A very useful book on

Internet & dotcoms By GIJO & H.M.JADEJA
This book is for common people, who want to know about Internet.


This book is dedicated to common man, who feels that, he is left out in the Internet boom.


Dedication Why this book? How to use this book? Contents FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE & HARDWARE Basics of Internet Launch yourself into the World Wide Web Surfing the Internet? Fundamentals of web site designing Fundamentals of web marketing and search engine submissions How to make money from Internet? BEST WEB SITES IN INDIA INTERNATIONAL WEB DIRECTORY Find a romance online Go shopping online Find your dream job through Internet Resources for career development and online entrance preparation RESOURCES FOR GRE, TOEFL & OVERSEAS EDUCATION IN THE INTERNET How to publish your work through Internet? A brief introduction to cyber laws, cyber crimes & hacking MEDICAL RESOURCES IN INDIA Movie resources in Internet Music resources in Internet Spiritual resources in India Sports resources in Internet INTERNATIONAL WEB DIRECTORY Yoga & meditation resources in Internet A GUIDE TO DOT COM START-UPS AND VENTURE CAPITAL FUNDING Free resources available in the Internet Latest trend in Internet Fundamentals of e-commerce Glossary of common terms associated with Internet Conclusion


M. Common people can't understand these books. So. Most of them are very elaborate complex and contain less practical information. The contents of this book will exactly tell you what is what in the simplest possible manner. GOOD LUCK GIJO & H. but don't know how to go about.Why this book? Now days. And you are going to capture the entire world. you can find thousands of books on Internet in the market. to hit the nail on the head.JADEJA 4 . aimed at serving the common people who want to utilize Internet to improve their lives. This is a down to earth book. there exist a very high digital divide in our society. This book gives accurate and pinpoint information on various topics using minimum number of words. Our aim is to reduce the knowledge gap between the common man and the young products of the digital economy.

M. log on to the Internet. Now. And type the URL address On the address bar Instantly you get what you want And becomes a hero or heroine On the spot Depending on your gender GIJO & H.How to use this book? Carefully read through The contents at first Open the relevant page In which you are interested.JADEJA 5 .

sounds. transport vehicles) Hardware vs. Disk drives 6 . else it will be just like trying to write a sentence in English language without knowing the a. I want you to know the fundamentals of computer hardware & software. photographs. I have deliberately avoided the use of complex terms so that. Software Hardware: what you can touch and feel Software: electronic information used by the computer Hardware useless without software What are the parts of a computer? The Computer System consists of a. animation. System Unit. b. musical instruments. lists) Create and edit graphics (pictures. Keyboard. publications) Store and analyze data (inventories. games) Connect to and interact with other computers around the world (the Internet) Control other devices (machinery. Microcomputers (Personal computers) Examples of some things a computer can do Create documents (letters. artwork) Create and display multimedia (videos. c. brochures. Now read on BASICS OF COMPUTER HARDWARE What is a computer? A tool for managing information. budgets.FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE & HARDWARE Before knowing what is Internet. reports. robots. d. drawings. Monitor. music. research data. the reader will not faint while reading through this book. Mouse b. There are basically two types of computers: Mainframes or Minicomputers.

CD ROM drive. The major companies making microprocessors are Pentium. Digital camera i. 486(old) Mac etc f. Operating system.. PCMCIA modem card g.Then programs. parallel.. spreadsheet. cards (serial. External Modem c. e.c. RAM: what it is? Temporary memory. the computer is also specified by the microprocessor used. etc. External hard disk e. of any computer.First the operating system goes into RAM . therefore need to save! g. mouse. keyboard. Everything you run or create gets put into RAM . Diskettes-floppy disk drive d. It consists of millions of components that can process data. Motherboard e. keyboard) d. Motorola.g. mouse) Examples of Other Devices That Can Attach To A Computer a.Then data: too little RAM can stop software from working 7 . CDs f. Slots. Internal modem b. Notebook computer h. Ports (serial. parallel. CPU microprocessor: It is the "brain". word processor. Hyundai etc. programs documents all go into RAM 2. For example 386. . Printer What happens when you turn on the computer? 1.

Types of diskettes: 3.intel. Microprocessor: Hard drive: Memory: Level 2 cache: CD-ROM Drive: 667MHz Intel Pentium-3 processor 10. 100Mz SD RAM 256 KB Advanced transfer cache 48* CD-ROM Max-speed 8 .3.25".b. Taking care of diskettes d.5". RAM is temporary Types of Storage a. too little and programs can't run. CD-ROM: stores much more data.32MB better) Rule of thumb for RAM: More is Better! What is the configuration of an ordinary PC? You can determine the configuration of your PC according to your requirement.2GB 64MB.most hard disks today: 500MB to 1Gb+ . c. 5.com and type your requirement.5 " diskette = 300 single spaced text. you will get the configuration you require.000) 1 MB = 1 million bytes 1 GB = 1 billion bytes Examples: . most CD drives you can't write to disk Measuring RAM or Disks One Byte = 1 character 1 Kb = 1K = 1. Following is the simple example of the configuration of a HEWLETT PACKARD PC (Pentium-2) is given below. Suppose you want to see the configuration of the PC you want according to some criterion. .typical minimum recommended RAM: 16MB (24 . More RAM means can run more programs & work with larger data. Hard disk e. High/Low density b.024 bytes (but rounded to 1. 5-1/4 inch floppy diskettes f. Disk drive c. log on to www.

Diskette drive (Floppy disk drive) : 3. What makes each one different are the specifications of the components. the hard drive capacity.90 56kbps (33. and the additional components installed. HP pavilion enhanced one touch multimedia keyboard with internet access and media control. that 9 . Tips For Buying A New Computer Computer technology and prices change daily. the longer you wait.25” Internal: (1) 3. The good news is that all computers have certain common components. which you decide on. (1) game (1) TV-Out (S-video and PAL/NTSC) Integrated Intel Direct AGP 3D graphics. make sure you think about your short term/long term needs for both personal and business.6kbps send/ download up to 56kbps/14.5” (1. make a list of the types of things you need to do. BEFORE you buy. Deciding what to buy can be an arduous task! Common Components. Talk to several different computer professionals first. : (4) PCI : External: (3) 5. Architecture for high resolution graphics. MPEG – 1 for full screen. full motion digital video. Sound: Industry compatible PCI 32 bit sound with 3D stereo and wave table synthesis.44MB) DATA/FAX Modem: High velocity V.4kbps fax. depending online condition and ISP Support. Speakers Slots (total) Drive Bays External ports Video graphics: Video memory MPEG: Keyboard: Mouse: : Premium Polk Audio stereo speakers with PowerPort technology. Parallel. See the computer in action BEFORE you buy it to verify it does what you want.5” (1) Combo :(2) USB (2) Serial. don't just listen to a salesperson who is selling a particular brand of computer. HP pavilion scrolling mouse. capacity of the hard drive and much more. such as. :Up to 11MB SD RAM Shared memory. the microprocessor type and speed. Note: When purchasing a personal computer you will need to make many decisions. amount of memory. the amount and type of memory installed. you will then get a better computer for less money.

350MHz. and with all that power comes a hefty price tag. Pentium II . and much more. Search the Internet and World Wide Web. 300MHz. For example: Use applications to complete class assignments.enhance the function of the computer. Every computer must have a few essential components. packaging slips. Buy this chip if the only thing you will be doing on your computer is running office applications and surfing the web. transparencies. What type of system do you need? You need a computer system that performs all of the tasks that you want to use it to do. computer-aided design (CAD) or any other CPU intensive work.400 MHz This is a serious computer chip. Once you have decided the main purpose for using your computer system you can then determine the type of microprocessor you should buy Pentium II System . newsletters. 10 . Printers come in various types to choose from. Communicate with family and friends. 266MHz or 233MHz. Buy this microprocessor if you are seriously into image editing. Pentium II . If budget is important this microprocessor will get you through creating term papers and spreadsheets and give you good performance. The Printer If you are going to want a hard copy of your work. It does not have the speed of the 400 MHz. This middle ground processor will not have to be upgraded for a while. If you plan on running CAD programs or doing any image editing. For the best performance shop for an Intel Pentium II processor. Pentium MMX .200 MHz This is the slowest chip that a person should buy right now. Play games. labels. invoices. 333MHz. but it is still quite a powerful competitor.266 MHz This microprocessor is an average speed chip currently popular among vendors. The Pentium II is available in speeds of 400MHz. a faster processor would probably be a better choice. you are going to need a printer. Some beneficial features that some printers have are producing letters. This processor has ample power to run office applications and is an excellent choice for doing schoolwork.Excellent Performance The price of your system will depend on the type and speed microprocessor you choose. This is a really high-end machine that should be purchased if you need a lot of processing power.

933MHz versions of Pentium-3 computers. and rename it.Windows NT is another Microsoft operating system that is beginning to really catch on because of it's networking capabilities.Another job the OS does is run application software. and many of the world's servers run *NIX. and coming equipped with all the hardware you'll need. *NIX systems are now becoming a little more popular as desktops with the invention of programs like X Windows. Macs have the history of being easy to use. What is an Operating System (OS)? An operating system (from here on OS) is basically software that makes everything in the computer work together smoothly and efficiently (hopefully!). Windows NT . and there are many applications that run on it. These are commonly called "workstations". This was one of the first GUI's to become popular. Basically. its controls the "overall" activity of a computer. Through the OS you are able to do a number of things to data including copy. Operating systems have three basic jobs they must do: (a)Control Hardware . Unix is by far the oldest of the operating systems. having been in existence for a good 20 years. etc. games.The operating system controls all the parts of the computer and attempts to get everything working together. This would include Microsoft Office. (b) Run Applications . *NIX systems are still the kings of the networking world. Types of Operating Systems There are a vast number of OS's out there. 11 . 500MHz of the Pentium-2 computers and 667MHz. It has an easy-to-use Graphical User Interface (GUI). WinZip. you can get processing speeds of 600MHz. etc.This is the operating system found on the Macintosh brand of computers.The OS makes it easy for you to organize your computer. delete. *NIX . UNIX is a command prompt OS. move. ©Manage Data and Files .This is what you will find on most new PC's today. It is a very popular OS. which allows *NIX systems to have a GUI. Let's briefly go over few of the more common ones: Windows 95/98 . Macintosh System 7/8 . Microsoft is trying to slowly phase out Windows 95/98 and replace it with some form of NT.This includes the OS's like UNIX. LINUX. much like the now defunct Microsoft DOS operating system.Note: Now days. This makes it much easier to find and organize what you have.

It is very compact and light. the computer must be unplugged from the electrical outlet. The variation of the components inside the system unit is what makes one personal computer more powerful than another personal computer. Most system units consist of the computer case with a power supply. motherboard. All this decision is based on is your personal preference. floppy disk drive. This includes the case and all the hardware that is installed inside. Param 10000 developed by CDAC. CD-ROM drive. Be sure to use the Clickable List to learn more about each topic! More About the System Unit The system unit is the computer. System Unit 2. 12 . Currently only five nations have the capability to make supercomputers and India is one among them. The two styles that we have to choose from are a desktop or a tower case. video adapter. Pune is already in use for weather and military purposes. The case can be opened by unscrewing the case screws and sliding off the cover. Monitor 3.What is a supercomputer? Super computer is a computer that can process data millions of times faster than ordinary computers. input/output ports. The most common among them is called the laptop computers. Keyboard The System Unit The system unit is the entire computer as a whole. The case also comes with the power supply needed to power itself. which can process billions of data at a time. The Case The first decision we have to make is the type of case that we want our computer to have. memory (RAM). and soundboard. One type of case will not out-perform the other. What is the latest in computers? There are lot of versions of computer you can see in the market at present. It consists of special microprocessors. disk controller. along with the other components that we add. Sam prefers a mid-size tower case. Powerful electronic circuitry that makes up the computer is housed inside the case. Here the monitor of the computer is that of LCD (liquid crystal display). Hardware tutorial The three main components of a personal computer: 1. To avoid. The rest of these pages will cover what is contained in the system unit. hard drive.

The CPU contains the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU). Again. without a CPU. All the hardware components are installed in the bays of the case. Usually not all the bays are filled when you purchase a new computer. the motherboard is generally the one at the bottom of the computer's case. the controller circuitry. The network cable will then attach to the card. The most commonly used connectors are the ISA and PCI expansion slots. The CPU is one of the most important elements of the personal computer. If you have a towerconfiguration case. Power supplies are rated in watts. Every system has one: The motherboard is the largest circuit board in your computer. the faster the processor is. A fan installed in the power supply helps to keep the computer and its components from overheating. Microprocessor On the motherboard. and a typical computer case has a 200 watt power supply inside. you may want to add a ZIP drive. CPU's come in different speeds measured in Megahertz (MHz). The higher the number. It generally houses the CPU chip (brains of your computer). for example. There are many different company's that produce 13 . the bus. the address bus. If you have a desktop computer. tape back up. This is a section of a PCI modem. it's along one of the vertical sides.htm> More About the Mainboard The main circuit board. The mainboard has connectors called expansion slots that will interface with other printed circuit boards such as sound and video adapter cards. which is the largest single printed circuit board found inside the system unit. is called the motherboard or mainboard.More About the Case A power supply is installed in the case to provide the voltage needed to power the electronic circuits in the system unit. Clickable List System Unit Case Mainboard <Hardware_08-1. Some are left unfilled so you are able to upgrade your machine in time. The phone line will connect to the card's exterior phone jack. or a CD-ROM burner. which are actually called daughterboards. The Mainboard Selecting the mainboard is next. and the control bus. the CPU (Central Processing Unit) is contained on a single integrated circuit called the Microprocessor. the highlighted region will connect into one of the motherboard's PCI expansion slots. which will allow it to link with the motherboard (Teeth are Actual Size). The microprocessor is connected to the rest of the computer system through three buses: the data bus. The teeth will be seated into one of the ISA expansion slots located on the motherboard. Expansion Slots Below is a section of an ISA network card that highlights the teeth of the card. memory (RAMRandom Access Memory) and sockets for additional boards. there is no computer. linking the modem to the motherboard (Teeth are Actual Size).

so you will want to be aware of what type you have. CDRW.CPU's. it is an internal drive. A 3. Sam recommends a GODZILLA sized HDD. and a light-sensitive diode that reads the flashing light. you will need a secondary storage device. The Hard Disk Drive Selecting the storage devices is next. battery. CD-R. and support chips. One Floppy diskette can only hold 1. It consists of a spindle that revs up the disc. The HDD stores your programs and files.44 MB of information on it. 14 . You can't take it with you when you leave your computer. Intel made the first CPU back in 1971.4 Gb. a prism that deflects the laser beam. A CPU CONSIST OF Video adapter Input/output ports Hard disk drive Motherboard Adapter Fan Floppy disk drive CD ROM drive Memory The computer's primary memory (RAM) is also located on the motherboard. Most motherboards have open connectors for Single In-line Memory Modules (SIMMS) so you can add more memory quickly and inexpensively. There are many choices.3 Gb The Floppy Disk Drive In order to take your files with you. AMD. cache memory. system clock.5" Floppy Disk Drive (FDD) is typical but limited to the amount of space one diskette can hold. SIMM chips come in various types. which include Intel. GIGAN 6. For long term storage you need a Hard Disk Drive (HDD). CD-ROM. GODZILLA 8. a laser that flashes onto the disc's uneven surface. Your choice will definitely effect the total price of your system unit. MINYA 4. HDD's come in various sizes to choose from. keyboard connector.4 Gb. Additional important components on the motherboard include the BIOS (Basic Input Output System). Now there are special drives available which can run floppy discs of higher capacities like 10MB & 100 MB The CD-ROM Drive Every system unit assembled today includes a CD-ROM (Read Only Memory) drive. and Cyrix. or DVD-ROM. You can purchase these memory chips whenever you decide to upgrade your computer's memory.

and one of the best known is the SoundBlaster by Creative Labs. Going out and looking at all the different types will help you find what you want. modems do for computers what a telephone does for humans. or evaluate the monitor that may come with our system unit. A modem is a device that you connect to your computer and to a phone line that allows the computer to talk to other computers through the phone system. Types Of Monitors When we talk about screens. A 64-bit AGP video card with 4Mb of RAM is a great choice for your computer. More About Monitors Monitors come in many different shapes and forms. Understanding the concepts of a good monitor will help us to either purchase one. resolution. The Monitor All computers are connected with some type of display. Basically. and size. An AGP card will allow game and 3D application developers to store and retrieve larger. Sam says that this is mainly common in businesses and in University Computer Labs where everyone can access the same server. The Modem In order to go online and surf the web. The Sound Card Installing a soundboard is the only way to create quality sound output. or check E-mail. We mainly use a monitor. without incurring a dramatic performance hit. refresh rate. A "multimedia" PC usually includes a sound card. Some of these key concepts that need to be looked at are: pixels. The video card interfaces the monitor to the mainboard. When we purchase a new computer. you will need a modem to connect to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). a monitor is not always included. It provides high-quality stereo sound.The Video Card The Pentium II mainboard has an Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) expansion slot for installing an AGP video card. A NIC is an adapter card that physically connects one computer to a network cable and to another computer that has the same type of NIC. there are two different types to choose from: 15 . The Network Card If you would like to hook your computer up to another computer you will need a Network Interface Card (NIC). Monitors are available in different types and sizes. more realistic textures in system memory rather than video memory.

(Also called vertical frequency or vertical refresh rate. Refresh rates are measured in Hertz (HZ). The higher the depth. The finer the dot pitch. green. How much depends on the desired colour depth you want your monitor set at. The more VRAM your video card has. A screen image consists of between 480. This is just like a television.If you look close. Each pixel consists of three colors: red. the better the resolution. This is measured in bits. The video card also sends out the refresh signal. There are now SVGA (Super VGA) and XGA with resolutions all the way up to 1600 x 1200. The number of colors. more colors are able to be produced. The terms are not used much anymore. the more the amount of colors can be displayed. Resolution: The greater the number of pixels in the screen. which are arranged in rows across the screen. thus controlling the refresh rate. which is called VGA. we mainly look at the resolution. the better image quality you will have.25mm dot pitch. which means times per second.000 and 1. and this is quite good. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display): flat and soft displays. The higher the refresh rate. Dot pitch: This is a measurement of how close together the phosphor dots are on the screen. Video RAM (VRAM): All video cards have some memory.000 pixels. They are called "soft" displays. because the image appears softer than the CRT. which can be displayed.CRT (Cathode Ray Tube): the most common type of screen. The prices of these screens range higher than CRT's.28mm dot pitch. look for the smaller number. These concepts consist of the following: Pixels: The screen image is made of pixels (tiny dots). but the screen image design is still based on the same concepts. is called the colour depth. Some have a 0. but actually it flickers every time the electron beam hits the phosphorcoated dots. The greater the resolution. and blue (RGB). It may look like a steady picture.920. a big glass bottle. you can see them. 16 . Refresh Rate: The screen image is refreshed many times per second. Most monitors today have a 0. the sharper the image will be. Concepts Behind Monitors The principles behind these screen types are different.) Colour Depth: Each pixel can display a number of different colors. The lowest screen resolution on modern PC's is 640 x 480 pixels. This is the traditional picture tube. the screen image appears steadier.

a device in the computer known as the compiler will reconvert the machine language into text document and display the same in the monitor (desktop) 17 .000 15" 17" 75 SVGA 1024 x 728 786. If you want both high resolution and a high refresh rate. and blue). We traditionally work with the following degrees of color depth: 256 colors (8 bit color) 65. green. Suppose you write something in Microsoft word and save it.72 HZ SVGA 800 x 600 480. The colors are created by varying the light intensity of the three basic colors (red.432 17". 21" 75 XGA 1280 x 1024 1. the computer will convert the entire stuff into machine language (001. you will need both a high quality monitor and a high quality video card. BASICS OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE What is computer language? People like us communicate with each other in languages like Hindi.920. For application less than this 16-bit color will be sufficient. measured diagonally. and 21" screens. also called 65K or HiColor) 16 million colors (24 bit color. The bigger the screen. Whenever you want to retrieve the information you have saved.100. the more it must be able to produce. English etc to exchange our ideas with each other.Screen Size: Monitor screen sizes are measured in inches. 19". the better quality monitor you need.85 HZ Refresh Rate 85 85 85 85 HZ HZ HZ HZ To sum it all up: The higher the refresh rate.10011 etc) and save it. The most common sizes are 14". Size VGA 640 x 480 307. also called True Color) 4 billion colors (32 bit color.000 21" 75 . 15". 19". which consists of two digits 0 and1. It is called binary system. 19" 75 XGA 1152 x 864 995. also True Color) 24 and 32 bit colors should be the choice for graphic artists and professional Photographers. Standard Resolution # of pixels Rec.328 17".200 14" 60 . 17".310.536 colors (16 bit color. just like televisions.720 19". Colors: Colors are a must!! Good PC's must be able to display many colors on the screen. Similarly the language that a computer understands. Note that the visible size is actually smaller than the measurement size. to perform various operations is called machine language. 21" 75 XGA 1600 x 1200 1.

Operating System b. For example. Java etc using which software programs are written for specific applications. access & binder. photo editing software.What is programming language? A programming language is a language like c. c++. Once it is converted to a pdf (adobe acrobat) file. Winzip. excel. nobody can tamper with it. Winzip This is a software which helps to compress files into smaller sizes. you can write programs to make computer games. Adobe acrobat This is a software. MS office This is a software which comes in built with the Microsoft Windows operating system. when loaded and run in a computer can do specific functions. "windows 2000" is a software developed by Microsoft corporation. PowerPoint. Data What are the most commonly used computer softwares and their uses? The commonly used computer software are MS office. CAD etc. This software is used for general office purposes. For example. browsers. which will give security to any document. It supports almost all graphics format. FoxPro. 18 . It consists of 5 packages viz Word. There are thousands of softwares available in the market. using Java. The most commonly used browsers are Internet explorer and Netscape navigator. you can create web pages and using c++. while surfing the net. Softwares are basically divided into three categories a. Autoview This software helps to view graphics. Programs c. Browsers This software helps in extracting data from the Internet to be displayed in the computer. Editing of graphics can also be done with the help of this software. Autoview. which has got multiple utilities ranging from surfing the internet to making documents. Adobe acrobat. What is computer software? It is a program..

Real numbers generally follow the standards of the IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). A special version (GEOTIFF) can contain ground co-ordinates associated with the image. For complete portability you should use a universal format like ASCII (text only) or HTML (allows formatting). which provides both 4 byte and 8 byte floating point types. JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Groups. making it applicable for satellite or map data. Computers store reals as an exponent and mantissa. Some of the most common brands are Adobe PhotoShop. Real arithmetic requires much more computer processing power than integer arithmetic. there can be open standards or proprietary formats. Computers store all data as a series of ones and zeros. TIFF: Tagged Image File Format. Image formats: BMP: the standard Windows Bit Map Picture format. GIF: Graphics Interchange format. pioneered for CompuServe. you will see a series of happy faces and other symbols that mean nothing to you. which is why computers typically has a math coprocessor or floating point unit (FPU) designed to perform the calculations in hardware. with both compressed and uncompressed variants. For numbers this leads to a fundamental difference between integers (the counting numbers) and real or floating point numbers. Integers can be stored exactly with a series of ones and zeros.Photo editing software These softwares help in manipulation of graphics. FoxPro This software helps in creating and maintaining huge database. Within binary files. paintshop pro and Corel draw. 19 . or open a binary format file. Different word processors use different symbols to indicate formatting--thus Microsoft Word may or may not be able to read and correctly format a Word Perfect file. If you try to print. What is a computer and how it works? Computers can store information in either human-readable format or in machine readable or binary format. which allows precision to a given number of decimal places depending on the number of bytes used. but real numbers must be approximated. a compressed format in the public domain.

