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Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes". Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2010, there were over 940 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 6.6% as compared to 2009. International tourism receipts grew to US$919 billion (euro 693 billion) in 2010, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.7%. As a result of the late-2000s recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008, with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer months. This negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and an estimated 6% decline in international tourism receipts. Tourism is important and in some cases vital for many countries, such as France, Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Israel, United States, United Kingdom, Spain, Italy,and Thailand, and many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles: it brings in large amounts of income in payment for goods and services and creates opportunities for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs; hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts; and entertainment venues,
such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres. Tourist - Is a temporary visitor staying for a period of at least 24hours in the country visited and the purpose of whose journey can be classified under one of the following heads: Leisure (recreation, holiday, health, study, religion and sport). Business, family, mission, meeting.
WTO Forecast for Tourist Arrivals
TYPES OF TOURISM For the past few decades many forms of tourism are becoming more popular, particularly:
ADVENTURE TOURISM Adventure travel is a type of tourism, involving exploration or travel to remote, exotic and possibly hostile areas. Adventure tourism is rapidly growing in popularity, as tourists seek different kinds of vacations. According to the U.S. based Adventure Travel Trade Association, adventure travel may be any tourist activity, including two of the following three components: a physical activity, a cultural exchange or interaction and engagement with nature. CULTURAL TOURISM Cultural tourism (or culture tourism) is the subset of tourism concerned with a country or region's culture, specifically the lifestyle of the people in those geographical areas, the history of those peoples, their art, architecture, religion(s), and other elements that helped shape their way of life. Cultural tourism includes tourism in urban areas, particularly historic or large cities and their cultural facilities such as museums and theatres. It can also include tourism in rural areas showcasing the traditions of indigenous cultural communities (i.e. festivals, rituals), and their values and lifestyle. It is generally agreed that cultural tourists spend substantially more than standard tourists do. This form of tourism is also becoming generally more popular throughout the world, and a recent OECD report has highlighted the role that cultural tourism can play in regional development in different world regions. EDUCATIONAL TOURISM Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment. In educational ~3~
Events such as rugby. Olympics. in relation to particular medical procedures (e. hotels and excursions. traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as "medical tourism". or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment. essential ecological processes. such as in the International Practicum Training Program. SPORT TOURISM Since the late 1980s." MEDICAL TOURISM When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure.g. Commonwealth games.tourism. dentistry). sports tourism has become increasingly popular. social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity. Sustainable Tourism "Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic. particularly in Southeast Asia. Asian Games and football World Cups have enabled specialist travel companies to gain official ticket allocation and then sell them in packages that include flights. biological diversity and life support systems. the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture. such as in Student Exchange Programs and Study Tours. Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes. India. ~4~ .
Adjectival tourism Adjectival tourism refers to the numerous niche or specialty travel forms of tourism that have emerged over the years. This type of tourism lets people gain power and energy in the course of communicating with nature and watching it. provides funds for conservation. directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities. sea beaches etc. the tourist spent their leisure hour at the hill stations. ECOTOURISM One of the most promising types of tourism all over the world is ecologic tourism. each with its own adjective. is responsible travel to fragile. and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights. also known as ecological tourism. Many of these have come into common use by the tourism industry and academics. Ecotourism. Recreational tourism: In the recreational tourism. such type of tourism provides an opportunity to the tourist to get away from day to day humdrum bad refresh their mind and energy. pristine.Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage. Besides. it stimulates environment protection thus making this type of tourism profitable for local population. It helps educate the traveler. Examples of the more common niche tourism markets include: ~5~ .
Its European roots date back to the time of the Grand Tour. known as sustainable tourism. drawing on active participation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit. which saw the sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive. Several countries offer ~6~ . They have defined "creative tourism" as tourism related to the active participation of travellers in the culture of the host community. have directed a number of projects for the European Commission. including cultural and crafts tourism. creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism. the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations such as UNESCO. creative tourism has been given its own name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards. authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place.Meanwhile. Agritourism Culinary tourism Cultural tourism Ecotourism Extreme tourism Geotourism Heritage tourism LGBT tourism Medical tourism Nautical tourism Pop-culture tourism Religious tourism Slum tourism Space tourism War tourism Wildlife tourism Creative tourism Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism. have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged. since the early beginnings of tourism itself. More recently. More recently. through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences. who through the Creative Cities Network. educational experiences. who as members of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS).
Others worry that travel to many of these threatened locations increases an individual‘s carbon footprint and only hastens problems threatened locations are already facing. such as mourning. such as battlegrounds. Identified by travel trade magazine TravelAge West editor-in-chief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later explored in The New York Times. ~7~ . Dark tourism One emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000) as "dark" tourism. the Bahamas. This type of tourism involves visits to "dark" sites.examples of this type of tourism development. macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs. the melting glaciers of Patagonia. Italy and New Zealand. remembrance. this type of tourism is believed to be on the rise. Dark tourism remains a small niche market. Jamaica. for example: concentration camps." or "Last Chance Tourism" this emerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally or otherwise threatened (the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro. The coral of the Great Barrier Reef) before it is too late. driven by varied motivations. education. scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide. Some see the trend as related to sustainable tourism or ecotourism due to the fact that a number of these tourist destinations are considered threatened by environmental factors such as global warming. including the United Kingdom. Spain. Doom tourism Also known as "Tourism of Doom. over population or climate change.
Health tourism. Inclusive tourism (or Accessible Tourism) for people with disabilities. and Rural Tourism such as Agritourism. and rituals). Sport travel to do skiing. and heritage tourism. including cultural tourism.g.g. FIFA World Cup). Medical tourism. ~8~ .g.. golf and scuba dri9ving or see a sports event (e. bookstore tourism. ancestry tourism. music tourism.. Wine tourism.Lifestyleoriented niche tourism include Gay tourism. yoga. amateur radio DX-peditions. sustainable tourism in Rainforests or national parks). Learning-oriented niche tourism includes audio tourism and audio walking tours. and extreme tourism for people interested in risky activities. Mystical (e. Garden tourism. to visit birth places. Ecotourism (e. or square dance cruises) The cultural sub-type of learning-oriented niche tourism focuses on cultural and arts activities. educational tourism for classes. hobby tourism (such as garden tours. The nature and environment-oriented sub-types include Coastal Tourism. in which travelers visit independent bookstores. Gourmet tourism. involving Meditation. Backpacker Tourism. Niche tourism: Physical activity or sports –oriented niche tourism includes adventure tourism such as mountaineering and hiking (tramping). creative tourism workshops.
Macau. Belgium. Panama.The World Tourism Organization is a significant global body. Liechtenstein. Samoa. Finland. Puerto Rico. Russian. El Salvador. Trinidad and Tobago. is a United Nations agency dealing with questions relating to tourism. Qatar. Palestine). Canada.World Tourism Organization The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Micronesia. Honduras. Antigua and Barbuda. Luxembourg. 15 of these members have withdrawn from the organization for different periods in the past: Australia. Bahamas. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Members As of 2010. Niue. Malaysia. United States. Liberia. and Spanish. Myanmar. Sweden. English French. Tonga and the rest of states with limited recognition. Solomon Islands. Comoros. Netherlands Antilles). Thailand and Puerto Rico. seven associate members (Flemish Community. Tuvalu. Dominica. Kiribati. Singapore. Nauru. Kuwait. Palau. its membership included 154 member states. two observers (Holy See. Belize. Saint Lucia. Saint Kitts and Nevis. New Zealand. Spain. Guyana. Costa Rica. This organization represents public sector tourism bodies. Grenada. Bahrain. Cook Islands. Iceland. Ireland. Denmark. Nicaragua. based in Madrid. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Madeira. concerned with the collection and collation of statistical information on international tourism. Estonia. Marshall Islands. Philippines. The official languages of UNWTO are Arabic. Aruba. Barbados. United Arab Emirates. ~9~ . United Kingdom. Somalia. It compiles the World Tourism rankings. Non-members are: Suriname. Hong Kong. from most countries in the world and the publication of its data makes possible comparisons of the flow and growth of tourism on a global scale.
on 2 December 2005. Senegal. tourism associations and local tourism authorities.Additionally there are some 350 affiliate members. The frequent confusion between the two WTOs – World Tourism Organization and the Geneva-based World Trade Organization – officially ended on 1 December 2005. when the General Assembly approved to add the letters UN (for United Nations) to the start of abbreviation of the leading international tourism body in English and in Russian. Secretaries-General of UNWTO 1975–1985 — Robert Lonati (France) 1986–1989 — Willibald Pahr (Austria) 1990–1996 — Antonio Enriquez Savignac (Mexico) 1998–2009 — Francesco Frangialli (France) 2010–present — Taleb Rifai (Jordan) ~ 10 ~ . representing the private sector. educational institutions. UNWTO General Assembly concluded its work at its 16th session in Dakar. UNWTO abbreviation remains OMT in French and Spanish.
The Indian economy is undergoing a major transformation. Some of the direct benefits accruing to the local community of a region as a result of tourism development are: ~ 11 ~ . and surrounded on three sides by water( the Arabian Sea. As an economic activity in the service sector. With an annual growth of eight percent. tourism also has enormous potential for contributing to economic growth. India offers a wide array of places to see and things to do. Tourism has great capacity to create large-scale employmentfrom the most specialized to the unskilled. The Travel and Tourism industry holds tremendous potential for India‘s economy. In 2004. Several countries have transformed their economies by developing their tourism potential. Promotion of tourism would bring many direct and indirect benefits to the people. It can provide impetus to other industries create millions of new jobs and generate enough wealth to help pay off the international debt. Bounded by the Himalayan ranges in the north. Tourism is now well recognized as a major growth engine.4 billion. That is why we have included Tourism amongst the Core Sectors of the Indian Economy. India has become the second most favored destination for foreign direct investment.the world India is also ranked among the top 3 adventure tourism destinations. and the Indian Ocean). Tourism has the potential to change the economic face of a region. foreign tourists visiting India spent US$ 15. with a long history and diverse culture. Bay of Bengal.Tourism and Tourism Industry in India India is one of the popular tourist destinations Asia.
