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Synthetic Harmonies: An Approach to Musical Semiosis by Means of Cellular Automata Author(s): Eleonora Bilotta and Pietro Pantano Reviewed work(s): Source: Leonardo, Vol. 35, No. 2 (2002), pp. 153-159 Published by: The MIT Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1577196 . Accessed: 08/02/2012 08:48
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. providing into insight itsorganization. The relationship between music and A-Life models can be realized as a semiotictriangleof significa- ? MIT Press LEONARDO. Cosenza. ArtificialLife VII:Proceedings of the SeventhInternationalConference (Cambridge. Some characteristics of such forms of art are related to the complexity of their production: startingfrom simple and repeatedly applied rules. and slightly modifying certain elements. authors between elements of analogies cellular automata elements and ofmusical creating a form. semiotic this approach paper the could presents alsoallow ofnew development toolsof into investigation thecomplexity ofartificial-life Through systems. there is no common grammar of creativityin art. Portland. linked with certain ideas about complexity and emergence and the possibility of creating a conceptual framework for discussion of complexity and music. 1-6 August 2000.J. combined with certain models taken from modern science. CA exhibit dynamic behavior. 153-159. Nevertheless. Leibniz This article discusses music. the artwork evolves in time: a given structural configuration might receive many instantiations. fosters increased an capability foranalyzing reconstructing and unexpected complexity.A. Finally. They can also be studied in relation to the emotions they evoke.GENERAL ARTICLE ABSTRACT Synthetic Harmonies: An by Approach Means of Musical Semiosis Cellular Automata to EleonoraBilottaand PietroPantano Music is thearithmetic soul. one of the most promising sectors of contemporary art is the application of A-Life models to art. allows music to be reproduced. codification using systems it musical language. The perspective provided by A-Life approaches raises the question of the ontological status of the artwork:the concept of the unique and immutable artifact is giving way to that of creations that can be replicated in everdiffering ways. Packard and St. This allows their features to change in many ways. mathematical models able to simulate the complex behavior of some physical and/or biological systems) to study complexity and then to translate this complexity into music. linking them together through a semiotic approach. The authors the explore of creation artificial universes that expressible are through music internally and comprehensible complex as The systems. the properties that remain unchanged (invariant). creating that "arithmetic of the soul" to which Leibniz referred. 2. U.A. E-mail:<bilotta@unical. Universita della Calabria. theauthors' music approach. Beginning with the simplest onedimensional CA. can be studied through their reciprocal relationship (as has been previously noted by both ancient and modern philosophers). No. the artist has the ability to generate everdiffering artifacts.S. computational semantic Music methodology. study devoted to understanding life by attempting to abstract the fundamental dynamical principles underlying biological phenomena. In fact. using A-Life models for musical production. Pietro Pantano (researcher). Universita della Calabria. N. we moved on to improving our musical compositions by means of genetic algorithms. We have chosen to use cellular automata (CA) (dynamic structures in which space. Besides. Some recent results will also be presented. Like languages. 35. time and states of the system are discrete. As Christopher Langton has said. Vol. They can be analyzed from the formal point of view as well. Rasmussen. Music and mathematics can be analyzed using models of the auditory perception used by the human mind during listening. pp. Cosenza. The link between mathematics and music. according to its deep structural models of production. Reprinted by permission. An important aspect of most complex systems is that they are massively parallel in operation. is not well defined. This article reviewsthe works that we have produced to date. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Seventh International Conference on Artificial Life (Alife VII). with all their parts working simultaneously. OR. eds. In order to understand complexity. "ArtificialLife is a field of Eleonora Bilotta (researcher). narrative musical framework that hasallowed to develop them a and productive. Bedau. We then advanced to analyzing multi-state CA. Italy. MA: MIT Press. 2002 153 . realizing new musification codes that reproduce the emergence of complexity. that uses numbers withoutrealof ising it. McCaskill. E-mail: <piepa@unical. 2000). Centro Interdipartimentale della Comunicazione. applying the same fruitful rule. can beconsidered semantics the of The identify complexity. synthesized and made to evolve through many theoretical-conceptual instruments offered by the A-Life field.S. ARTIFICIALLIFE AND MUSIC It is possible to create artificialuniversesthat are comprehensible through music.is possible to understand patterns the that theglobal of dynamicscellular automata and produce to usethe in In results themusical domain. SEMIOTICS.it>. how it is possible to manage its overall organization and its detailed content. as expressions of creative thought. each unique in its local details but all changing by means of evolutionary processes. which entails investigating the structures of the models that artists use for musical composition. Music and mathematics.H. mathematics and artificial-life (ALife) models. Centro Interdipartimentale della Comunicazione. exhibiting emergent and self-organizing qualities. design and entertainment  as well as music . the issue of what an artwork might be like. we need to identify the laws in this behavior. Italy.we report on a preliminary grammar of musical compositions. First published in M. and recreating these dynamics in other physical media-such as computers-making them accessible to new kinds of experimental manipulation and testing" .it>. The relative simplicity of CA and their extraordinary capacity to mimic both evolution and growth in biological life seem to have some basic peculiarities in common with natural human languages (and thus with music) and with semiotics.