MP3: current MPEG format for sound only. Byte: eight bits. Megabyte: 10242=1. the native Windows format. often loosely considered to be 1.000. where only the notes and instruments used are stored.000 bytes. Very compact for instrumental music. This movie format can only use 256 colors and does not support sound. MID: MIDI.824 bytes. but cannot store vocals or sound effects. and files can become very large very fast. or numbers from 0 to 255. a compressed format. but many struggling bands want to distribute their music to build up a following.073. with very good compression. Compressed format. Kilobyte: 1024bytes. Sound formats: WAV: Windows AudioVisual. Setting control the quality of the sound.000. Apple has a viewer available for free download for Windows. often loosely considered to be 1000 bytes. if compressed. the viewing computer must have the correct code to decipher the file.048. Compressed format. often loosely considered to be 1. a 0/1. and often this will not be the case. These can be uncompressed or compressed. In electrical terms it represents on/off.741.000. basically a digital tape recorder format. GIF: Graphics Interchange format. Legal quagmire as people copy and post music illegally.576 bytes.Movie formats: MOV: the Apple QuickTime format. pioneered for Compuserve.000 bytes Gigabyte: 10243=1. The can represent 28 (256) distinct values. Data Storage Sizes: Bit: the smallest element used by a computer. in mathematical terms. MPEG: Motion Picture Experts Group. AVI: AudioVisual Interleaved. 20 .

000. The extra 128 characters should be available on most Windows machines. Text formats ASCII: American Standard Code for the Interchange of Information. for instance) to allow the transfer of formatting information in files. 10 digits. beep. 15 bit color: uses 5 bits for each color. escape). Color formats RGB model: computers and televisions used a red-green-blue model for colors. the mainstay of the WWW. punctuation marks. These include the alphabet (upper and lower case). 24 bit (true color): 8 bits for each color.000 bytes.000.Terabyte: 10244=1. Mixing all three should give black. black. and some control characters (tab.776 bytes.511. An ASCII coding that using special codes (<B> and </B> to start and stop boldface. HTML: Hyper Text Mark up Language. 256 color: the 256 colors can be selected from the 16 million the monitor can display. line return. or a total of 16. A code that uses 128 values to transfer text data between computers. This does not divide evenly into three colors. Standard word processors use proprietary codes for formatting that usually cannot be readily transformed to other machines. 16 bit color is common.000. This is the limit that can be displayed by most monitors.216. IBM extended this character set to include some international characters and box drawing.099. Most users cannot differentiate 21 . but blue generally contains much less information than red or green and this provides very acceptable results. the monitors use three electron guns. Cyan is a light blue (the mixture of green and blue). often loosely considered to be 1.627.777. yellow mixes red and green and magenta is purple (the mixture of red and blue). although in some cases Windows forces about 30 of the colors to be its standard choices. but this generally looks bad and most printers also include a fourth ink. Since computers generally use bytes for efficient storage. 16 color: the 16 colors can be selected from the 16 million the monitor can display. 16 bit (high color): since storage must be in 8 bit (or byte) increments. CYM model: printers use a cyan-yellow-magenta model.

these can be burned once. DVD: store the equivalent of 5-6 CD-ROMs. so media cost is negligible.44 MB Zip disks: original version stores 100 MB. Only available in internal models. which are faster.anywhere near this number of colors. and thus are a lot more costly than plain CD-R. these can be written over. Made by IOMEGA. 22 . JAZZ disks: stores 1 GB. Made by IOMEGA. This has become a kind of standard because so many have been sold. CD-ROM: store 650 MB. newer version larger. CD-RW: CD-Rewrite. which are easy to transport and hook up to the computer via the printer port. Storage media: Floppy disks: store 1. and cannot distinguish this mode from 15 and 16 bit modes. setting off a legal battle about whether you can post a link to the location where the software is available. You can get internal models. The media cost about $1 each for 650 MB. or 74 minutes of CD quality music (so about 9 MB/minute) CD-R: CD-Recordable. The encryption system for movies has just been cracked in Scandinavia. They cost $10 or so each. or external models.

The basic components of Internet are 1.com www.rediff.com What are the components of Internet? Just consider Internet as a tree.com www.com www.com www. the Internet also has got several branches.hotmail. Some major e-mail service providers are www. FTP 5. A tree consists of leaves.com” Now days there are lot of sites.learnthenet.FUNDAMENTALS OF INTERNET What is Internet? Internet consist of a network of millions of computers all over the world connected through telephone lines and satellites. branches roots stem etc. E-mail 3. Using this facility you can send texts graphics etc to anybody who has got an e-mail account.com www. which can speak (communicate) to each other by exchanging data.com www. from which any computer connected to the internet can access the data stored in that server.operamail. Usenet groups E-mail It is the short form of electronic mail. Telnet 4.aol. The information is stored in a device called the "server" or the host. Even the computer itself can act as a server. Or You can simply say that Internet is an international network of computers linked with each other to exchange information. Learn more about Internet at: www.com 23 . world wide web 2. which provide free e-mail services. IRC (internet relay chat) 6.yahoo.netaddresses. a typical e-mail account looks like “you@hotmail. Like that.mailcity.

zip to your computer's hard disk. where people can go to communicate online in real time. The message then appears on the screens of all the participants. people in online chat sessions type messages to each other using their keyboards.four11. you no longer need to know arcane FTP commands to copy to and from other computers. you will need to use an FTP client program to transfer files. or if you want to upload files to a remote computer. Chat Room An electronic space. To use FTP. If your web browser doesn't have built-in FTP capability. Some of the best e-mail search engines are www. Chats can involve two or more people. Chat describes the way people communicate online in real time. typically a web site or a section of an online service. FTP This is an acronym for File Transfer Protocol -.com FTP Abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol.com. such as small business owners.If you want to search for somebody’s e-mail.zip transfers the file filename.of. and the directory it's in." which means you can log into the 24 . FTP was developed in the early days of the Internet to copy files from computer to computer.of. Most files are available via "anonymous FTP. you can use FTP by typing the URL into the location box at the top of your screen. It is also used to download files from Web sites.iaf. Typing ftp://name. gardening. these messages are then distributed to other computers on the network.site/directory/filename. In your browser. FTP is a specific way to connect to another Internet site to retrieve and send files.a very common method of transferring one or more files from one computer to another.com . With the advent of the World Wide Web. which are available through Internet Service Providers. you need to know the name of the file. typing ftp://name.site/directory/ gives you a listing of all the files available in that directory. Chat rooms are often organized around specific interests. the computer where it resides.net. and web browser software. use e-mail search engines. IRC –(Chat) It is the short form of Internet relay chat. It is often used by Webmasters to upload their files to a Web site. The term "chat" is actually a misnomer. www. www. Usenet newsgroups A system of thousands of special interest groups to which readers can send or "post" messages. For example. www. etc.whowhere. A special FTP program is used to transfer files from one computer to another. Usenet registers newsgroups. Typically.bigfoot.

What are Internet protocols? This includes e-mail. graphics. You need an Internet account to be able to use a telnet program. and perform the same commands as if you were directly connected by computer. The example of a hypertext (link) is given below Eg: www. HTTP: It is the short form of " hypertext transfer protocol". and sounds. Or Simply you can say that the information available in the Internet is called World Wide Web. FTP. The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols. WWW contains a complex virtual web of connections among a vast number of documents. videos. or HTML. and Usenet News.machine with the user name "anonymous" and use your e-mail address as your password.yahoo. Hypertext is a document containing words that connect to other documents. In the Internet. you can download files. engage in conferencing. there are two types of computers. it will connect you to another document or web page) The World Wide Web was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee of the European Particle Physics Lab (CERN) in Switzerland. Please don't get frightened by hearing this term. and because of the Web's ability to work with multimedia and advanced programming languages. These words are called links. The Web gathers together these protocols into a single system. the World Wide Web is the fastest-growing component of the Internet. or HTTP. 25 . In addition to these. Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a language called HyperTxt Mark-up Language. Because of this feature. Once you are logged into the remote system. This creates a convenient and user-friendly environment. command-level environments. It is no longer necessary to be conversant in these protocols within separate. Telnet Telnet is a software program that allows you to log in to other remote computers on the Internet to which you have access. What is World Wide Web? (WWW or W3) The World Wide Web is a group of Internet servers that supports hypertext (link) to access several Internet protocols on a single platform.com (if you click here. one is the host computer (server) that store the database (web pages) and the other is the client computers (like your computer at homeconnected to the Internet) which request information from the host computers. the World Wide Web has its own protocol: HyperText Transfer Protocol. Telnet.

which are made using software programs like Java.wonderfulkerala. What is a server? A server is a machine in which web pages or computer data is stored for future use. just see 26 . if you type this number on the address bar and press . consider the web site " www. html.56.html. thousands of computers can access the data from the sever at a time.218.abcd.128. every web site has got a unique address in the World Wide Web to mark its identity.yahoo. Sharma. Depending upon the configuration of the server. Following are some of the common domain names. It indicates the nature of the web site and some times the country of its registration.com is 208. Gupta.com".yahoo. What is a web site? A web site consists of web pages.com site address of " yahoo" search engine is Eg. the site www. The database incorporated in a web site is called contents.128 ) which represents the web site. which is actually a number (like 208. It also indicates that "yahoo" is a commercial organization. every site is known by a particular name of the format " http://www. URL is the short form of " uniform research locator". and ASP.com will open.abcd. It is also called IP address or Internet protocol address. Just remember. The IP address (Internet protocol address) of www. Nair. in which web pages are stored. Whenever a client computer requests data from this server. Since it is very difficult to remember the number.218. Singh etc) all the web sites in the Internet end up with a specific domain name. which incorporate images and data in the digital form.56. A web server can be defined as that machine which is connected to Internet. Some of the server manufacturing companies are IBM (International business machines): www. For example. the "com" part of it is called domain name.com/subject.com" Every page in the web site is also denoted by a unique URL of the format http://www. For example. the web http://www. like your home address.ibm. it transfers the data satisfying a protocol called "http" or hypertext transfer protocol. Every web site has got a unique URL address. Before registering a domain name.wonderfulkerala.These two computers communicate with each other satisfying a special kind of protocol called " HTTP " or hypertext transfer protocol.com What is a domain name? Just like your surname (like Patel.

com .com. If you have got a saleable domain name. In India. you can register a domain name for just Rs. here the problem comes when a person may wrongly spell your site.com. Visit the following sites to get more details www. www.whether that domain name is available for registration through the web site www.loan. See more details in the site: www.useit. 27 .yahoo. Recently.google. domain names like “www.650 for a year.com Note: while registering a domain name remember the following things It should be simple and catchy and if possible have some resemblance with your business.com www.com.pugmarks.com were sold for millions of dollars. Almost all the successful companies have short domain names. you can make a lot of money. see www. Two companies are offering this service. perhaps you too can make some money out of it. register a domain name and try selling it. Domain names are very critical for business. Don’t go for long names.net4domains. If you want to do the same.com or www.fruit.register.

onecenter.tripod.spree. utilize them and make a web page of your choice.com www. You can upload (insert the contents) your page using a program called FTP (file transfer protocol). Suppose you have made a free home page in geocities.rediff. You can easily launch yourself into Internet using the free home page facility provided by many web sites.angelfire. read on. You can build your free home pages in these sites.html www. You are the hero of tomorrow.lycos.com www. Then you have to register yourself as a member.fg-a. you will find lot of tools and templates for building home pages.com www.com www.asiaco. What is to be done? Log on to the Internet and open any of the above sites.webmy.xoom.htm www. which you will find in the site itself.com www.tripod.com/homepage. launch yourself with a thundering impact into the Internet.com 28 .com www. Now don't wait. In these sites.geocities.freecenter. it will look something like http://www.com/homepages.com/webspace.html www.Launch yourself into the World Wide Web You have been reading a lot about Internet now a days.com are the best.com www. If you are really crazy about Internet.batcave.com & www.html www.net http://members. You don't need to have a web site to become a part of Internet. GOOD LUCK.net/freeweb. you can make your free home pages in more than a dozen of sites.com http://members.com/yourself/ Following are some of the web sites in which you can create your own free home pages.freecenter. The major free home page services in the Internet are www.freechannel.com www. Then you can proceed further to build your home page in the Internet.geocities.com www. Web sites like " www.freehomepages.geocities. but are you a part of it? If no.afreehome.

com/homepages/ www.com/dfreehomepages.eu.html www.htm http://rsl.chickasha.html www.com/tell.errorfree.moneyfromtheweb.com/pages.com www.com www.org Surfing the Internet? 29 .1000free.net/free_homepages.indiaspider.htm http://www.freewebspace.freemania.net/freeweb2.htm http://members.cyber-nurse.html www.net/ www.htm www.www.com www.com/~sgeler/ www.com/freeusa.net/copeland/free.wilsoninfo.sansuk.sunnet.com/freezone/index5.com/webspace.com/freehomepage.freestuffworld.com/free/free_homepages.html www.freecenter.asp www.customcreate.html www.y4i.freechannel.htm www.freezone.htm www.net/homepage.california.

you may have to type "website. How to surf the Internet? Just click on to the browser program. which may eventually slow down your computer. a window will pop up. Note: * While typing the URL address on the address bar. Ibrowse. Always remember that . Once you have supplied the user name and password. The ISP will allot you a user name and password using which you log on to the net. You can simply type yahoo and press enter button on the keyboard.yahoo. macweb etc. echo. you will log on to the net and become ready for surfing. Now just type the URL address of the web site you want to view on the address bar and soon the web pages of that particular site will be displayed before you. Browser is a software. cyberdog. your telephone line will be engaged. you need not have to type the entire address like" http://www. * While you are surfing the web. your browser will automatically save all the pages that you have visited as "cache files" or temporary Internet files. which will extract contents from the world wide web and enable you to view as web pages. Also you can set the expiration date for the history files which will be stored 30 . The Internet explorer comes in built with windows 2000 package. so while you are surfing no body can contact through the phone through which you are connected to the internet.com" and press the enter button to see the web pages of that site. a big history file will be generated. you have to install a software program called "browser" in your computer. Other than these two. In the case of other web sites.Now since you are connected to the Internet with the help of an Internet service provider (ISP). when you are surfing. lynx. For surfing the Internet. you can start surfing. So occasionally click the "clear history" button in the browser settings to remove old pages. • If you are surfing the net daily for hours together. Both are excellent browsers for surfing the Internet. which will ask you to supply the user name and password. if it is correct. the other browsers available in the market are " opera.com". You can compare browser with a sponge that absorbs water on contact with it. If the line is established. You can view all these pages later by just clicking the "history" button in your browser. The yahoo page will open before you. soon the dial-up networking will be activated and you will hear a dial tone from the modem. The most commonly used browsers are "Microsoft Internet explorer & Netscape navigator".

which will give the combined search results of many search engines put together.as cache files.com www. Surfing the Internet with the help of search engines and directories The best and easiest way to surf the net is by using search engines. then the directory will list all the sites related with art in that category.lycos.com If you want to know more about search engines. Else.com Meta search engines These are search engines. Some major meta search engines are www.msn. visit www.com www.com www.snap. google.yahoo.webcrawler.com Fundamentals of web site designing 31 .com www. using options in the browser settings. you can search for a particular topic in the search engines. Following are the top ten search engines in the Internet www.google.euroseek.dogpile.northernlight.hotbot.searchenginewatch. using browser settings.com www.com www.com www.com www. If you go to web directories (yahoo.appuonline.excite. It is better that you keep the expiry date say 1 to 2 days.altavista.com www.com www.com www. say art.com www. gobutton etc) and simply type the category of sites you want to see.metacrawler.

Now a days. These things will hamper your business although it will add beauty to your site. after designing your site. animate or respond to the user after downloading in the browser. So. Simplicity: A web site should be as simple as possible. Browser viability and monitor resolutions: Your web site should look alike in all the major browsers.yahoo. 1024x768 etc. people will simply leave your site. which will also give the same properties like that of ASP.google. 15"&14" monitors are commonly in use. Some PC monitor resolutions are 640x480. It should not be packed with texts or graphics. you can start with HTML. but with fewer features. The web pages can move. That means the user can do settings in the web pages without affecting the contents of the web pages. its utility and navigability and time taken to download web pages. If you are a beginner. you can design your web pages in ASP (active server pages).com or www.netscape. If you visit some sites. The PC monitor resolutions are also very important. finding what you want on the web site. Java applets in your front page. There is another language called DHTML. If you are an advanced programmer. So make your site simple and user friendly. According to a recent research conducted.com. 32 . Netscape etc. Now days mostly Java is used for web design since this language is more flexible and has got more features than HTML. test the web page in all the major browsers like Internet explorer. which will confuse the visitor. After designing your pages just see. So never include heavy graphics. Here the web pages become dynamic after downloading in the browser. Easy navigability Navigability means.Your success in cyberspace depends on the contents of your web site. Just visit www. The language used for web design There are lots of languages and tools using which you can design your web site. 800x600.com is an easily navigable site. how your pages look in different monitor sizes. if some problems are there rectify them on the spot. Following are the inevitable features of any successful web site in the Internet. www. you will know what is a simple web site is. Downloading time: The web site should download very fast on entering the URL address. if your site will not open within 10-15 seconds. you can see that things are very confusing.

useit.Learn more about good web designing at www.com Fundamentals of web marketing and search engine submissions 33 .

Now days. if you have got a web site. you should be registered with top search engines and your ranking in the search engine should be high.gobutton. Unless and until people view your web site. Some such sites are www.com Register with what’s new sites There are lots of sites. Else there is no use of being in the net.questfinder.egroups. Simply log on to such sites and register your web site.com & www. the creators of these sites did not pay much attention in marketing the site. you can start your own mailing list in www. How to register with search engines? 34 . Announce your web site Make a three-line write-up of your site and send it to all your friends & well wishers and ask them to spread it.com Register with search engines Just remember that 80% of the traffic generated in any web site is through search engines. if anybody give a search for yoga.whatsnu. There are thousands of newsgroups and mailing lists in the Internet. start promoting it right from now. Try with web directories like www. You can simply visit such web directories and register your site in such categories. which will list what are the latest sites that has been added to the Internet. This happens because.com & www. So. if you want to get good number of hits. But the pity is that.com Register with web directories Web directories are the yellow pages of Internet. Here are some methods using which you can promote your web site. only a few web sites are famous and others are simply in the dark even though they have good contents and utility. A poor ranking is as good as not existing in the web at all.stpt. Suppose you have got a web site on yoga.coollist.com If you want. there is no use of being in cyber space.com www. you can see millions of web sites in the Internet and this big network is growing at an amazing speed everyday. So. your site should come within the first ten or twenty. Some common mailing lists are www.liszt. Join a mailing list You can simply join a mailing list and announce your site.

Hire a submission service There are web sites.com Manual submission You can also manually submit your site to all the major search engines.com www. Some such sites are www. you can freely register your site to 100 search engines. In submitplus. Use proper Meta tags or key words These are key words using which any search engine will pick your site from the World Wide Web when any body gives a search on a specific topic. this will help you to get a better ranking in the search engines. you have to go to "add URL" or "suggest a site" section in the search engine and register your site.addme.webposition. where you can add your site on the spot.com. which will automatically submit your site to search engines. then the search engine will search the entire web to find out the pages containing that key word. You can buy this software at www. You can hire their services. Suppose you are having a site on yoga. Since your site is having that key word. which will submit your site to thousands of search engines by charging a small fee.simplesubmit. For this. meditation.submitplus. You can simply type the above key words in any search engines and instantly all the pages in that category will come up.addme. Etc> your sit is already listed in the search engine. Some such sites are "www. with Meta tags as follows <META NAME = "yoga.com www. Suppose I opened the search engine and type " shirshasan" and give a search. Also when you submit your site. In add me . your site will also come-up in the search result.com Use submission software There is particular software called submission software. you will have to paste the HTML code allotted by them in your site and you can submit your site to 36 search engines freely. which will allow your site to be submitted free to many search engines.com www.submitplus. kundalini. Note: 35 . shirshasan….Register free There are lots of sites.com & www.submit-it.com.com. try to submit all your pages individually.

Advertise in e-mail newsletters You can join e-mail news letter. your site will generate more traffic. To know the precise needs of the customers. There is lot of sites promoting link exchange and banner exchange programs. people will not visit your site again. To achieve this.myflower. For example. If such an arrangement is made.bcentral. news groups etc. try to give key words in the URL pages. your site will be listed in the search engines.com & www. But don't be complacent with that. flora etc. You can effectively insert the information about your site in such sites. So re-submit your site again and again after a period of time.html. Actually in that case.com. a virtual ring ring of web sites will be formed in the cyberspace where each site is hyper linked to another 36 . The web site. With the passage of time. don’t re-submit.com/flowers/delivery. attach a feedback form in your site. But remember that. After a few weeks.linkexchange. greenery. your ranking will come down. clean air.. your site should have good contents. www. Join web ring Web rings consist of a collection of sites on common topics. Also find about more about banner exchange programs at www.. the search engines will blacklist your site or remove your site from the listing. your site will be linked in theirs. If these things are not met. Improve the site re-visit value Any user coming to your site should feel that your site is a useful one and should be tempted to visit again and again. If done like that. Which will give details about various events in the web. So. easy navigability and less downloading time. always remember that. grass. strive to make your site attractive to the visitors. trees.com is the finest example in this category. So. geography. your rank with the search engine will also lower. Provide reciprocal link You can give other web site links in your site so that.beseen. the meta tags should be nature. So give synonyms of words. if your ranking is 6 and you want the first ranking. So. Name your pages with key words Some search engines like yahoo will search for the name of the URLs while indexing pages. you should not repeat a word again and again. one of the pages of your site can be http://www. Here each site is linked to one site before it and one site after it. if you have got a web site selling flowers. Here "flowers & delivery" will be considered as key words. For example your site is about nature. Re-submit You have submitted your site once to the search engines.While writing Meta tags.

if you want to know.com.org. If you want to know the web site traffic report of your site free. If you want to learn more.to form a cyber ring. Web rings can generate lot of hits. log on to www. log on to www. 37 .netscape. if you are planning to start a web site. whether all the pages of the site is working properly. Also if you pay the search engines. magazines etc. log on to www. you will be informed through mail. Remember: don't forget to implement all these ideas.webring. It will definitely help the promotion of your site. your site will get very high ranking on searching for specific key words. if your URL went erroneous.com and register. log on to http://hitometer.internetseer. Other techniques If you have got lot of money to spend for advertising your site.com and register.websitetrafficreport. simply give big advertisements in newspapers. it will generate huge traffic in your site instantly. To install a hit counter in your site. they will e-mail you the web site traffic report periodically. Print your site name in the stationery Don't forget to print the site's address in all the stationery you supply from your company. they will ensure that.

