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Strip Theory (2D Potential Theory)

In Aerodynamic analysis the motion of the fluid can be formulated as two-dimension problem for slender bod

Strip Theory
Formulating a problem into 2-D and applying strip theory it is noticed that there are much variations in the cross direction as compared to that of longitudinal direction The basic principle of strip theory is that the portion of the aerofoil, wing or craft submerged into the flow is divided into finite number of strips and then 2_D hydrodynamic coefficients for added mass can be computed for each strip and then integrated over the length of the body to yield the 3D coefficients.

panel method
A panel method (such as our Panel Flow add-on) is a surface-based, gas and liquid flow technique Panel methods can calculate the gas or liquid flow around complex 3D configurations, such as aircraft, with relative ease. However, that ease comes at a price: panel methods are incapable of modeling the viscous effects that are evident in all real-world flows

Panel methods are ideal for concept design analysis due to their rapid turnaround time and relatively easy surface modeling, but this is countered by their inability to predict boundary layers and flow separation. The lack of viscosity modeling in a panel method leads to another limitation: they cant model rotational flows such as that found in a cyclone. Panel methods cant model supersonic flow (Mach number > 1) either. When you consider that the majority of

fluid flows relevant to engineers are subsonic, the inability to model supersonic flows is a minor constraint compared to the lack of viscosity modeling. Playing to a panel methods strengths reveals a useful engineering tool. A panel method performs best when modeling fully-attached, high-Reynolds-number (> 105), subsonic (Mach number < 1) flow. Such conditions are found in abundance around streamlined shapes such as aircraft, cars, submarines and yachts. Not surprisingly, the aerospace industry was the first to develop and adopt panel methods, followed by racing-car designers and more recently racingyacht designers.

Panel methods are adept at calculating the lift force and form drag force (also known as pressure drag) on a wing, wing-body and whole aircraft as long as viscous effects are negligible i.e., away from stall conditions. Form drag is a useful quantity to calculate, but without the skinfriction drag (which is dependent on viscous modeling) it doesnt reflect the total drag. Total drag is the sum of the form drag and skin-friction drag. For airfoils, skin-friction is significant at low angles of attack and therefore panel methods shouldnt be relied upon for drag prediction.

Vortex lattice method

There is a method that is similar to panel methods but very easy to use and capable of providing remarkable insight into wing aerodynamics and component interaction. It is the vortex lattice method (vlm), and was among the earliest methods utilizing computers to actually assist aerodynamicists in estimating aircraft aerodynamics. Vortex lattice methods are based on solutions to Laplaces Equation, and are subject to the same basic theoretical restrictions that apply to panel methods. As a comparison, vortex lattice methods are: Similar to Panel methods: singularities are placed on a surface the non-penetration condition is satisfied at a number of control points a system of linear algebraic equations is solved to determine singularity strengths Different from Panel methods: Oriented toward lifting effects, and classical formulations ignore thickness Boundary conditions (BCs) are applied on a mean surface, not the actual surface Singularities are not distributed over the entire surface Oriented toward combinations of thin lifting surfaces (recall Panel methods had no limitations on thickness).

The Vortex lattice method, (VLM), is a numerical, Computational fluid dynamics, method used mainly in the early stages of aircraft design and in aerodynamic education at university level. The VLM models the lifting surfaces, such as a wing, of an aircraft as an infinitely thin sheet of discrete vortices to compute lift and induced drag. The influence of the thickness, viscosity and other things, is neglected. VLMs can compute the flow around a wing with elementary geometrical definition. For a rectangular wing it is enough to know the span and chord. On the other side of the spectrum, they can describe the flow around a fairly complex aircraft geometry (with multiple lifting surfaces with taper, kinks, twist, camber, trailing edge control surfaces and many other geometric features). By simulating the flow field, one can extract the pressure distribution or as in the case of the VLM, the force distribution, around the simulated body. This knowledge is then used to compute the aerodynamic coefficients and their derivatives that are important for assessing the aircraft's handling qualities in the conceptual design phase. With an initial estimate of the pressure distribution on the wing, the structural designers can start designing the load-bearing parts of the wings, fin and tail plane and other lifting surfaces. Additionally, while the VLM cannot compute the viscous drag, the induced drag stemming from the production of lift can be estimated. Hence as the drag must be balanced with the thrust in the cruise configuration, the propulsion group can also get important data from the VLM simulation

The vortex lattice method is built on the theory of ideal flow, also known as Potential flow. Ideal flow is a simplification of the real flow experienced in nature; however for many engineering applications this simplified representation has all of the properties that are important from the engineering point of view. This method neglects all viscous effects. Turbulence, dissipation and boundary layers are not resolved at all. However, lift induced drag can be assessed and, taking special care, some stall phenomena can be modeled.