. .... .. compositions 212132133220121 AnU. our mathematical structures.. ..:. a series of signals linked according ements that precede and follow a to internal laws.. our codification system and our various methods of representation helped us to obtain various artifacts according to the codification systems we have chosen .... .. .] .. . . . . They are capable a planned content. : . .. ..I - content~:: Phenomena::all the possible Config iations That can be Ceaul ar Automata... . which are then interpreted by another system (a listener)..o .::: :.. spatial-temporal patterns of CA may c.:.i... ..... .'12130 sig:i. . : . . e. . . .. :.. .. b.: :. . .. tion or musification(musical expression).::: . of generating complexity.: : .:::..thus producing the rule one-dimensional CA be defined as a dis- 154 Bilotta and Pantano. realizing a great variety of music. which determines a series of states of the system.. .:.. .. .* i :: ' ?. . . :.. d.. ::.. .. .. . . ... .. both local and global... . both continua (expresAccording to Umberto Eco ... :.. . f. h.. The codes implement many processes of musical translation or musi- calrendering......... ::. . . a code can express four different phenomena: sion and content) represent the ela.ysic . .. . .:::. :. .. natural languages and of music. .::-/ '::!::. . . .. semiotic relationship... . :.of music:al .: . thus composing synthetic harthat generates the concrete occurmonies. .... rence of musical signs...l.. multiple possible readings of its mathematical configuration spaces. with attributes b. . .:.. . . .. .:: ::.a ..... ..01.....231021:: .I .. . . . :: . multiple semantics of representation. . . a common and abstract character of production..her..: :: .. . d . of automata unitswithmathematical valuesare translated musical into Fig. . . : : .:.. .. . . .:: :.translation the syste.. : .. multiple forms of evolutionary behavior .: :.. :..:::::.. .gt . .... d..... -.. l..~ :~:" !. .. .. c. . . .... . . . . Therefore.. ::: .. . The CA configurations can be represented by graphicalconfigurations.: ... d.. . : :. correlationbetween an element taken which might also model spontaneous forfrom the expression systemand an el. . b. ..:.. . . thus governed by a rule table. . We have elaborated many under case (d). i !. .::..:. . . .*<... ..::. an infinite number of possible productions.:a .. :.. .. . :. . a rule associating some elements of the digital continuum that realizes the music physically..:. . ... .. possibiities: . . . . .:. . . Synthetic Harmonies .. Ot. A-Lifemusic can be created with the following characteristics: a. .....:...r PIan:of the expression .:. .. let eral types..:. . -: . . a code establishes the correlation AND GENETIC ALGORITHMS between the formal and systematic Cellular automata are a very important aspects of a planned expression and subjectin A-Lifescience..e ::IPSC~E... :... . .. . . a semiotic function establishes the of auto-organization and emergence.. . .. . .. ... but the b. FORMALASPECTS OF CA It can be said that: a. . . a: :: . .. . a series of states of a system.:: . ..musical .... ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~. 1. :. :.DierenS: *1?021.::. ..... . This general (a) with elements of either system formulation of a code is displayed system (b) or (c).. .. .: . .. .. with relations to other patterns.:::.. . arbitrary codification and representation.2012. .. -'-.. .. passage X: Physical...: .. :: .. passage y" ...: : .... :. readin.. since our system has as musification codes in order to oban initial state the configuration of a CA tain musical compositions at different levels of complexity...gof th.tributionof musical sig'tificeac musical. .mation and the growth in complexity of ement takenfrom the content system.. The code that we have developed falls in Fig. . . . g. c. The generalrepresentation a codification system. which can be interpreted by means of appropriate codes. ... . . .Cellular of to compositionsby the attribution musicalsignificance them.. . Attribution... normally.. In this triangle. . .: . ..... . .: : ... ..2130 1212. . . t"' ...:..2 0 t:. . variable rules for its production.. ...:. ... . multiple patterns.. The same can be said for sponses by a receiver.. E. 1.^ ..: :. in this way. .:..... ... .. .. ::cnce ... . .. . : .:-:. .. . .:.. a code establishes genFollowing Stephen Wolfram ... . a series of possible behavioral rebe considered intrinsically semiotic material..m: es cod..: ..:.. ..Phenomena... At.:....... . .... . z~~~~~~~~~~~~. . ..: .