You can connect people. You can sell almost any goods and services through net. www. business and services (brokering) You can become an agent to connect people worldwide to meet their requirements for anything. www. it is called B2B business to business e-commerce.com is the classic example of selling books through Internet. You may earn thousands of dollars. you can find lot of people marketing their own music.amazon . The site www. The most famous e-mail service. Make a web site. with the help of Internet you can sell your goods online to any consumer anywhere in the world. If you take some pains. popularize it and sell it off or sell domain names high prices. you can easily make a web site. In India too. If you want you can also do that.com was sold to Microsoft by Mr. write it down put it in the net and allow people to download it for a flat fee. popularize it and sell it off at 38 .hotmail. many kids are virtually making thousands of dollars per month by simply selling games online.com is the finest example of an online auction site that connects buyers and sellers of any kind. Actually there are thousands of ways of making money through Internet. You can earn commissions for each transaction-taking place through your site from the customers. Sabeer Bhatia at a whopping sum of $ 400 million. Let me explain to you briefly some of them. business and services and earn handsome commissions.ebay. Selling goods and services through net: Suppose you are a merchant selling any sort of merchandise. Selling your talent: Suppose you have got a fairly good writing talent. paintings etc.How to make money from Internet? Internet has become a major source for pumping money from anywhere in the world provided you know the simple tactics of e-commerce. movies. recently “Satyam online” bought five web sites of “India world” at a huge amount of 499 crores. Suppose you are connecting buyers and sellers of any type of goods. The business done through Internet is called e-commerce. Suppose you are a doctor. books. In the net. Connecting people. you can give online prescriptions and consultations to your patients.

loan. Do you want to see the most successful porn site in the Internet. So keep this in mind. books. you will see the magic. If you want. e-book etc.com and www. computer games. music. you may have to spend lot of money for that.com were auctioned for millions of dollars. But the dark side is that.wetland. Note: There are actually thousands of methods of making money through Internet. then you may not be able to do anything. if some third person buy your book and start selling the same after putting it in his site with minor change. if you are selling a downloadable product like ebook or computer games. then log on to www.com. you can also book a domain name and put up for auction and see how will it work. there is no cost of shipping. you can also make it. the advantage is that. but it is not possible to explain all of these within the limited space. videos. Although you can put up a case in the international court. 39 . Some of the common merchandise sold through net is greeting cards. when you put downloadable product in the net for sale. then the worst. You might be in India and he might be in Pakistan.fruit.You can also sell domain names at high price provided you have got a catchy domain name. Start a porn site If you are really craze about making money through net. Recently domain names like www. If you can come up with some innovative idea. Although there are thousands of sites on pornography minting thousands of dollars daily. but the easiest way is to start a porn site.

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com www.www.com 41 .com www.com www.com www.bestindiansites.com INDIAN FOOD www.businesstourism.allindia.net/mti www.zeenext.com www.com -education www.indiatravelog.com-ISP If you want to know the best sites in India.oberoihotels.ypindia.allindia.com www.com www. visit www.com http://travel.com www.com www.com www.com www.com/tourism www.tourismindia.com www.com http://planetindia.com -Greetings www.com www.com www.org www.indiamart.clubgreetings.indianhotels.in BEST HOTELS IN INDIA www.com/cuisine INDIAN GOVERNMENT www.yatraindia.tourindia.indiatourism.com -Jobs www.theparkhotels.com www.indiagov.com Some other interesting sites in India are Best Tourism Sites www.welcomegroup.indiatours.indiatravelite.mantraonline.com www.theashokgroup.holidayinnbombay.com www.allindiaguide.tourismindiaonline.com www.nic.deliciousindia.theleela.centaurhotel.tajhotels.timesjobsandcareers.

herosofkargil.org Map of India www.indianspices.com www.com www.com www.com www.nirula.cindrellahotels.swissairindia.de/english/hotels.britishairways.com Stunning Truths about India www.com www.grandhotelbombay.com Indian Railway www.uky.swordoftruth.com/hotels.com www.airindia.www.deccan-air.seaprincess.com/india www.indianrailway.cslab.com www.com www.neemrana.com Airline Companies in India www.com www.presidenthotels.bharat-rakshak.saharaairline.jetairways.html www.imapindia.com www.in/indian-airlines/ www.edu/~prash1/html/bharat.indias.southernrailway.html www.lufthansa-india.com www.com Indian Spices www.htm www.fariyas.com 42 .com www.indiawomanpower.com www.com www.icleo.panchshil.com Indian Women www.com SALUTE OUR BRAVE SOLDIERS www.siddhartha.nic.com www.

heritageresort.com www.diwali.swagathresorts.india.com www.beaconholidays.resortsindia.com/sitaholiday/m-food.com www.Indian Books www.htm www.fabmart.khavel-resort.timesofindia.com Beaches of India www.com www.indiaabroad.indiatouristoffice.com www.ciol.firstandsecond.ourindia.com/realestate/asiatic/paraiso.com www.khajuraho.indiagov.html www.com www.indiaexpress.com GENERAL SITES www.india-today.clubmahindra.com Indian Festivals www.com www.harappa.com 43 .samachar.goacom.com www.indiafestivals.org/tourism/beaches/beaches.hinduonline.htm www.indiabookshop.com www.indianstates.com www.htm www.com www.com www.htm Indian Heritage www.com/Holiday.com www.com www.com www.vgpindia.com www.sitaresorts.org/Culture/Festivals.com Holiday Resorts www.com Newspapers of India www.com www.tajmahal.

com www.beaconholidays.amantravels.123india.allindia.com www.in www.htm Indian Music & Dance www.com INDIAN WILD LIFE http://wild.com www.carnaticmusic.com Directory www.goacom.goidirectory.com http://ancienthistory.com www.com 44 .com www.darshanam.com Indian Search Engines www.kutcheribuzz.com www.rajtours.com/arts/dance.bigwebindia.com Indian History www.goa-world.com www.com www.indiamusic.appuonline.allindia.com www.com/msub7.rediff.com www.itihaas.com www.GOA SPECIAL www.kesaritours.com www.uviholidays.himalayanholidays.com Tour Operators of India www.com www.com www.raga.khoj.com www.com www.tcindia.htm www.nic.net www.miningco.bharathanatyam.goa-interactive.goenkar.

delhitourism.rss.mantraonline.org STATE WISE TOURISM SITES www.hi.com www.up-tourism.aptourism.com www.com Indian Religions & Mysticism www.org www.indiatimes.www.indlaw.chinmaya.com Indian Law www.com http://in.com 45 .com/gita/ www.hinduismtoday.sikhnet.com www.siddhivinayak.html www.com www.ktdc.satyamonline.com www.secularindia.org www.us/ashram/ www.com/tourism/index.org www.com www.kauai.hindunet.osho.com www.com www.iconsoftec.karnataka.orientation.

com www.iuniverse.com www.com www.netcash.com www. TOP SEARCH ENGINES www.divorcecentral.cybercash.com ONLINE PUBLISHING www.com www.usa.com www.americanexpress.mailcity.publishingonline.yahoo.com www. which you can use in your day to day life.net www.INTERNATIONAL WEB DIRECTORY A web directory contains the list web sites on different topics.com www.com www.hotmail. Following are some of the top web sites on various subjects.com USE A CREDIT CARD www.northernlight.rocketmail.co.visa.com www.altavista.google.com FIND A JOB www.hotjobs. Now go for the gold.com www.jobsearch.flyingsolo.digicash.mastercard.com CREDIT CARD SERVICES www.com FREE E-MAIL SERVICES www.com www.com www.com GET DIVORCED www.com 46 .operamail.com www.authorizenet.infoseek.uk www.

com www.net www.artcars.toiletology.weddingworld.com www.com www.com www.bridalpartner.com HOME MAKER www.idrive.iaf.com E-MAIL SEARCH ENGINE www.collab.freedrive.com www.mayohealth.xe.com SELL YOURSELF www.drkoop.com MONEY CONVERTER www.bigfoot.com www.traderonline.net www.webmd.org www.GET MARRIED www.rdathome.guru.net/currency/ 47 .com BUY A CAR www.com www.com www.dhl.com www.com DOCTORS ONLINE www.findmatch.com SEND A PACKET www.com FREE DISC SPACE www.freediscspace.docspace.hellobrain.com www.fedex.autoweb.allhealth.com www.com www.com www.niku.

worldwidescholarships.msn.com PC-MAGAZINES www.SCHOLARSHIP www.homefair.cnet.radiofreecash.rocketryonline.com GO SHOPPING www.com MAKE A ROCKET www.homeadvisor.com www.homescout.com DATING www.com www.mixnmatch.com FIND A HOME www.com www.jobcash.mothermall.realtor.com MAKE SOME MONEY www.com GAYS AND LESBIANS www.com www.com www.com www.onsale.com www.ameritrade.com www.com 48 .com www.com www.com www.pridenet.activeselling.com www.dating.com http://affiliate.pcmag.com www.com www.com BROKERS ONLINE www.datalounge.match.pcworld.internetmall.etoys.com www.scholarship.backup.planetout.

www.schwab.com www.datek.com www.etrade.com www.waterhouse.com MOVIES www.imdb.com www.oscars.org www.bollywood.com www.script-o-rama.com www.hollywood.com AUCTIONS www.ebay.com www.christies.com www.sothebys.com www.auctionuniverse.com www.onsaleauctions.com GREETING CARDS www.bluemountain.com www.hallmark.com www.cards4you.com www.123greetings.com www.lovingyou.com COMPUTER GAMES www.allgame.com www.planet.com www.uproar.com www.rexgames.com www.challenge.net HEALTH www.healthychoice.com www.thriveonline.com www.shapeup.org www.bodytrends.com www.dietitian.com DON'T COMMIT SUICIDE www.rochford.org


NO DRUGS www.drugwatch.org AIRPORT DIRECTORY www.airportsintl.com STOCK X-CHANGE www.londonstockexchange.com www.nyse.com SPORTS www.espn.com www.cnnsi.com CHAT www.mirc.com http://chat.yahoo.com RELIGION www.jewishmag.co.il www.shambhalasun.com www.hindu.org www.islam.org www.christ.net NATURE www.panda.org www.tnc.org www.nature.org www.nature.net www.greenpeace.org FREE WEB HOSTING www.homestead.com www.freeservers.com www.xoom.com www.tripod.com www.bizservers.com MAILING LISTS www.tbtf.com www.lsoft.com


www.egroups.com www.listbot.com www.websitepostoffice.com www.websitejournal.com BUY A COMPUTER www.hp.com www.compaq.com www.toshiba.com www.mitac.com www.nec.com www.egghead.com SET UP A STORE www.vstore.com www.affinia.com www.esaler.com www.econgo.com www.freemerchant.com www.bigstep.com FREE FAX SERVICES www.efax.com www.callwave.com www.fax4free.com TELEVISIONS www.tvguide.com www.discovery.com www.mtv.com WORLD NEWS www.bbc.co.uk www.cnn.com www.expressindia.com YELLOW PAGES www.bigyellow.com www.yellowpages.com www.canadayellowpages.com www.bigbook.com


com www.daytracker.net www.saregama.com www.com www.playboy.boler.businessweek.tradecard.com www.wellsfargo.com INTERNET www.hrblock.com FREE COLLABORATION www.com www.internic.com www.wingspanbank.com www.com www.w3c.ONLINE BANKS www.mapquest.expedia.com www.com www.com www.scheduleonline.mp3.org BEST TRAVEL SITES www.com www.com www.com www.com www.hotoffice.triple1.travelocity.com BUY MUSIC www.com ENJOY SEX www.com www.previewtravel.allmusic.searchenginewatch.com www.moneycentral.com www.com www.sfnb.com MONEY MATTERS www.webex.internet.com www.edu www.firstib.com 52 .audiofind.learnthenet.musicmaker.

alumni.com www.com REAL ESTATE www.pisa.com www.torre.org DEATH CLOCK www.com CAR COMPANIES www.com www.deathclock.maruti.org www.britannica.com BLACKS ON LINE www.com FIND A COLLEGE www.hotsex.com www.com FREE PHONE SERVICE www.amfar.net www.propertyonline.it 53 .duomo.com www.findcollege.boobs.ford.dialpad.com AIDS www.com LEANING TOWER OF PISA www.com www.com ENCYCLOPAEDIA www.adoption.com www.desibaba.toyota.mercedez-benz.ired.honda.cab.www.cybersex.com ADOPT A CHILD www.com www.blackfamilies.

timages.celebrityweb.org DOWNLOAD SOFTWARE www.htm CELEBRITY www.com GAMBLING www.funny.babynamer.download.calculator.com COMEDY DIRECTORY www.uk YOGA www.com/yoga.com MOUNTAIN CLIMBING www.casino-network.co.embassy.NAME YOUR BABY www.com 54 .craglink.com EMBASSY DIRECTORY www.com CALCULATOR ON LINE www.

Following are some of the best online dating and online romance resources. Now start loving. when you establish an online romance.theromancereader.hungryminds. But. There are millions of young boys in America and Western Europe who are born out of wed lock. You can express your love with each other using e-mail.com www. two of the most industrialized nations in the world Japan & Taiwan have got the highest number of suicide rates in the world.romanceonline.Find a romance online It is a sad fact that as technology advance. But always remember that 40%of males online are females and many so called beautiful and young girls are either men or old women in their 40's or 50's. recently one such marriage took place in Kochi in Kerala. www. It is called "online romance".net www.com www. There is a dearth of love in this extremely cruel world. through which you can establish a love affair with any body in cyberspace. who don't know their fathers.online-romance.com 55 . the material needs of the people are satisfied to a grater extend. In Internet any body can project himself or herself as sweet 17 people and confuse you.singles. A male disguised as a female can easily love you and drive you mad later.webpersonals.rom101.com www.com www. chat or see each other using the video conferencing facility.paulnpaula.com www. don't take it for granted that all said by the lover is true.indiansingles. For example.com www. But with the advent of Internet another chapter in the history of romance has taken birth.kiss. So.com.com www.br www.singles-online.utahromance. but they become more lonely and miserable. But if you are interested you can give a try.americansingles.com www.com www.com www.romanceclub. there are some cases where cyber lovers got married.com www. In a nutshell you can say that the personal problem of people are increasing day by day.

jaldi. So unnecessary fear about credit card is baseless.gulfstream. Just try once.jaldi.fabmart. A reputed shopping site will never disclose the details about your credit card.com www. Remember that all the data you submit regarding your credit card goes to your shopping web site in "encrypted form".com etc. no customers will buy again from them and they will be ruined totally within no time.shopinbangalore.com.com www.com recently one man from Hong Kong ordered an aircraft for 40 million $. Some of the best shopping malls in India are "www. because they fear that somebody will use their credit card number and misuse it. www. In Western Europe and America. There is lots of shopping sites in the Internet. shopping through Internet is an excellent option. life has become very fast when compared to the past. the supermarket in the web is called "virtual mall". you will be confident in future too. The money transaction is usually done through credit card. All are racing ahead in the rat race of life.indiaartshopping. you can find that.com 56 .shopinbangalore.com www.com www. But actually that is not the case.firstandsecond.Go shopping online If you look around. millions of people are using Internet to shop online. You can purchase hairpin to aircraft through net (if you don't believe me log on to www. www.com. to drive them mad later.com www. For those who have less time for shopping.fabmart. And nobody can find out your details. When you enter a shopping site. You can shop with the help of Internet by simply clicking the mouse.fashionbistro. by simply clicking the mouse on a particular item.deal-se. The following are some of the best shopping sites to do shopping in India and abroad. Nobody has time for anything. A word about credit card transaction Now a days many people are afraid of purchasing goods through internet using credit card. After paying the money (mostly through credit card) the goods will arrive at your doorstep by courier. because if they do so. Major shopping sites in India www.com www.firstandsecond.com www. you can simply add that item to your shopping cart.

latimes.com www.com www.com www.com www.i-stores.looking4sales.com.com www.com www.com www.de www.nz/shopping/ 57 .com www.com www.com http://indiapoint.mandani.netshoppe2000.com www.com Major international shopping sites www.epicurious.pointshop.majon.com www.co.fr/shopping/ www.guitarnotes.com www.com www.cdnow.thepubliceye.com www.ecomz.beyond.shopping.onlineshoppingsites.com www.indiaplaza.sharelook.com www.cooking.com www.india-mail.emahatmagandhi.com www.reel.com www.etoys.bn.com www.excite.com www.com www.ivillage.com www.xtrasite.bazaarno1.com www.indiavirtualshop.jaipurmart.valueindia.buy.com www.com www.pk/india/ www.com www.com www.com www.com/shopping www.info1001.com www.com www.freeshoppingonline.totaram.com www.schoolcash.officebazar.india-mail.com www.www.shopping.giftshop.com www.indiashoppingmall.com www.shoppingideas.lucknowmall.amazon.

spree.epubliceye.jwolfeandco.shoppinglist.com 58 .com www.asia-shop.com www.www.com www.com www.dealtime.com www.

com www.career1000. How to find your dream job through Internet? There are thousands of job search engines. the pity is that many people don't know where to search for jobs in Internet.elance. The best part of the web is that. even though you had the talent.lajobs.com www. I am sure that you will get what you want. Before the advent of Internet news papers and TV were the only source of employment opportunities. you were not aware of the opportunities available to you and simply because of that. submit your resume online. You had to send the application manually and wait for long time to get the interview call. But. Earlier. You can break all the geographical barriers and expose your talent to the fullest extend using various sources available in the Internet.freelancwriting. search and find out your dream job.com www. But.com www. Here I have made an attempt to co-ordinate the best INDIAN & INTERNATIONAL JOB RESOURCES available in the Internet.a1jobindia.naukari.jobsahead.indianbiodata.com www. Sites like www.com 59 . Now log on to these sites. job hunting is not a very tough task when compared to the past.com www.com www. Internet has changed all that.com www.com www. you have missed lot of excellent opportunities available to you.employindia.jobcentreindia.com are the finest example in this category.indobase. You can simply search for the jobs of your criteria and if eligible. Now you can search for thousands of jobs all over the world with the help of Internet.com www.mykeystone. which display a variety of jobs all over the world.Find your dream job through Internet Now days.noukri.smartindia.com" where you can submit a project online and people will hire your services by paying you. Best job sites in India and abroad are TOP JOB SITES IN INDIA www. you can do freelance work like freelance writing and earn money by working from home. There are web sites like " www. Best of luck.com www.

htm www.html www.smartindia.humanwareindia.asp www.udyog.com www.recruitmentindia.com www.indianjobs.edgeindia.therightside.com http://indiaworld.com www.com http://altaindia.com/akthar_1999 www.ezeejobs.surf4jobs.humanware-india.jobhost-india.placementindia.com www.htm www.com/links/career/jobs.com www.smartindia.rediff.com www.com/career/career.com www.com www.timesjobsandcareers.employindia.webindia.alltimejobs.www.com www.com www.careerindia.careersandbusiness.career1000.com/recruitment www.com www.indiaecommerce.tarvindiajobs.com/india/jobs.bharatcareers.indianmanpower.com www.com/jobs.naukri2000.fastrakjobs.careeradvisor.headstartexpress.com www.techvilla.com 60 .com www.net www.youngindia.com www.com www.com/jobs/india.com www.htm www.india-gate.com www.com/jobfinder www.com www.vedika.com www.careersindia.htm www.geocities.hrdclub.com www.com http://in.jobstreet.com www.com www.com www.com www.com www.com www.indoaust.com www.jobstreet.sioindia.indianindex.com/careers/index.appointmentsindia.com www.

inputsindia.com www.cyber-jobs.alto-infotech.com www.mousetrapcareers.com 61 .cniit.com www.it-people.com www.e-careerprofiles.hypermart.htm www.it-appointments.cioljobs.nexusconsultants.htm www.prizedjobs.com www.com JOBS IN BIG COMPANIES www.itplacement.net www.com http://1webcareer.sheratonconsultancy.hindujagroup.clickitjobs.SOFTWARE JOBS www.com www.itspace.com www.chooseindia.netpilgrim.com www.bpljobs.sampoorna.com H-1B VISA RESOURCES www.fitjobs.com www.h1bresources.winjobs.com www.com www.com www.hssworld.net www.com/computer/jobs.com www.htm http://www.com www.com/careers.com www.com www.com www.com www.com www.com www.cyberjobsonline.com www.dice.mahindia.birlaglobal.globsyn.com/jobs.rediff.com www.com www.oxfordcpl.it-people.3pjobs.com www.com/softwarejobs/index.soft.com www.y-axis.com www.htm www.

padhayee.com/technocampus/crprg.com http://chronicle.net/nsit/recruitment.com www.careersindia.com www.becs.teacherjobs.com www.educationjobs.nriplacement.com http://business.com www.co.greatteacher.indianparttimejobs.com www.edurite.htm 62 .edu/jobs/ www.com www.resourceindia.com BEST CAREER WEB SITES www.uk www.higheredjobs.globsyn.vidyalay.exclusivesearch.com/hotjobs.aft.com www.careerlauncher.com/peoplenet/campus@net/peoplenet_campus.indiacore.staryakalakaar.htm www.trainingwhere.com www.html www.stshahco.infomasala.padayi.html www.com www.com SITE FOR TALENT SEEKERS IN FILMS www.com www.com ENGINEERING JOBS www.ac.knowledgecareer.com www.html PART TIME JOBS www.com www.htm www.com www.in/bec/manas/impact/campus-graph.com/jobs.hssworld.merit.net CAMPUS RECRUITMENTS www.k12jobs.india-web.html www.com www.corecompt.com/kbs/vacancies.academploy.com www.vsnl.com PLACEMENT CONSULTANCIES www.TEACHING JOBS ABROAD http://joyjobs.

haleema.cidronpeoplebank.net www.indobase.indiamanpower.com http://apexrecruitment-indiaa.pashaenterprises.com/kbsconsultants/ http://continentalcontractors.com www.com/placement/home.com www.wehelpindia.pl www.akp.com www.continentalmanpower.htm http://sconsultant.com www.com/amanplacement/ LIST OF PLACEMENT CONSULTANTS IN INDIA & ABROAD www.com/va/skf7/ www.pitampurainfo.com http://www8.maxpages.htm www.com/Consultant.html www.ajplacement.com www.sunitaglobal.tripod.com 63 .homepage.selectedjobs.com/~placements/index.com www.angelfire.com www.com www.com/jobs/ www.melcotech.com/plcmt/index.bcity.com/placements www.careerage.com/~recruitments/index2.com/web/dhruv.swiftindia.htm www.chimeratechnologies.hotresume.com www.htm www.com www.com/cgi-bin/pinnacle.shtml http://apply.tripod.com www.mlinkindia.htm www.jmmjobs.gulfjobs.htm www.selpages.com www.htm GULF JOBS www.net/ www.angelfire.com/hrdindex.com/hrdindex.com/careers/ www.continentalcontractors.petrome.com/newera/ne01.com http://cloudninenet.www.commercenetindia.com/ www.backerassociates.ihrcanada.careerage.assureconsulting.com/az/zams/ www.com www.com http://members.indiainfobase.com www.com/jobs/ http://members.return2india.hypermart.