The following assumptions are made regarding the problem in the vortex lattice method: The flow field is incompressible, inviscid and irrotational. However, subsonic compressible flow can be modeled if the Prandtl-Glauert transformation is incorporated into the method. The lifting surfaces are thin. The influence of thickness on aerodynamic forces is neglected. The angle of attack and the angle of sideslip are both small, small angle approximation.

Federal Aviation Regulations

The Federal Aviation Regulations, or FARs, are rules prescribed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) governing all aviation activities in the United States. The FARs are part of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). A wide variety of activities are regulated, such as airplane design, typical airline flights, pilot training activities, hot-air ballooning, lighter-thanair aircraft, man-made structure heights, obstruction lighting and marking, and even model rocket launches and model aircraft operation. The rules are designed to promote safe aviation, protecting pilots, flight attendants, passengers and the general public from unnecessary risk. FAR 25.301(LOADS) Strength requirements are specified in terms of limit loads.(the maximum loads to be expected in service). And ultimate loads (limit loads multiplied by prescribed factors of safety).unless otherwise provided, prescribed loads are limit loads. If deflections under load would significantly change the distribution of internal or external loads, This redistribution must be taken into account. FAR 25.303(factor of safety)

Unless otherwise specified, a factor of safety of 1.5 must be applied to the prescribed limit load which is considered external loads on the structure. When a loading condition is prescribed in terms of ultimate loads, a factor of safety need not be applied unless otherwise specified. FAR 25.305(strength and deformation) The structure must be able to support limit load without detrimental permanent deformation. At any load up to limit loads the deformation may not interfere with safe operation. The airplane must be designed to withstand any vibration and buffeting that might occur in any likely operating condition up to VD/MD including stall and probable inadvertent excursions. Beyond the boundaries of the buffet onset envelop. This must be shown by analysis, flight tests or other tests found necessary by the administrator. Unless shown to be extremely improbable, the airplane must be designed any forced structural vibration resulting from any failure, malfunction or adverse condition in the flight control system. These must be considered limit loads and must be investigated at airspeeds up to VC/MC. FAR 25.307(proof of structure) Compliance with the strength and deformation requirements of this subpart must be shown for each critical loading condition. structural analysis should be used only if the structure conforms to that for which experience has shown this method to be reliable. The administrator may require ultimate load tests in cases where limit load tests may be inadequate . FAR 25.321(general) Flight load factors represent the ratio of the aerodynamic force component (acting normal to the assumed longitudinal axis of the airplane) to the weight of the airplane. a positive load factor is one in which the aerodynamic force acts upward with respect to the plane. The significant forces acting on the airplane must be placed in equilibrium in a rational or conservative manner.

Federal Aviation Administration

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S. The Federal Aviation Act of 1958 created the organization under the name "Federal Aviation Agency", and adopted its current name in 1966 when it became a part of the United States Department of Transportation.

The Federal Aviation Administration is responsible for making sure that air travel in the United States or aboard U.S. carriers is safe and efficient with safety, since those goals are not always aligned, taking the top priority.

The FAA's major roles include: Regulating U.S. commercial space transportation Regulating air navigation facilities' geometry and flight inspection standards Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology Issuing, suspending, or revoking pilot certificates Regulating civil aviation to promote safety, especially through local offices called Flight Standards District Offices Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation

European Aviation Safety Agency

The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is an agency of the European Union (EU) with offices in Cologne, Germany, which has been given regulatory and executive tasks in the field of civilian aviation safety. It was created on 15 July 2002, and it reached full functionality in 2008, taking over functions of the JAA (Joint Aviation Authorities). EFTA countries have been granted participation in the agency. The agencys responsibilities include:

giving advice to the European Union for drafting new legislation; implementing and monitoring safety rules, including inspections in the Member States; type-certification of aircraft and components, as well as the approval of organizations involved in the design, manufacture and maintenance of aeronautical products; authorization of third-country (non EU) operators; Safety analysis and research.

As part of Single European Sky-II k, the agency has been given more tasks. These will be implemented before 2013. Amongst other things, EASA will now be able to certify Functional Airspace Blocks if more than three parties are involved