~ 12 ~ . Market for local produce Employment in infrastructure sector Economic upliftment due to income multiplier effect. hospitals. roads. etc. Employment opportunities in tourism and hospitality sector Development of private enterprise Improved standard of living Social upliftment and improved quality of life Better education and training Sustainable environmental practices Foreign exchange earning Some of the indirect benefits accruing to the local community of a region as a result of tourism development are: Infrastructure development-power. sanitation. water.
9 million annual foreign tourist arrivals and 740 million domestic tourism visits. the State Governments/ union Territories and the representatives of the private sector. cruise. Tamil Nadu. medical and ecotourism. the Ministry consults and collaborates with other stakeholders in the sector including various Central Ministries/agencies. 17. Uttar Pradesh. Ministry of Tourism is the nodal agency to formulate national policies and programmes for the development and promotion of tourism. Domestic tourism in the same year was massive at 740 million. In the process.23% to the national GDP and 8. India witnesses more than 17.9 million foreign tourists visited India. Concerted efforts are being made to promote new forms of tourism such as rural. The Ministry of Tourism is the nodal agency for the development and promotion of tourism in India and maintains the Incredible India campaign. Maharashtra. ~ 13 ~ . Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan are the top 5 states to receive inbound tourists. Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra received the big share of these visitors.5 billion by 2018 at a 9. with a contribution of 6. Andhra Pradesh. Delhi.78% of the total employment in India. Majority of foreign tourists come from USA and UK. In the year 2010.4% annual growth rate. The tourism industry in India generated about 100 US$ billion in 2008 and that is expected to increase to US$275. Tourism in India is the largest service industry.
Secondly. such as shortage of hotel rooms. India's 5. Firstly. its length. The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2007 ranked tourism in India 6th in terms of price competitiveness and 39th in terms of safety and security. aggressive advertising campaign "Incredible India" by Tourism Ministry has played a major role in changing the image of India from that of the land of snake charmers to a hot and happening place and has sparked renewed interest among foreign travelers.000 years of history. India will be a tourism hotspot from 2009–2018. breadth and the variety of geographic features make its tourism basket large and varied. The 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi were expected to significantly boost tourism in India. India has a growing medical tourism sector. Despite short. The Indian tourism industry can be attributed to several factors. the tremendous growth of Indian economy has resulted in more disposable income in the hands of middle class. having the highest 10-year growth potential. thereby prompting increasingly large number of people to spend money on vacations abroad or at home. business and sports tourism.According to World Travel and Tourism Council. India is a booming IT hub and more and more people are coming to India on business trips.and medium-term setbacks. ~ 14 ~ . It presents heritage and cultural tourism along with medical. tourism revenues are expected to surge by 42% from 2007 to 2017. Thirdly.
while business travel forms only 9%. Capital investment is also significant with a share of 24%.Personal travel and tourism is the most significant contributor. accounting for 55% of the total market. basic infrastructure. ~ 15 ~ and facilitation systems . air transport. Hotels. surface transport.
poultry. Tourism is one of the main foreign exchange earners and contributes to the economy indirectly through its linkages with other sectors like horticulture. Travel & tourism industry's contribution to Indian industry is immense. 15.9% during 2008. Indian consumers are cautious and are either postponing their travel plans or opting for shorter duration holidays and travelling within the country.5% higher than the previous year.environment are some of the related sectors. Travel & tourism industry in India is marked by considerable government presence. Tourism industry also provides employment to millions of people in India both directly and indirectly through its linkage with other sectors of the economy. visiting families/friends and business ~ 16 ~ . According to an estimate total direct employment in the tourism sector is around 20 million. which runs a chain of hotels/ guest houses and operates package tours. handicrafts and construction. agriculture. The increase in 2009 reflects recovery in sentiment in the later part of the year and preference for domestic visits over international visits. leisure. rise in domestic travel slowed down to 6. Although the Indian economy was not as severely affected by the economic slowdown as other economies. Each state has a tourism corporation. After rising 18% and 14% respectively in 2006 and 2007. while the central government runs the India Tourism Development Corporation. Indians travel within India mainly for pilgrimage/religious reasons. Domestic tourism Domestic travelers recorded an all-time high of 650 million during 2009.
Major tourist circuits of India India has several tourist destinations spread across the length and breadth of the country.8% to 11. However. given the distance between various destinations.1% in 2008. higher aspirations. and better tourism products boosted outbound tourist flow. higher disposable incomes. Some major tourist circuits are shown in the table ~ 17 ~ . cheaper international travel.Outbound tourism The trend observed in outbound tourism during 2009 was no different from that seen in inbound and domestic tourism. After growing 15-17% during 2004-2007. Number of outbound visits grew a marginal 1. tourist circuits have been created considering the needs.1 million during 2009. outbound visits slowed down to 11. A booming economy. choices of tourists as well as convenience.
~ 18 ~ .
~ 19 ~ . advertising strategy and overall organizational mission/goals are coordinated to achieve the desired effectiveness. availability. has increased tremendously over the past years and this trend will certainly continue. The integration of IT into the organizational fabric of the destination marketing organization (DMO) is an important key to success. Integration means that technology. and the growing competition due to increasing globalization. However. especially of the World Wide Web. its use alone does not necessarily bring a competitive advantage anymore. the emergence of innovative advertising strategies. interactivity. distribution and training of tourism sector personnel.. They often have to struggle with limited financial and human resources. They are used for tourism product development. various high tech information and communication technologies are in use in the tourism sector around the world. Accordingly. the changes in the consumer market. and time constraints.Role of Information Technology in Tourism The importance of information technology in tourism. These technologies are so indispensable in order to find out and satisfy the ever-changing demands for tourism products.e. and research capabilities) of Internet technologies and of the rapidly changing business environment. It is difficult for most destination marketing organizations to keep pace with the evolution of new technologies. since the technology itself is now available to almost everyone. marketing. Traditional advertising strategies should be reconfigured to reflect the new realities (i. a lack of technological expertise.
Though there are many definitions for tourism. and information services to sales outlets around the world. GDSs are systems. it could be simply defined as a ―travel and stay of a non-resident‖. development has come about in using electronic. which distribute reservation. perishablity and intangibility. health. tourism as an industry has three major components: Attraction. He/she chooses a destination for one or the other reason. visiting friends and relatives. These components have also came a long way to offer a range of products . In order to travel to a particular area there must be a reason. Accommodation and Transport. They are so important because of the nature of the tourism product. business. conference organizers booking agents etc. today. Unlike the CRSs used solely by an airline or hotel chain. Recently. Lack of appropriate management in giving fast and efficient service to tourists in this area will deter the tourist flow substantially. Facilitation includes. These travel agencies are performing this indispensable task of being intermediary by the use of computers and computer reservation systems (CRS). tour operators. So. GDS distribute more than one CRS to users who are usually travel agents. In the developed world. education etc. For example a person may travel for leisure. Transport is necessary to travel and accommodation to stay at the destination. GDSs were formed Facilitation is one important aspect of enhancing tourism business.One of the unique characteristics of tourism products is the need of the role played by the so.called travel intermediaries. customs clearing and immigration check in ports. issuing of visa. all these components have reached at their zenith in satisfying their customers‘ needs aided ~ 20 ~ by modern technology. These travel intermediaries are travel agents.
recreational.) (iv) Transport transport. The Tourism Industry Components and Requirements of the Tourists As indicated above the tourism industry is made up of three major components: namely. all types of establishments that offers lodging to visitors (Hotel. The attraction owners particularly the national tourist ~ 21 ~ . (i) Attraction sector which comprises manmade and natural attractions which are developed to satisfy visitors educational. where they are located and how to get there is of vital importance. Tourism is ranking the top ahead of all other categories of international trade. caravans etc.which suit the needs of multitude tourists around the world. which includes air. and are still working hard to cater to an ever changing test of them. Motel. sector. Information about the kind of attraction. (iii) Accommodation sector. which includes advertising through mass media and the Internet.1 Attraction Sector In the case of attractions both manmade and natural attraction owners need to communicate or inform their customers and potential customers about their production. Guest houses. needs etc. This growth of tourism activity clearly marks tourism as one of the most remarkable economic and social phenomena in the world. 1. water and surface 1. aesthetic (ii) Advertising sector.
Any individual or group wishing to travel to any part of the world now has an easy access to the accommodation service providers.offices discharge their duty of promoting their country‘s tourist attractions using the information technology products. television advertisements and travel documentaries are the main information dissemination tools. Internet web Sites. in getting information about their business. Here the information can be obtained aided by still or moving pictures in order to give an exact feature of an accommodation. What one has to do is to ring up a travel agency and get the expert advice. This will help any visitor greatly as to where to stay during any kind of away from home. At a destination also visitors are at ease during their stay in every respect. facilities and services of ones choice.2 Accommodation Sector In the accommodation sector also the contribution of information technology is prominent. A visitor can access information about the kind of hotels at the destination. They are also at ease to relax with the videos and television entertainment programs. family or other information back home. the price and other relevant information without leaving his/her office or home. 1. Information through promotional videos. their ranges of product. ~ 22 ~ . which nowadays are part and parcel of many accommodation units.