com www.foreignmba.com www.com www.com www.com JOB LINKS www.jobhuntdubai.shtml MBA JOBS www.net www.ajb.homepage.middleeastnews.geocities.com www.com/getjob.au www.jobnetwork.net www.topjobs.com www.com www.com/jobs/kkngjobs.com www.com www.za www.dinesh.com/iitd/index2.nationjob.jobbankusa.hotjobs.indiaa2z.coolavenues.com/indiajobseekers.cityjobs.html www.tripod.usajobs.flipdog.coolworks.htm http://apply.org www.jobs.org www.careerconnector.careerbuilder.ihrcanada.dni.us www.com/ http://www.html www.gov www.com www.careersonline.com/business/companies/employment/index.opm.careermosaic.careerspan.htm www.www.com www.jobsearchengine.com www.khoj.jobland.com 64 .ksinternational.html TOP JOB SITES ABROAD TOP JOB SEARCH ENGINES www.com www.com www.com/htmlPages/Employment/Default.com.job-hunt.mbastyle.html www.com http://members.com/india/careers.jobweb.cmoverseas.shtml www.com/CollegePark/Quad/1109/jobs.co.

jobbankusa.com www.careers.com 65 .com www.www.careerbuilder.com www.com www.usajobs.com www.com/jobguide/ www.com www.com www.freeagent.pricejam.developers.alumni-network.com www.nationjob.networker.org www.cweb.com www.org www.espan.careerexchange.co.com www.joboptions.co.com www.com www.gov www.com www.com/jobs/ www.hoovers.org www.careerpath.com www.com www.careerspan.opm.jobweb.com www.monster.com www.uk www.headhunter.ajb.cityjobs.dni.futurescan.net www.exp.uk www.com www.com www.americanjobs.com www.bestjobsusa.us www.uk www.reed.net www.com www.com www.co.flipdog.net www.job-hunt.uk www.employer-employee.jobsite.com JOBS IN AMERICA www.jobs-careers.topjobs.com http://unpof.careercast.com www.careerbuilder.com www.dbm.wideyes.jobvertise.microsoft.co.jobsearch.

classifieds2000.www.jobbankusa.monster.org www.com www.com www.com www.jobsfed.jobweb.com www.com www.com www.careercity.fedworld.careermosaic.helpwanted.com www.org www.com www.com www.org www.jobtrack.nationjob.monsterboard.overseasjobs.com www.recruitex.softwaredeveloper.com www.4work.jobweb.brassring.jobweb.com www.jobsmart.com www.ajb.com www.com www.interbiznet.hire.com www.coolworks.dice.com www.AmericanJobs.com www.americanjobs.net-temps.com www.com www.techjobbank.thelinkzone.com www.com www.com www.com www.careermag.careershop.job-source.com www.gov www.1-jobs.jobs.uscareers.com www.jobbankusa.usahotjobs.net-temps.com www.jobfind.org www.com www.com www.com www.kforce.com www.com www.com www.com www.careercentral.lawjobs.com www.com/hunt/ www.com www.com www.resumeblaster.com 66 .

gov www.gov www.frb.gov www.com www.gov www.com www.org www.net www.ed.medsearch.occ.stat-usa.careeravenue.dallasfed.ed.www.com www.ttrc.census.org www.com www.headhunter.wa.frbatlanta.gov www.com www.mlinc.com www.com www.doleta.jobweb.com www.rileyguide.gov www.headhunter.org www.collegeview.employmed.org www.frb.com www.org www.careerbuilder.job-hunt.frbchi.com www.com www.staffhunter.ceweekly.dol.blackcollegian.net www.com www.jobtrak.collegegrad.gov MEDICAL JOBS IN AMERICA www.com BANK JOBS IN AMERICA www.org www.org www.com www.skillsnet.com www.petersons.frb.stls.com www.gov www.careerexperience.org www.com www.espan.org 67 .campuscareercenter.bea.bls.com www.com www.doleta.gov www.eriss.cweb.clev.doc.ny.

au/jobs/ www.com/job/ www.com www.careermosaic.au www.com.job-directory.au www.JOBS IN AUSTRALIA http://employment.jobstreet.jobasia.employment.com.jobok.htm www.com/jobs/ www.com www.com www.com.au/jobs/ www.com www.com/regions/zhongguo.au JOBS IN MALAYSIA www.dailyjob.jobpolitan.com.com.datum-asiapacific.jobnet.com.com JOBS IN SINGAPORE www.jobs-engineering.singseek.adsproject.com.au www.chinacareer.my JOBS IN CHINA & HONG KONG www.com www.com.com www.atlanticresearch.com.recruitonline.byron.recruitasia.jobnet.shanghaijob.com.net www.au www.cc-jobs.au/semployment/ www.com.zdnet.newmalaysia.au www.com.my www.myjob.au www.dragonsurf.china-plc.com.com www.com.com www.asiaco.com www.com.sg www.careermosaic.com/malaysia/ www.zdnet.sg www.com http://jobs.com www.malaysiadirectory.net 68 .hk www.bitme.com/job/ http://jobs.hkjobs.com www.monsterboard.recruit.jobsmalaysia.seek.hk www.com.jobchina.com/careerwise/ www.

com www.uk www.com www.jobsunlimited.net www.com.canadajobs.com.jobbus.jobserve.com www.sg www.com www.retailsale.jobbus.singaporejobsite.sg www.com www.kenevacorp.com www.jobsweb.expertise.www.co.com www.reed.canadajobs.com/main/jobs.microsoft.com http://jobsearchcanada.co.sg www.netjobs.jobpilot.sg www.pceservices.com www.topjobs.about.jobfind2000.uk www.visioncr.sg www.canadajobs.com.e-job.com www.canada-wide.co.co.com/singapore/jobs/ www.org/english/employ.catcha.com www.co.jobs.uk www.9to5.canadiancareers.net www.com www.com.com www.ca www.careerzone.uk www.co.canada-jobs.ca www.com www.mb.livein-jobs.uk 69 .uk www.mediacorp2.jobs.com JOBS IN CANADA www.jobfind2000.com www.co.asia-jobs.canada-ny.uk www.htm www.careerplace.com.canadiancareers.com www.com.singapore-careers.htm www.sg www.e-job.shtml www.com.careerplace.sg/jobs/jobs.com JOBS IN UK www.com www.

london-jobs.co.uk www.co.uk www.uk www.uk www.uk www.uk www.monster.co.com/uk/jobs/ www.ends.cvserve.uk ENVIRONMENTAL JOBS IN UK www.uk www.employmentservice.co.com www.uk www.com/liveportal/mediauk/ www.co.gov.dotjobs.gamejobs.search-beat.co.ifi.tes.nz www.jobserve.co.co.recruitlink.jobsunlimited.co.uk www.tsr.uk www.uk www.jobworlduk.uk www.uk www.uk www.uk www.asiaco.uk www.co.com/uk/ www.co.co.com www.gradunet.com www.uk www.uk www.shorterm.co.htm www.jobsdomain.net www.retailcareers.jobsite.jobs-at.co.co.www.jobs.co.uk www.co.recruitlink.uk http://jobs.highstreetcentral.co.uk www.ac.uk www.ukjobs-backpackers.anancyweb.aboutjobs.datumeurope.jobsin.uk www.co.co.coolwebjobs.thejob.cityjobs.gti.co.co.co.jobs-by-email.com/emp-uk.uk/UKJobs/ www.1stjob.jobs.microsoft.uk www.co.uk www.com www.com/ukjobs.com www.stirlingjobs.uk 70 .planetrecruit.co.hts.purcon.com/jobs.htm www.co.co.html www.

continentalmanpower.org/hrjobs.com www.cmoverseas.com www.hotel-jobs.net www.ac.hrjobs.com/se/hr_job.html www.com/jobs/kkngjobs.co.mlinkindia.jp/vicky/jobs.sap-hr-jobs.com/links.petrome.edu/jobs/ www.com/jobs.pro-alt.htm www.com www.freelancewriting.com FREELANCE JOBS http://localweb.maricopa.com www.com www.com www.backerassociates.indiamanpower.com www.uk CHEMICAL JOBS IN UK www.com/indiajobseekers.ihrcanada.gulfjobs.jmmjobs.melcotech.com www.jobhuntdubai.dist.clevshrm.hr-jobs.com EDUCATIONAL & TEACHING JOBS http://faculty.waseda.jobs4hr.com http://apexrecruitment-indiaa.ihrcanada.com www.com/proaccess/FreeLancer/ www.freelancers.ework.worldcalendar.net JOBS IN GULF www.HOTEL JOBS IN UK www.com www.com www.com HR JOBS www.com www.com/company_history.ksinternational.return2india.htm www.com www.html 71 .htm www.chemjobs.htm www.middleeastnews.edjob.html www.com www.com www.hrmjobs.html www.web.com www.

http://scout18.cs.wisc.edu/NH/96-10/96-10-23/0033.html http://home.istar.ca/~cye/jobs.html www.metnet.state.mt.us/TeacherPlace.html www.aft.co.uk www.njschooljobs.com/index.html http://commlink.atlantic.county.lib.nj.us/educjob1.htm http://services.dese.state.mo.us/humanres/jobvacdir.html www.ejsinc.com/highfram.htm http://pe.central.vt.edu/jobcenter/edjobsites.html www.tealit.com www.privateschooljobs.com www.teachers-teachers.com www.dphelps.pe.kr www.academploy.com www.works.state.mo.us www.mav.net/phil/tchrjobs.shtml www.ncbe.gwu.edu/links/jobs.htm www.shu.ac.uk/schools/ed/tesol/tejob.html MANAGEMENT JOBS www.materialsmanagementjob.com/ www.practicemanagementjobs.com/ www.pmi.org/jobs/postings.htm www.dwtechnologies.com/jobs/JL-mgt.htm MEDICAL JOBS www.medicaleducationjobs.com www.medicaldevicejobs.com www.medicalsecretaryjobs.com www.medicaldirectorjobs.com www.medicalbillerjobs.com www.medicalassistantjobs.com www.medical-job.net www.medicalrecordsjobs.com www.nuclearmedicinejobs.com www.oncologistjobs.com www.healthmanagementjobs.com http://nurseoptions.com/top/nl003.html www.bchealthjobs.com www.job-source.com COMPUTER JOB SITES www.computerjobs.com


www.cweb.com www.apple.com/jobs/ www.webadvertisingjobs.com www.webdesignerjobs.com www.graphicdesignerjobs.com www.internetsalesjobs.com www.mediaplannerjobs.com www.multimediaemployment.com www.webmarketingjobs.com www.webmasteremployment.com www.webproducerjobs.com www.ecommerceemployment.com www.databaseprogrammerjobs.com www.internetdeveloperjobs.com www.softwaredeveloperjobs.com www.programmeranalystjobs.com www.technicalwriterjobs.com www.webdeveloperemployment.com www.webprogrammerjobs.com www.it123.com www.webjobsusa.com www.colorado-computerjobs.com www.jobauthority.com www.computerwork.com www.corporateskills.com/Jobs.htm www.jobs4it.com www.programmer-jobs.com www.software-jobs.net www.computerjobspage.com www.computerjobsportal.com www.computer-jobs-online.com www.computerjobfair.com www.staffsolutions.com www.dalmanjobs.com http://computerjob.scan-careerpath.com/search/ http://miami.computerwork.com/ www.lazytrader.com/feb14alf.htm www.n-s-i.com/computerjobs.html www.careermagazine.net/computer_jobs.html www.etcrecruiting.com/computer_jobs.htm www.computer-jobs-online.com/ www.occ-computing.co.uk/vpspace.htm www.sandiego-hightech.com www.contract-jobs.com


www.isjobbank.com www.prgjobs.com www.careerindex.com www.softwarejobs.com www.careermarthi-tech.com www.developers1.net www.sandiego-online.com/forums/careers/ www.computerwork.com www.surfn.com/bayjobs.html www.softmoonlighter.com www.cweb.com www.apple.com/jobs/ www.webadvertisingjobs.com www.webdesignerjobs.com www.graphicdesignerjobs.com www.internetsalesjobs.com www.mediaplannerjobs.com www.multimediaemployment.com www.webmarketingjobs.com www.webmasteremployment.com www.webproducerjobs.com www.ecommerceemployment.com www.databaseprogrammerjobs.com www.internetdeveloperjobs.com www.softwaredeveloperjobs.com www.programmeranalystjobs.com www.technicalwriterjobs.com www.webdeveloperemployment.com www.webprogrammerjobs.com www.it123.com www.webjobsusa.com www.colorado-computerjobs.com www.jobauthority.com www.computerwork.com www.corporateskills.com/Jobs.htm www.jobs4it.com www.programmer-jobs.com www.software-jobs.net www.computerjobspage.com www.computerjobsportal.com www.computer-jobs-online.com www.computerjobfair.com www.staffsolutions.com www.dalmanjobs.com


nerinc.slicknet.nationjob.html www.net www.com/engineerjobs.com/turbo/entry.com www.co.htm www.ENGINEERING JOBS www.htm http://web.com/jobs.com http://valleyjobs.com/aviation 75 .com CAREER MAGAZINE www.nationjob.edu/~career/hotlinks/htlinks.oingo.com www.edu/Counseling/joblinks.htm JOBS IN OTHER CATEGORIES JOBS FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS www.pnet.engcen.engcen.html www.com AVIATION JOBS www.htm MAJOR JOB LINKS www.engineering-jobs-here.webster.ajob4engineers.za/engineering/ www.org/eng/ www.com/jobsearch.com www.com www.engineeringjobs.html www.engineering-jobs.engineerjobs.careermag.csustan.utk.com/education www.phds.html#TEACHING JOBS www.com/engineering www.jobdirect.com/topic/8/8506.com JOBS FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS www.nau.nationjob.com www.com www.org www.craigslist.com/eng.htm www.edu/homecampus/homes/inter.1engineeringjobs.edu/~career/jobs.com www.aviationjobsonline.htm www.carnegieresources.jobdirect.larrysworld.

nursesjobdirectory.com www.highview.com SALES JOBS www.niku.aapex1.com 76 .com www.com www.ie JOBS FOR SOCIOLOGISTS www.com www.collab.hellobrain.elance.com HIRE A RECRUITING FIRM www.lisjobs.htm JOBS FOR GAYS www.com www.com COMPUTER JOBS IN ISRAEL http://www.asanet.il/cji/ JOBS IN JAPAN www.uk JOBS IN IRELAND www.exp.ServiceByNet.NURSING JOBS www.net www.ohayosensei.jr.isearch.executive-recruiters.co.topechelon.co.org/employlk.gaywork.com SELL YOURSELF www.com JOBS IN SPACE www.guru.com www.com LIBRARY JOBS www.

The Internet can help you in a great way.com www.net www. else you may face problems in your career. There are lots of web sites dedicated to career counseling and online entrance preparation. millions of talented people land-up in professions. Browse through them.com http://coaching. composing music.hypermart. I am sure that you will be more confident to face the challenges of tomorrow. engineer or IAS officer. if you can get into some profession. which really interests you.egurucool.scholarsacademy.com www.jeewithiitians.careerpointgroup.bansaliitjee.entrancemaster. This is totally wrong.cjb.compassbox.com www. If the youth don't get proper career guidance at crucial stages of their life.com www.com www.com www.com www. dance etc. The decision you take after completing your twelfth standard and college is very critical.iosisguidance.com www. You may be very good in singing.com www.brilliant-tutorials. which will come to their mind at that time. But your misguided parents want you to become a doctor.srisankara. the basic problem that any youth faces after school or graduation is the dilemma about the career.com www.ourtvm. If you land in the correct path.careerlauncher.com http://symbiosisguidance. their talent will simply go down to the drains. Now what? That is the question. you will be successful in life.Resources for career development and online entrance preparation Now days. Because of this reason only.tandem-group.com www.com http://deepam. which they don't like. Following is the list of such web sites through which you may get some advice for your career. then it will be the best.net www.com www. But always remember. WEB SITES ON CAREER DEVELOPMENT & ENTRANCE PREPARATION www. my personal suggestion is that all youth should undergo thorough career counseling before taking-up any profession.toprankers.vignan. So.com 77 .

com www.com www.tabla.com www.com www.iitsonline.com www.zephyreducation.iitjee.com www.org www.ignou.eamcet.com www.com 78 .edurite.lotusarts.com/engineering DISTANCE EDUCATION www.entranceguru.com http://educationcare.com www.mumbaiclasses.brainvisa.vidyainfo.primetutor.sachdevacollege.freeservers.iitjeeguide.com www.com www.com www.indiaedu.com/medical DIRECTORY OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES www.anugraham.www.hotexams.com www.com DIRECTORY OF MEDICAL COLLEGES www.indiaedu.com www.com www.entranceonline.com www.mocktest.com www.delhiclasses.indiacoach.com www.com www.

there are lots of resources for GRE. TOEFL & overseas preparation.gmat.net/toefl WEBSITES ON GMAT www.org www. The following are resources also give details about the resources for overseas education too.top-score. Just browse through these sites. TOEFL & OVERSEAS EDUCATION IN THE INTERNET In the Internet.scholarstuff. definitely your purpose will be served.org/gmat_learn.collegeview. You can also give online sample tests too.petersons.studint.alumni.htm www.testtutor.com/gmat/software.test-preps.editenglish.west.gre. but many people don’t know where they are located.org www.html www. you download free materials for GRE & TOEFL preparation and study them.cuttsreviews.west. Just visit some of these site.testtutor.net INFORMATION ON GRE www.com www.com/netguide/test/gmat.com www.com WEB SITES ON TOEFL PREPARATION www.net/~stewart/logic. FIND A COLLEGE www. From some of these sites.com www.RESOURCES FOR GRE. BEST OF LUCK.com/jcutt www.htm www.gmattutor.testwise.com www.com www.testtutor. Here I have made an attempt to co-ordinate the best resources available on net.com 79 .com/gmat www.html www.com/toefl www.net/~stewart/rc.com/testprep/gmat.testden. I am sure that you will make it.findcollege.html www.toefl.com/gre www.htm www.

com/expatriate/education.edu/edst/edfa/edfamain.uc.com.htm www.edu/evo/distglan.edu/CoE/EFSS/Handbook/EFSSBOOK.aef.usask.edu/tech/intro.edu/disted/home.org/aaeri.cisnet.com/alumni/99scholar.html DISTANCE EDUCATION www.terry.fsu.com www.escapeartist.HTM www.html www.adec.soe.salemohio.studentpilot.com/english.educ.sg/education/ovrseaedu.org www.worldwidescholarships.org www.com SCHOLARSHIPS www.edu/~acse/catalog/courses/edfr.webpage.html www.html www.com/~cattales/Deducation.distance-educator.education.edu/programs/ed-found/ www.unimelb.iecnet.com/employment/ www.htm www.html www.html EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS www.htm www.com www.cam.ac.uno.html 80 .com GENERAL SITES ON INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION www.onassis.uk/CambUniv/Overseas/ www.edu/insurance/insschol.asp www.edu www.ca/education/edfdt/ www.smartplanet.html www.com/hindu/adverts/campus.www.millersv.edu/~edfound/ www.uidaho.com/gmat-home.iteachnet.oecth.aei-india.edu/catalogue/grad/EDF.800score.com www.htm www.uga.htm www.edu/~efpsweb/ www.au/international/OverseasReps.detc.9to5.utahsbr.gr/amer/scholar.uwex.net/articles/financial_aid.edu.html www.kent.purdue.html www.southernct.html www.html www.scholarship.

se/~cis/usa.com/study-canada/ www.ciee.html www.gsm.html http://usinfo.studyin-canada.or.ab.edu.umn.html STUDY IN EUROPE www.international.html STUDY IN UK www.com www.org/study_e.org/studyincanada/index.vancouver-english-club.uk/International/europe www.latrobe.tw/study.org/study.htm 81 .htm www.html www.www.fi/education/undergra.HTM www.html www.edu STUDY IN USA www.canadianembassy.au/www/artmedia/media/sis.htm http://gateway1.org.htm http://ait.study-in-usa-universities.fenghua.studyincanada.woonkyung.ben2.com www.com.ca/users/urdc/study.rmit.com/english/index.au STUDY IN CANADA www.ac.studyincanada.sussex.educationuk.baldwinw.usa.kr/infomd/study_in_usa.net www.ucla.britishcouncil.study-australia.org/study/europe www.au/is/become.html www.rochester.html STUDY IN AUSTRALIA www.com.or.algonet.istc.com/study_in_USA.com http://chiron.edu/~shenyang/Contents.th/services/study.gmcc.edu.htm www.edu/admission/scholarships.au/study/ www.studyinuk.foreignerinamerica.edu/College/study-abroad/europe.studylink.com/study_in_usa.html www.htm www.htm www.com www.

govt.nz/ed/study.nzeducation.html www.ed.nzeil.html EDUCATION NEWS www.nz/index.co.STUDY IN NEW ZEALAND www.nz/study/home.com 82 .html www.co.ljudmila.gov www.net/dlyon/advantage.immigration.htm www.education-channels.html http://pl.org/srce/is/is_nz.

mightywords.How to publish your work through Internet? Internet is a medium through which anybody who has got writing talent can publish his or her work. The electronic version of the book is distributed through E-books and CD-ROMs. Usually the author receives 20% to 30% royalties on all the hard copy sales and 50% royalty on all the sales generated through soft copies. Stephen King. You can also download e-books from many web sites. The advantage of e-books is that.fatbrain. that means you can even see movie clippings. according to the demand from the distributors. Here the contents of the book are stored in device in the electronic form or "soft form". Here the advantage is that. self publishing & on demand publishing On demand publishing Here the publisher will keep a soft copy or electronic version of the manuscript submitted by the author in a particular template. Then a few copies of the book will be printed and distributed to the book distributors in the market. the famous author who write thrillers put his work on Internet and earned 83 .com www.com www.xlibris. If he feels that there is not much demand for the book in the market. let me tell you few words on ebooks.com E-Books It is the short form of electronic books.buybooksontheweb. thus avoid the cutting of trees. The device is compact and the contents are interactive. its printing and distribution will be simply discontinued.com www. more and more books will be printed. after paying through credit cards. the publisher will not incur losses. The storage device has a LCD (Liquid crystal display) screen from which the reader can read the contents of the book.com www. Afterwards. Before that. The majors on demand publishing companies in the Internet are www. E books have brought a revolution in the publishing industry and it is very predominant in USA & Western Europe. hear music. But the pity is that many people don't know where to publish and how? Here I am going to give you the addresses and names of the precise web sites through which you can publish your work and earn lot of money and satisfaction. one can store many books at a time in the device and read them whenever needed. e-zines.iuniverse. which are the contents of the book. Recently. Moreover it is cheap when compared to the hard copy of the book and saves the use of precious paper.

