(24)
(25)
The exergy efficiency shows clearly thermodynamic perfection degree of refr_igeration
system.
In this paper, a model of vapor compression systen:t for carrying out exergy analysis by
computer has been developed.
EXPERIMENTS
In an air-conditioned cabinet, 3 refrigerators/freezers each using one fluide of R12, R134a
and R290 have been tested at a surrounding temperature of 32 "C according to ISO 8187.
The circuit is the same. But ester oil is used for R134a compressor lubrication. For R290
refrigerator, the volume of compressor is a little reduced because of its too high
compressor load and greater volumetric refrigerating capacity. In this test, temperature
regulation is canceled in system and refrigerating capacity of system is controled constant
by an electric resistance for achieving steady operating state. 27 temperatures; 2 pressures
236
and 2 electric power have been measurel1 at steady state on each cycle lor carrying out
carefully an exergy analysis.
Parameters R12 R134A R290
T cond ·c
57.4 54.1
48.3
P cond bar
14.4
14.6 16.5
Tin evap
"C
-21.3
-17.7
-17.8
Pm evap
bar 1.43
1.46 2.62
Tout evap
'C
-19.6 -17.1
-14:9
Pout evap bar 1.42
1.35 2.43
Table 1 Operating parameters of 3 refrigerators
R12-
R134a
R290
exerFwJ'oss
%

%
•••r.alloss
%
Condenser
4.60 6.57 3.67 5.62 2.76 3.78
Subcooler
2.75 3.92 2.08 2.97 2.30 3.28
Capillary
0.06 0.08 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07
Evaporator
6.67 9.52 5.37 7.70 5.43 7.43
Compress1on
55.98 79.90 58.65 84.03 62.44 85.43
Total
70.05 100 69.79 100 73.08 100
Table 2 Exergy losses in refrigerator components
R12
Rl34a
R290
Ts
oc
3.1
1.3 3.85
Tk
oc
38.6
39.1 38.7
Pf
w 61.59
57.30
51.27
w
w
79.50
79.30 81.13
Wr
w
7.93
7.89 6.45
COP
0.775
0.721 0.63
COPcarnot 7.771
7.253 7.952
0.0997
0.0995 0.0795
Table 3 COP and exergy efficiency of 3 refrigerators
R12
R134a
R290
exerFwJ'oss
%

1
1oss
%
• • • loss
%
Compress1on
0.16 0.3 4.77 8.1 4.68 7.49
motor
4i.n 76.4 40.79 69.6 44.70 71.6
Superheating
0.89 1.6 0.82 1.4 0.98 1.6
Heat emission
5.82 10.4
5.43 9.3 5.37 8.6
Desuperheating
6.33 11.3 6.84 11.7 6.71 10.7
Total
55.98 100 58.65 100 62.44 100
Table 4 Exergy losses in refrigerator compressors
237
Parameters
R12 R134A R290
T.cond ·c
44.5 46.6 46.4
P cond bar 10.7

12.1
15.8
Tin evap ·c -30
-25.7
-30.7
Pin evap bar 1.00
1.03
1.62
Tout evap ·c -22.6
-18.4
-20.1
Pout evap bar 0.9 0.8
1.24
Table 5 Operating_ parameters of 3 freezers
R12 R134a R290
exerpx ]loss
%
xerrJ loss
w]
%
loss
%