.1. 4. Learning about user preferences.way communication. and 5. 2. According to Parsons. 3.4 Transport Sector Transport provides the essential link between tourism origin destination areas and and facilitates the movement of holidaymakers. An Airplane flies with the help of modern equipment. Attracting users. Interactive media call for interactive marketing. To this effect. every traveler makes sure which Transport Company has a good safety record. airplanes coaches and even taxis are equipped with good communication equipment. and it deals with individual consumers instead of mass markets. Retaining users and ensuring they return. the success factors for marketing on the Web are: 1. and current Web users are heavy users of travel and tourism products and services. Engaging users‘ interest and participation. ―The essence of interactive marketing is the use of information from the customer rather than about the customer‖. which provides information ~ 23 ~ information technology ranging from weather. people visiting friends and relatives and those undertaking educational and health tourism. Relating back to users to provide customized interactions 1. It differs from traditional marketing since it is based on a dialogue instead of a one. Before setting out on a journey of any kind.3 Advertising Sector Travel and tourism fit especially well with interactive media because they are an information intensive industry where transactions can be made online. business travelers.
altitude and other information to the pilot to communication made during emergency by the pilot with other airplanes and air traffic control stations. video games. An Airplane flies with the help of modern information technology equipment. in many countries with developed tourism business. etc. For example. The findings ~ 24 ~ . In recent years.altitude and other information to the pilot to communication made during emergency by the pilot with other airplanes and air traffic control stations. Fast and easy information flow is of paramount importance to build confidence in the traveling public. In the case of buses/coaches and taxis. New and Innovative Technologies To this effect. they are equipped with radio communication systems for various uses. the confidence built due to the use of modern IT has been demonstrated by a tremendous increase in the number of travelers worldwide. which provides information ranging from weather. the driver or the tour guide updates the Tour Company headquarters about the progress of the tour throughout the touring period. video films are examples. In-flight entertainment is also a product of information technology. airplanes coaches and even taxis are equipped with good communication equipment. video games. and travel patterns. 2. This type of application uses the power of customer databases to identify customers who have similar profiles like preferences. communication ensures the safety of tourists.1 Collaborative Filtering Collaborative filtering is a data mining type of software. In-flight entertainment is also a product of information technology. 2. interests. based on previously accumulated customer knowledge.
it can customize products/services based on needs and preferences and perform direct marketing accordingly.com. 2. It has five significant impacts on business operations.payment process that leads to a bypassing of intermediaries. Software/Profiling. It simplifies a very complex buying. Thus.4 Electronic payment This type of software enables electronic transactions. It then gets available choices for the customers. These impacts are: 1.are used for direct marketing. Barnes&Noble SkyMall. This type of software tracks and monitors the preferences and purchasing behaviors of consumers. This type of software takes criteria set by customers and goes into digital databases. The emergence of this type of software may challenge the services and products of intermediaries and DMOs. It assists in monitoring/tracking causal relationships to understand the relationship between the effect of ads and purchase patterns ~ 25 ~ . Personalization software is also a form of data mining.3 Knowledge-Based Software This software is based on the belief that people want more choices but they just do not want to be burdened with those choices. 2. 2. This software rests on the belief that people live busy lives and want other people to look after their needs. and Great examples today are Personalization Amazon. This type of software not only automatically finds information for customers but also narrows down the choices and lets customers find the best deal.
That may reduce the need for business travel. It lowers the entry barriers into the tourism increases competition. 2. Intrigue is one of the reasons that motivate people to travel. Web casting provides online live videos and events.6 Virtual Reality and Web Casting Virtual reality displays three-dimensional worlds. regardless of their physical location. this technology is still in an infant stage and communications are difficult because certain clues are missing.5 Video Conferencing Video conferencing is the type of software that allows people to communicate with each other visually. ~ 26 ~ . they may lose their motivation to visit that place in the real world. If people obtain an accurate view of the destination before they visit it. It helps geographically dispersed businesses to cooperate. The other thing is the balance between advertisement and reality. industry and It augments the competitive capability of small organizations to expand their business. However. Two things could happen: One is the loss of intrigue. If people can go on the Internet and experience cyberspace vacations. 4. It facilitates the efforts required for niche marketing and narrow casting. and 5. they are going to have really well formulated expectations of what they will see at their travel destination.3. 2.
The technology works by using computers of special kind and leased telephone lines.8 Knowledge-based systems Knowledge is the key resource for DMOs because they are not really in the tourism business. 2.7 CRS (Computer Reservation System) The airline CRS systems were the pioneers of computer applications in the 1950s and are now virtually indispensable to airlines because they enable their revenue streams to be maximized by efficient inventory control (an inventory in this context refers to an airline‘s stock of passenger seats that is available for sale). However. Knowledge-based systems facilitate the acquisition of knowledge and encourage learning. The question is how to build a system that ~ 27 ~ . they foster information creation/storage/management. The mainframe host polls each travel agent terminal every second or so. Besides learning. these days. In this system it is possible that airliners.2. Hotels and car rental companies can talk to the travel agent and vise versa. to see if it has any messages to send. interaction. The travel agent is connected on line to the central host computer system or CRS. The host computer is almost always a mainframe with massive database attached. and knowledge sharing. they are in the business of shifting information and knowledge. This system contributes to a great extent in increasing sales volume and giving precise information on the availability and selling the products efficiently ensuring substantial profit gain. hotel and car hiring companies by renting the service from the airline companies are also employed these systems.
them in increasing their ~ 28 ~ . 5. 3. AskDan. Knowledge builder (online research reports/documents). organizational The nature and speed of change represents new challenges for DMOs. a knowledgebased system developed by the National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce.effectively incorporates available technologies. 4. Data warehouse. is a framework that intends to change knowledge management. Knowledge tool box. Market intelligence. It consists of five components: 1. Knowledge-based systems help competitive capabilities in this dynamic environment. 2. and Community builder.
If our goals are unclear. the results will probably be unclear. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: 1) To study about the working of Travel Agencies in INDIA.how they operate by a travel agency . ~ 29 ~ . 2) To study the level of operations in Travel Agency. 4) To study role and contribution of Govt in development of Tourism. 3) To study marketing and promotion strategies adopted by Travel agencies. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: The study has been made on a sample and hence it may not be very representative in nature. how the tourism activities are promoted by travel agency etc. The area of our research is to study tourism overview in India. Objectives are the keys to proceed forward in any research. 5) To analyses issues in tourism marketing in India 6) To study the role of information technology in development of Tourism in India 7) To identify potential strategies that can contribute to increasing the competitiveness of Indian tourism.OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY The objectives of the project determine whom we will survey and what we will ask them.
In the end. In tourism research. It may be understood as a science of studying how the research is done scientifically. though. Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. Secondary data for this study was collected through Internet.METHODOLOGY Research methodology is the core of any research. The first element of a tourism research methodology is the working definition of the scope and objective of the research. trade journals and ~ 30 ~ . every tourism research project has its own unique methodology. as defined by the party overseeing the research. there are commonly agreed-upon elements that must be accounted for by the methodology in order for the research to be taken seriously. SECONDARY DATA: The first step in any study is to analyze the secondary data. DATA COLLECTION Two main sources of collecting the data have been used for the conduct of the research-primary and the secondary source PRIMARY DATA: A questionnaire was prepared for getting the view of tourism activities and their promotion in INDIA. For this Tours & Travel Agencies were visited. This article introduces the most basic points that a good tourism research methodology covers and it covers communication skills too.
and different magazine ~ 31 ~ .In this research study the analysis is done on the basis of the primary data collected from the customers through questionnaire and direct personal interview method as well as secondary data collected through internet.business magazines.
to achieve reasonable returns. It is rare for one business to provide the variety of activities or facilities tourists need or desire. The intangible nature of services makes quality control difficult but crucial. tourism related businesses. instead of moving the product to the customer. This adds to the difficulty of maintaining and controlling the quality of the experience. data on tourist places mostly preferred through marketing research.TOURISM MARKETING Tourism marketing is the systematic and coordinated execution of business policy by either tour operators or tourist organizations to achieve optional satisfaction of needs. It is an integrated efforts by tour organizations to optimize the satisfaction of tourist groups and individuals. Data on tourist needs. the customer must travel to the product area/community). The tourism marketing communicates the tour content to the tourist through advertising and promotion. These are intangible products and are more difficult to market than tangible products such as automobiles. demands of identifiable consumer groups and in meeting the demands. In addition. Travel is a significant portion of the time and money spent in association with recreational and tourism experiences and is a major factor in people‘s decisions on whether or not to visit your business or community. tourism has many components comprising the overall ―travel experience. Earlier it was mentioned that a product can goals or services. ~ 32 ~ .‖ Since tourism is primarily a service based industry the principal products provided by tourism businesses are recreational experiences and hospitality. demand. entertainment. aesthetics and special events. It also makes it more difficult for potential customers to evaluate and compare service offerings. To overcome this hurdle. food and beverage services.‖ Along with transportation it includes such things as accommodations. wants.As an industry. shops.
it would be difficult to develop a ~ 33 ~ . Asia. MARKET SEGMENTATION Tourism businesses and communities often make the mistake of attempting to be all things to all people. US. Thus the marketing is practiced to understand what is the demand by tourist and how to supply it. Hongkong. In global. In fact tourist needs to be understood and accordingly tour to be planned. If a tour organization is practice.agencies. For example. and risky. Canada. also makes possible workable information system. which in turn helps the organization in getting its objective. also it eases formulating prices and marketing communicating efforts. Significance of tourism marketing: It helps in identifying the tourists behaviors. Strategies designed for the ―average‖ customer often results in unappealing products prices and promotional messages. Singapore. food etc. UK. Malaysia. New Zealand. simplifies the task of marketing planning. it may be survive in 21st century. It is difficult. nearly 16 countries contribute70% of business France. to develop marketing strategies for the mass market. Need of tourism Marketing Gone those days when tourist can accept your tour program. Germany. product development. helps in overcoming competitions. Thailand. and organizations need to work together to package and promote tourism opportunities in their areas and align their efforts to assure consistency in product quality. With such types of process the organization will able to project bright image in tourist world. Greece. China. Switzerland. Australia.
opinions. (2) demographics---age. out-of-state. desires and behavior of the target markets. quality.‖ and (3) designing ―marketing mixes ‖ or strategies (combination of the 4 Ps). (3) equipment ownership/use---RV‘s sailboats canoes tents snowmobiles. the segment identification process should result in segments that suggest marketing efforts that will be effective in attracting them and at least one segment large enough to justify specialized marketing efforts. family status. education. local. interests. Marketing is strongly based on market segmentation and target marketing.campground that would be equally attractive to recreational vehicle campers and backpackers or promote a property to serve both snowmobilers and nature oriented cross country skiers. income. There is no unique or best way to segment markets.‖ (2) selection the most promising segments as ―target markets. To be useful. which satisfy the special needs. quantity. but ways in which customers can be grouped are: (1) location of residence---instate. Market segmentation is the process of: (1) taking existing and/or potential customers/visitors(market) and categorizing them into groups with similar preferences referred to as ―market segments. and (5) lifestyle attributes---activities. ~ 34 ~ . (4) important product attribute---price.
or served inadequately. When determining target markets. (2) the amount and strength of competition for each segment. It is often wiser to target smaller segments that are presently not being served. and ~ 35 ~ . (3) a basis for objectively evaluating the effectiveness of the marketing mixes (setting standards). consideration should be given to: (1) existing and future sales potential of each segment.After segments have been identified. Objectives serve a number of functions including: (1) guidance for developing marketing mixes for different target markets. MARKETING OBJECTIVES : Marketing objectives which contribute to the accomplishment of overall business objectives should be established for each target market. (2) information for allocating the marketing budget between target markets. and (5) each segment‘s contribution to accomplishing overall business/community objectives. than to go after larger segments for which there is a great deal of competition. the business or community must select the ―target markets ‖ those segments which offer them the greatest opportunity. (4) the cost of servicing each segment. (3) the ability to offer a marketing mix which will be successful in attracting each segment.