com” at first and see the full details.ebooks.millions of dollars by selling it on the net.co. “ Minerva press (www. put it on net and allow people to download it for a flat fee. Now a stage has been reached. If you want to know more about e books. Just see some of them at www. print. Just open your computer or go to the nearby cyber cafe and open the following web sites. TOP WEB SITES TO PUBLISH YOUR WORK www. where anybody can publish a book at cheap rates through Internet. I suggest you to open “www. But. Almost all the new authors will get lot of rejection letters from major publishes initially.glassbook. Normally many big publishers never accept manuscripts from new authors even though they are worth publishing.com Major publishing resources in Internet The following are the precise web sites through which you can become a published author.ezines.minervapress. Either you should have a reputed literary agent to help you or lot of money with you for publishing your book.iuniverse.com" Self publishing Earlier it was very difficult for a new author to publish his or her work. the author has to spend some money to publish and market his book through Internet. In self-publishing. you can simply write your book. before that. There are lots of reputed agencies that will assist you to edit. You will immediately get more details on the spot.mightywords. There are thousands of e-zines on various topics all over the world.com 84 . E-zine is the short form of electronic magazines. In self-publishing.iuniverse. The money is usually accepted through credit card and you can earn even while you are sleeping.uk) is the finest example of this sort.com www. publish and market your work at nominal fees. just visit some of the companies like " www. E-zines The Internet has suddenly opened millions of writing opportunities to talented writers all over the world and e-zines comprises the largest market for the freelance writes. But times have changed with the advent of Internet.com" or " www.

htm http://boston.com/html/submit.jmcforum.co.getpub.write4kids.surfnetkids.com PUBLISH POEMS www.htm www.www.net/Schools/Webzine/Sep99/Elementary/ www.com www.uk www.html www.com/pubpoem.com PUBLISH A MEDICAL WORK www.htm www.sweet-petudie.com www.32.html www.justwrite.htm www.pw.com www.darkroom-on-line.com www.adventurezine.buybooksontheweb.lighingsource.kidnews.com/Editorials/PublishYourWork.com WRITE FOR CHILDREN www.com www.sitesell.com www.celebratelove.edu.82/coolpub/publish.com www.trafford.childrensmagazine.php3 www.com 85 .com http://mgfx.53.78/ent/publish.htm http://208.happilypublished.bilkent.133.poets.stonesoup.htm www.com/publish.htm www.bhrpress.htm http://24.tr/~david/derya/ywc.com/kidlit/ www.com www.reports-unlimited.com/traterffordpub.com/placesto.htm www.cs.aalbc.upublish.org ARTICLES ON HOW TO PUBLISH YOUR BOOK http://myks.org www.com/epublish.1stbooks.write101.medicalmantra.com www.com/probooks.htm www.co-nect.com/publish.xlibris.athomepublishing.htm www.128.com/publish.indymedia.org/publish.org www.com www.minerva-press.

com www.com/self-publishing/index.htm http://publishing.uk/self_publishing.com/realitypress/publish.com www.uk/www/owncopy.writers-exchange.writers.wga.e-zinez.htm http://independentbookarts.htm www.com www.com www.rosedog.writerswrite.htm WEB SITES ON SELF PUBLISHING www.wordassociation.freelancewriting.com 86 .cla.ebookconnections.masterfreelancer.html www.com www.self-publishing.com www.quintcareers.miningco.html ARTICLE ABOUT COPYRIGHT www.com/sys-tmpl/faqaboutus/ www.htm WEB SITES ON E-BOOKS www.html www.com/mediadive/pubyourwor.rradream.net www.ability.amazon.freelanceworkexchange.WRITER'S RESOURCES www.ants.com/publishers.com/ebooks.com E-ZINE PUBLISHING www.com www.hotyellow98.inkspot.htm FREELANCE WRITING www.com www.com/writing www.co.writers.com www.org www.com www.ozemedia.com www.com/arts/publishing/msubselfpub.org.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1568600593/chance22online http://aalbc.com/Authors.writersdigest.garbl.phoenixpublishinggroup.com www.com PUBLISH PHOTOGRAPHS http://mediadive.

The Internet is quickly becoming the 8th wonder of the world and a mega commerce platform. if you are a writer. As a first time author. GETTING PUBLISHED-FEW HARD FACTS Many first time authors attempt to get published by sending off their manuscripts to big publishing houses for review and hopefully a contract to publish their book.000 new users come online every day. Another problem with traditional publishing is the time factor. you'll have to be ready with the money for this yourself and your publisher may want to know how much you have budgeted and a copy of your marketing plan. Traditional publishers have 3 selling seasons. Most publishing contracts. The truth is. they sit around waiting months for the dreaded rejection notice. Most publishers operate within an 18month production cycle. and approx. nobody cares who publishes your book. Most first timers believe that the publisher will promote their book. but that's it. they pull it off the shelves to be replaced by other books for that season. You'll be responsible for promoting your book at your own expense if you can't negotiate a favorable promotion budget in the contract. Meanwhile. 87 . This means your publish date won't even begin until after a publisher accepts it. They are under the impression that getting published by a big gun publisher carries with it a certain amount of prestige.WHY PUBLISH E-BOOKS? The real question should be. So. you will lose most or even all control of your book. This means your book will be on the shelves for 4 months. give the publisher a free hand in any changes to your book they see fit. after that. especially with new authors. and sometimes no notice shows up at all. you may not be able to negotiate much of a promotion budget into your first contract. the publisher puts up the money to manufacture the book and has rep's get the book into the stores. why aren't you? There are over 130 million Internet users in North America alone. It can take as long as 3 years to get your book published. Whatever time you have invested shipping your manuscript around will be that much longer before your book gets to press. This is the easiest method to earn money and bring satisfaction to your soul. 70. The truth is. Once you agree to turn your book over to a publisher.

000 to $15.000 to get started. plus if they do accept it they take a healthy percentage of sales for their efforts. Review columnists are well aware of the problems associated with vanity presses. The vanity publisher will be more than happy to look at your manuscript and even give you glowing reviews. agents will reject well over 90% of submitted book manuscripts. "Nonsense!".000 to $30. you'll still need to gather the information needed to do it yourself. You really have to shop around for a good one and even then. "It will never fly!".000 and not readily available to most struggling authors. They scoffed 88 . Some first time authors will opt for the vanity publisher. depending on the material. or distribution. even with the ferocious tenacity of a wolverine it won't happen overnight. as a first time author you really have no bargaining muscle. This doesn't include things like editing. An author using a vanity press will pay a lot more than printing costs and will only receive around 40 percent of the retail price of the book. This has some truth to it but here to there are problems. promotion.000 will probably cover printing. Some new authors opt to hire literary agents to go to bat for them thinking that with an agent their bound to get published. they bellowed.000 minimum needed to get started? $13.Your left over books will have to be "remaindered" meaning they will be sent to warehouse and generally sold in bulk at a fraction of the original manufactured price. The only problem would be gathering the know how and of course the $15. the best so far would be to self publish your book. $13. So what if you don't have $15. The only thing the vanity publisher wants to do for you is manufacture your book. depending on the book. but this I'm afraid is false praise. This is generally a 15% commission. On top of all this.000? What's next? How in the world are you going to get published? Just a few short years ago the idea of distributing books in a digital format seemed a ridiculous notion to many. Copies sent to columnists for book reviews are generally trashed as soon as they see a subsidy publisher’s name on your book.000 or more. Getting published can really become a daunting task to first time authors. it's still $13. Even though self-publishing is a good choice. But. promotion.000 to $15. and some other expenses for about 4000 copies of a 100 to 250 page book. and here's why. So the book will probably not be available in bookstores. and approx. Of all the choices before you. This service will cost you around $12. They know there was little attention paid to editing and that little if any promotional effort will take place. The large publishers in their shining glass towers ruled.

LOWER COSTS With no printing. But. Deciding which one you are is very important because it may determine what kinds of books you begin to write. people will always have wants and needs. Enter E-Book Publishing The world is changing at a very rapid clip. a lot less will be from now on. at this point. At no time in our recent history have book authors been in a better position to compete heads up with the Big Boys. storing. publishers can sell the same quality at reduced prices to consumers. What are the advantages of publishing e books? SAVES RESOURCES With e Book publishing. It's a classic win-win situation. They would hurl the hard work of many would be authors to the circular file like flicking a piece of lint from a $900 dollar suit. OK. However. is greatly diminished. ever since the Internet explosion a few years ago the pace has been just a blur. They sat upon their thrones like they always have. As the population continues to warm up to the Internet. decade after decade deciding on what you and I will read next. would be a wild guess at best. We will never know how many great books have been dispatched to the dumpster. it will become second nature for them to actively seek out the things they want and purchase them over the Internet. The only difference will be that your books will be in a digital format. but one thing is for sure. electricity. I got a little carried away. So rapid in fact.at the very idea of such a scenario. but the bottom line is. This is extremely important for a couple of reasons. before you do anything else you should determine whether or not you want to make a living as a book author. etc. while at the same time earning more profits. you'll have a very large and responsive market. diesel fuel. while others want to write books for a living. The dream of being published once again dashed upon the jagged rocks of this "Impenetrable Conglomerated Fortress". Some authors just like to write. So if you are going to write books and sell them on the Internet. To suggest any kind of logical destination for the Net. The number 1 & 2 selling items on the Net in the United States are "Software and Books". or shipping costs. We can speculate all we want. 89 . in that order. the use of our resources such as Tree's. that it's really not possible to predict anything at this point.

SPEEDY DELIVERY Just download your book, and start reading. FedEx is a giant snail compared to this. In the time it takes you to start your car to go get a book, you could be reading it with no "Shipping and Handling" charges. PORTABILITY With the new electronic reading devices hitting the market, you can carry 20 or 30 maybe more, large books in a single device. A great way to travel. Manufacturers of reading devices are making them waterproof so you can read your books in the tub, no more wet pages.


A brief introduction to cyber laws, cyber crimes & hacking
The biggest problem with the Internet is that, nobody is in charge of it and so, nobody can control it. Now days, using computer people create hell of a trouble all over the world. How they do it? Read on…… A word about cyber laws Although no government, individual or organization can control Internet, the governments of different countries have formulated "cyber laws" which are the laws, rules and etiquette to be followed, while using internet in that particular country. All the citizens of that country are bound to obey these laws, else they will be penalized under law. Recently, some "hackers" spent months in jail for breaking into some network and manipulating the data. If anybody misuses Internet or hurt another person directly or indirectly, then that person is tried in court in accordance with the cyber laws in that country. If you want to know more about cyber laws and cyber crimes, visit the following American government's web site. www.cybercrime.gov The major cyber crimes are as follows Hacking Cyber squatting Sending junk mails (spamming) Spreading unlawful, harmful and misleading information Intrusion onto privacy Hacking: It is an act by which, an unauthorized person accesses your network system by breaking your password, using various software tools. Recently, a boy from Sweden devised a method by which anybody can access any e-mail address in the web site www.hotmail.com without entering the password. Soon the web site was shut down and the company lost millions of dollars within few hours. A person who commits the act of hacking is called " hacker". Once the hacker enters into your network, he can do anything ranging from manipulation to deletion of the data. Banks and stores doing online stores are most vulnerable to hacking. If such establishments are hacked, they not only loose revenue, but also the customers.


If you want to know more about hackers and hacking resources, read through the resources given below. Hackers are also called cyber terrorists and the rendezvous conducted by them are called underground conventions. Cyber squatting: It is an act by which a third person registers the domain name of a famous person or reputed company (registered company) before being registered by the owners them selves. It is against the rules. Nobody can register the domain names like that. Whoever does it can be penalized under law. Recently somebody registered the domain name www.juliaroberts.com and the Hollywood actress "Julia Roberts counted stars. A few days before somebody from Mumbai registered the domain name " www.pramodmahajan.com" and the real Pramod Mahajan, the IT minister of India counted stars. But mind it, if you do it, you become a cyber criminal on the spot. Sending junk mails (spamming): Junk mails are unsolicited mails, which come to your e-mail account. If they come in large numbers, they will choke your e-mail account. Recently I had to leave an e-mail account registered with "yahoo" because it got filled with junk mails from all over the world. You can install junk mail filter software to filter all the unsolicited e-mails entering your e-mail account. Suppose anybody is caught for deliberately sending junk mails, he can be prosecuted under law. Spreading anti-national & harmful information through net This is also banned by law. Now days, you can see almost all the terrorist organizations all over the world have got their own web sites through which they spread the message of devil in this peaceful world. You can also see thousands of hate clubs, insane and sex clubs, which spoils the upcoming youth. The hate clubs on racism are the most prevalent in the net. Those who promote such activities can be penalized under "cyber laws". Intrusion into privacy Using Internet, a third person can easily harass you, if your details are available online. The finest example to this is the cheating through credit card or credit card fraud. Suppose anybody knows your credit card number and the PIN number, the result is that, somebody will buy goods and the bill will come to you to make you count stars. So be very careful while you disclose your details online. Just remember that many people are watching you without your knowledge. Recently in America a man murdered a girl, after collecting her details from the Internet.


br www.cgocable.html THE HACKER FAQ www.hackers.The following are some of the best hacking resources in the Internet.antionline.proac.com HACK WITHOUT BREAKING LAW www.net/~jachim/hacking.org http://hscool.netclub.tuxedo.kevinmitnick.hackerz.cpsr.com HACKERS NEWS GROUPS www.inetsonic.com/crack/hack/hack.THE KING OF HACKERS www.co.plethora.com/lozzab/stuff.html HACKING QUARTERLY www.htm www.html www.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.discovery.org HACKERS DEFENSE FOUNDATION www.hackers.happyhacker.html HACKERS HALL OF FAME www.com.com/links/Hacking_Resources www.i82hq.net/~seebs/faqs/hacker.org UNDERGROUND CONVENTION www.com HOW TO BECOME A HACKER? www.hack.2600.html www.org HACKING RESOURCES www.net/~moores/hackz.defcon.html ANTI HACKERS (THE ENEMY OF HACKERS) www. But don't try to hack any site using these resources. KEVIN MITNICK.uk www.htm www.com/privacy/hacking.he.ru/ 93 .org/cpsr/privacy/crime/denning.com/area/technology/hackers/hackers.passthrough.htm www.elcono.

com 94 .hf.translogik.hackcanada.www.nl/~l0rd/ EXPOSED HACKERS http://hackingexposed.com/in/hackersachin/ http://members.angelfire.com/~gold/link.annexgrp.com/ab2/aolsucks/hackers.cn/computer/unixbook/index1.underground-book.za www.freehosting.com/hacker/hacker.hackers.org/alain/hacking.netice.com www.hypermart.com www.avk.crossbar.infowar.uk www.hip97.htm www.casema.co.co.hackernews.angelfire.uk www.html www.shtml LIST OF HACKED SITES www.ultrapassword.com http://vcorp.ah.netdoor.freeservers.html HACKERS DIRECTORY www.cyber-warriors.com/links.net/html/links.net/ HIGHER LEARNING CENTER www.com GENERAL SITES ON HACKERS www.uha1.com www.htm www.angelfire.demon.xoom.com/or/warz/index2.xs4all.co.html http://blackbrain.com/page/gleeson http://hackersheaven.com/hackerindia/index.html www.com/Advice/Underground/Hacking/ www.net/~nr9/ www.hackers.org/hr/ www.htm http://www2.html HACKING NEWS www.nl www.expage.com/sites/hyperdome/computer.html www.com WONDERFUL HACKERS www.

html www. The growth rate of cyberspace has been enormous.ru:8101/idb/hackers. With the spontaneous and almost phenomenal growth 95 .de/seiten/passwort.grinse.html http://members.com/SiliconValley/Lab/4605/chc.org WORLD WIDE HACKING RESOURCES www.net www.html www.rim.de/gts/index2.com/embarrass/Hackers.de www.kirche-muelheim.jp/~tatsushi http://w1.org/infosyssec/index.tripod.html THE HACKERS TOOL BOX http://pages.iscool.com www.net http://hackerclub.cyberpunkproject.netindex.ash.juwelier-hacker.ch/hacker/hacker.geocities.pt/links//HACKERS/index.home.tt.htm www.sk/web/hackersclub www.html www.de/homepages/rpr/on_hackers.html www.340.cyberpunk.net/users/jester/hacker.www.hooked.org/flni/tools.html CYBER LAWS IN INDIA Cyberlaw is a much newer phenomenon having emerged much after the onset of Internet.com/~u34002171/hhd.uncut.com/Area51/Crater/1856/index.hackersclub.telia. Internet grew in a completely unplanned and unregulated manner.com www.net/~borremans/hackers. Cyberspace is becoming the new preferred environment of the world.infinit. Internet is growing rapidly and with the population of Internet doubling roughly every 100 days.htm www.anticode.geocities.or.html HACKERS ONLINE www.infosyssec. Even the inventors of Internet could not have really anticipated the scope and far reaching consequences of cyberspace.html http://flni.net/rave/htb.htm www.htm www.hackershomepage.html HACKERS CLUB www.athens.htm http://project.

1. Internet is a global network of computers. approximately 163 million individuals or entities will use the Internet by the end of this year as opposed to 16. America's Department of Defense commissioned the construction of a Super network called ARPANET. simply put. Internet places at an individual's hands the immense and invaluable power of information and communication.of cyberspace. new and ticklish issues relating to various legal aspects of cyberspace began cropping up. If left to its own measure. In response to the absolutely complex and newly emerging legal issues relating to cyberspace. The real power of today's Internet is that it is available to anyone with a computer and a telephone line. Anything concerned with or related to. probably the important of them is the development of Internet. over 200 computers were connected from all around the world. However. 96 . the necessity of Cyberlaws becomes all the more important. Cyberlaw is a term. all of them speaking the same language. The growth of Cyberspace has resulted in the development of a new and highly specialized branch of law called CYBERLAWS.LAWS OF THE INTERNET AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB. Internet usage has significantly increased over the past few years. There is no one exhaustive definition of the term "Cyberlaw". Given this present state of the Internet. According to International Data Corporation ("IDC").1 million in 1995. The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). This has led to tremendous development and progress which has been a launching pad for further development. By 1981. In 1969. CYBERLAW or the law of Internet came into being. The number of data packets which flowed through the Internet have increased dramatically. This network slowly grew and the Internet was born. or emanating from. any legal aspects or issues concerning any activity of netizens and others. What is the introductory background for Cyberlaws ? Since the beginning of civilization. in Cyberspace comes within the ambit of Cyberlaw CYBERLAW Q. basically intended as a military network of 40 computers connected by a web of links & lines. Of all the significant advances made by mankind from the beginning till date. To put in a common man’s language. which refers to all the legal and regulatory aspects of Internet and the World Wide Web. Now the figure runs into millions. man has always been motivated by the need to make progress and better the existing technologies. it is highly unlikely that such a trend can reverse itself.

to the time you conduct 97 . Anything concerned with or related to or emanating from any legal aspects or issues concerning any activity of netizens and others. so crucial to the success of Electronic Commerce. to the time you set up your web site. Cyberlaw does concern me. There is no one exhaustive definition of the term “Cyberlaw”. Simply speaking. Why is there a need for Cyberlaw? When Internet was developed. it is possible to engage into a variety of criminal activities with impunity and people with intelligence. But the actual truth is that nothing could be further than the truth. in Cyberspace comes within the ambit of Cyberlaw. the founding fathers of Internet hardly had any inclination that Internet could transform itself into an all-pervading revolution which could be misused for criminal activities and which required regulation. Today. What is Cyberlaw ? Internet is believed to be full of anarchy and a system of law and regulation therein seems contradictory. have been grossly misusing this aspect of the Internet to perpetuate criminal activities in cyberspace. From the time you register your Domain Name. Initially it may seem that Cyberlaws is a very technical field and that it does not have any bearing to most activities in Cyberspace. Hence the need for Cyberlaws. cyberspace is being governed by a system of law and regulation called Cyberlaw. the World Wide Web and Cyberspace. The growth of Electronic Commerce has propelled the need for vibrant and effective regulatory mechanisms.5.2. Q. to the time you promote your website. All these regulatory mechanisms and legal infrastructures come within the domain of Cyberlaw. which would further strengthen the legal infrastructure.Q. Cyberlaw is a generic term which refers to all the legal and regulatory aspects of Internet and the World Wide Web. However. Does Cyberlaw concern me? Yes.4. every action and every reaction in Cyberspace has some legal and Cyber legal perspectives. Q. there are many disturbing things happening in cyberspace. Whether we realize it or not. every activity of yours in Cyberspace can and will have a Cyber legal perspective. Due to the anonymous nature of the Internet. As the nature of Internet is changing and this new medium is being seen as the ultimate medium ever evolved in human history.3. What is the importance of Cyberlaw? Cyberlaw is important because it touches almost all aspects of transactions and activities on and concerning the Internet. Q.

Publishing a Web page is an excellent way for any commercial business or entity to vastly increase its exposure to millions of persons. the concerned party. Q.7. Q. Domain Names are given to you on first come first served basis. Many technical experts in the beginning felt that legal regulation of Internet is not necessary. But with the rapid growth of technologies and Internet.com which may be the trade mark of any other company. Needless to say. which is causing much controversy in the legal community. It is that feature of the Internet. 98 . The list is very long. being a constantly evolving process. company or person with the intention of holding on to it and thereafter selling the same to the said legal entity. This is just one of the many examples that show the importance of Cyberlaw for you. to Intellectual Property Rights to Electronic Commerce to Privacy to Encryption to Electronic Contracts to Cybercrime to Online Banking to Spamming and so on. numerous legal issues arise.6. is suitably modifying itself to fit the call of the time. Cyberlaw is constantly being evolved. at every point of time. But sooner or later. For example. organizations and governments world-wide. These issues vary from Domain Names. say B. You may not be bothered about these issues today because you may feel that they are very distant from you and that they do not have an impact on your Cyber activities. you may knowingly or unknowingly book a Domain Name. company or person at a handsome premium).xyx.electronic commerce transactions on the said site. B. But you may be involved by the other party being B in a Cyber legal dispute which may allege that you are deliberately involved in the practice of Cyber squatting (the practice of knowingly registering the trade mark of any legal entity. say www. Is Cyberlaw constantly evolving? Yes. there are various Cyberlaw issues involved. B. Cyberlaw. it is crystal clear that no activity on Internet can remain free from the influence of Cyberlaw. As the Internet grows. the awareness about Cyberlaw is beginning to grow. you will have to tighten your belts and take note of Cyberlaw for your own benefit. it shall be incumbent on the concerned party. As new and new opportunities and challenges are surfacing. may approach the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) for adjudicating the matter and WIPO by a summary procedure may direct you to relinquish and release the said Domain Name to B. person or legal entity in any part of the world. to produce all documentary and other evidence to substantiate its claim to the concerned Domain Name. What is the general awareness about Cyberlaw today? Today. You may also be involved in Cyber litigation as the concerned party.