. is generally assessed intuitively by human evaluators. have been codified into a genetic code. generate various individuals (sequences of sounds) associated with these genomes. How. if k = 4 and r = 1. This value will depend on the values of the neighborhood of the site at the time before t . like visual fitness . Fitness growth for four experiments 35000000 30000000 25000000 4o 41 u_ I.3. determining the value of the site itself. mixed codes. The best musical melodies correspond to the fitness curve with 1% of mutation percentage.L W In CN r CC 0 e OG e M r. So the rule of evolution can be expressed as: 1.in which case algorithms are used that in someway transform and/or manipulate the numeric structure of the CA configuration.. I. through which it is possible... and the process was repeated many times. Starting from this genome. we have realized a GA to detect the best musical compositions by means of an automatic mechanism of selection that uses a fitness criterion based on consonance. 2) and GENERATING AND EVOLVING MUSICAL COMPOSITIONS To this point we have developed different types of musification codes. ] (1) tablefor a CAk = 4. Fitness growth given various mutation probabilities. then. among which the most important seem to be: a. 0 002 3 001 1 000 2 where r represents the radiusof the neighborhood and 2r + 1 is the number of sites (around the site i). .) (2) For example..+i . reading portions of CA configurations. = F [a-l) r a(-l) at-1) . make these genomes evolve from one generation to the other. 2..0. whose values are updated simultaneously according to a local rule. 5.crete dynamic system consisting of a finite lattice of identical cells. Instead of using fitness criteria derived from human aesthetic judgments. The CA rules. start from CA genomes such as the string (2).Ct m ne M ' rCN ) 5N O N r - 0o io Generations Bilottaand Pantano. . But this method is not very efficient (we need many generations to produce acceptable results) and is very costly in terms of time and resources [ 13].1. 003 . and we have selected those families most capable of adapting to the environment and reproducing themselves . r = 1. Local rules can be listed in a look-up table. continue the process for many generations. Table1. which give birth to these groups of com- positions. local musification codes. S.. The number of rules will increase enormously as the values of k and rincrease. b. we observed a strengthening and improvement in some populations' fitness (see Fig.1. We have generated a sample set of musical compositions. The value of the site i at time t is indicated by at). through the functions of input-entropy and the progress of the populations by CA.. Look-up 333 2 332 0 331 1 330 3 323 2 . We have done this in order to exploit more fully the great diversity and beauty that complex rules can manifest and to obtain more significant musical compositions. a. the look- up table can be writtenas shown in Table 1.0. d. we have translated into music the complex rules of a great varietyof one-dimensional CA present in literature . to read the grid of a CA site by site. The value of the site is a whole number between 0 and k . We computed the consonance and dissonance values between two notes in a melody. After many generations. were selected according to their fitness. univocally identified by the following string: G = (SI.1. These codes may be indirect.. Fig.L 20000000 15000000 10000000 5000000 0 . a(t) =Fa-_..3.. The succeeding generations. By means of these codes.. b. c. For generic k and r the number of rules will be kk .1. does one decide on the quality of musical compositions? Musical fitness. created by random genetic mutation. and (2) will be: G= (2. Synthetic Harmonies 155 . c. before the CA are translated into music . . showing how the presence of auto-organization and strange creatures can be translated into music . Using as a fitness criterion a measure of complexity-the inputentropy function-we have constructed a GA to search for complex rules for multi-state CA .2) The string (2) can be considered the "genome" of the CA.2. casually modifying their features and using combination rules based on sexual pairing. global codes. e. select the genome sequences most suitable for evaluating the capabilities of the individuals (in this case the most consonant sound sequences). one can activate an evolutionary process through the application of a genetic algorithm (GA).. The procedure we have used is the following: a.. .