1:33 1.59 1.82 2.30 1.53 1.46
Subcooler
2.83 3.39 2.35 2.97 4.-68
4.48
Capillary
O.Q2 O.Q2 0.03
0.04 0.09
0.08
Evaporator 2.89 3.46 3.41 4.31 6.42 6.14
Compression 73.92 88.42 69.07 87.27 84.12 80.46
Desuperheating 0.53 0.63 0.38 0.49 0.9 0.86
Defrosting
2.08 2.48 2.08 2.63 6.80 6.51
Total 83.59 100 79.14 100 104.55 100
Table 6 Exergy losses in freezer-components
R12
R134a
R290
Ts ·c -23.9 -20.9
-22.3
i'k
oc 35.6 34.9
31.4
Pf w
62.45
59.26
75.36
w
w
99.50 93.00
120.50
Wr w
14.91 13.11
16.15
COP
0.628 0.637
0.625
COPcarnot
4.187
4.521
4.67
'lex
0.150
0.141
0.134
Table 7 COP and exergy efficiency of 3 freezers
R12 R134a R290
exer(U;
1
1oss
%
xer?i!,Joss
%
loss
%
Compression
0.23 0.3 3.66 5.3 0.48 0.6
motor
59.30 80.2 51.38 74.4 63.95. 76.0
Superheating
0.85 1.2 0.88 1.3 1.77 2.1
Heat emission 7.37 10.0 6.05 8.76 9.28 11.0
Desuperheating 6.17 8.4 7.09 10.3 8.63
10.3.
Total
73.92 100 69.07 100
84.12 100
Table 8 Exergy losses in freezer compressors
238
TATS AND DISCUSSION
Table 1 and Table 5 give the main operating parameters of 3 refrigerators and of 3 freezers.
Table 2 and Table 6 show "xergy losses in each component of 3 refrigerators and of 3
freezers.
Table 3 and Table 7 report temperature levels, coefficient of performance and exergy
efficiency of 3 refrigerators and of 3 freezers.
Table 4 and Table 8 show the various exergy losses in each compressor.
On comparing 3 refrigerators, the·exergy efficiency for R12 and for R134a is almost ega!. We
see that COP for R12 is a little higher than for R134a. But we can't compare directly them
in this case, because they have not exactly the same temperature levels. According to
thermodynamic properties of refrigerants, R134a always works with a greater pressure
ratio than R12 for given temperatures. It's usually a disadvantage about the volumetric
efficiency of compressor and so that the cycle for R134a is somewhat Jess efficient than for
R12. This test indicates that this difference of performance is very small between R12 and
R134a refrigerators. The cycle with R290 is Jess efficient than with R12 and with R134a. In
this test, we noticed that R290 has the best volumetric refrigerating capacity in these 3
refrigerants. But it increases dramatically compressor load. Therefore, in this test we
reduced the piston for R290 compressor, hence compressor load. Table 2 shows that the
most exergy loss (about 80%) is occurred in compressors, especially in motors (Table 4).
Therefore a careful study for improving electric efficie"ncy of motor should be made in
future. The exergy loss in evaporator is also important. It can be explained by its great
different temperature levels. This exergy loss can be reduced by increasing evaporator
surface.
As can be seen in Table 4 and Table 5, freezer with R12 is more efficient with R134a
and with R290. Exergy efficiency of RI34a is only lightly less than R12. But we noticed in
this test, evaporation temperature of R134a is limited at -25 oc in this circuit. This can be
explained by the saturation curves of Rl34a. For achieving a lower temperature (-30 °C),
R134a has to be expanded to a lower pressure (0.85 bar) at the end of capillary. If we prolong
capillary for R134a freezer, it will increase inevitably the pressure ratio of compressor,
hence compressor load, and will cause also some problem for circuit airtightess. However,
the freezer of R134a can maintain steadily a low temperature less than -18 °C in this test.
The freezer for R290 has a higher volumetric refrigerating capacity, but its compressor load
is too great. Therefor, the freezer of R290 is globally less efficient. In order to improve the
performance of R290 freezer, it's necessary to redesign compressor. As in refrigerators,
exergy analysis of 3 freezers indicates that, the main exergy loss sources are always
Compressor and evaporator. Hence, it's necessary to improve compressor and to increase
evaporator surface in future research, however, it increases inevitably the cost of
installation.
CONCLUSION
The exergy analysis method helps to localize exergy losses in refrigerating system, and to
devise means to reduce them. This test indicates that, the great part of exergy loses is
occurred in compressor and in evaporator for this vapor compression system. The
refrigerator of R134a is almost efficient than for R12. But freezers for RI34a and for R290
are less efficient than R12 freezer. Each has some difficulties to achieve the same
performance of R12. To replace Rl2 in freezer, a careful study should be made in future.
239
REFERENCES
(1) S. KUMAR, M. PREVOST, R. BOUGAREL "Exergy analysis of a compressiOn
refrigeration system", Heat Recovery Systems&. CHP Vo1.9, No.2, pp.151-157, 1989.
(2) Lucien BOREL "Theorie generale de l'exergie et application pratique", ENTROPIE N°85,
janvier-Fevrier 1979.
(3] B.PETERSSON, H. THORSELL, "Comparison of the refrigerants HFC 134a and CFC 12'',
Int. ). Refrigeration, Vol 13, 1'990.
(4] Q.S YUAN, J.C BLAISE, M. DUMINIL, "Analyse exergetique et application aux pompes
a chaleur", Rapport de la Direction des Etudes et Recherches de l'EDF, 1988.
240