It's a unique name used to identify. DOMAIN NAMES Q. Q. which identifies a particular computer on the Internet. is at an early stage of development. among other things. What is the stage of development of Cyberlaw today? Cyberlaw today. ".What is an IP address? The Internet is a network of computers. http://www.8. namely the top level domain name(TLD) and a second level domain name. in a common man's language. on a global scale. com" would be the top level domain name while "indiainfoline" would be second level domain name. Different countries in different parts of the world are adopting their own strategies to this new field.9. in the case of Internet too. The IP address is just like any telephone number. Q.15. are used as an easy-to-remember alias which point to a specific IP address.11.75. it will take some time for Cyberlaws to be fully developed and refined. What is a Domain Name? Since it is not possible to remember each and every numerical value of an IP address.com.12.indiainfoline. the system of domain names evolved.54.Q.com. Q. Internet domain names. 99 . That is the reason why every computer is given a distinct Electronic Address called the Internet Protocol address or in short IP address. a specific Web site. Thus in the said example. Next week we begin to look at the legal issues relating to domain names. Thus a typical domain name would be http://www. This IP address is given by numerical values like 202. What are the components of a Domain Name? Any domain name consist of two components. The dominant purpose of the domain name is simply to provide an easy method for remembering another's electronic address. Each computer on the said network has its own distinct entity and presence. What do we intend to do by means of this interactive feature? By means of this interactive feature. Just as different civilizations and societies in history have taken time to develop and refine their legal systems. 10.indiainfoline. every week we shall aim to look at various important issues relating to Cyberlaw.

Today there are more than 100 registrars with whom one can register a TLD. .14. What are the categories of Top Level Domain Names (TLDs)? As on date. . Microsoft Corporation. . network providers. government agencies and educational institutions respectively. Q. . the norms were that the . Who registers Domain Names ? The domain names were initially registered by Network Solutions only. the TLD. without any restriction of any kind whatsoever. 100 .in is registered by NCST at Bombay.edu are to be assigned to non-commercial organizations. can register any domain name. the top level domain name for India is .Q. This monopoly of Network Solutions continued for many years and only in 1999. In the first category comes the domain names . first served" criteria of domain name registration.13.org. For instance. despite having the trademark Microsoft. Q.com. Thus the important thing in domain names registration is speed.net. However.microsoft. The responsibility for assigning the same is given in each country to a specified country domain name registrar. first served" basis. there are two categories of top-level domain names.org was available and was registered by Amit Mehrotra much before Microsoft Corporation could think of it.in.org because of the "first come.net. This feature of domain names give rise to numerous legal issues and disputes.gov and . while others such as . This led to numerous ticklish legal issues. due to the enhanced volumes of domain name registrations. the domain name www. who had the sole monopoly to register the said TLDs.com name is to be given to commercial organizations. could not get the domain name www. as time has passed. When the system of registering domain names began.15.microsoft. the said norms have been abandoned and today anyone can. To take an example. The second category of top level domain names is the country code TLDs denoted by a two letter country code. In India. the Internet Corporation Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) allowed other accredited registrars to register domain names.edu. .org. What is the unique feature of Domain Names? The unique feature of domain names is that the said domain names are given on "first come.

This policy has been in operation since the end of last year. What is Cyber squatting ? Another legal issue surrounding domain names is that of Cyber squatting. a summary procedure is adopted to adjudicate the complaint of any complainant relating to any domain name on payment of processing fees.20. What is the latest most effective remedy against Cybersquatting ? The latest breath of fresh air in the fight against Cybersquatting has been the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy. Domain names are indeed different from trademarks. Two recent 101 . What are the recent trends relating to tackling Cyber squatters ? The Internet history has shown that while some corporate players have been willing to and have indeed coughed up money to get back their legitimate domain names. This aspect of domain names has led to numerous legal problems. Q. While it is possible that the same trademark may be registered by different persons in different categories and different lines of businesses. business name or service mark of another as his own domain name for the purpose of holding on to it and thereafter selling the same domain name to the other person for valuable premium and consideration.17. Cybersquatters book up domain names of important brands in the hope of earning quick millions . How are Domain Names different from Trade Marks? To put it simply. Courts throughout the world. Under the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy. 19. The domain name www.18.com and www. including in India.16. have the Indian companies had any success ? Under the said policy.Q. which has been duly approved by ICANN. Under the said Domain Names Dispute Resolution Policy. it may be possible to only register one domain name corresponding to such trademark. the recent trend is more towards taking the cybersquatters by the horns and fighting them out by legal processes. Q.theeconomictimes. Q. have been proactive and have been granting injunctions to stop cybersquatters from operating their web sites.com have been won back under the said policy. Indian companies are also beginning to get back their legitimate domain names.timesofindia. Cyber squatting is the practice by means of which a person or legal entity books up the trade mark.

online paedophiles. any activities. Tell us more information about Cybercrimes against persons? Cybercrimes committed against persons include various crimes like transmission of child-pornography. every week we shall aim to look at various important issues relating to Cyberlaw.tata. The field of Cybercrime is just emerging and new forms of criminal activities in cyberspace are coming to the forefront with the passing of each new day.21. have been grossly misusing this aspect of the Internet to perpetuate criminal activities in cyberspace. Today. Child Pornography on the Internet constitutes one serious Cybercrime. posting.org and www. What is Cybercrime ? When Internet was developed. and dissemination of obscene material including pornography. By means of this interactive feature. are as much Cybercriminals as any others. Because of the anonymous nature of the Internet. The trafficking. constitutes 102 . using Internet to induce minor children into sex. which basically offend human sensibilities. What are the various categories of Cybercrimes? Cybercrimes can be basically divided into 3 major categories being Cybercrimes against persons. Do we have any one exhaustive definition of Cybercrime ? There can be no one exhaustive definition about Cybercrime. Q. distribution.24.23. Q. can also be included in its ambit. harassment of any one with the use of a computer such as e-mail. These could be either the criminal activities in the conventional sense or could be activities. we look at more issues concerning domain names. and cyber-stalking. the founding fathers of Internet hardly had any inclination that Internet could also be misused for criminal activities. Next week. However. Q. it is possible to engage into a variety of criminal activities with impunity and people with intelligence. Cybercrime refers to all the activities done with criminal intent in cyberspace. indecent exposure.philipsindia. Similarly. property and Government. there are many disturbing things happening in cyberspace.com by TATA and Philips India respectively. CYBERCRIME Q.success for Indian Companies under the said policy include winning back the domain names www.22. and child pornography. newly evolved with the growth of the new medium.

26. which do irreparable damage to computer systems. if not controlled. Harassment can be sexual. The recent denial of service attacks seen over the popular commercial sites like E-bay. Violation of privacy of online citizens is a Cybercrime of a grave nature. What is Cybercrime against Government ? 103 . Similarly. Q. What are Cybercrimes against property ? The second category of Cybercrimes is that of Cybercrimes against all forms of property. computer vandalism. racial. Is Cyber harassment also a Cybercrime ? Cyber harassment is a distinct Cybercrime.28. Q. religious. Using one's own programming abilities as also various programs with malicious intent to gain unauthorized access to a computer or network are very serious crimes.25. Cyber harassment as a crime also brings us to another related area of violation of privacy of netizens. Persons perpetuating such harassment are also guilty of cybercrimes. It is a dreadful feeling to know that a stranger has broken into your computer systems without your knowledge and consent and has tampered with precious confidential data and information. Is hacking a Cybercrime ? Hacking and cracking are amongst the gravest Cybercrimes known till date. is another kind of Cybercrime.27. Coupled with this . These crimes include unauthorized computer trespassing through cyberspace. The potential harm of such a crime to humanity can hardly be overstated. Yahoo. transmission of harmful programs. Software piracy is also another distinct kind of Cybercrime which is perpetuated by many people online who distribute illegal and unauthorized pirated copies of software. Amazon and others are a new category of Cybercrimes which are slowly emerging as being extremely dangerous. This is one Cybercrime which threatens to undermine the growth of the younger generation as also leave irreparable scars and injury on the younger generation. It is unanimously agreed that any and every system in the world can be hacked. and unauthorized possession of computerized information. Q. Various kinds of harassment can and does occur in cyberspace. or other. the creation and dissemination of harmful computer programs or virii.one of the most important Cybercrimes known today. the actuality is that no computer system in the world is hacking proof. No one likes any other person invading the precious and extremely touchy area of his or her own privacy which the medium of Internet grants to the netizen. or through the use of cyberspace. Q.

existing or envisaged which are not comprehensive at all. human ingenuity needs to be channelised into developing effective legal and regulatory mechanisms to control and prevent Cybercrimes. similarly.30. Reuters has reported that "The Philippines has yet to arrest the suspected creator of the 'Love Bug' computer virus because it lacks laws that deal with computer crime. Q. Q. growing in Cyberlaws.The third category of Cybercrimes relate to Cybercrimes against Government. Is there any comprehensive law on Cybercrime today? Since Cybercrime is a newly specialised field.29. As of now. This is reason that the investigating agencies like FBI are finding the Cyberspace to be an extremely difficult terrain. As such. For the victims of various Cybercrimes. They can either file for civil damages or wait for the culprits to be nabbed and then to be tried under provisions. a lot of development has to take place in terms of putting into place the relevant legal mechanism for controlling and preventing Cybercrime. there is absolutely no comprehensive law on Cybercrime any where in the world. Cyber Terrorism is one distinct kind of crime in this category.31. The fact of the matter is that there are no laws relating to Cybercrime in the Philippines. The National Bureau of Investigation is finding it difficult to legally arrest the suspect behind the 'Love Bug' computer virus. Q. This crime manifests itself into terrorism when an individual "cracks" into a government or military maintained website. The growth of Internet has shown that the medium of Cyberspace is being used by individuals and groups to threaten the international governments as also to terrorize the citizens of a country. However. These various Cybercrimes fall into that grey area of Internet law which is neither fully nor partially covered by the existing laws and that too in some countries. there is no one healing remedy. a lot of work has to be done in this field. a senior police officer said". At the time of the web publication of this feature. 104 . Is there any recent case which demonstrates the importance of having Cyberlaw on Cybercrime within the national jurisdictions of countries ? The most recent case of the virus "I love you" demonstrates the need for having cyberlaws concerning Cybercrimes in different national jurisdictions. the need for countries to legislate Cyberlaws relating to Cybercrime arises on an urgent priority basis. What is the approach adopted by US Courts regarding Cybercrimes ? The courts in United States of America have already begun taking cognizance of various kinds of fraud and Cybercrimes being perpetuated in Cyberspace. Just as human mind is ingenious enough to devise new ways for perpetuating crime.

Net. into that cyber heaven of freedom. an online Cyberlaw Constancy and is also the Member of Membership Advisory Committee of The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). which we have inherited in our life times from the benefits of ever growing technologies. …. Next week we begin to look at the legal issues relating to domain names in India Pavan Duggal. where knowledge is free.32. 105 . To rephrase the famous words of Rabindra Nath Tagore in today's context. Why do we need to fight Cybercrime ? We all must remember that Cyberspace is a common heritage of ours." By means of this interactive feature. O my father.. is a Cyberlaw Consultant and is one of the pioneers in the field of Cyberlaw in India.Q. our columnist. it is the duty of every netizen to contribute toward making the said cyberspace free of any trouble or cybercrime. Pavan is the Founder President of Cyberlaw India and Cyberlaw Asia. every week we shall aim to look at various important issues relating to Cyberlaw. He is the President of Cyberlaws. where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection. This Cyberspace is the lifeline of the entire universe and given its irreversible position today. let our humanity awake. "Where the Cyberspace is without fear or crime and the head is held high.

htm www.woodlands-hosp.htm www.com/hospitals_ranchi.htm www.com/hosclinics.htm www.coimbatore. But many people don’t know where are they.com/hospitals.com/indianhospitalpage.htm www. after initial consultation with a doctor who was online.com/organ.choithram.com/health.meditrackindia.htm www.madrasnet.rareherbsindia.healthlibrary.com/Health/Hospitals/ www.org www.html www. where is what. The Internet technology has become so advanced that a surgery was performed in USA by a main doctor through his subordinates.com/Health/Hospitals/ www.htm http://amitysoft.mvdiabeticfoot.com 106 .ranchiexpress. doctors and health related web sites so that you will be benefited to the fullest extend.htm www.com/home. you will be getting more data.htm www.com/hospitals.health-india.devipolymers. breaking all geographic barriers.MEDICAL RESOURCES IN INDIA Internet has helped a lot of people in curing the disease all over the world because it gives the information.htm www.htm www.com/medical/hospitals. The Internet has suddenly opened thousands of new sources of medicine all over the world.com www. Recently. sitting in Australia.com/services.hostindia.htm www.calicutnet.com/srmc/hospital. one woman from Austria came for Ayurvedic treatment in Ahamadabad. The data given below is not complete.com/punehelp/help. so in the next edition of this book. In India there are lot of doctors and hospitals online.htm www.com/india_file.delhiguide.htm http://meditrackindia.indianindex.links2001.virtualpune. Hope you will get some benefit for the time being.com/medical/ www. Medical services offered through Internet are usually known as tele-medicine and it is very popular and it has become very popular all over the world.com/OtherLinks/hospitals.spanindmart. Here I have made an attempt to bring together some hospitals. BEST HOSPITALS www.apollo-ihc.com/hosclinics.

com/newsite/medicine/siddha.wellmedia.com/education/medical.greyowlcrafts.com/mohanrao/profilemohan.investindia.org All India Institute of Medical Sciences www.com.solemn.com/incenses.aegis.com/health_and_medicine/doctors www.com/web_search/www/noncom/general/28Aug235215.mic.au/markets/product/itm00264.indianindex.in/ismh/ www.se/India.in 107 .com/Health www.com/news/week16/indianmed.tamilnadudoctors.htm www.indiainfo.html www.doctorsdelhi.insurat.indiandoctors.nic.mahesh.ki.VELLORE www.com/patlinks.html CHRISTIAN MEDICALCOLLEGE .com/reviews/web/web__427175834.surfindia.com/health www.htm www.com/pubs/woalive/1998/wo980402.htm www.com/index2.org/p38.ac.com/index.html MEDICAL WEBSITES http://indiafocus.html www.mindbodyhealing.com/medsites www.healthlibrary.indiainfo.health-search.htm www.com/ www.com/sunandsnow/ayurvedatour.htm www.naturalhealthdirect.qmedin.indiawebchakra.aiims.indiamart.html DIRECTORY OF MEDICAL COLLEGES http://indiafocus.indiamart.htm www.com www.dentalindia.DOCTORS ONLINE www.com/indian_medicine.html www.com/news/ www.htm HEALING www.com/himalaya/ http://meditrackindia.webindia.htm www.com/doclist.com/ http://123india.htm www.html(dental) www.heartinfo.com/india/health/ www.vellorecmc.html www.com/doctors http://medinfo.

elisda.com/news HOSPITAL JOURNALS www.com/health/journals.MANIPAL www.html 108 .manipalgroup.KASTHURBA MEDICAL COLLEGE .

reel. Now days.hollywood. the cost of viewing a movie is much cheaper compared to buying a VIDEO CD or going to a movie theatre. millions of people can buy movies from online shops in Internet. Just browse through some of these sites.com www. screenwriters.bigstar.eonline.movies. stars. With the advent of Internet. acting. movie scripts. In Western Europe and America.com www. you can also download lot of movie clippings. it will be a difference experience for any movie lover. movie business is largely done through some thing called "video on demand". previews and lot of other details from the net. screenwriting and a variety of other subjects related to movies. Here the advantage is that. For example Titatnic. actin. you can find out anything about movies through World Wide Web.com is the finest example of this kind. Suppose. which is on the path of revolution through Internet. At the same time. www. like. trailers. careers in movies. Here you have to pay the video service provider some fee.com www. you can do so by hiring a video on demand service. The following are some of the best movie resources available in the World Wide Web.hollywoodreporter. details about the forth coming movies. if you want to see a particular movie at a particular time. studios. technicians.mpg Predator.com www. Note: the movie clippings are usually stored as "mpg" or "avi" files in the computer. latest technology adopted in movie making etc.avi WORLD WIDE MOVIE DATABASE HOLLY WOOD MOVIES www.imdb. who will then allow you to see the move stored in his server through internet.com www. you can also join online courses on movie making.com www.allmovie.com 109 . You will also get a variety of movies to watch at nominal rates at your convenience.Movie resources in Internet Movie is another field.

us/movies/boot/tinseltown.edu/cwis/units/video/germov.discoverfrance.html RUSSIAN MOVIES www.kr/~wikim/films/chorok/chorok.sfi.ca/FilmFest/home.iranianmovies.GERMAN MOVIES www.colby.com/chinese-movies/index.liunet.html http://hs.html 110 .ac.edu/cwis/cwp/library/african/movies.britishpictures.com/chinascape/china/enter/movie/ www.com/hamasaki AFRICAN MOVIES www.net/France/vid_index.ca/FINE/juhde/stonm941.html http://members.wit.film.britmovie.com/reviews/rev_ff/ www.uk KOREAN MOVIES www.coolvcd.j-video.k12.com www.edu/russian/movies.net/movies.html BRITISH MOVIES www.xoom.htm http://watarts.html JAPANESE MOVIES www.html CHINESE MOVIES www.cinecrew.se/eng/efilm/mefilm.korea.canoe.russianet.htm www.co.sverigeturism.com www.shtml IRANIAN MOVIES www.ukans.htm http://ispl.com FRENCH MOVIES www.htm FILM FESTIVALS www.uwaterloo.or.htm www.filmfestivals.se/smorgasbord/lifestyle/film.com/film/koreanfilms/noname1.com/enterE.shtml SWEDISH MOVIES www.riverdale.

com/address.com ADDRESSES OF ACTORS AND ACTRESSES IN BOLLYWOOD www.com MALAYALAM FILMS www.au TELUGU FILMS www. Most of the films are churned out from Mumbai.com www.net. Some of the Indian film makers such as Satyajit Ray.com www. several times.telugucinema. The Hindi film industry is popularly known as BOLLYWOOD.gobollywood.women-celebrities.com www.tamilcinema. The Indian film heroines are almost coming in par with their counterparts in Hollywood by wearing minimum amount of clothes. in almost 15 different languages.bollywoodonline. Adoor Gopalakrishnan produce realistic movies depicting the true culture of India as a whole. Mrinal Sen.malayalacinema.CELEBRITIES www.bengalicinema. HINDI FILMS www.com BENGALI FILMS www.planetbollywood.html TAMIL FILMS www. Many of their movies have won national and international awards.com 111 .tamilnet. INDIAN MOVIE SPECIAL India makes the largest number of movies in the world.mencelebs.

real. culture or race.com BHANGRA www.cdnow. listen to it and then dwell in wonderland for some time. If you have got some talent and could not make it till now. If you want to hear music. you can even record your voice and put it in Internet. Definitely somebody will appreciate your talent. It is the spontaneous expression of heart in a rhythmic manner. there are thousands of sites from which you can download music and enjoy. Recent researches prove that music has got healing power. To play music in your computer. browse through some of the sites and see how they works. There is a separate branch of treatment called music therapy. Now days. Now. you can simply record it.com www. Following are some of the best music resources in the world wide web.com. for a talented musician or singer. the sound card will convert the digitally stored music (mp3 or wav files) into sound. Music has no language. which contains video cared. But. Anybody from anywhere in the world with an Internet connection can download your music and enjoy your talent. Now days you can see lot of amateurs selling their talent through Internet. Hope you will find what you want.desiclub. times have changed with the advent of Internet. Just download it. Just get into cyber space and give a try.buymusic.punjabilink.real.com www. religion.mp3. It took long years of painful practise and hard work to get recognition and respect in the society. you should have a multimedia kit. BUY MUSIC AT www.freemusic. and put it in Internet.com www.htm www. it was very difficult to become successful in the profession. Music is a vast ocean in which one can not find any boundaries. if you have got some talent in composing music or singing. It is simply divine.shopnow. Following are some of the web sites on music. speakers etc.com/bhangra/main. With the help of multimedia kit and some softwares.com/BhangraAddicts/ 112 . Just give a try at www. You can even take part in programs conducted by various Internet radio services. you can find all sorts of music resources in the Internet.com & www. sound card.Music resources in Internet Before the origin of Internet. don't weep.com www.

uk 113 .com/intro.org INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC www.webindia.com/music/instrum.com www.com www.orsymphony.www.chicagosymphony.com/_disc1/0000017f.gprep.com/reggae.bobmarley.uk/gravesend/jugnu.uk www.com www.com www.bca-online.com WORLD FAMOUS SYMPHONIES www.classical.org www.org www.caribbeanmusic.classicalmusic.ireggae.com www.lso.saigan.orchestranet.com/heritage/music/carnatic.net www.html REGGAE http://niceup.com/jester/inst.carnaticmusic.html www.classicalsearch.bhangranet.com/india/music.co.vprecords.htm CARNATIC MUSIC www.avid.columbus.htm www.reggaeambassadors.co.htm www.com CLASSICAL MUSIC www.classicalmusic.oh.html www.about.cincinnatisymphony.com www.classicaliscool.carnatic-music.com www.us/brookhaven/instrmus.savageresearch.org www.net/carnatic.k12.htm www.dread-connexion.com www.uk www.html www.org www.co.sangeetham.com www.instrumentalmusic.htm http://artindia.bso.co.org/classical www.com/index.html www.html www.novapeer.arrowrecords.com www.

html www.com Note: recorded music is stored as "wav" file and big music files are stored as "mp3" files in the computer e.com/arts/hcm.edu/~felsing/cstuff/tunes.com/latin_music.com http://dmoz.b-boys.rockhall.com MUSIC DIRECTORY www.org/Arts/Music/Directories/ www.uoregon.html www.com www.musi-cal.com/pop.htm www.fi/~latvis/rockdata.offbeat.com HINDUSTANI MUSIC www.uk/bluebook/muspop.musicandmore.co.mooremusic.mp3.com www.html www.wav 114 .dmxmusic.com/music/pop.com/music/rap.com www.html RAP MUSIC www.audioreview.webcom.com.htm www.html www.html www.org/MACrec/pop.com/raag www.piano-pal.com LATIN MUSIC www. drumbeat.htm www.htm CHINESE MUSIC http://darkwing.uta.com www.allindia.bluebirds.picadillo.latinmusicmag.wfmu.html www.g.com/la_music_directory_home.americangospel.cdspider.au/mooremen.medieval.com/index.musicalonline.html www.rockDaily.ROCK MUSIC www.com http://eleaston.htm www.chinese-music.org/music/world/hindustani.com/passion/messages/10715.sjoki.htm POP MUSIC www. Fluteraga.cdspider.

saibaba.oshorisk.in 115 .org www.com http://oz.baba. "Osho Rajneesh" and "Aurobindo Ghosh" are the spiritual ambassadors of India to the west. The great-unknown saints of Himalayas had supernatural powers.au/am_osho.org www.self-realization.org. There are such saints. You can find thousands of huge temples built on rock and wood all over India. mosques and churches too in parallel with Hindu temples.sathyasai. Some could foretell future and some could even fly.dk/osho.crystalinks.html www.esonet.com/satyasaibaba. namely Hinduism. Saints like "Charaka" and "Susrutha" enriched "Ayurveda" The traditional medicinal healing system In India. The rock temples of Tamilnadu are the largest. Saints like "swami Vivekananda". still alive in unknown parts of Himalayas and Tibet.htm http://sriaurobindosociety. who enriched the culture and tradition on India. Sikhism.org www.htm AUROBINDO GHOSH www.saibaba.org OSHO www. THE GREAT SPIRITUAL MASTERS OF INDIA SATYA SAI BABA www.sannyas.shirdisai. Many saints lived up to 500 years or more. Jainism and Buddhism.immortalbooks. Saints like Valmiki and Veda Vyasa wrote epics "Ramayana" and "Mahabharata" which forms the essence of Indian culture.sk SHIRDI SAI BABA www.com/saibaba.net/books/ www. India is the land of temples too. India is the birthplace of thousands of great saints.Spiritual resources in India India is the land of four religions. the Buddhist spiritual leader lives in Dharmasala in India. who are completely naked and surviving in temperatures as low as -40 degree Celsius.com.osho. Dalai Lama. At the same time one can find lot of Buddhist temples.html www.htm www.org/pg/seeker/Aurobindo.

