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D. R. Langham, J. Riney, G. Smith, T. Wiemers, and D. Peeper March 2009 www.sesaco.com
Advantages of Sesame
More profitable with limited resources than other crops using the same resources. Offers more return for less cost and less risk. Gross return may not exceed other crops but net return will. Very drought and heat tolerant. Suppresses root-knot nematodes and is not affected by cotton root rot. After sesame, soil tilth and moisture retention is increased allowing following crops to have more yield with reduced production costs. Negligible economic damage from diseases, insects, deer, hogs, and birds.
Can cultivate 3-4 weeks after planting and may throw soil up to cover the base of the plant and small weeds.
Uses less water than cotton, corn, sorghum, soybeans, or peanuts. It will continue to produce on a minimum amount of moisture before detrimental stress occurs. Sesame is one of the most drought tolerant crops in the world but will give higher yields with more moisture. Surface moisture at planting is critical for stand establishment. A full soil profile is the best water sesame can get, followed by adequate water at flowering. Too much water can kill sesame. Sesame cannot survive standing water and may die in saturated soils. Where cotton turns yellow, sesame dies.
Grows best on medium to light, well-drained soils. Prefers pH 5-8 and does not tolerate salinity.
A general recommendation is 5 lbs of N should be available per inch of plant available moisture. The best sesame yields are on fields that have a balance of NPK available but N is most limiting. Sesame is deep rooted and will utilize water and nutrients below most other crop’s root zones. Split applications of N are effective. It is common to apply the first half before planting and the second half prior to flowering. The peak demand for N is during flowering.
Planting is the most critical aspect of growing sesame. Earliest time to plant is when there is a 70ºF soil temperature in the morning with a good forecast. Good land preparation and uniform residue management are essential for a good stand. Both row planters and drills work well. Conventional and no-till practices are used. Place the seed ½”- ¾” below the defined moisture line with a ¼” - ¾” covering of dry soil above that line. The combined seeding depth should be between ¾” and 1 ¼” maximum. If a planting rain follows a drought, make sure that the top moisture has joined the bottom moisture. No root will push through dry soil. Moisture is needed around seed for 3 days (late planting/warmer) to 5 days (early planting/cooler). Good starting point: 25 to 35 seeds per foot. Planting rates dependent on row spacing and planting conditions. Row Width (inches) Rate (lbs./ac) 40 2.5 30 3 20 4 15 5 First time growers should use recommended rates. Some experienced growers use a lower rate.
Disease and Insects
Basically, no problems in the growing area with present varieties under healthy conditions.
Drydown occurs in 120-150 days without a frost. A frost will speed up drydown, and a freeze will terminate the crop to be ready for harvest in 8-10 days. Most combines do an excellent job when set up properly. The operator is more important than the combine. Most combines use a platform header (conventional or draper). Because sesame seeds are near 50% oil, the moisture needs to be below 6%. When planting sesame and sorghum at the same time, sesame will be below 6% before sorghum is below 14%. Be prepared to harvest sesame first. Experienced combiners agree sesame is one of the easiest crops to harvest.
Only herbicides registered for sesame: - Clethodim (Select) [Do not spray during flowering] - Glyphosate (Roundup Max) [for burndown, and by hooded sprayer and wiper] Working on Section 18 for metolachlor (Dual Magnum).
Sesame is a rotation crop. SESACO does not recommend continuous cropping.