10 INTRODUC TION motor COT!Ilect i ng pipe compression heat emission in air subwoler superheating in suction pipe vapor in subcooler dcSllpahcatillg in discharge reference state state points According to the MONTREAL PROTOCOL. and hence leads to improve thermodynam ic efficiency. Bd St·Michel. XU and D. Rl34~ AND R290 AS REFRIGER ANTS X. Exergetic analysis has showed a great interest in recent years due to the fact that it combines the application of the first and the second law of thermodynam ic. This analysis helps to understand clearly irreversibilit y influences in thermodynam ic process. It permits to identify and calculate the various exergy losses in different components. Their interest is that they can be applied by some simple alterations of materials since they have near thermodyna mic properties with R12. CLODIC Centre d'Energetiqu e. and to display the potential improvemen ts. R134a and R290 are possible substitutes known. 75006 Paris. · NOMENCLA TURE COP e E h coefficient of prrformar~ee specific excrf(y (kf kg-1) aergy (kf! specific enthalpy (kf kg· I) mass flow (kg sec-1) heat (k/) specific entropy (k/ kg· I K·l) temperature (K) work (kf kg· 1) work (kj) camp e Jr compressor evaporator lul•ricanl oil defrosting capil/arv · liquid in suhwoler m Q s T w W Greek . Therefore. An experiment ~nd an exergy analysis on 3 refrigerators /freezers using R12. 60. For domestic refrigeration . paper describes an exergetic analysis on a vapor compression refrigerating system.71 p exergy loss exergy efficiellcy S11bscripts air or surrounding condenser 11cx v !IS X 0 1.1 Is m . due to its high ODP and GWP level.. A mathematica l model for carrying out exergy analysis by computer has been developed. the refrigerant Rl2 will be abandoned by 1995. · The aim of this paper is to introduce an exergetic analysis method on vapor compression refrigerating system in order to compare the performance between 3 refrigerators /freezers 231 .. France ABSTRACT This. R134a and R290 have been carried out to illustrate the various exergy losses occurring in the different components. The exergetic relations have been defined. Ecole des Mines de Paris. R134a and R290 has been carried out with the help of exergetic analysis method in this paper.\ EXERGY ANALYSIS ON A VAPOR COMPRES SION REFRIGER ATING SYSTEM USING R12. a comparison of performance within R12.

In this paper. for a reversible process (4) mechan ical energy input. E:rergy loss and e:rergy efficitmc y Figure 1 Exergy balance in process cause always Accordi ng to the second law of thermod ynamic. for Since w>w. REVIEW OF EXERGY CONCE PTS Exergy defiuitio n can be obtaine d when operatin g Exergy at a given state is equal to the maximu m work that the given state and the reference state: reversibly between e=(h-ho)-T 0(s-so) calculated by For a heat Qat a constant tempera ture T. Rl2. hence to find c 11nalysis model by micro-c ompute r has been develop ed. For appreci ating the perfection degree of an compen sating the corresp ondent reversib le process . The exergy loss (Figure 1). exergy can be also (2) (1) The reference state is often the surroun ding of system.an appropr iate substitu te of using Rl2. greater than the exergy outflow. irreversibilities w Therefore. the exergy input flow is always of this process can be calculated by exergy balance: (3) In particular. The means for reducin g the various exergy losses also discussed. R134a and R290 as the refrigerants. an exergeti The exergy analysis resultats Experiment with 3 refriger ators/fre ezers has been carried out. 232 . in different compon ents are are reported . The exergy effidenc y is equal to 1 when process is reversible. the irrevers ibilities absorbe a portion of irrevers ible exergy losses.. we introdu ce an exergy process in compar ing its efficiency: Exergy efficiency work requeste d by corresp ondent reversible process work consum mated by irrevers ible process (5) and is less than 1 in else case. for a steady process with a ·mechanical input some thermod ynamic losses.