com/maharishi.org MATHA AMRITHANANDAMAYEE DEVI www.mihira.HTM http://ramakrishnamath-mlore.org/pages/ramakrishna.org/ramana_maharshi.iskcon.self-realization.com/18d.html www.com/guruvayoor.iskcon.com/ramana.vedanta-seattle.chinmayapublications.htm http://vedanta.html www.org www.neelam.org www.bluedove.org SWAMY NARAYAN www.htm www.A SPIRITUAL ORGANISATION www.org www.net www.html MAHARSHI MAHESH YOGI www.chinmaya-aa.maharishi-india.com/mihfeb99/RAMKISHN.iskcon.swaminarayan.akshardham.chinmaya.org www.om-guru.ammachi.org SREE NARAYANA GURU www.ramakrishna.htm SRI RAMA KRISHNA PARAMAHAMSA www.com/ramana.globalserve.org www.hkw.org www.org/ammachi/ SWAMY CHINMAYANANDAN www.html www.sngm.RAMANA MAHARSHI www.self-realization.com/html/saints/ramakrishna.com ISKCON .org/srklife.sndp.net GURUVAYOORAPPAN http://guruvayoorappan.homepage.org www.hindunet.net/~chinmaya/ www.html 116 .htm www.

org SARADAPEETHAM http://users.india4u.com/tibet/lamabio.hindunet.com/indian_temples.hindumythology.htm www.sikh-history.tibet.chs.com GURU NANAK / GURU GOVIND SINGH www.html http://dalailama.htm MAHAVIRA www.erols.com/lisaliu/Chinese_Budhism http://jbe.com http://webpunjab.sikhnet.com/sikhheritage/page5.org www.org/dalai_lama.org www.DALAI LAMA www.com/religion/jainism.tibet.org/avhp/ www.insidechina.globalcensus.kamakoti.la.com/baba/docs/sankara.org 117 .php3 www.psu.org/audio/g10.chico.com/buddhism.html TEMPLES OF INDIA www.htm www.htm GAUTAMA BUDHA www.dd-b.com/ramakris/sringeri/sringeri.us/~drabut1/religion/mahavira.com www.com/DL/index.net/~raphael/jain-list/msg00949.siddhivinayak.edu SANKARACHARYA OF KALADY www.fundamentalbuddhism.eaisai.templenet.india-biz.ca.htm http://maxpages.pugmarks.srigurugranthsahib.htm www.tripod.com KAMAKOTIPEETAM www.html HINDU MYTHOLOGY www.htm www.saranamayyappa.htm www.com www.web-discovercard.com www.k12.advaita-vedanta.com/gallery/golden/ www.com/Jainism.html http://adaniel.

www.com www.com www.orissa-tourism.chennaionline.net http://vlink.balaji.org www.com/temples.com/default.asp www.srirangamtemple.kanchipuram.htm www.pujaseva.webjump.net 118 .

uk/life/rafgsa.com www.billiardworld.pusanasiad.web-partners.boxing. all walks of life have undergone dramatic change including sports.badminton. ATHLETICS www. At the same time.co.htm www. there was an explosion in knowledge everywhere.html www.bca-pool.kualalumpur2006.uk/AcaDepts/sn/wsn1/dept/av/en10.british-athletics.com/paragliding/ www.com www.Sports resources in Internet In the Internet era. Suddenly. if a cricket match is being played between India & Pakistan.org www. Thousands of web sites on various sports keep us informed second by second the events taking place in the sports around the world.org AIR GLIDING www.ac.uk ASIAD www.com www.houseofboxing.rdg.masterbilliards.com BADMINTON www. you can know the scores and comments on the game on the spot through Internet.edu/~athletic/ www.raf.com BOXING www. Following are some of the major web sites on sports from which you may get more details about any particular sport.badminton.femboxer.com www.boxingonline. For example.com www.mod.org www.iaaf.com/asiad2006/asiad/thelogo_1.html BILLIARDS www.ch 119 .siu. there is a very huge database available in the net about any sport item.

org www.clickcricket.com http://baseballhalloffame.bullfights.cyclery.org/index.imagehouse.cdmag.chesscafe.htm www.com COMPUTER GAMES www.com CRICKET www.org BASKETBALL www.chessmail.baseballamerica.basketballworldinc.com BASE BALL www.chessclub.superbull.9photo_wbf.net.org CHESS www.org BULL FIGHTING www.loveandbasketball.com CYCLING www.com www.com www.circuscircus-lasvegas.com www.cricinfo.usacycling.com/rodeo/events/wrangler.htm www.basketball.intbadfed.com/nfr/html/1.org www.prorodeo.au www.org www.cricket.usabadminton.uschess.baseball1.com www.com www.com 120 .html www.com CIRCUS www.adv-cycling.com www.www.com www.

gamesdomain.com HOCKEY www.horseracing.com www.htm www.co.org www.www.com LAWN TENNIS.net www.uk www.com www.uk/sclta/welcome.com www.blood-horse.com FOOTBALL www.com www.golftoday.wimbledon.cgda.com www.uk www.com www.sports-days.nikita.com GYMNASTICS http://directory.chlonline.pga. www.indianewsnetwork.com GOLF www.co.mrnnet.ru www.com www.netscape.net www.com www.geliosoft.com www.nadn.com www.won.com 121 .co.mil/GymnTeam/ HORSE RACING www.asian-football.gamespot.footballcentral.navy.com/200001/lawn_tennis.com www.nhl.com/Sports/Gymnastics/ www.pavilion.htm MOTOR RACING www.inthecrease.ncaachampionships.football.bmrc.com www.fifa.golfcircuit.golfmag.

htm SPORTS NEWS www.com ROWING www.htm www.com www.com www.kisco.net/sex-game-hb.isu.usfsa.com www.sportsinfinity.ul.foxsports.ie/~rowing/ SEX GAMES www.onlinesports.com/mountain/index.espn.com/~cowin/sports.olympics.org SPORTS DIRECTORY www.mountain-climbing-rock-climbing.com www.org SKATING www.com 122 .ozemail.html www.championsonice.com/~avatar/sexinfo/sexgames.html www.sportscom.com www.com MOUNTAIN CLIMBING www.com SQUASH www.com/guide/index.planeteer.com www.specialolympics.sportsforwomen.ffsquash.org www.millenniumwriters.com www.telesouth1.dept.html http://toronto.www.formula1.html www.htm www.com/squash.sexpace.visit-america.ca/gasnet/mtc.htm www.usrowing.com/vermont/north/outdoors/mountain.sydney2000.html www.com/~teekataylor/freepics/sex-games.org www.adventures.htm OLYMPICS www.motorsport.com/pages/top.

SUMO WRESTLING www.waterpoloaus.htm http://misterinflatable.sports-fun.org www.usswim.au www.scafwp.com/japanesesumo.com www.ch www.com WEIGHT LIFTING www.com/e-zine/waterpolo.volleyhall.usasynchro.com/html/sumo_wrestling.htm www.fivb.com www.166.org www.com www.trials2000.html SWIMMING www.org www.htm www.com 123 .scarboroughwaterpolo.pacswim.edgamesandart.justlift.wlinfo.winterolympics.html WATERPOLO www.volleyballmag.asn.com/sumo_wrestling.com www.com/winterolympics/articles/54548.3zcompany.com/sumo_wrestling.com www.250.htm www.scoreboard-canada.org www.org VOLLEY BALL http://194.229/lpcvb/ www.com www.swimnews.com WINTER OLYMPICS www.sportingnews.powerlifting.usawaterpolo.

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you can make a hotel booking. Lots of companies including Microsoft is providing such services in Western Europe and America. So even while you are travelling. here is a small tutorial What is WAP? WAP bridges the gap between the mobile world and the Internet as well as corporate intranets and offers the ability to deliver an unlimited range of mobile value-added services to subscribers—independent of their network. Now read on and see how it works. Motorola. transaction. The changes taking place in the field of Internet and computer technology is faster than that of light. Using this technology. you can receive e-mails and see web pages at any time. In every 18 months. In a cell phone like device. Recently a company named AMD came out with a processor of 1000Mhz. What is wireless Internet? In Western Europe and America.This phenomenon is going to revolutionize the internet utility. know the news around the world and the share values etc. Mobile subscribers can access the same wealth of information from a pocket-sized device as they can from the desktop. there is a very important invention-taking place in the PC hardware. session. Recently a modem was developed with a processing speed of 2 giga bytes per second. 147 . and terminal.. HTML (the contents of the web pages) is converted into a language called XML and is displayed in the screen of the handy device. The WAP specifications define a set of protocols in application. More and more utilities are invented day by day. Ericsson. Nokia. by the time I explain one. a new invention has already taken place. using which mobile Internet and cell phones receiving e-mails work. you can receive emails in mobile phones and carry a laptop with an Internet connection anywhere in the globe. If you want to know more about WAP. How it works? Recently a new technology in communication has emerged and it is known as wireless application protocol (WAP). bearer. But still let me tell you about the latest trend in Internet. and Unwired Planet founded the WAP Forum in the summer of 1997 with the initial purpose of defining an industry-wide specification for developing applications over wireless communications networks.Latest trend in Internet The face of Internet is changing day by day. wireless Internet has already invaded the market. The latest trend in Internet can't be defined exactly because. The message transmission takes place with the help of satellites like that of wireless phones. Using this technology. it is called WAP. WAP is a global standard and is not controlled by any single company.

WAP will enable content and application developers to grasp the tagbased WML that will pave the way for services to be written and deployed within an operator's network quickly and easily. software houses. and companies developing services and applications for mobile devices. manufacturers. customized information services. through interoperability testing. Mobile consumers are becoming more hungry to receive increased functionality and value-add from 148 . such as interfaces to voice mail and prepaid systems. cut costs. and mobile to telefax access. Based on the Internet model. and transport layers.wapforum. visit the WAP Forum at http://www. and content developers to develop advanced differentiating services and applications including a microbrowser. content providers. manufacturers. For more information. the wireless device contains a microbrowser. such as account management and billing inquiries. The WAP specifications continue to be developed by contributing members. while content and applications are hosted on Web servers. enabling the provision of end to end turnkey solutions that will create a lasting competitive advantage. have brought WAP into the limelight of the mobile data marketplace with fully functional WAP–enabled devices (see Figure 1). and increase the subscriber base both by improving existing services. This will allow operators to differentiate themselves from their competitors with new.security. Content Providers Applications will be written in wireless markup language (WML). and facilitating an unlimited range of new value-added services and applications. who. WAP promises to decrease churn. scripting facilities. build consumer loyalty. operators. service providers. and applications providers to meet the challenges in advanced wireless service differentiation and fast/flexible service creation. New applications can be introduced quickly and easily without the need for additional infrastructure or modifications to the phone. e-mail. content providers have immediate access to a wealth of potential customers who will seek such applications to enhance the service offerings given to their own existing and potential subscriber base. There are now over one hundred members representing terminal and infrastructure manufacturers. and increase revenues. BENEFITS OF WAP Operators For wireless network operators. carriers. which enable operators. which is a subset of extensible markup language (XML). As WAP is a global and interoperable open standard.org WAP also defines an application environment (WAE) aimed at enabling operators. WAP is an interoperable framework. World Wide Web (WWW)–to–mobile-handset messaging. Using the same model as the Internet.

and WAP opens the door to this untapped market that is expected to reach 100 million WAP–enabled devices by the end of the year 2000. This push mechanism affords a distinct advantage over the WWW and represents tremendous potential for both information providers and mobile operators. high latency. secure access to relevant Internet information and services such as unified messaging. Standard HTML content cannot be effectively displayed on the small-size screens of pocket-sized mobile phones and pagers. these developers will likely acknowledge the huge potential of the operators' customer bases. users will have significant freedom of choice when selecting mobile terminals and the applications they support. and low-cost environment. 3. wireless Internet access has been limited by the capabilities of handheld devices and wireless networks. thus. requiring large amounts of mainly text-based data to be sent. Intranet information such as corporate databases can also be accessed via WAP technology. This presents developers with significant revenue opportunities. Internet standards such as hypertext markup language (HTML). and IP. WAP utilizes Internet standards such as XML. Many of the protocols are based on Internet standards such as hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and TLS but have been optimized for the unique constraints of the wireless environment: low bandwidth. Why Choose WAP? In the past. End Users End users of WAP will benefit from easy. 149 . TLS and transmission control protocol (TCP) are inefficient over mobile networks. It is expected that the ISPs will exploit the true potential of WAP. HTTP. user datagram protocol (UDP). In addition. they will be willing and able to offer competitive prices for their content. banking. Users will be able to receive and request information in a controlled. a fact that renders WAP services more attractive to consumers who demand more value and functionality from their mobile terminals. fast. As the initial focus of WAP. Web content developers will have great knowledge and direct access to the people they attempt to reach.their mobile devices. the Internet will set many of the trends in advance of WAP implementation. and entertainment through their mobile devices. Because a wide range of handset manufacturers already supports the WAP initiative. WAP's push capability will enable weather and travel information providers to use WAP. and less connection stability.

1. Summary WAP provides a markup language and a transport protocol that open the possibilities of the wireless environment and give players from all levels of the industry the opportunity to access an untapped market that is still in its infancy. and GPRS. independent of the bearer and network. including short message service (SMS). bringing sophisticated solutions to mobile users. All network technologies and bearers will also be supported. digital European cordless communication (DECT). and code division multiple access (CDMA). the future for WAP looks bright. and navigation may be performed with one hand. As WAP is based on a scalable layered architecture.900 MHz.800. circuit-switched cellular data (CSD). These include global system for mobile communications (GSM) 900. FLEX. will bridge the gap between the mobile world and the Internet. cellular digital packet data (CDPD). USSD. WAP is an enabling technology that. They make optimum use of small displays. This makes it possible to introduce new bearers or to use new transport protocols without major changes in the other layers. WAP sessions cope with intermittent coverage and can operate over a wide variety of wireless transports. Backed by 75 percent of the companies behind the world's mobile telephone market and the huge development potential of WAP. with the additional aim of targeting multiple networks. time-division multiple access (TDMA). each layer can develop independently of the others. and 1. through gateway infrastructure deployed in mobile operator's network.WAP utilizes binary transmission for greater compression of data and is optimized for long latency and low bandwidth. WML and wireless markup language script (WMLScript) are used to produce WAP content. WAP content is scalable from a two-line text display on a basic device to a full graphic screen on the latest smart phones and communicators. The lightweight WAP protocol stack is designed to minimize the required bandwidth and maximize the number of wireless network types that can deliver WAP content. The bearer-independent nature of WAP has proved to be a long-awaited breath of fresh air for an industry riddled with multiple proprietary standards that have suffocated the advent of a new wave of mobile-Internet communications. interim standard (IS)–136. Multiple networks will be targeted. 150 . personal communications service (PCS).

over and above voice communications and are beginning to demand the industry to move from a fixed to a mobile environment. the drive toward new and innovative devices is quickly gathering pace. GSM currently does not offer the data rates that would allow mobile multimedia and Web browsing. the boom in mobile communications would be phenomenal. with its distinct time slots serving to manage data packets in a way that prevents users from being penalized for holding standard circuit-switched connections.The Future of WAP The tremendous surge of interest and development in the area of wireless data in recent times has caused worldwide operators. in an area notorious for the diversity of standards and protocols. GPRS is seen by many as the perfect partner for WAP. and the role of personal digital assistants (PDAs) and other mobile terminals. Initially. Handset Manufacturers and WAP Services It is expected that mobile terminal manufacturers will experience significant change as a result of WAP technology—a chance that will impact the look and feel of the hardware they produce. which will dictate the nature and speed of early applications. Indeed. The handsets themselves will contain a microbroswer that will serve to interpret 151 . and content developers to collaborate on an unprecedented scale. The main issues faced by this arm of the industry concern the size of mobile phones. mobile users until now have been forced to accept relatively basic levels of functionality. as well as other emerging highbandwidth bearers. usability. the WAP browser should do for mobile Internet what Netscape did for the Internet. the reality of access speeds equivalent or higher to that of a fixed-line scenario become evermore believable. carrying the functionality of a fixed environment with it. services are expected to run over the well-established SMS bearer. infrastructure and terminal manufacturers. Indeed. industry players from content developers to operators can explore the vast opportunity that WAP presents. The collaborative efforts of the WAP Forum have devised and continue to develop a set of protocols that provide a common environment for the development of advanced telephony services and Internet access for the wireless market. which aimed at increasing the data rate to 115 kbps. the Internet has proved highly successful in reaching the homes of millions worldwide. As mentioned earlier. If the WAP protocols were to be as successful as transmission control protocol (TCP)/Internet protocol (IP). With over 75 percent of the world's key handset manufacturers already involved in the WAP Forum and announcing the impending release of WAP–compatible handsets. processing power. With the advent of general packet radio services (GPRS). However. power supplies display size. As a fixed-line technology.

As mobile commerce becomes a more secure and trusted channel by which consumers may conduct their financial affairs. news. which is embedded in a Java™ virtual machine on the handset. Information will be available in push and pull functionality. vendor independent network-standard independent transport mechanism–optimised for wireless data bearers 152 . JavaPhone™—Sun Microsystems is developing PersonalJava™ and a JavaPhone™ API.the byte code (generated from the WML /WMLS content) and display interactive content to the user. thus. however. customers will no longer be required to buy a new phone to take advantage of improved features. Essentially. Mobile industry players will fight to provide their customers with sophisticated. Stock prices. the market for WAP will become even more lucrative. Empowering the user with the ability to access a wealth of information and services from a mobile device will create a new battleground. their similarity to the established and accepted Internet model. The services available to users will be wide-ranging in nature. multithreaded operating system from Microsoft designed for including or embedding mobile and other spaceconstrained devices. WAP in the Competitive Environment Competition for WAP protocols could come from a number of sources: subscriber identity module (SIM) toolkit—The use of SIMs or smart cards in wireless devices is already widespread and used in some of the service sectors. and travel are only some of the areas in which WAP will provide services for mobile users. and the simplicity of the WML / WMLS languages with which the applications will be written. with the ability for users to interact with services via both voice and data interfaces. the WAP application strategy involves taking existing services that are common within a fixed-line environment and tailoring them to be purposeful and user-friendly in a wireless environment. as a result of the open specifications of WAP. NEPs will be able to build cellular phones that can download extra features and functions over the Internet. Web browsing as experienced by the desktop user. The advantages that WAP can offer over these other methods are the following: open standard. value-added services. Real-time applications and services demand small and key pieces of information that will fuel the success of WAP in the mobile marketplace. is not expected to be the main driver behind WAP as a result of time and processing restraints. weather. Windows CE—This is a multitasking.

application downloaded from the server. enabling fast service creation and introduction. as opposed to embedded software 153 .

com. a two step process begins. E-commerce has altogether brought a revolution in the business dealings all over the world. reducing both lag time and paperwork. with reduced cost. companies can reduce costs by improving orderprocessing efficiency. It means higher margins of profit. the cost of processing an airline ticket through conventional method is $8. you can link dealers and factories online. The customer bank sends an authorization number back to the merchant or web site and the order is captured.3 trillion. where customers can purchase downloadable goods and receive them on the spot. You can move procurement online by setting up an extarnet that links directly to vendors. What is the end result of e-commerce? While building customer royalty. E-commerce merchants can range from the small business with a few items for sale all the way to a large online retailer such as www.Fundamentals of e-commerce What is e-commerce? E-commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services across the Internet. An e-commerce site can be as simple as a catalogue page with a phone number. This figure is expected to reach $130 billion in the next four years. or it can range all the way to a real-time credit card processing site. A word about online payment processing When a customer purchases an item with a credit card. while the cost of processing an airline ticket booked online is just $1. According to a recent research the business to business e-commerce will touch $1. This is ten times more than the business to consumer (B2C) value and greater than the gross domestic product of Britain or Italy. For example. The payment for all the transactions is done through secured credit card system.amazon. Last year alone transactions worth $43 billion have taken place between business to business (B2B) online all over the world. 154 . cutting inventory and carrying costs and becoming more responsive to your customers. Using the techniques of e-commerce. Step1 The merchant or the web site requests an authorization from the customer's credit card account to ensure that the card is valid and the customer has enough available balance for the purchase. In 1998 alone consumers spent $8 billion to buy goods and services online.

E-COMMERCE TUTORIAL Introduction Welcome to the e-Commerce Tutorial. the customer's bank takes out the required fees and the transaction is complete. where all of the information he gives is encrypted. he decides that he wants to purchase something.paypall.cybercash. Note: Credit cards are an important part of enabling business through Internet. From there. Some major ones are www. Would you like to be able to accept secure. the information moves through a private gateway 155 . then the order is saved securely for later settlement. At that time.clickbank. The bank deposits funds to the merchant's account. If the merchant is selling hard goods.authorizenet.com These service providers will generate authorization request when the customer places an order. This is how E Commerce works. Once goods are shipped. the merchant can settle the order and the transaction is completed.com www. here's how! This tutorial will show you how to get started in the complex and exciting world of Electronic Commerce. real time credit card transactions on your web site? Well.com www. If the merchant is selling downloadable goods like computer games and software.com www. so he is moved to the Online transaction server. The easiest process to integrate into an existing business is an offline authorization and settlement process.ibill. which have to be shipped to the customer. without any intervention by the merchant. while the customer's account is debited for the amount of the purchase. Once he has placed his order. then the order can be authorized and settled in real time.Step2 The merchandise is sent and the merchant informs the bank where they have a merchant account. The consumer moves through the Internet to the merchant's web site. Who are the credit card processing agencies? There is lot of credit card processing agencies in the Internet.com www.

com www.to a Processing Network. There are many different payment systems available to accommodate the varied processing needs of merchants. A few things to look for are: 156 . It is important that the web hosting company is capable of providing you with the level of service that you need to maintain your Web Store.ICVerify.com www. This generally takes place in no more than 5-7 seconds.com www. www.iTransact.MerchantOnline.com www. These will not include resellers or consultants.AuthorizeNet.FirstSecurity. only those companies that provide Payment Gateways for Online Transactions.MasterMerchant. Below you will find a listing of e Commerce Companies that are prominent in the industry. from those who have a few orders a day to those who process thousands of transactions daily. Getting an Internet Merchant Bank Account Web Hosting Obtaining a Digital Certificate Finding a Provider of Online Transactions Creating or purchasing a Shopping Cart Software E Commerce Directory Welcome to the e Commerce Directory.com www.com www.CambistSolutions.CyberSource. There are several basic steps involved in becoming Commerce Enabled.com Web Hosting Web hosting is a very important step in this process.com www. where the issuing and acquiring banks complete or deny the transaction.com www.CyberCash. as this is how you gain a presence on the Internet in the first place.com www.PaymentNet.OpenMarket.com www.com www. With the addition of Secure Socket Layer technology. e Commerce is also a very safe way to complete transactions.GeneSys.