Hotel and restaurant facilities will be designed for an aging population with lower rise steps. and (4) indicate the time period in which the objective is to be accomplished. The target market objective should: (1) be expressed in quantitative terms. (2) be measureable. Remember. Travel guidebooks will become highly specialized and more frequently consulted-primarily on the web. rank objectives by priority and carefully evaluate them to ensure that they are reasonable given the strength of the competition and resources available for marketing. Product & Service Trends: Hotel rooms. will minimize the need for business centers. For example. increasing equipped as offices with full-size desks. computers and advanced communications technologies. ~ 36 ~ . Hub airport will install capsule-cocoon hotels in terminal facilities. (3) specify the target market. more handrails and wider doors.(4) a framework for integrating the different marketing mixes into the overall marketing plan. increase the number of overnight stays by people from the Chicago market over the next two by five percent. Expansion of Europe‘s high-sped train network will eliminate short haul flights.
~ 37 ~ . sand & sea vacation villagers in the leisure market. Print media advertising will move onto the web. habits. Center-city urban resorts will challenge sun. F&B vending machines. Homogenization of airlines services will render them commodities while lodging products will continue to focus on differentiation. Tourism Marketing Trends: The Internet will become the dominant distribution channel for all travel and tourism products eliminating most intermediaries. Credit card check-in/check-out. dislikes. Understanding customers as people.their likes. ―100% Satisfaction Guaranteed‖ will replace ―Let the Buyer Beware‖.will become critical to establishing competitive advantage in hospitality marketing. Luxury resorts that once shunned children will welcome them with an expanded array activities and tailored dining options. A new wave of budget conference & exhibition hotels will be built to meet the convention needs of cost conscious companies. Increasingly value-conscious customers will demand more and better product information. Growth in demand for home food delivery outpace all other food service segments. self-cleaning bathrooms and self-serve laundries will eliminate most human contact in budget hotels. Customer retention will replace customer acquisition as travel agencies strategic objective. interest and hobbies.
Hotel revenue management systems will become more sophisticated and be relocated from the reservations department to sales & marketing. Just because you think something will sell doesn‘t mean that people will buy. As I have said earlier. consumers and the environment. This is no defined format for a marketing plan. The plan can only be written once this research has been undertaken. Consumers will increasingly expect to negotiate hotel and airline rates Cross-sector strategic alliances between food service lodging. frequent use programs will become more elaborate. Tactics – what are the actions you will undertake to do all this? One of the most important steps a business or community can take to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of their marketing efforts is to ~ 38 ~ . the plan has three major areas that should be considered after gathering your research. Objectives – what are you trying to achieve? 2. As marketers increasingly distinguish between loyalty and satisfaction. There are big differences between organizations and these differences have to be reflected in the plan. Firstly. you cannot sell a product or service based on your own intuition that people will want it. 1. travel and entertainments companies will prove to be effective marketing formats. research-based data on markets. This is especially true if you require funding from an external source to help you grow your business. TOURISM MARKETING PLAN: A marketing plan must be supported by extensive. Strategies – how are you going to achieve it? 3.
it acts as a ~ 39 ~ . This plan will guide their marketing decisions and assist them in allocating marketing resources such as money and personnel time. The marketing objectives for each segment. Market identification (segmentation)-the specific groups or clientele most interested in their product. place. price. It provides a detailed inventory as to how the marketing budget is to be spent andwhy it has been allocated in the ways set out.develop a written marketing plan. and A method for evaluation and change The marketing plan serves several purposes. It provides and agreed basis of action that can be circulated to every individualinvolved in its implementation. All sales and revenue targets must be identified and justified. A business/community profile-what resource are available. 3. The plan should include: The overall business objectives-what they want to accomplish. The marketing strategies (or mixes)for different markets a travel agency target-the best combination of the 4 Ps (product. promotion) for each segment. An implementation plan—how to ―make it work. 2. An assessment of the market environment-what factors may affect their marketing efforts. As a result. It is a managerial control document which aims to ensure that clear goals and targets have been established in order that the organization does not drift about.‖ The marketing budget-how much they have to spend. 1.
It provides a set of benchmarks against which marketing programs can later beEvaluated and refined for the future. 4. Without explicit targets. evaluation of marketing An effort is impossible. ~ 40 ~ .mechanism for ensuring that everyone is clearly identified with marketing aims.
Framing of the proper marketing mix is significant because it helps the tourist organization in accomplishing the objective and projecting a faire image.MARKETING MIX A firm takes the support of numerous marketing instruments with regards to its product. pricing. should be viewed as a package of offerings designed to attract and serve the customer or visitor. or mix. Recreation and tourism businesses and communities should develop both external and internal marketing mixes for different target markets. distribution and promotion.1) MARKETING MIX EXTERNAL MIX INTERNAL MIX PRODUCT PLACE PRICE PROMOTION HOSPITALITY & GUEST RELATIONS QUALITY CONTROL PRSONAL SELLING EMPLOYEE MORALE ~ 41 ~ . The formulation of the mix is vital for its role in helping managers to conceive right ideas regarding the switching on of the marketing action. The marketing strategy. (Fig 2. particularly to raise the acceptability of the product by creating and penetrating demand.
A) EXTERNAL MIX: The external marketing mix includes product/service, price,
place/location, and promotion.
1. Product : The principal products that recreation and tourism businesses provide are recreational experiences and hospitality. The factors that create a quality recreational experience often differ among people. Decisions on what facilities, programs and services to provide should be based on the needs and desires of the target market(s).
Recognize that a recreational/tourism experience includes five elements: trip planning and anticipation; travel to the site/area; the experience at the site; travel back home; and recollection. Businesses should look for ways to enhance the quality of the overall experience during all phases of the trip. This could be accomplished by providing trip planning packages which include maps, attractions on route and on site, and information regarding lodging, food and quality souvenirs and mementos.
Tourism businesses should also view their service/product in generic terms. Thinking of products/services in this manner helps focus more attention on the experiences desired by customers and also the facilities, programs and services that will produce those experiences. For example, campgrounds are the business of providing recreational ―lodging‖ not just campsites to park an RV or set up a tent. Marians should provide recreational ―boating‖ experiences, not just slippage. Tourism Products: ~ 42 ~
Accommodation: Unclassified One star Four star Five star Destination: Natural Scenes Historical Excellence Artificial Beauties Social Cultural Excellence Transportation: Airways Railways Roadways Waterways Tour operators: Travel companies Travel agents Guides Shopping: Handicrafts Handloom Book ~ 43 ~
2. Place: Too many tourism businesses and communities fail to recognize their role in improving travel to and from their areas. They focus instead on servicing the customer once they arrive at the site/community. A bad experience getting to or leaving a TOURISM site can adversely affect a person‘s travel experience. Ways to help prevent this include: (1)Providing directions and maps: (2)Providing estimates of travel time and distances from different market areas; (3)Recommending direct and scenic travel routes; (4)Identifying attractions and support facilities along different travel routes; and (5)Informing potential customers of alternative travel methods to the area such as airlines and railroads.
3. Pricing: Price is one of the most important and visible elements of the marketing mix. When setting prices it is important to take into consideration all of the following: (1) business and target market objectives; (2) the full cost of producing, delivering and promoting the product;
~ 44 ~
and (7) the possibility of stimulating high profit product/services (such as boats) by offering related services (such as maintenance) at or below cost. and the sale of package (combination of room. and recreational facilities). campgrounds. tourism businesses should give attention to pricing strategies which may encourage off season and non-peak period sales. and bed and breakfast are all substitutes for lodging). When establishing prices. (5) the availability and prices of substitute product/services(for example. group business. (4) prices charged by competitors offering a similar product/service to the same target market(s). meals. motels. Developing a promotional campaign is not a science with hard and fast rules. The information should be of importance and practical use to the potential or existing visitor and also accurate.(3) the willingness of the target market to pay for the product or service you provide. 4. longer stays. Making decisions regarding which type or combination of ~ 45 ~ . Promotion: Promotion provides target audiences with accurate and timely information to help them decide whether to visit your community or business. Don‘t make claims you cannot live up to. (6) the economic climate (local and national). Misrepresentation often leads to dissatisfied customers and poor recommendations.
or publicity) is not always easy. (2) Image---that which your community or business wants to create or reinforce. (6) Media---which methods (television. recruitment. for example. (5) Timing---when and how often should your promotions appear. (3) Objectives---those of the promotional campaign. chances for success will be improved. radio. planning. you follow a logical process and do the necessary research. advertising. (4) Budget---the amount of money available for your promotion. administration. and strategizing. and (7) Evaluation---how can the effectiveness of the promotional campaign be determined. purchasing. training.promotion types to use (personal selling. magazine) will most effectively and efficiently communicate your message to the target audience. Process: There are many different types of processes involved in running a tourism business. newspaper. 5. sales promotions. It will be necessary to make decisions regarding: (1) Target audience---the group you are aiming at. If. however. distribution and service delivery. It is important to ensure that these processes are planned and carried out ~ 46 ~ .