Condenser 4 Figure 2 Refrigerator circuit Condenser 4 Defrosting 6 Frgure 3 Freezer circuit 233 . a subcooler. a condenser.EXERGY ANALYSIS OF VAfOR COMPRESSION SYSTEM The refrigerator system consists of a compressor. a capillary and an evaporator (Figure 2). For the freezer system. after compression the refrigerant encircles the joint of freezer door for defrosting (Figure 3).

(10) With heat flow Superlreati11g i11 suction pipe (11) 234 . exergy loss is caused by different temperat ure levels (8) Capillary In capillary. we carry into lubricant oil.E 01 "'Wm-~m"'W 111 -0.1 E:~:ergetic analysis of compone nts transfer between different In condense r and in subcooler. refrigera nt is desuperh above. out an exergy analysis Loss of motor flow by magnetic and In the motor. is assumed adiabatic . By the same ways heat flow in compressor. Taking electric heat flow account. a considerable part of electric power is transform ed into (60%-80%) into oil. Condens er (6) Subcoole r (7) Evapora tor. i'. exergy losses are caused by heat tempera ture levels. A part of this heat flow is used to superhea t refrigera nt vapor absorbed by lubricant The rest is get free in between the compres sor inlet and the suction of compres sor piston. (9) Compres sor efficiency of motor The exergy analysis of motor-co mpresso r is comple:~:. the surround ing. a part of electric power is transform ed into heat of electric losses. For reason of simplific ation. and pressure loss In evaporat or. Accordin g to the second law of thermod ynamic. the quality mechanical Hence. finally into the surround ing. exergy loss is caused by irreversible expansion.ThJWm"' Th Wm To To . the compres sion eated by yielding Between piston discharg e and compres sor outlet. the exergy loss can be calculated by energy and of heat is different.

+tJ.Ev+Ll.+t. we can make an exergy balance of this refrigeration system..+Ll.Ep+Ll.of each component.-0.E. the exergy gains are ega! to the sum of exergy losses: (18) Considering the above exergy equations .+ Eacl-Eael We remark that electric comsumption of compressor is used to: (19) 235 .With superheating flow W v=(hl-hJO)m Heat emission in surro1mdiug Wr=Wm-Wv Ll.E.Tal3)W r Compression The irreversibility of compress10n causes an increase of entropy.EJ+Ll. we have to take into account the exergy losses in desuperheati ng and in defrosting upstream from condenser.Er=Ehr-Ear=O.Em+t.E 5 +t.Ex+6E. For a close system.Ecl +(<Ear+ Eax+ Ean +Ea. hence an exergy loss: (13) To To (12) superheating iu discharge pipe (14) The total exergy loss of compressor is (15) For freezer system. Desuperheat ing ill couuectiug pipe (16) Defrosting (17) 2 Exergy balance of system After exergy analysis of each component.Th)W .Ec:+Ll. we can finally obtain the exergy balance of this refrigeration system: W=(Ll.

coPc. The circuit is the same. COPcarnot=. 2 pressures 236 . the COP of CARNOT and the reversil(le power of system can be calculated : T."''"t the exergy coefficient is COP Wr Ttc. (20) (ii) Compensate total exergy losses due to irreversibilities in system. In this paper. temperature regulation is canceled in system and refrigerating capacity of system is controled constant by an electric resistance for achieving steady operating state.COPcarnot (24) (25) The exergy efficiency shows clearly thermodynamic perfection degree of refr_igeration system.. 3 refrigerators/freez ers each using one fluide of R12.. is the temperature for the source (22) cf. But ester oil is used for R134a compressor lubrication. 27 temperatures. (23) w. Therefore. EXPERIMENTS In an air-conditioned cabinet. In this way. In this test.) from their exergy·.. For R290 refrigerator. we have to calculate at first the reversible power of system. Here T. is the average air temperature of system surrounding. we determine an equivalent average J and for the sink (T. In order to calculate th<> exergy efficiency given by equation (5).. the volume of compressor is a little reduced because of its too high compressor load and greater volumetric refrigerating capacity. average air temperature in ClJld room and T.(i) Raise the exergy ot system from the system source at a low temperature (cold · room) to the system sink at a high temperature (surrounding). = W . a model of vapor compression systen:t for carrying out exergy analysis by computer has been developed. Tk -T. R134a and R290 have been tested at a surrounding temperature of 32 "C according to ISO 8187. 3 COP and exergy efficiency The coefficient of performance is calculated by Pr COP=w Where Pr is the refrigerating capacity of system.

