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Structure 1. Mucosa (Epithilial lining, lamina propria) 2. Submucosa (submucosal nerve plexus [Meisners] 3.

Muscalaris (2 layers, inner[circular], outer [longitudinal], Myenteric nerve plexus [Auerbachs]) 4. Serosa simple squamous Lymphoid nodules found in: (a) lamina propria (b) submucosal layer function: protect thin epithelial lining from bacterial infections (IgA) Functions of Epithilial lining 1. Provide selectively permeable membrane between contents of tract & digestion of food. 2. Facilitate transport & digestion of food 3. Promote absorption of products of digestion 4. Produce hormones that effect activity of digestive system Oral Cavity, Stratified Squamous. 1. Tongue 2. Papillae 3. Pharynx 4. Teeth 5. Dentin 6. Enamel Kerotinized a. ginigiva b. hard plates Non-kerotinized a. floor of mouth b. lips c. cheeks d. soft palate TONGUE mass of striated muscle covered by a mucous membrane, whose structure varies according to region PAPILLAE elevation of oral epithelium & lamina propria a. filiform papillae elongated concal shape present over entire surface of tongue - Loose CT Dense CT - Smooth MuscleLoose Ct-

b. fungiform resemble mushrooms, narrow stalk, smooth dilater upper part, contain tastebuds c. foliate papillae 2 or more parallel ridges, numerous taste buds, porrly developed in humans d. Circumvallate exteremely large, flattened surface extends above others. ESOPHAGUS Tube transports food from mouth to stomach (Nonkeratinized stratified squamous) Distal Smooth Muscle Mid Striated & Smooth Proximal striated STOMACH mixed exocrine endocrine glang that digests food and secretes hormones. Functions: 1. Digestion of carbohydrates. 2. Adds acidic fluid to ingested food 3. Transforms food into chyme(muscular) 4. Promotes digestion of protein with pepsin 5. Produces gastric lipase to digest triglecyrides with lingual lipase Gross Anatomy 1. Cardia 2. Pylorus 3. Body 4. Fundus

histologically, fundus and body are not distinguishable

Mucosa and submucosa lay in longitudional directed folds known as rugae PARIETAL CELLS Parasympathetic stimulation Histamine and gastrin to help produce HCL CHIEF CELLS (zymogenic) Have granules with pepsinogen Produce pepsin protein digestion Produce lipase fat digestion ENTEROENDOCRINE CELLS Secrete 5 hydroxytryptomine serotonin Tumors from these cells (carcinoids) overproduce serotonin

Hirschspring disease (Congenital megacolon (kids)) Chagas disease (panosoma cruzi infection) (adults) Leads to disturbance of digestive tract motility with frequent dilations in some areas, digestive tract neurons are destroyed PYLORUS Pyloric glands lyzozyme secretes mucus Gastrin cells gastrin stimulates secretion of acid D Cells somatostatin inhibits release of gastrin Layers 1. submucosa dense ct 2. muscularis smooth muscle fibers 3. covered by thin serosa SMALL INTESTINE site of terminal food digestion, nutrient absorbtion endocrine secretion Sections 1. Duodenum 2. Jejunum 3. Ileum MUCOSA Place circulares consisteing of mucosa & submucosa semilunar circular spiral form Interstional villi long outfrow of mucosa projecting into lumen of Small Intestine Duodenam has leaf shaped villi Intestinal glands (crypts) between villi are small opening of simple tubular glands Absorbtive Cells Tall columnar cells with an oval ucleous in the basal half of the cell. Goblet cells - produce glycoprotein mucin type with main function, protection of the lining of the intestine Paneth cells - basal portion of intestinal glands, large secretory granulles with antibacterial effect. M(microfold) cells - endocytose antigens & transport them to macrophages Smooth cells are responsible for rhythmic movement of vili