See your bank for details. Many banks offer Internet Merchant Accounts.S. For the money you're spending. many banks outside the US have very restrictive policies regarding Internet accounts. Here are some additional issues to keep in mind when you apply for a Merchant Bank Account: 157 . International: Since the vast majority of Online Transaction Providers are located in the US and are restricted in their ability to interact with banks outside their own country. Getting an Internet Merchant Bank Account In order to be able to accept credit cards over the Internet. you must apply to your bank for an Internet Merchant Bank Account. Luckily. U. In the US. and most Online Transaction Providers will support them. In the ratings section. the situation is improving. and most Online Transaction Providers will help you with this if you get in touch with them. Also.Good uptime Good technical support Fast connection to the Net Staff that is knowledgeable about e Commerce Compatibility with major e Commerce providers It is always good to spend some time when choosing a web hosting company. This can be relatively easy or somewhat difficult. international merchants have very little choice.A. I have included information on which providers give international service. An international merchant has to find a way to get a US merchant account. depending on which country you live in and what bank you are with. or utilize one of the few companies that services the international market. embark on the equally difficult task of finding a local Online Transaction Provider. this is a fairly simple procedure. make sure that the company is reputable. as there are many 'fly-by-night' businesses out there.

com or www.00 and can be obtained from www. Any e Commerce Company will require you to have SSL before you can use their services. however. 158 . you may want to get your own digital certificate. visit the Summary section. you will probably also need to upgrade it to an Internet account. How many transactions do you expect to be completing in a month? How many products do you have to put on your web site? How complex does the software need to be? How much are you willing to spend? There are a lot of online transaction providers out there. The Directory page provides a good cross section of the companies out there. you should stop for a moment and consider what exactly you need. Ensure that your bank accepts Internet merchant accounts and has credit card processors that can connect to wwww. It is a good idea to go through a few of them and compare their prices and services.A US merchant account can take up to a month to come through. and they all have varying packages. enables SSL (Secure Socket Layer encryption) on the web server.com Your account must be able to handle Card Not Present transactions. SSL protects communications so you can take credit card orders securely and ensure that hackers cannot eavesdrop on you.com Finding a Provider of Online Transactions Before you start looking for a provider. If you are a larger company. For a minimal fee.com or www. Thankfully.Paymentech. If you already have a merchant bank account.CyberCash. for most people obtaining a digital certificate is not a problem. one can usually use the certificate owned by the web hosting company where your page resides. Obtaining a Digital Certificate (SSL) A digital certificate.Thawte. also known as a SSL Server Certificate. A certificate costs about $125. For a quick breakdown of the most popular packages these companies provide. Deciding on a provider's package that fits your needs is perhaps the most important aspect in creating an E Commerce web site.Verisign.

it is a sure way to get a very bad reputation. but it can often be very expensive. but it should not be undertaken lightly. shopping cart software is the most popular and the most widely known. If you cannot afford to spend at least a couple of hundred dollars on this software. Here are some additional tips on creating a successful Online Store: If you know nothing about web design. keep track of your accounts. such as catalogue software or a flat order form. and tie together all of the aspects of your e Commerce site into one cohesive whole. Put your URL in the signature file of your email and the header of all business correspondence. so be warned. Try finding web sites with similar themes and make deals to create reciprocal links. or one that offers a simple flat order form. tell all of your friends about your page. Many Online Transaction Providers will have shopping cart software that comes with their service. There is a lot of information to absorb. it is probably a good idea to hire a designer. Here are some useful tips: Submit your site to as many search engines as possible. Conclusion E Commerce can be a very rewarding venture. Word of mouth is very powerful on the Net. Avoid spamming . Investigate the web sites that are possible rivals and formulate a strategy for competing against them.Shopping Cart Software Shopping cart software is an operating system that can be used to allow people to purchase your items. Create an advertising banner and purchase space from a popular web site to display it. While there are many other types of software that you can use in it's place. Marketing your site is very important on the web. you should be looking for a package that offers it as a rental included in the monthly service charge. 159 .

Now that you know the basics. 160 . Remember that you can ask for further advice from the company that you decide to employ. you should be able to make some informed decisions about how to proceed.If you anticipate a lot of growth in the amount of orders coming through your site. figure out how you are going to cope with the increased load before you get swamped.

Instead of retyping an address again. CHAT ROOM A place where you can talk to another person or group of people in real time.com and Yahoo. When you type in http://familyinternet. DNS (DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM) A system of numbers that are actually used by computers instead of Domain Names to locate a Web Site.about. COPY AND PASTE A procedure where you copy text on a page into a temporary holding spot called your clipboard. you can go to your bookmarks and click on the address to return to the site. NSFNET was the backbone of the Internet for many years.Glossary of common terms associated with Internet Backbone A backbone is a high-speed line or series of connections that forms a major pathway within a network. For example to create the character © you hold down the Alt key on your keyboard and type 0169 into your number pad. BOOKMARK A term used with Netscape Browsers. Popular browsers are Netscape. A saved address to a Web site that has been added to a list of saved addresses. These directories may be searchable. This includes.com the browser looks for a DNS number that matches the address. text. and hear content on the World Wide Web. Links to other sites are gathered and sorted by category. Communication is usually through typing. BROWSER (WEB BROWSER) A software program that enables you to see. then release the Alt key. then paste it into another area on the page or into another application. sound. Examples of directory sites are About. graphics. DIRECTORY A directory of links to Internet sites. and video. CHARACTER MAP A string of characters to create a character that is not on your keyboard. For example. Computers deal 161 . and Internet Explorer.

and other multimedia files across the Internet. An example DNS number is 206. A saved address to a Web site that has been added to a list of saved addresses. you download the information on the page and temporarily store it on your computer.96. Also this term is used for the start page that loads whenever you open your browser. Instead of retyping an address again. Every time you access a page. sound. 162 . ie. HARDWARE Term used for the physical components of a computer. HISTORY Your browser keeps a record of sites that have been loaded by the browser. :( Sad. HYPERTEXT TRANSFER PROTOCOL A standard used by World Wide Web servers to provide rules for moving text. FTP Abbreviation for File Transfer Protocol. while humans remember names easier. FAVORITES A term used with Internet Explorer Browser. EMOTICONS A string of characters that represent and emotion when you type. :) Happy. It is also used to download files from Web sites.132.20. It is often used by Webmasters to upload their files to a Web site. video.with numbers easier. DOWNLOAD Where you copy a file from another computer to yours. HOME PAGE A Web page that is about you or a page that you create with your favorite links. so computers use the numbers while humans use an address. :o Shocked Learn More About Emoticons FAQ Abbreviation for Frequently Asked Questions. Many Web sites try to gather questions that are frequently asked and put them in one place. you can go to your bookmarks and click on the address to return to the site. A special FTP program is used to transfer files from one computer to another. images.

800x600.com and www. INTERNET A world wide collection of computer networks that allows people to find and use information and communicate with others. Examples are www. You can also post a Web page. the icon is a hypertext link to that page. so you can fit more on the screen. ONLINE SERVICE A company that provides Internet access with extras. There are also cable modems where you can connect to the Internet through your cablevision. NETIQUETTE Rules or manners for interacting courteously with others online (such as not typing a message in all capital letters.earthlink. Resolution refers to the number of pixels that fit on the screen. You usually post to newsgroups or bulletin boards. the faster the data is transmitted. POST An act of putting information on the Internet. like their own chat rooms and services. Frequently. RESOLUTION You can adjust your computer's resolution.ICON A small picture on a Web page that represents the topic or information category of another Web page. or to a different Internet site. Modems come in different speeds: the higher the speed. Refer to Resolution. which is equivalent to shouting). MODEM A device that allows computers to communicate with each other over telephone lines or other delivery systems by changing digital signals to telephone signals for transmission and then back to digital signals. With 640x480 it is 640 163 .aol. ISP (Internet Service Provider) A generic term for any company that can connect you directly to the Internet. LINK (HYPERTEXT LINK) A term used on the Internet for a clickable address or word that will send you to another area of the site you are at. Usual configurations include 640x480.com PIXEL A very tiny dot of information that is displayed on a picture or screen. 1024x768.

Go. WALLPAPER The picture or design that is present on your screen when you don't have any windows open. SPAM An expression for unsolicited email. USENET NEWSGROUPS A system of thousands of special interest groups to which readers can send or "post" messages.200 pixels (640*480) being shown on your screen. WORLD WIDE WEB (Web or WWW) A hypertext-based system that allows you to browse through a variety of linked Internet resources organized by colorful. for a total of 307. such as lost or damaged files. Thunderstone etc SOFTWARE A computer program or set of instructions. When you search. Usenet registers newsgroups. it's search results are gathered by relevance to your query.gov. these messages are then distributed to other computers on the network. VIRUS A piece of programming code inserted into other programming to cause some unexpected and usually undesirable event. The source of the file you're downloading or of a diskette you've received is often unaware of the virus. For example. Some of the more popular search engines are Altavista. Application software allows you to carry out certain activities.pixels wide by 480 pixels tall. SEARCH ENGINE A program that performs keyword searches for information on the Internet. such as word processing. The virus lies dormant until circumstances cause its code to be executed by the computer. and spread sheets. URL (Uniform Resource Locator) The World Wide Web address of a site on the Internet. generally from a company trying to get you to visit their web site or an offer to make money. Viruses can be transmitted by downloading programming from other sites or can be present on a diskette. graphics-oriented home pages. which are available through Internet Service Providers.whitehouse. the URL for the White House is http://www. System software operates on the machine itself and is invisible to you. games. 164 . The program sends a robot to an Internet site and it gathers keywords and stores them.

Bps is usually used to describe modem speeds or the speed of a digital connection. your web browser just accesses it from the cache. Each bit has a value of 0 or 1. sports scores or financial data. a CD-ROM is a storage medium for digital data. so the page loads quickly. CD-ROM An acronym for Compact Disk read-only Memory. then bandwidth represents the width of the pipe that determines how much data can flow through it all at once. Byte A byte is a series of bits of a particular length. Cache When you download a web page. Chat Chat describes the way people communicate online in real time. Bps This is an abbreviation for bits per second and a measurement of how fast data is transmitted. the data is "cached. usually 8. as are pages with news. CD-ROMs can hold 650 Mb. Computer storage space is measured in bytes. Browser A browser is a software program that allows you to view and interact with various kinds of Internet resources available on the World Wide Web. Bits are used in various combinations to represent different kinds of data. people in online chat sessions type messages to each other using their keyboards. Use the Reload button on your browser to download fresh data from the server.Bandwidth Bandwidth is the maximum amount of data that can travel a communications path in a given time. But if the web page is updated frequently. 165 . a bit is the smallest unit of data a computer can handle." meaning it is temporarily stored on your computer. usually measured in seconds. The next time you want that page. The message then appears on the screens of all the participants. Bit Short for binary digit. Chats can involve two or more people. you won't see the most current information. Typically. A browser is commonly called a web browser. The term "chat" is actually a misnomer. or one million bytes. instead of requesting the file from the web server. If you think of the communications path as a pipe. A Kilobyte (or 1 K) represents 1024 bytes and a Megabyte (1 Mb) represents one thousand "K" bytes.

The Internet is made up of hundreds of thousands of computers and networks. Chat rooms are often organized around specific interests. Domain names always have two or more parts separated by dots. Clickable Image A clickable image is any image that has instructions embedded in it so that clicking on it initiates some kind of action or result. but a given domain name points to only one server. gardening. Thus. Once a system administrator registers a unique domain name. or it can do some serious damage by altering or even destroying files. where people can go to communicate online in real time. Computer Virus A computer virus is a program created specifically to invade computers and networks and wreak havoc on them.gov is the domain name belonging to the White House computer system. hidden behind it). typically a web site or a section of an online service. such as causing a funny image or cryptic message to be displayed on your screen. Domain Name The domain name is the unique name that identifies an Internet site. 166 . and so on. Cyberspace Cyberspace is a term coined by science fiction author William Gibson to describe the whole range of information resources available through computer networks. the President's e-mail address is president@whitehouse. For example. etc. Encryption A way of coding the information in a file or e-mail message so that if it is intercepted by a third party as it travels over a network it cannot be read. such as small business owners. all with their own domain name or unique address.gov.e. On a web page. Embedding more than one URL in an image requires constructing an image map. Only the person or persons that have the right type of decoding software can unscramble the message. a clickable image is any image that has a URL or more than one URL embedded in it (i. A given server may have more than one domain name. the VicePresident's is vice-president@whitehouse. The mischief caused can be very minor. whitehouse. This can be accomplished simply by including an <A HREF> anchor tag in an HTML <IMG> (image) tag.Chat Room An electronic space.gov. sub addresses can be assigned to the machines and people on the local network.

Hits This term refers to the number of files that are downloaded from a web server. a floppy disk is the magnetic storage medium used to store and transfer data. In this scenario. you need to know the name of the file. but only 1.of. FTP This is an acronym for File Transfer Protocol -. A firewall allows only specific kinds of messages from the Internet to flow in and out of the internal network. With the advent of the World Wide Web. you will need to use an FTP client program to transfer files. Number of hits a site receives is usually much greater than the number of actual visitors. 167 . Most files are available via "anonymous FTP.000 visits. a page may have 10.of. Typing ftp://name. each graphic element is a separate file. or if you want to upload files to a remote computer. the computer where it resides.site/directory/ gives you a listing of all the files available in that directory. and web browser software.000 hits. In your browser." which means you can log into the machine with the user name "anonymous" and use your e-mail address as your password. you can use FTP by typing the URL into the location box at the top of your screen. That's because a web page can contain more than one file. FTP is a specific way to connect to another Internet site to retrieve and send files. typing ftp://name.zip to your computer's hard disk. Gopher Gopher is an application that was developed at the University of Minnesota to help organize files on the Internet. usually between personal computers that are not networked. FTP was developed in the early days of the Internet to copy files from computer to computer.zip transfers the file filename.Firewall A firewall is a combination hardware and software buffer that many companies or organizations have in place between their internal networks and the Internet. Named after the school's football mascot. For example. For example. so a page with nine graphics would count as ten hits one for each graphic and one for the HTML file.site/directory/filename. Floppy Disk Also called a diskette. If your web browser doesn't have built-in FTP capability. you no longer need to know arcane FTP commands to copy to and from other computers.a very common method of transferring one or more files from one computer to another. To use FTP. and the directory it's in. Keeping track of hits is a way of measuring traffic to a web site that can be misleading. This protects the internal network from intruders or hackers who might try to use the Internet to break into those systems.

or graphic. Internet service providers refers to the remote computer system to which you connect your personal computer and through which you connect to the Internet. Internet service providers that you access by modem and telephone lines are often called dial-up services. allowing data to be transmitted at a much faster rate than with a traditional modem. ISDN An acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network. pages written in HTML use hypertext to link to other documents. sound file. menu-driven guide to finding and retrieving directories of information on the Internet Home Page Also referred to as a web page. Internet Service Provider Also called an ISP or access providers. Internet Telephony Internet telephony is the conversion of analogue speech signals used on current telephone systems into digital data. Hypertext transfer protocol is the set of standards used by computers to transfer hypertext files (web pages) over the Internet.the method used to transfer hypertext files across the Internet. Http Http stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol -. HTML uses a finite list of tags that describe the general structure of various kinds of documents linked together on the World Wide Web. HTML An acronym for Hypertext Mark-up Language. When you click on hypertext. allowing calls to be sent over the Internet.Gopher is a subject-based. you jump to another web page. HTML is the computer language used to create hypertext documents. While the Internet was first devised as a way of transmitting data. On the World Wide Web. Hypertext transfer is simply the transfer of hypertext files from computer to computer. 168 . Internet telephony is projected to explode as the costs plummet. ISDN lines are connections that use ordinary phone lines to transmit digital instead of analogue signals. the home page is the starting point of a Web presentation. It is a sort of table of contents for what is at the web site referring direct links to the different parts of the site. it is now being used to make voice calls. bypassing long distance charges.

LAN An acronym for Local Area Network, LAN refers to a local network that connects computers located on the same floor or in the same building or nearby buildings. Mailing List A mailing list is a way of having a group discussion by electronic mail and distributing announcements to a large number of people. A mailing list is very much like a conference on a BBS, except that the conversation comes to you in your e-mail box. Each time you or any member of the list posts a reply to the conversation, it is distributed to the e-mail box of every member of the list. All of this traffic is automated and managed by programs called mailing list managers (MLMs). The two most frequently used programs are Listserv and Majordomo. Modem Short for Modulator/Demodulator, a modem is a device that allows remote computers to communicate, to transmit and receive data using telephone lines. Netiquette Netiquette is a form of online etiquette -- an informal code of conduct that governs what is generally considered to be the acceptable way for users to interact with one another online. Multimedia Multimedia refers to the simultaneous use of more than one type of media such as text with sound, moving or still images with music, and so on. PDF An acronym for Portable Document Format, PDF is a file type created by Adobe Systems, Inc. that allows fully formatted, high-resolution, PostScript documents to be easily transmitted across the Internet and viewed on any computer that has Adobe Acrobat Reader software (a proprietary viewer is available for free at the Adobe site). Corporations that have invested in brand name identification use PDF to display the original look of their logos and advertising. Publishers can create a high-quality brochure and then "publish" it as is, without converting it to HTML. Anyone interested in presenting documents with the highest possible resolution or a complex layout might choose to use PDF. PDF files can be distributed via e-mail, web pages, CD-ROMs, online services and LANs. They can also contain hyperlinks, QuickTime® movies, and sound clips. POP An acronym for Point of Presence, a POP is the local telephone exchange from which you receive service.


PPP An acronym for Point-to-Point Protocol, PPP is a communications protocol used to transmit network data over telephone lines. It allows you to connect your computer to the Internet itself, rather than logging on through an Internet service provider's host computer and using UNIX commands through a shell. This type of connection lets you communicate directly with other computers on the network using TCP/IP connections. It is part of the TCP/IP suite of programs necessary to connect to and use the Internet. Protocol A protocol is the standard or set of rules that two computers use to communicate with each other. Also known as a communications protocol or network protocol, this is a set of standards that assures that different network products or programs can work together. Any product that uses a given protocol should work with any other product using the same protocol. For example, TCP/IP, PPP, and SLIP. Search Engine A search engine is a type of software that creates indexes of databases or Internet sites based on the titles of files, keywords, or the full text of files. The search engine has an interface that allows you to type what you're looking for into a blank field. It then gives you a list of the results of the search. When you use a search engine on the Web, the results are presented to you in hypertext, which means you can click on any item in the list to get the actual file. Server A server is a computer that handles requests for data, e-mail, file transfers, and other network services from other computers (i.e., clients). SPAM Originally just a canned sandwich filler product, Spam now also refers to the practice of blindly posting commercial messages or advertisements to a large number of unrelated and uninterested newsgroups. TCP/IP TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, the language governing communications between all computers on the Internet. TCP/IP is a set of instructions that dictates how packets of information are sent across multiple networks. It also includes a built-in error-checking capability to ensure that data packets arrive at their final destination in the proper order. IP, or Internet Protocol, is the specification that determines where packets are routed to, based on their destination address. TCP, or Transmission Control Protocol, makes sure that the packets arrive correctly at their destination address. If TCP determines that a packet was not received, it will try to re send the packet until


it is received properly. You must be running TCP/IP to have full Internet access. In UNIX, TCP/IP is a part of the operating system. In the DOS and Windows world, the functionality of TCP/IP is handled by WinSock. This piece of software takes care of your TCP/IP configuration information. Telnet Telnet is a software program that allows you to log in to other remote computers on the Internet to which you have access. Once you are logged into the remote system, you can download files, engage in conferencing, and perform the same commands as if you were directly connected by computer. You need an Internet account to be able to use a telnet program. Uploading Often confused with downloading, uploading a file means loading it from your computer onto a remote one. Most people do a lot more downloading than uploading. See Downloading URL An acronym for Uniform Resource Locator, a URL is the address for a resource or site (usually a directory or file) on the World Wide Web and the convention that web browsers use for locating files and other remote services. Virtual Reality Virtual reality, sometimes called VR, refers to computer simulations of real-world "environments" that use 3-D graphics and external devices like a dataglove or helmet to allow users to interact with the simulation. Users move through virtual reality environments as though they were navigating in real worlds -walking through structures and interacting with objects in the environment. WAN An acronym for Wide Area Network, WAN refers to a network that connects computers over long distances via telephone lines or satellite links. In a WAN, the computers are physically and sometimes geographically far apart. Web Page A web page is a document created with HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) that is part of a group of hypertext documents or resources available on the World Wide Web. Collectively, these documents and resources form what is known as a web site. You can read HTML documents that reside somewhere on the Internet or on your local hard drive with a software program called a web browser. Web browsers read HTML documents and display them as formatted presentations, with any associated graphics, sound, and video, on a computer screen. Web pages can contain hypertext links to other places within the same


or to documents at other web sites. at CERN. and videos for downloading. SSL provides server authentication. SSL is a protocol developed by Netscape communications Corporation for securing data transmission in commercial transactions on the Internet. to other documents at the same web site. instantly.document. To achieve this. World Wide Web You can think of the Web as a worldwide collection of text and multimedia files and other network services interconnected via a system of hypertext documents. CERN developed a programming language called HTML that allows you to easily link to other pages or network services on the Web SSL An acronym for Secure Socket Layer. which uses a pair of different keys (one public. Using public-key cryptography. a message is encrypted and decrypted using the same key. the European Particle Physics Laboratory in Geneva. one private) that have a particular relationship to one another. data encryption." In same-key cryptography. Switzerland. as a means for sharing scientific data internationally. large clickable images. They can also contain fill-in forms. which is passed along from one party to another in a separate transmission. such that any message encrypted with one key can only be decrypted with the other key and vice versa. and data integrity for client/server communications Cryptography The process of securing private information that is passed through public networks by mathematically scrambling (encrypting) it in a way that makes it unreadable to anyone except the person or persons holding the mathematical "key" that can unscramble (decrypt) it. 172 . With hypertext. sounds. Http (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) was created in 1990. A more secure method is public-key cryptography. The two most common types of cryptography are "same-key" and "public-key. and inexpensively. a word or phrase can contain a link to other text. photos.

V/ H. this book has given you some vital information about many useful web sites. If you find this book useful. Use these resources to get ahead in life. you are the product of digital economy and you have got the capacity to challenge the entire world.M. " www.com To know more about us.com Jadeja@operamail. simple and interesting recommend it to your friend.wonderfulkerala. Always remember that. Let us sincerely hope that.M. which you may not find in other books.Conclusion The utility of any book depends upon its contents and simplicity. visit our web site.O KOTHAMANGALAM KERALA INDIA-686692 E-mail: gijo@operamail. JADEJA KATTUVETTIYIL THRIKKARIYOOR P.JADEJA 173 . Also give your comments on this book in the following address GIJO K.com" BEST REGARDS GIJO & H.

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