.' '#Repeitions^ ' ontr.2:. ' ::i''::~' ----------- ----- --- -------- 156 Bilotta and Pantano. and it is possible to read the representations complexity produces only if one possesses the code. or the simultaneous sounds that form harmonies..: .: .. fugues and rhythm transform a sequence of sounds into music. ~. Using an algorithm based on consonance. We also found that in the musical pieces generated by a genetic algorithm based on consonance.. 'Rules compositi... music builds elaborate structures of sounds. harmony.emergent properties in improving melodic organizations. which could be similar to those of musical composition ... :. Experienced listeners make use of a large number of Cellular automata also display rich and complex patterns. and the vertical axis depicts pitch relations.. On the one hand.. We have translated into musical compositions domains and gliders of complex multi-state CA  and have observed that complexity has some organizational laws..... in which the horizontal axis stands for the temporal succession of sounds that forms the melody... Given the broad applicability of evolutionary concepts and tools to music.. This derives from musical notation..'::.. .. dissonant harmonies sound unstable or seem to clash or to have low fitness values. consonance.i:::. consonant harmonies are those that sound stable. NARRATIVE MUSIC AND COMPILEXITY The graphical configurations in which CA evolve can describe the way in which complexity is manifested or codified.. class 2 (periodicity).ch. homogeneous state.::..___ CA classes for comp. with its own grammar and aesthetic: melody..t ..:_".I ...._. the question arises of how they may be used in relation to music theory.%:'..... That is a more complex human expression. :.. this makes the generation of music a difficult and very complex process. which include transpositionand repetition. musical expression depends on rules that evolve with time and are strongly bound to their historical period..... A second issue (which is still potential in fieri) concerns the realization of computer-based programs (or modified computational tools) that pro- duce music automatically by means of other kinds of evolutionary processes. modes and key relations..i. Analogies between CA and musical composition: many elements of complex systems correspond to elements of musical systems. and a variety of transformations... o n ...i... The first class consists of automata that evolve to a unique. The second class Fig. music can be considered the semanticsof complexity. Music also builds upon structural concepts such as scales.' . .music is thought of as having a horizontal and a vertical dimension... t ..._.: of o':n:'::::::'i. Unlike physical facts whose lawsare unchangeable. Complexity can be seen as a process of encoding.*~ondF~s:. . but. psychologists have pointed out.!....::. as well as the clear interpretation of patterns (generated from different processes of evolution) that could help to create unity and coherence while also ensuring variety in the musical pieces. after a limited transient.. Translating a sequence of sounds through physical parameters does not amount to generating music.. *Particlesor gliders...?: :'. and class 4 (complexity) . 00- Musical composition(accordingto Musical forms Conventions .ing C:A Discovery of family of complexrules Analysis of any rules Family analysis ation Catalogue cr. Common formal pattern Major C .:'i:. Wolfram classified CA qualitatively according to their aperiodic behavior: class 1 (homogene- ity). Synthetic Harmonies . . . l.. canons.' .. In our approach.. ..lexres Sear... class 3 (chaos).:'Development.. *Com?plexity rules_:':. *Glidersinteraction. its aesthetic and perceptual comprehension does not rely merely upon the raw properties of the individual sounds..': ... as Gestalt musical concepts or schemes in listening to music. we searched for the repetition and recombination of recognizable melodic motifs and fragments.._. The results show that the evolutionary process can be useful in defining consonance/dissonance when applied automatically to musical compositions.. 3. We find that such concepts can be useful in understanding both local issues of music structure and organization and global issues of configuration and diachronic change in musical style. They tend to be resolved into consonant harmonies .."ii''i:i':.l^ pi . Traditionally. without human intervention. whose organization is completely unpredictable... _ ____ _.