~ 47 ~ . Staff professionalism can be boosted and grown through solid training and employee reward systems. sick leave. Friendly personal service and trained employees can make or break a tourism business. 6. Dealing with staff turnover. Implementing clear procedures will ensure that the best possible service is delivered at all times. People: The people who sell the product and service your product are an extremely important part of tourism marketing. a hotel needs a efficient front and back office communications to ensure high quality service and experience without inconvenience for the customer. A great deal of attention needs to be paid to processes in services-oriented businesses. Service invariably involves front line people and it is here that a tourism offering can really can do well or fail miserably.what their customers say after they depart can trust your business forward or send it into a downward spiral. It is extremely important to ensure that all staff dealing with customers carries out excellent service delivery at all times. Because much of tourism industry is based upon word of mouth advertising. For example.particularly about the service received.properly so that operations run smoothly and problems are rectified quickly. suppliers and distribution channels all have an impact on how the service is delivered.
Physical Evidence: The physical evidence of a tourism product refers to a range of more ‗tangible‘ attributes of the operations. Recreation and tourism businesses must direct as much attention at marketing to customers on site as they do not attracting them. ~ 48 ~ . ‗Tangibalising‘ the product is a good way of giving positive or attractive hints or cues to potential customers with regard to the quality of the product. To create such an atmosphere requires the following four important elements: (1) Hospitality and Guest Relations:An organization wide emphasis on hospitality and guest relations. if you run a shuttle service then it are important to ensure that your vehicles are spotlessly clean at all times. effective layout of establishment. In this respect.The success of internal marketing is dependent on creating an atmosphere in which employees desire to give good service and sell the business/community to visitors. it is unlikely the lower paid employees will be. internal marketing is important. B) INTERNAL MIX: As stated. Elements such as quality and attractiveness of decor. If the owner/manager is not customer sensitive.7. marketing services such as recreation and tourism differ from marketing tangible products. surroundings and quality of promotional material are all important. including a customer oriented attitude on the part of the owners and managers as well as the employees. For example.
A customer oriented atmosphere usually results in customers that are more satisfied. The incentives can be both monetary and non-monetary. including: ~ 49 ~ .(2) Quality Control:A program which focuses on improving both the technical quality and the functional quality. (4) Employee Morale:Programs and incentives aimed at maintaining employee morale. tourism businesses appear to be in a highly competitive industry with limited flexibility to set prices. they can help increase sales. All one needs to do is to identify what the competition is charging and price one‘s own product comparably.Despite this apparent lack of flexibility. By being informed about the marketing objectives. All employees who come into contact with customers should receive hospitality training. This helps build employee morale. however. Either they sell at or below the established market price or see a rapid drop in sales. do less complaining and are more pleasant to serve. This also includes rewarding them for their efforts. C ) Pricing Tourism Products & Services: In general. Establishing a firm‘s price under such circumstances is straightforward although not always simple. their desire to provide good service and their efficiency. the uniqueness of tourism/recreation goods and services actually enables producers to establish prices. (3) Personal Selling:Training the staff in the selling aspects of the business or community. This uniqueness stems from a number of product attributes. and their role in accomplishing those objectives.
Furthermore. DISTRIBUTION: In the tourism industry. Because most tourism businesses have at least some flexibility to establish prices. As and when the booking is made. however. These ―ingredients‖ can be found in textbooks and by observing business pricing practices. A number of factors influencing the ~ 50 ~ . the personal relationships that management and staff develop with customers and real and perceived differences in the quality of the firm‘s products. Both sources are drawn upon here to provide you with the ingredients to make sound pricing decisions.business location. the goals of businesses in this industry vary widely and because price is a major tool for achieving a business‘s goals identical businesses under identical circumstances may logically establish different prices. the types of facilities offerred. Keep in mind. you must fit them to your business goals and circumstances to arrive at the best prices for your products. it is possible to identify the primary components of a sound pricing strategy. It is essential that tourism organizations attempt to simplify and rationalize the distribution systems. the confirmation becomes essential. the distribution is concerned with transmission of information about the products to the interested persons. its natural environment. Ultimately. While it is not possible to prescribe a single formula for all price-setting decisions. that the same uniqueness which provides pricing flexibility also precludes development of a universally applicable formula for guiding pricing decisions. this bulletin will address the key factors that should be considered in making pricing decisions.
The middlemen are the link is strong: the producers succeed in raining the tourist‘s influx. the available middlemen dictate the marketing channels. The tour operators buy a range of tourism products in bulk. effectiveness if the marketing efforts. The middlemen are wholesales. and coach transfers tec. Very often. A) The Marketing Channel In Tourism Industry: Marketing channels are the distribution networks through which products flow to market. In any marketing channel. such as the location of points-of sale. the marketing channel describes the methods by which a service is distributed from its manufacturing source to its eventual consumers.distribution policy. airline seats hotel accommodation. ~ 51 ~ . More formally defined. Of course. the cost of distribution.g. In the tourism industry. e. buying tourism products in bulk and then making then available to the retailers. the middlemen constitute the building blocks that producers seek to link together into marketing channels to bridge over the gap between themselves and the target market. the producer is the first in the succession of the enterprises involved in the distribution prices. B) The chain of distribution: The term chain of distribution donates the methods by which a product or service is distributed from producers to the consumers. In a true sense. the distribution is a major marketing decision area in which marketing channel is found important. viz. the travel agents. The retailers are the travel agents. a marketing channel or channel of distribution is path traced in the direct and Indirect transfer of ownership to a product moving from producers to ultimate consumers. the image of the tourist organization and tourist‘ motivating regarding the products.
The distribution chain is shown below: TOURISM INDUSTRY AND MIDDLEMEN: (Fig 2. from producers to retailers and the tourists.They package the tourist products and sale either to travel agents or direct to the tourists. In figure.) TOURIST 1) TOUR OPERATORS ARE WHOLESALERS IN TOURISM INDUSTRY: (Fig 2.3) GUIDING SERVICE AGENGY TRAVEL INSURANCE POST SERVICES TRAVEL FINANCE TOUR OPERATOR TOUR TOURIST ~ 52 ~ . we find the chain of distribution or the channel of distribution for the tourism products. e.O. The travel agents buy travel services at the request of their clients and provide a convenient network of sale outlets catering to the needs of a local catchments area.g. from producer to the tourists direct.2) TOURISM PRODUCT PRODUCER WHOLESALER OF TOURISM PRODUCTS OR SERVICES (T.) RETAILERS OF TOURISM PRODUCTS OR SERVICES (T.A.
4) AIR TRANSPORT SEA TRANSPORT ROAD TRANSPORT RAILWAY TRANSPORT TOUR OPERATOR TOUR TOURIST 3) ACCOMODATION: (Fig 2.5) HOTEL RESORT GUEST HOUSE HOLIDAY HOMES CARAVANS TOUR OPERATOR TOUR TOURIST ~ 53 ~ .2) TRANSPORT SERVICE MIDDLEMEN: (Fig 2.
identified for India. India will have to use an array of marketing tools and strategies to: The differentiate itself from the completing destinations. and effectively complete in these markets. Establish an effective and on going market representation presence with the travel in each source market. product description. In this context. Establish an internet portal for the various languages to service the information. and develop and implement on going cost effective promotion programs in each source market in partnership with the state and private sector industry in India and source market. And product sales requirements of the target market segments in each source market.STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE MARKETING The competition for travelers from the source markets. including developing of unique market position. Identify and assemble the highly attractive productive tailored to the interest of each source market. image and brand that can not held by the competitors. Of special importance is the formulation and implementation of village tourism program that would be primarily targeted at the domestic urban market in India but which could also attract the International market. and to connect these directly with the preferred supplier. is fierce. ~ 54 ~ . India will have to shift its currant tradition marketing approach to one of that is more aggressive and competitive. Undertake an extensive qualitative and quantitative market research programs in the target source markets.
especially foreigners. The committee feels that the issue related with safety and security is vital in creating goodwill and the Union Ministry of Tourism cannot wash its hands off stating that policing is a state subject. ~ 55 ~ . headed by CPM leader Sitaram Yechury. tourism and culture. particularly women — is receiving a major thrust. assist them . The idea is to sensitize the police to problems faced by tourists.when there is loss of passport or money. But the action the states have taken on Centers suggestion seems largely token. Continued incidents of violence against tourists have forced the Centre to advise states to recruit exservicemen for stepping up the security of tourists. guide them to their destination. The issue had also drawn the attention of a parliamentary standing committee on transport. and ensure safety at tourist spots. Tourism police is also expected to deter harassment of women tourists. and deploy them as 'tourist police' or as an alterative security force.A report tabled last month said: "The committee notes with concern that incidents of cheating. fleecing criminal acts and harassment of foreign tourists bring a bad name to the country and have an adverse impact on the foreign tourist arrival.‖ So the plan for tourist security should not remain only on paper but should transform into some reality and proper implementation should be carried out. particularly foreigners.Following are the measures to sustain the branding strategy: Tourism policing: The concept of `tourism police' — a boon to tourists.
mountains. museums. offering integrated packages. temples and pilgrims. the industry holds immense strength for obtaining higher growth rate. Integrated marketing campaign Various tools were used to convey the message to potential tourists. data management. The internet can be used as a medium for information dissimilation of features offered by the country. such as adventure tourism. historical places. plus search engine optimization and clever linking. Internet as a branding medium: The size of the place doesn‘t matter when it comes to an innovative online branding and marketing strategy. medical ~ 56 ~ . Development of niche tourism areas Given India's unique endowments of biodiversity. India offers various categories of tourism products. Throughout the campaign there were as many as twenty marketing services companies engaged in some aspect of the campaign: research. caves. other online support like merchandise for sale. It provides a highly effective means of reaching prospective customers economically through attractive designs and navigation. public relations. The Internet has opened a world for the countries to create a brand for themselves. This could be done through platforms like websites. rivers. forests. monuments and culture. publishing. travel booking facilities. direct mail and exhibition designers. and making them accessible to domestic and international travellers. The challenges in the sector lie in successfully preserving these in their original form.