3 76.79 0.84 58.4 14.43 85.70 0.253 0.60 2. Parameters T cond P cond Tin evap Pm evap Tout evap Pout evap R12 R134A 54.77 40.6 10.85 38.1 1.89 5.6 1.3 16.52 79.43 6.82 5.76 2.98 5.98 4.98 70.62 2.7 51.43 62.3 1.05 5.71 62.4 11.37 58.04 7.89 0.27 81.3 11.4 9.70 84.30 7.16 0.97 0.65 8.7 100 Superheating Heat emission Desuperheat ing Total Table 4 Exergy losses in refrigerator compressors 237 .6 1.0995 R290 3.92 0.7 100 4i.08 Table 2 Exergy losses in refrigerator components R12 3.3 100 4.79 5.63 7.771 0.45 0.28 0.43 -19.0997 Rl34a 1.6 -17.03 5.82 6.7 1.0795 Ts Tk Pf oc oc w w w w Wr COP COPcarnot l]~~ Table 3 COP and exergy efficiency of 3 refrigerators R12 exerFwJ'oss % R134a pxerr~ 1oss R290 % •••fa~ loss % Compress1on motor 1 0.1 57.4 1.6 61.952 0.90 100 xerf~lloss R290 % •••r.49 71.n 0.65 69.5 -17.07 7.59 79.1 69.93 0.75 0.6 10.alloss exerFwJ'oss Condenser Subcooler Capillary Evaporator Compress1on Total % 3.03 100 2.50 7.1 14.30 79.43 ·c bar "C bar 'C bar 57.67 55.46 -17.44 7.06 6.775 7.08 9.4 -21.44 73.67 2.57 3.30 0.78 3.37 6.42 Table 1 Operating parameters of 3 refrigerators R12R134a % 6.6 8.8 2.62 -14:9 2.43 100 4.3 39.6 1.and 2 electric power have been measurel1 at steady state on each cycle lor carrying out carefully an exergy analysis.1 38.08 0.721 7.35 R290 48.13 6.05 3.33 55.68 44.

50 16.00 13.637 4.12 0.oonaenser xerrJ loss w] 1.09 69.46 4.37 8.59 3.28 8.48 63.3 31.46 88.7 1.3 100 R290 """j_~ loss % Compression motor Superheating Heat emission Desuperheating Total R12 exer(U.42 0.141 R290 -22.0 2.0 10.82 2.85 10.89 73.62 -20.Parameters T.7 1.42 84.Q2 1.08 79.9 6.76 10.39 O.7 -30 1.4 1.38 2.Joss % 3.04 4.4 6.50 14.9 35.134 Ts i'k Pf ·c oc w w w Wr w COP COPcarnot 'lex Table 7 COP and exergy efficiency of 3 freezers R134a xer?i!.92 0.97 0.14 80.2 59.5 10.45 99. 1oss % 1 0.38 0.6 76.625 4.6 0.77 9.27 0.08 6.67 0.9 12.1 11.05 7.-68 0.08 83.26 93.03 3.07 0.53 4.12 0.3 8.41 69.30 2.4 75.9 59.0 7.36 120.49 2.48 100 2.3 74.63 100 1.66 51.86 6.95.83 O.88 6.46 0.4 15.6 -· R290 46.55 1.59 3.cond P cond Tin evap Pin evap Tout evap Pout evap R12 R134A 46.53 2.Q2 2.1 -25.23 80.09 6.187 0. 100 Table 8 Exergy losses in freezer compressors 238 .31 87.521 0.8 Table 5 Operating_ parameters of 3 freezers R134a R290 loss R12 exerpx ]loss % ~.35 0.9 34.8 -30.6 62.51 100 Table 6 Exergy losses in freezer-components R12 -23.17 100 73.628 4.24 ·c bar ·c bar ·c bar 44.15 0.4 0.11 0.2 0.1 1.14 % exer~ % Subcooler Capillary Evaporator Compression Desuperheating Defrosting Total 1:33 2.48 0.92 0.80 104.07 5.3 0.03 -18.63 2.91 0.00 -22.150 R134a -20.63 84. 1.3.30 1.