. especially in the form of melodic imitation.theoretical framework. simple and periodic structures.. . The C1A configuration produces a musical composition in which we can hear the alternation of Fig-.. nations can produce this form of musical by with the properties of temporal invari. Often a series of very subtly different initial data for the same CA provides a unifying element.<.. The fourth class deals with automata that evolve to complex patterns. . - . In many CA. .musical form are repetition and contrast. Many musical composi- Bilotta and Pantano. . When we activate a code. we used the elements geneity....from different domains of the same rule ular domain. .. ? i~~~~~~~F ~~~~?" _||_~~~~~~~~~~~ _ _ -| _ _ I ... Exact repetition. and these ical systems .of the CA catalog to obtain compositially localized. . Variation (repetition in which some aspect is changed-movements added to the melody or alterations of the harmony or rhythm).. ^ i-T . 3.~.itly understood by listeners. Svnthetic Harmonies 157 . - "'.. 2. they create another same happens if we link together data set of particles or annihilate one another. In the first case. signifies success in discovering: * the regular domains of a CA The common formal patterns to be * the quiescence state found in a musical composition can be * particles or gliders described in terms of the major sections * interaction between particles.. Such variation can be compared with that in sentences with slightly differing meanings or with synonyms. and the resulting compositions resemble Gregorian or tribal chants or baby talk (see Fig. Contrast (in which the new section is markedly different from the previous one). * .. For this case. ' . Two strings of CA doA CA's regular domain is represented mains or gliders or their various combia set of spatial lattice configurations. we need not change the rule.. . s '. '.. Musicalform:repetition. using data from the same domains. To create examples of this kind of repetition we used the CA domains. A special kind of variation is counterpoint (the interlacing of melodies). which are variations created to fit the harmonies of a given melody (see Fig. To produce this class of variations in CA compositions. . I??.. ~8^_ . .* . within a piece. The two fundamental characteristicsof number of the musical instantiations we can realize. 3) structures can be observed emerging underlying such systems will require a from a homogeneous. This form of repetition is very simple to obtain. The catalog includes a different types of compatible CA data. as in most jazz improvisations. These particles emerge as deformations of a reg.composition. *- . . temporally periodic tions .. we conceived the velops in time.. the discovery of any commonalities or universal laws (see Fig.> i. Given the diversity of systems falling into the classes of CA and of musical compositions. ' '?.. or they are called particles or gliders.The CAgraphical configuration groupsof notes. In music. _ ~~~~~~~~~~..'. Imitation was the means for creating unity in forms such as the motet and the fugue.. ' *'~ ^ lT^ . Such compositions can be realized boundary between two adjacent domains.:..-.. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~?i f:~~~. When domain violations form a spa. T .gliders that can be joined together. at our disposal entire families As music takes place in time. We cal properties and represents a knowl.also demonstrated that various kinds of edge base with which it is possible to compositions can be realized by linking discover music. The third class is composed of automata whose evolution leads to chaotic space-time patterns.'.. Every musical system has idea of creating catalogs.^**.Hij^ i. ' ' .r "~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'. vanishing riodically in space-time. .._* . Creating a CA catalog conventions have an effect on the listening process and on interpretation. periodic or regu. .20] or "particles".:. Musical form: repetition.. repetition instills in the listener both memories of what was heard and expectations of what is to come.elements in time is called musical form.... The orderly arrangement of musical continuously over a long period before or propagating themselves pe. . ?' ' : ". that produce gliders and/or different A CA's whole catalog has mathemati. _ -~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . 5). This is true both of recognizable details and of patterns that are only recognized unconsciously.4.. . the container of several gen... ?w: ? . of eral and abstract "types" musical forms These relationships provide the basis for consists of automata whose evolution leads to a set of separated. varying the melody or altering the harmony or the rhythms of the compositions.. ". In this class..different CA rules. . ?-. thus realizing a conventions that are explicitly or implichigher-level description of these dynam. .. . we realize the "tokens"of that CA as musical compositions. reading the complexity that CA produce.. the CA can have. .We have realized musical forms of difodic structures are identified as "gliders" ferent types using a composite way of [19.. of producesa musicalcompositionin whichwe can hearthe alternation graphical Fig.' ' .. . we used different initial data for one CA rule to produce compositions.Sections of a composition can be related to one another in four ways: 1. musical forms found both universallyand within particular cultures and historical periods..._! * ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.-_l ... ? .' . its form deHaving of complex rules . These last peri. The more particlescollide. when two or (producing summation domains). . --r .. _ ". 4). * * r..'.... using either the same or ance (or periodicity) and spatial homo. Narrative music lar background. groups notes. These structures change might be such a framework. l..