Upgradation of basic amenities and hospital infrastructure 2. Creating a resource pool of highly skilled and cordial manpower 4. Infrastructure build-up: It is very important to beef up the infrastructure for tourist facilitation. Medical tourism: With global revenues of approximately US$ 20 Billion (2005). ~ 57 ~ . and exhibitions (MICE) tourism. Standardization of services and accreditation of hospitals So It is imperative that we looked into such matters as early as possible and such niche tourism areas should be promoted by the government because of their potential to become good revenue earners. India's cost effective treatment makes it an important player in this industry. conferences. incentives. Following measures should be implemented with well chalked out plan: Building highways to connect to the destinations throughout the country. rural tourism. meetings. But there are still hurdles like 1.tourism (ayurveda and other forms of Indian medications). With increasing number of non-insured population in western countries and increasing healthcare expenditure to GDP resulting in people opting for treatment choices outside their country. the medical tourism industry is one of the world's largest industry. eco-tourism. cruise tourism. etc. Eg. Co-ordination between the healthcare and tourism sectors 3. Growing Medical tourism in India will be one of the major sources for foreign exchange.
It is a composite of service providers. in the economy. telecom and medical services. both public and private. For this. The tourism industry should provide incentives to foster the quality of environment. The packaging in each case has to be unique. plays a key role in achieving the socio-economic goals of the development plans of a nation. guest houses and inns. guides. realistic and appealing. Identifying and developing new and existing destination circuits. Development of all sectors related to tourism: Tourism. It is an important service-oriented sector which has made rapid strides globally in terms of gross revenue and foreign exchange earnings. water supply. restaurants and shops. generates more employment opportunities (particularly in remote and backward areas) as well as develops necessary infrastructure facilities like roads. being one of the largest industries. owners of hotels. which includes travel agents and tour operators. They are involved in meeting the diverse interests and requirements of domestic and international tourists. hospitality and all that goes into making the tourist experience worthwhile. ~ 58 ~ . air. Introducing special tourist trains and tourist buses to connect to most sought after destinations Establishment of budget and luxury hotels on surplus land available with government near tourist places. Thematic branding: A successful integrated package should support the central tourist destination theme with the entire gamut of services comprising rail and road connectivity. communication. rail and sea transportation operators. The potential of promoting theme-based domestic and in-bound tourism is large. etc.
Thematic options can be interlinked with similar ones in other parts of the country. helping build string network of road connectivity etc.brands derived from its macro promo — `God's own Country'. pilgrimage. There could thus be packages for backwaters. Role of private players: India has long history of big corporate houses. Manpower development: India has huge human resources. beaches. Each must have a specific brand message linked with the value package it offers. pilgrimages and others. Some of these theme-based packages could be offered in various combinations. An example of this would be to connect selective beach resorts in the country for beach tourists. Also through PPP(Public Private Partnership) many activities could be undertaken. and similarly for hill resorts. For example. wildlife. wildlife and others. cuisine. which have been instrumental in generating huge employment. It will also create job opportunities for vast population. the monsoon. ~ 59 ~ . But it is time now for these organizations to step up and help in improvement and maintenance of tourism. heritage health and ayurveda. which can be tapped in to boost tourism.product brand strategy has to focus on customised theme based leisure options. Kerala can be thematically divided into sub. plantations. This can be done through measures such s funding the maintenance of heritage sites.
Taking part in a trade fair without first having a clear view of why you are there is an almost certain recipe for failure. therefore. direct mail and selling. promotions. Benefits include direct sales. motivate your staff and justify your participation next time around. increase in sales.objectives will help you establish budgetary requirements. penetrate a new market. instead of making such a judgment merely subjective. change or enhance companyimage. open to evaluation and have a time limit in order to facilitate and provide a firm base for future work. obtain marketintelligence. carry out market testing and study the ~ 60 ~ . an important starting point for any exhibition. market research. Setting your objectives will make it possible to measure objectively the result of theexhibition. either through tour operators and travel agents or.Main Marketing Tools used by a travel agency Trade Fairs Travel fairs and exhibitions can be a highly-cost effective sales and marketing tool combining all the best characteristics of advertising. Setting objectives is. launch new products. Research suggests that more than 80% of visitors to trade fairs are decision makers. database building and networking. They must be realistic. giving direction to all aspects of your participation. in the case of public shows. penetration of new markets. At the same time. new product launches. meeting new clients. Possible objectives could include. lead generation. The goals you set for yourself need to be formulated as concretely as possible. directly to consumers. building and maintaining client/customer relations.
Know your target market. Prioritize your objectives. In order to ensure that your objectives are appropriate and attainable. a tourism board. the next step is to give careful consideration to Which sector of the travel industry you want to direct your sales and marketing efforts towards. its ~ 61 ~ . 4. it makes sense that attending wholly public fair would not be in your best interests. Ensure your targets are achievable. having a stand of their own is the most natural way to participate. For some. 5. Since most tour operators will wish to work directly with overseas operators. 3. make pre-booked appointments or hold a reception on your stand for selected guests. you will stand a better-than-average chance of getting your messages across and building new business. Your decision on where to exhibit should be made only after careful consideration of the event. How can you best attract your chosen targets to visit your stand? You couldspecifically invite companies to the fair. Know what you want to sell or communicate. you need to: 1. Once you have defined your main goals. By staying focused on your target market at all times. 6. a hotel or other tour operator who is not a direct competitor may enhance your presence. Sharing with a national airline. Communicate your objectives to your staff. Quantify your objectives in order to set a goal. 2.activities of competitors. while others may find it more desirable or cost-effective to share stand space with others. the audience it is likely to attract.
You should draw up a budget for your participation based on the activities you plan to become involved in. not only of exhibiting but also of attending including meals. compile as much information as possible. from organizers (attendance figures. Planning for an exhibition should be thorough enough that no surprises crop up during the actual exhibition. timing of the event. the easier it will be to cut out those exhibitions that do not match your marketing objectives or your budget. Similarly. the size and importance of their venues and their geographical catchment area will help you reach a decision. you should identify all the possibilities. project a cohesive. In deciding which fair(s) to participate. Brochures and Printed Materials As we stated earlier. One person in the business should be responsible for making all the arrangements. Most fairs will provide you with a manual which should be fully understood. a tour operator‘s brochure is important because of the intangible nature of the product that is being sold. to ensure smooth and stress free exhibiting. Planning is essential to protect your investment in trade fairs. The brochure ~ 62 ~ . etc). accommodation and flights. the time when all your efforts should be directed towards sales work. positive and memorable message and improve your participation the next time around.timing and location and the cost. breakdown of visitors. cost implications and comments from other exhibitors. The more information you collect. A timetable should be drawn up highlighting key tasks and deadline dates. The budget should also be linked to the forecasts for the benefits that you expect to achieve. it is the key to getting the best possible return.
Pull out price pages are normally printed on cheap colored paper. Content could include: 1) A company‘s legal identity 2) Means of travel 3) Destinations or itineraries 4) Dates of fixed departures (if you have them) ~ 63 ~ . The bigger the brochure. Although many operators will produce full color brochures. etc) to cut down costs. Some companies will also have slightly thicker front covers to protect the brochures in transit and on the shelves. Every brochure should contain clear. it is cheaper to choose fewer colors. Most brochures are printed on glossy colored paper. Color is important. Pale and dark colors signify more expensive tours. the flimsier the paper it is printed on tends to be. legible. Bright colors usually signify cheaper tours. Most brochures are designed to an A4 format in Europe and Letter size in the US so the size of your brochure will be important according to the market you are targeting. provide the information necessary to persuade the client to purchase a holiday and create and reinforce the company‘s image with its clients.should invite people to buy the itineraries it advertises. comprehensive and accurate information to enable the client to exercise and informed judgment in making his choice. A full color brochure could include some pages that are one or two color (those pages used for terms and conditions. and to create a better image. both to keep down production costs and to stop it becoming unmanageably heavy. booking information.
the advertising is aimed at the public to create awareness of the travel offers available. Thus advertising is a potent tool of marketing and a component of overall promotion activities. or a resort and its attractions to ~ 64 ~ . Advertising as a part of the total marketing mix influences the sale of the product. is a communication link between the seller and the buyer or the consumer.5) Nature of accommodation and meal facilities 6) Additional facilities 7) Booking conditions 8) Insurance details 9) Price policy 10) Health matters 11) Arbitration 12) Publication date 13) Difficulty ratings 14) Maps 15) Pictures of attractions. It is an active attempt at influencing people to action by an overt appeal to reason or emotion. Advertising should be complementary to personal selling. Advertising: Advertising. Categorically. for tourism. an important marketing tool concerned with communication. accommodations or previous clients. in a true sense.
influence their business decisions.. ground resellers ~ 65 ~ with and . Advertising in tourism essentially follows the AIDA principles of attracting attention (advertisements are placed on TV). package agencies may sell and tours for groups and to outbound individuals (for outbound). recreation. commercial television. The media available for advertising are newspapers (national. commercial radio.). hobbies. regional. furnishing etc. Flight general interest travel package travel to and other travel Direct sales to or Main Products/Services Distribution Channels arrangements. local. magazines (general women‘s magazine and special interest e. The following table presents an overview of the differences between the different types of travel operations in the leisure travel industry in terms of their markets and their main distribution channels: Target Markets Clients Travel Agencies Mass market.g.accommodation consumers. Technical press (technical magazines and newspapers). creating awareness or interest by an invitation to receive information. agencies or place Products are mostly sourced packages from tour operators. cinema and theatres (program and displays during intervals) and direct mail. poster sites (out doors generally at transport termini). fostering desire (by a combination of public relations activity surrounding the prospects for the launching of product and inspiring action (by sending application forms or publishing them in newspapers). specially prepared to transform curiosity into readiness). weekly and Sunday editions).Inbound and event tickets.