Howev er. Therefor. As in refrige rators. it increas es inevita bly the cost of installa tion. but its compre ssor load is too great. coeffic ient of perform ance and exergy efficiency of 3 refrigerators and of 3 freezers. But freezers for RI34a and for R290 are less efficien t than R12 freezer . howev er. In order to improv e the perform ance of R290 freezer. R134a has to be expand ed to a lower pressur e (0. This test indicat es that. This can be explain ed by the saturat ion curves of Rl34a. hence compre ssor load. This exergy loss can be reduce d by increas ing evapor ator surface. and will cause also some problem for circuit airtight ess. This test indicate s that this difference of perform ance is very small betwee n R12 and R134a refriger ators. It's usually a disadv antage about the volume tric efficiency of compre ssor and so that the cycle for R134a is somew hat Jess efficient than for R12. the·exergy efficiency for R12 and for R134a is almost ega!. especia lly in motors (Table 4).R~SUL TATS AND DISCUSSION Table 1 and Table 5 give the main operati ng parame ters of 3 refriger ators and of 3 freezers. Exergy efficiency of RI34a is only lightly less than R12. exergy analysi s of 3 freezer s indicat es that. it's necessa ry to improv e compre ssor and to increas e evapor ator surface in future researc h. The freezer for R290 has a higher volume tric refriger ating capacity. Therefo re. It can be explain ed by its great differen t temper ature levels. We see that COP for R12 is a little higher than for R134a. As can be seen in Table 4 and Table 5. evapor ation temper ature of R134a is limited at -25 oc in this circuit. R134a always works with a greater pressur e ratio than R12 for given temper atures. in this test we reduce d the piston for R290 compre ssor. 239 . it will increas e inevita bly the pressur e ratio of compre ssor. the great part of exergy loses is occurre d in compre ssor and in evapor ator for this vapor compre ssion system . In this test. But it increas es dramat ically compre ssor load. the freezer of R290 is globall y less efficient. Therefo re a careful study for improv ing electric efficie"n cy of motor should be made in future. The cycle with R290 is Jess efficien t than with R12 and with R134a. But we can't compar e directly them in this case. For achievi ng a lower temper ature (-30 °C). we noticed that R290 has the best volume tric refrige rating capacit y in these 3 refrige rants. If we prolong capillar y for R134a freezer. hence compre ssor load. The exergy loss in evapor ator is also import ant. freezer with R12 is more efficient th<~n with R134a and with R290. Hence. Each has some difficu lties to achieve the same perform ance of R12. To replace Rl2 in freezer.85 bar) at the end of capillary. and to devise means to reduce them. Table 2 and Table 6 show "xergy losses in each compo nent of 3 refrige rators and of 3 freezers. But we noticed in this test. The refriger ator of R134a is almost efficient than for R12. the freezer of R134a can mainta in steadily a low temper ature less than -18 °C in this test. Table 2 shows that the most exergy loss (about 80%) is occurre d in compre ssors. CONCLUSION The exergy analysi s method helps to localize exergy losses in refriger ating system . becaus e they have not exactly the same temper ature levels. Table 3 and Table 7 report temper ature levels. it's necessa ry to redesig n compre ssor. a careful study should be made in future. On compar ing 3 refrigerators. Table 4 and Table 8 show the various exergy losses in each compressor. the main exergy loss sources are always Compr essor and evapor ator. Accord ing to thermo dynam ic propert ies of refriger ants.

J. Int. CHP Vo1.9.S YUAN. 1'990. "Analy se ches de l'EDF. system" . H. (3] B. BOUG AREL pp. KUMA R.C BLAISE. M. R. ENTROPIE N°85.2.151-157. Rappor t de la Direction des Etudes et Recher 240 . "Comp arison of 13. ). Heat Recovery Systems&. PREVO ST. Vol exerget ique et applica tion aux pompe s (4] Q. DUMIN IL.PETE RSSON . (2) Lucien BOREL "Theorie general e de l'exergie et applica janvier -Fevrie r 1979. a chaleur". the refriger ants HFC 134a and CFC 12''. refriger ation tion pratiqu e". No.REFERENCES "Exerg y analysi s of a compre ssiOn (1) S. Refrigeration. M. 1989. 1988. THORS ELL.

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