the resulting composition will consist of two contrasting sections that function as statement and counter-statement. We identified analogies with some elements of CA and elements of musical form. Synthetic Harmonies . It seems that there is a correspondence between the catalog elements and the musical features. we used. inserting data from the domains and changing them in a creative manner. In order to identify consonant compositions. or it may be complicated by repetition (XXY) or variation (XXk'YYk'. The pattern may be. such as a melodic fragment or a rhythm. CONCLUSIONS The scenario A-Life science reveals to musicians is completely unexpected. The three patterns produce different melodies. producing. we used as an evaluation scale the fitness of the rules compared with the consonance scale that uses very small proportions. are taken apart and recombined in new ways to create a new section). we can produce musical pieces with some pre-defined characteristics. 5. This mathematical model allows us to realize an engineering process for musical compositions. This narrative musical framework helps us to develop a productive methodology. this great range of approaches and possibilities is not fully known and exploited. Musical form goes beyond sectional patterns and is created by the composer's organization of melody. So we can build up a mathematical model for musical composition. music can be considered the semantics of complexity. tions are based on contrast as well as repetition of sections. Unfortunately. as before. Development (in which components of the original section. by means of a musical language. variety and symmetry. In fact. it is possible to realise sentences and then composites of sentences in order to obtain higher-level compositions. according to the differences in the visual configurations. the rules of complexity and the rules of musical composition. But the organizational structure we identify in analogy with elements of CA complexity can exist on several levels. as in other models of thought. 6). rhythm and harmony. as we can create a computer program to perform the process of 158 Bilottaand Pantano. it is possible to give meaning to many characteristics of the patterns that CA global dynamics produce and to use the results in the musical domain. In this case. XY. For this type of composition. For producing this category of compositions. Such a musical narrative also provides an example of hierarchical levels of form.Fig. In our approach. managing and creating music are actually available. 4. we used different CA rules or domains (see Fig. creativity plays an important role. elements that involve creative thought. Through various codification systems using musical language. and it is possible to identify basic formal patterns having unity. It is computational. We are planning to build up a system for describing CA complexity in which. The alteration of contrasting sections can be expanded in forms as in the concerto. different initial data from one CA. If we use two forms. we are developing a sort of narrativeof producing musical compositions in which. paradigms and tools for studying. Musical form: variation using different CA patterns. for example.where Xk' means a variation of X). New keys of reading the complexity of A-Lifesystemscould be realized using the semiotic approach this paper presents. This model helps us in interpreting complexity (or music in general) as well as in producing musical compositions as narrative pieces. New methods.