Some area of interest. ground operators. providers. a with specific Package travel to a variety of Direct sales to more destinations within a specific consumers. usually defined operators. and local service portals. Outbound Travelers Tour Operators interests. outbound operators may sell certain through Products are mostly sourced from inbound products resellers or portals. of interest Travelers with Package travel for groups or Sales to outbound an independent travelers in tour operators. and local service providers in the destination many country of the supplying services. some direct sales to may cover several areas or be consumers and more through resellers or ~ 66 ~ .More known well operators. or may be designed audience in in house with inbound or specialized agencies. for groups or independent travelers. interest in a one destination or a region. but also from travel resellers and portals. operators. through the domestic market. media. and via agency offices. marketing through advertisement Mass done destinations via direct mail. Inbound Tour Operators specific destination or activity.
for groups or haul travelers in other markets. contacts tour are inbound and outbound operators offering package tour travelers local advertising. and to special interest groups in foreign markets via direct mail. special interest publications. well independent travelers have as own as and with that services already ~ 67 ~ products services some through websites. travel operators and local service providers resold as part of the package. some marketing services in the region. . Products are usually designed in house.Offer destination. in one on the street destination or a advertising in the tourist season.usually long focused. Targeted marketing via direct contacts with outbound tour operators. fairs. with some services from ground portals. Ground Operators Target clients Services for tour Direct operators independent or with operators. independent travelers.
Travel Resellers Long and short Similar and Portals haul usually more interests to Direct mailing. contacts tour own advertising in the with tourist season. that already in as tour Offer services. collections may ~ 68 ~ mass media and but special interest by through sometimes with . in one locality. well as independent travelers have arrived country. rarely marketing through websites except in the case of Accommodations.arrived incountry. package services advertisement with sold specific outbound tour but operators. on the street or with operators. clients Services for tour Direct mainly operators but independent travelers local advertising. from service local providers resold as part of the package. travelers. Local Service Providers Target are inbound sometimes outbound operators offering package services in the destination. any very few resold services added to the package.
cover markets in more than one Country.general interests. web Advertising. special and internet marketing via audience. ~ 69 ~ . promotions. may appeal to a specific website. be grouped to publications.
customs. traditions.T ANALYSIS The tourism sectors contribute to the national development priorities and strategies has so far been relatively limited.S. Weaknesses: Lack if major city experiences Weather. The main results of the analysis are: Competitive strength: India‘s great competitive strength from the tourism point of view is its ancient and yet living civilization that gave rise to fore of the worlds great religious and philosophies. India‘s contacts with the other civilization is reflected in the rich cultural diversity of its people through its languages. A review of the sectors competitive strengths and weakness. especially compared to overseas sun destinations Cost comparison to overseas sun destinations Transport infrastructure Staff skills Traffic congestion Lack of warmth of local communities ~ 70 ~ . art and craft.O. religious practices and festivals. opportunities and treats indicates that it has considerable growth potentials. cuisine.W. The rich natural and rural landscape of the India is punctuated with the built heritage of its ancient past and more modern structure of the present and its hope for the future. its holist healing traditions. dance. and brought travelers and trade millennia ago. music.
safety and health situation. especially in the rural and natural areas of the country. incentives. events. convention. failing to involve communities in decision making process for tourism development. Growth will mean increase in low quality. and the failure to adopt and implement sustainable development and management principals and practices at tourism site. Threats: The main internal threats to the development in the tourism sector are security. especially the fast growing long haul segment of this market. seasonal jobs Growth will bring more visitors to parts of the region already up to capacity Lose support of local communities as they suffer from more traffic and environmental damage Competition from other areas is growing stronger ~ 71 ~ . Leverage India‘s strength as one of the world‘s largest economies for business. and exhibition based tourism. Opportunities: The competitive opportunities are: Leverage the huge potential of its domestic population to develop rural tourism Leverage of strength as one of the world‘ ancient civilization in the contest of its rich and diverse natural heritage to increase its share of the huge international travel market. meetings.
Participation in travel marts and exhibitions ensures publicity and gives opportunity to develop contacts and provide an update on the new happenings in the industry. videos of each product are also available. Brouchers are being used as a principle selling aid. Familiarization (FAM) tours are arranged for the employees to make them knowledgeable about the product they are selling. Regular information about the major international events is maintained and Opportunities to procure business are never missed. Sales calls are made to bring information about product range to the travel agents doorstep and thus doubts are cleared. Direct mailers are then sent to individuals and travel agents. Principally a good service marketer considers customer file to be closed only when the letter of appreciation is attached at the end Future Planning Advertisement in newspapers. for e. Product launches are done and invitations extended to CIPS (commercially Important Person). ~ 72 ~ .g.Marketing Strategies of the Travel agency A good track record ensures good worth of mouth publicity. Advertisements through audio-visual media. Calls are also made to corporate clients. travel trade magazines and other high profile magazines. repeated advertisements display on TV screens. Tele calling is done to follow up on the sales calls. An effort is made to obtain appreciation letters from satisfied customers.
and persons who have been on the tours already. ~ 73 ~ . Introductory promotion through insight etc.
& ROADWAYS ALL THE ABOVE ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. RAIL.2) ~ 74 ~ . 2) MODE OF TRANSPORT THROUGH WHICH TOUR ACTIVITIES ARE CONDUCTED: MODE OF TRANSPORT 10% 30% 50% 10% AIRWAYS RAILWAYS ROADWAYS WATERWAYS AIR.1) From the above graph.Data Analysis and Interpretation 1) LEVEL AT WHICH THE TOURS AGENCIES WORK: 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 LEVEL OF WORKING LOCAL NATIONAL NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. we find that 50% of the Tours & Travel agencies operate at the Local level. 30% at the National & International level and 20% at the National level.
30% through Roadways.From the above graph. Rail. 3) TOUR DESTINATIONS: DESTINATIONS NATURAL SCENES 30% HISTORIC PLACES SOCIO-CULTURAL 70% ARTIFICIAL BEAUTIES ALL THE PLACES ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. we find that 50% of the Tours & Travel agencies operate through Air. and 10% each through Waterways. we find that 70% of the Tours & Travel agencies have their Tour Destinations at All the Places. 4) PERIOD OF ADVERTISEMENT: TIME OF ADVERTISEMENT 10% 20% SEASONALLY MONTHLY 70% REGULARLY ~ 75 ~ . & Roadways. while 30% of them have their Tour Destinations at Natural Scenes only.3) From the above graph.
4) From the above graph. 20% Monthly and 10% advertise Regularly. 6) MODE OF SALES DISTRIBUTION: 6 4 2 0 MODE OF SALES DISTRIBUTION 1 STAGE-DIRECT SALES 2 STAGE-TRAVEL AGENT BOHT 1st & 2nd STAGE ~ 76 ~ .5) From the above graph. 20% through Media & Pamphlets and 10% through Media. we find that 70% of the Tours & Travel agencies advertise Seasonally.ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. 5) MEDIUM OF ADVERTISING TOURISM ACTIVITIES: 8 6 4 2 0 MEDIUM OF ADVERTISEMENT MEDIA PAMPHLETS BOTH MEDIA AND PAMPHLETS ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. we find that 70% of the Tours & Travel agencies advertise their tourism activities through Pamphlets.
we find that 50% of the Tours & Travel agencies provide the reservations to the tourists through Office.6) From the above graph.ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. 30% through Office & Telephone and 20% through Office & Online. we find that 50% of the Tours & Travel agencies have their Sales Distribution through Direct Sales. Online & Telephone. 30% through both Direct Sales & Travel Agents and 20% through Travel Agents. ~ 77 ~ . 7) WAY IN WHICH RESERVATIONS ARE MADE FOR TICKETS: 6 4 2 0 MODE OF RESERVATIONS OFFICE & ONLINE OFFICE & TELEPHONE OFFICE. ONLINE & TELEPHONE ANALYSIS: (Fig 4.7) From the above graph.
~ 78 ~ . 9) SOFTWARE FOR KEEPING ACCOUNTS: 40% 20% 30% EXCEL COMSOFT DATABASE REGISTER 10% TALLY ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. while 10% of them donot manage Tourist Information System. we find that 40% of the Tours & Travel agencies use TALLY for keeping accounts. 20% use REGISTER and 10% use COMSOFT DATABASE software. we find that 90% of the Tours & Travel agencies manage Tourist Information System.8)MANAGING TOURIST INFORMATION SYSTEM: 10 8 6 4 2 0 MANAGEMENT OF TOURIST INFORMATION SYSTEM YES NO ANALYSIS: (Fig4.9) From the above graph. 30% use EXCEL.8) From the above graph.
11) ~ 79 ~ . 30% pay Road Tax and 20% pay both Service and Road Tax.10) From the above graph. 11) LIMITATIONS FROM GOVERNMENT ON TOURISM ACTIVITIES: LIMITATIONS OF GOVERNMENT 40% 60% YES NO ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. we find that 50% of the Tours & Travel agencies pay Service Tax.10) GOVERNMENT TAXES APPLIED ON TOURISM ACTIVITIES: 6 4 2 0 TYPES OF TAXES APPLIED SERVICE TAX ROAD TAX BOTH SERVICE AND ROAD TAX ANALYSIS: (Fig 4.
and 20% on the basis of all the above. we find that 60% of the Tours & Travel agencies donot face Limitations from the Government in their Tourism activities. 12) PRICES FIXED ACCORDING TO: 8 6 4 2 0 PRICES FIXED ACCORDING TO COMPETITION MARKET SEGMENTS INCOME GROUPS ALL OF THEM ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. ~ 80 ~ . 10% on the basis of Income Groups. 10% on the basis of Market Segments. we find that 60% of the Tours & Travel agencies fix their prices according to Competition.From the above graph.12) From the above graph. while 40% of them face Limitations from the Government.
14) IS INSURANCE PROVIDED TO TOURISTS: 10 8 6 4 2 0 INSURANCE TO TOURISTS YES NO ANALYSIS: (Fig 4.14) ~ 81 ~ . while 20% donot give Concessions or Discounts to Repeat Visitors.13) From the above graph.13) SPECIAL CONCESSIONS TO REPEAT VISITORS: 10 8 6 4 2 0 SPECIAL DISCOUNTS YES NO ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. we find that 80% of the Tours & Travel agencies give Discounts to Repeat Visitors.