Prague. Wolfram . Synthetic Harmonies 159 .. U : m : U. Bilotta and Pantano . J. Talarico. Rasmussen. P. Italy. Italy:AleaDesign. Pantano and P. No. Boudreau. Proceedings 9. 10. Bilotta et al." Physica 154D (2001) pp. rE . E. "Interactive Evolution of Equations for 9. 17. "Observations on Complex Multi-State CAs. "Music Generation through Cellular Automata: How to Give Life to Strange Creatures. . P.eds. Eco. Italy: Editoriale Bios. E. Bilotta. University of Calabria. C. Aitificial Life: An Overviezw Procedural Models. 24. E." The Visual Computer No. and artificial life and music. Attractors Basins and the Z Parameter." in J. E. C. It is semantic because we produce musical compositions.. "ArtificialLife Models for Musical Application. University of Calabria. 8. 23. E."in M. Bilottaand Pantano. Eleonora Bilotta is professor of General Psychology at the Arts and Humanities Faculty. ed. Italy. C. . creating the corresponding musical forms and then recombining them in a productive manner (synthesis). J." in Workshop . "What Is Life?" in E. V. Langton. E. eds. . E. 14. we obtain different melodic lines. expressing the laws of emergence and auto-organization.S.N.. Workshop Proceedings. 6. "Classifying tomatically: Finding Gliders. References 21. 3.. 4. EEI_:E : I ^t :'. Pantano. Winning Ways Your for 2.H. 2 (New York:Academic Press. Musical form: contrast.P. 8-14 September 2001 (Cosenza. "Upper Bound on the Products of Particle Interactions in Cellular Automata. 1-35. Greco. * BI BM U? I . Mathematical Plays. 18." submitted for publication. 11. "Searching for Cellular Automata Complex Rules by Means of Genetic Algorithms. M. Shalizi and J. 25. 5. MA: MIT Press 1995). at 2002). 8.self-organized criticity and artificial life." Complexity 4. An Introduction Genetic to Algorithms (Cambridge. Bilotta. Guy.C. 47-66 (1999). Progress Industrial in Mathematics ECMI 2000 (Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Pantano and V. Wolfram .G. Advancesin ArtificialLife (Proceedings of theSixthEuropeanConference ArtificialLife. McCaskill." European Conference on Artificial Life VI. Conway. Pantano. . P. and generative and evolutive music. eds. 2000).A. . L I . Kelemen and P. Artificial International LifeVII: Procedingsof theSeventh Conference (Cambridge. Bilotta and P. E. Pantano and V. 1." Proceedings Generative of Art (Milan. MA:MIT Press.I C de~ o ~l I LL . in press. (Cambridge. "Universalityand Complexity in Cellular Automata. Wuensche. U.R. psychologyof music. "Artificial Life Music Tells of Complexity. Anile. which demonstrate complexity. Sims. on September2001) (Berlin: Springer-Verlag." PhysicaD 10 (1984) pp.H. "Evolutionary Music and Fitness Functions. Artificial Life VII Workshop Proceedings(Portland.M. P. Cellular Automata Au20. psychology of programming. Bilotta. Pantano and V. 226-235. Talarico. Bedau. 2001).t . 466-476 (1993). 22. Bilotta and P. Crutchfield. K. These families are derived from the process described in Bilotta et al. analysis by detecting the CA elements. Lafusa and P. Fig. Miranda. Maley and E. E :IE E :: i : : A: . 537-546. 240-258. Pantano. Sosik." in A. 6. Prague. 12. 2000). Bilotta. Todd. 13.J. Packardand S. i ' E . Italy: Bompiani. Hordijk. .. 1996). 1982) Chap. Using different CA patterns. Conway and R. 1975). Hordijk et al. 2000) pp. Wolfram. OR: Reed College. 19. A. His current research interests include non-linearphenomena and wave propagation theory. "Synthetic Harmonies: An Approach to Musical Semiosis by Means of Cellular Automata. Trattatodi semiotica(Milan.. Her current research interests include intelligent systems in education. eds. complexity. Berlekamp. Filtering and Relating Space-Time Patterns. A. : r . 7. W. 16. Bilotta et al.Vol. . Pietro Pantano is professor of Classical Mechanics and Applied Mathematics at the Engineering Faculty. MA: MIT Press. 2001) pp. Mitchell. 15. Talarico. 3.R. Bilotta and Pantano .H. Capasso and A. Bilotta. eds. S.
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