From the above graph. we find that 80% of the Tours & Travel agencies provide Insurance to the tourists while 20% donot provide Insurance to the tourists. while 20% of them donot provide First-Aid facilities. we find that 80% of the Tours & Travel agencies provide First-Aid facilities to the Tourists. 15) FIRST .15) From the above graph. 16) SELF OWNED MECHANICS ON TOURS: SELF OWNED MECHANICS 30% YES 70% NO ~ 82 ~ .AID FACILITY TO TOURISTS: 10 8 6 4 2 0 FIRST-AID FACILITY YES NO ANALYSIS: (Fig 4.
17) COMMUNICATION OF TOUR ESCORTS IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES TO TOURIST : 8 6 4 2 0 TOUR ESCORTS COMMUNICATING IN DIFFERENT LANGUAGES YES NO ANALYSIS: (Fig 4.17) From the above graph. ~ 83 ~ .16) From the above graph. while 40% donot have their guides communicating in different languages with the Tourists. we find that 70% of the Tours & Travel agencies donot have self owned mechanics for long Tours. while 30% have self owned mechanics for long Tours. we find that 60% of the Tours & Travel agencies have their guides communicating in different languages with the Tourists.ANALYSIS: (Fig 4.
18) HOTEL ARRANGEMENT FOR TOURISTS: HOTEL ARRANGEMENTS 0% YES 100% NO ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. ~ 84 ~ . we find that 100% of the Tours & Travel agencies make Hotel Arrangements for Tourists.19) From the above graph. 19) FOOD OFFERED ACCORDING TO TOURISTS DESIRE: 15 10 5 0 FOOD OFFERED ACCORDING TO TOURISTS WISH YES NO ANALYSIS: (Fig 4.18) From the above graph. while 40% of them donot provide food to the Tourists according to their wish. while 10% of them donot make Hotel Arrangements for Tourists. we find that 60% of the Tours & Travel agencies provide food to the Tourists according to their wish.
20) SUCCESS OF AGENCIES IN PROMOTING THEIR TOURISM ACTIVITIES: SUCCESS OF TOUR AGENCIES 20% YES 80% NO STABLE ANALYSIS: (Fig 4. we find that 80% of the Tours & Travel agencies feel that they are Successful in Promoting their Tourism activities. while 20% of them feel that they are Stable and not so Successful in Promoting their Tourism activities. ~ 85 ~ .20) From the above graph.
Majority of the Tours and Travels agencies provide insurance facilities to their tourists. Majority of the Tours & Travel agencies have their tour destination which includes Natural Scenes. ~ 86 ~ . Artificial Beauties and so on. There have been numerous rape cases of women tourists. putting Indian tourism to shame. Majority of the Tours & Travel agencies fix their prices on the basis of competition. There has been no stoppage of theft and crime against foreign tourists especially women tourists in India.aid facility to the tourists. Seasonal advertising is made largely through pamphlets. Due importance is given to online and office reservation because it is found that proper information is not provided through telephone and some of the telephone calls for enquiry may be fake. The Government regulations are not transparent and there is lot of redtapism. Most of Tours & Travel agencies operate through Airways. It is observed that.FINDINGS Majority of the tours and travel agencies work at local level. reservations are made through Office. Historic Places. It is observed that most of the Tours & travel agencies do not have self owned mechanics for long tours. The Tours & Travel agencies do not have their guides communicating in different languages to tourists from different states. Railways and Roadways. Online and Telephone. There is provision for first. Majority of tours and travel agencies use Tally for keeping their accounts.
All Tours & Travel agencies should have self owned mechanic for long tours to have an immediate remedy on breakdowns. Comsoft database. Along with pamphlets. It is found that most of the Tours & Travel Agencies are successful in promoting the tourism activities. The government should encourage the tourism activities by providing concessional infrastructural facilities for average income group people. different media should also be used to have a better awareness among the people. SUGGESTIONS The Tours & Travel agencies should gear up their tourism activities at national & international level. which enables them to have a detailed record of the tourists so that they can provide special concessions to repeat visitors. a software which is specially for managing accounts should be used by all Tours & Travel agencies. avoided to prevent fake enquiries. so that tourism impact is maintained. Majority of the Tours & Travel agencies have their sales distribution through direct sales The Tours & Travel agencies make hotel arrangements for tourists. reservation through telephone should be. Food preferences of tourists are taken into consideration. ~ 87 ~ . The prices of the tour packages should be fixed taking into consideration the low income groups and the market segments. Tourist Information System is maintained by most of the Tours & Travel agencies. regular advertisement should be made. As far as possible. Along with seasonal advertisement.
The Escorts of Tours & Travel agencies should be well versed with all types of different languages to facilitate better communication between the tourists. The Tours & Travel agencies should also try to conduct tours through waterways. The Tours & Travel agencies should make arrangements for training their staff and employees to overcome the breakdown problems during long tours.
~ 88 ~
Tourism Marketing in INDIA has a wide scope. There are thousands of places of tourist attractions. The Tours & Travel Agencies can encourage their tourism through Waterways which is also today‘s need. The tourism product and the tour packages should be arranged in such a way that they are reasonable and also affordable to the low income group people. Media advertisement should be encouraged on a wide scale. If the people in tourism cater to the needs of the tourists, it will result in their satisfaction. Customer satisfaction in tourism is greatly influenced by the way in which the service is delivered and the physical appearance and personality of the business. It is critical that these elements be communicated in the best possible manner to convince people to come and experience what the agency‘s business or community has to offer. Equally important is the ability to generate repeat business because of their efforts. It is not enough that the country possesses a potential for becoming a covetable tourist destination. To turn that possibility into reality, marketing is a pre-condition. Today, promotional activities through the internet and other electronic media including TV can be utilised with reasonable costs. Government has taken necessary measures to
encourage the private sector to play positive role in the development and diversification of tourist facilities to promote domestic and international tourism in the country. Thus, marketing becomes the method to reach potential visitors. It is a vital part of tourism management and can be done effectively and well, with sophistication and tact, or it can be done poorly in a loud, crass and ~ 89 ~
intrusive manner. Also there should be regular updation of the tourism marketing plans. Government encouragement to the tourism activities will also help the tourism to flourish in INDIA as well as ABROAD, lasting for never ending success. Looking at the present day situation, all these words of movements are still going on with a lot of capabilities building up the tourism infrastructure. Travel as a multinational, dimensional phenomenon consisting of various components and allied services. The industry now is highly professional zed and complex operation with hotels, restaurants, airlines and tour operators being the primary flag referrers. Advancement in technology, management principles, and marketing techniques have made the tour operations a highly competitive business along with hotels. Tour operators now bring the entire package to the traveller, business persons and ensure a no headache-involved tour. With the liberation in India comes a new class of passion the enthusiastic traveller and the business executive. The traveller has more disposable income and is bitten by the travel bug. The Business executive has to travel to collaborate and learn from his counterparts abroad, all expenses paid by the company. Organizations too have found travel as the perfect incentives to award to productive partners and dealers. Realizing the changing market and anticipating the future scenario, has started giving emphasis especially to outbound tourism in the last 10 years. It increased to a large extent and realized the objective of becoming the market leader in providing exclusive tours for the premier niche of the market.
~ 90 ~
Better market research. The sales and marketing team in Delhi handles the Corporate relations with the companies. The corporate head office is situated in Bombay where the strategic decisions are taken by the top management.Full sales and marketing support is added to achieve this. which brings all the major points in awareness of the existing situation in the internal and the external environment in the company and the trade. awareness and target segment oriented approach will finally help in increasing market share and development. These are carried on to the countrywide branches for goal-oriented operations.‘[ New arrangements are made and products launched to help in the promotion. A SWOT analysis of the company was done. ~ 91 ~ .
Seasonally b. Regularly ~ 92 ~ . Monthly c.QUESTIONNAIRE: In term of Travel Agency 1) On what level does your travel agency work ? a) Local b) National c) International d) Both National & International 2) How does your transportation take place through ? a) Airways b) Railways c) Roadways d) Waterways e) Air. Roadways f) All the above 3) What are your tour destinations ? a) Natural Scenes b) Historic Places c) Social cultural d) Artificial Beauties e) All the Places 4) When do you advertise your tourism activities ? a. Rail.
Online & Telephone 8) Do you manage tourist information system ? a) Yes b) No 9) What type of software do you use for managing or keeping accounts ? a. Excel b. Comsoft Database c. Media & Pamphlets d. Any other 6) Your sales distribution is through which system ? a) One-stage system .5) Through what medium do you advertise or promote your tourism activities ? a. Tally ~ 93 ~ . Advertising Pamphlets c. Register d.direct sales b) Two-stage system. Media b.travel agent c) Both 1st & 2nd Stage 7) In what way is the reservation done for tickets ? a) Office & Online b) Office & Telephone c) Office .
10) What type of government taxes are applied on your tourism activities ? a) Service tax b) Road tax c) Both Service & Road tax 11) Do you face any limitations from the Government. in promoting your tourism activities ? a) Yes b) No 12) Prices are fixed according to a) Competition b) Income Groups c) Market Segment d) All the above 13) Do you provide special concessions to repeat visitors ? a) Yes b) No 14) Is Insurance provided to the tourists? a) Yes b) No 15) Do you provide first aid facilities to tourists ? ~ 94 ~ .
a) Yes b) No 16) Do you have Self Owned Mechanics ? a) Yes b) No 17) Do your tourist escorts communicate in different languages to tourists of different states countries ? a) Yes b) No 18) Do you arrange hotels for tours ? a) Yes b) No 19) Is the food offered according to preferences of the tourist ? a) Yes b) No 20) Do you feel your agency is successful in marketing your tourism activities? a) Yes b) No c) Stable ~ 95 ~ .
Issue 3. Managing Tourism. 269-78 * Vanhove N. (2005) ―Tourism and employment‖ International Journal of Tourism Management.wikipedia. Volume 2. Butterworth-Heinemann.). (Ed.com BOOKS * Jenkins C. (1991) ―Developing Tourism Destinations Policies and Perspectives‖ Longman Harlow * Jenkins C. September 1981.BIBLIOGRAPHY WEBSITE *www.google. pp.L. Pages 162175 ~ 96 ~ .lepassagetoindia.com *www. L. Oxford. S. (1991) ―Tourism policies in developing countries‖ in Medlik.com *www.
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