SESAME IS A SUMMER CROP PERFECTLY SUITED FOR THE ARID AREAS OF TEXAS, OKLAHOMA, AND KANSAS
Early bloom stage
Mid bloom stage
Late bloom stage
Full maturity stage
Initial drydown stage
Late drydown stage
Time to combine
STAGES OF THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SESAME
It has unique attributes that can fit almost any cropping system. disease. substantial return crop for Texas. SESACO released the first Improved NonDehiscent (IND) varieties (Patent pending). Planting equipment App 2. this attribute alone is a major reason to grow sesame. Relatively negligible economic damage from wild hogs. the capsules will release the seed inside the combine with minimal damage to the seed. Crops following sesame have increased yields with reduced production costs because of increased moisture retention and better soil tilth. Very heat.Sesame Grower Guide 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 1 2 2 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 14 15 15 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 20 21 24 25 INTRODUCTION SESACO is the premier genetic developer. Oklahoma and Southern Central Kansas. While harvesting with proper combine settings.500 years. deer. and patterns Raised bed planting No-till and strip till Conventional tillage Variety selection and planting dates Planting sesame Planting concept Planting seed equipment and Settings Row unit attachments Press wheels and covering systems Seed metering equipment Dry planting Buster planting Planting rates Weed management Herbicides with labels Herbicide research (currently not labeled) Herbicide drift Cultivation Rope wick applicators Water management Nutrient management Diseases Insects Harvest Philosophy of operating a combine in sesame Color of the combine Header Threshing Seed separation Empty bin when reaches auger Sesame residue management Fires Rotational crop benefits after sesame Hog and deer tolerance Other considerations App 1. Low water use during the drying phase (last 30-40 days) allows sesame ground to collect rainfall and store the moisture for double cropping directly after sesame harvest.100. Sesame is more profitable with limited resources than other crops using the same level of resources. Variety characteristics ADVANTAGES OF SESAME Sesame is one of the most versatile crops that can be grown in dry arid regions. In 2008. SESACO has developed the only non-dehiscent (ND) sesame (US patent number 6. drought. All of these traits combined together provide a low input. insect. Initial combine settings App 3.452) with traditional breeding techniques. It is an easy crop to include in a rotation because equipment used for other crops can be used to grow sesame. processor. Introduction Advantages of sesame Crop description Growth and development Field selection Growing areas Temperature requirements Soil requirements Herbicide carryover prior to sesame Rotations Land preparation Row versus drill planting. A first time grower can easily experiment with sesame because of the low input requirements without risking too much. With currently increasing input costs. Even today. It offers more return for less cost (less risk) than other crops. birds. Reduces populations of root-knot nematodes and suppresses cotton root rot. 99% of the sesame grown in the world is harvested manually because traditional sesame capsules shatter when they dry down for harvest. SESACO’s ND sesame changes the way sesame has been cultivated and harvested for 7. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . row spacing. These IND varieties can be left to dry standing in the field and will retain the majority of the seed until combined directly. diseases. and marketer of US grown sesame. and disease tolerance is now completely mechanized by the IND genes. and insect tolerant. and insect pests. heat. Traditional sesame with known traits such as drought.
Each of these (excluding the ripening phase) are divided into stages based upon growth events which can be seen and identified by the grower. and/or heat will shorten all of the stages in the drying phase. sunflower. Just like cotton and sorghum. sesame can reach 5-6 feet in height. The fruiting form of sesame is a capsule. Higher fertility will shorten seedling stage but will lengthen the rest of the stages. Emergence 3rd pair true leaf length = nd 2 First buds 50% open flowers 0-5 6-25 26-37 38-44 5 node pairs of capsules Branches/minor plants stop flowering 90% of plants with no open flowers Physiological maturity (PM) 45-52 53-81 82-90 91-106 CROP DESCRIPTION Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a broadleaf summer crop similar to cotton. Although sesame is indeterminate. As the crop develops. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT There are four phases in the growth and development of sesame. black-eyed peas. Low humidity. there is an overlap between the stages at different periods of the growing season. soybeans. it is generally 3-5 feet. terminate the plants at any stage. Sesame is an indeterminate species like cotton. a frost will terminate the crop and prepare the crop for harvest earlier compared to temperatures remaining just above freezing. mung beans.Sesame Grower Guide 2 Phase or Stage Vegetative Germination Seedling Juvenile Prereproductive Reproductive Early bloom Mid bloom End point of stage DAP a Brittle sesame residue will hold soil from erosion equal to higher residue crops where excess residue may ball-up equipment. they will not be dry enough to harvest for 7-10 days. corn. Branched. The plant is very leafy but will self-defoliate at maturity. in Uvalde. The seed in the first capsule may be mature while the upper portion of the plant is still flowering. often called pods. under irrigation. depending on rainfall. In areas with limited water. In a freeze. single capsule varieties are best adapted to the present growing areas. In most of Texas. even though plants will be brown in 3-5 days. The phases and stages of sesame are as follows: The key factors affecting the length of the various stages are as follows: More moisture will shorten germination and seedling stages but will lengthen the rest of the stages. Late bloom Ripening Drying Full maturity Initial drydown Late drydown a All seed mature st 1 dry capsules 107-112 113-126 127-146 Full drydown DAP = days after planting in phase/stage. A frost will cause the plants to drydown more rapidly than normal. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . These numbers are based on S26 in May 2004. The effect on germination stage is unknown. In dryland conditions. • Best catch crop option following hailed out cotton. Cool night temperatures will lengthen the ripening phase and full maturity stage. Frost may. growers should manage timely application of inputs and scheduling of future events. sesame will dry down before a frost. it will terminate and self-defoliate without a frost. TX. The first capsule is 1-2 ft from the ground. The seed is produced in these capsules with about 70 seeds per capsule. Flowering starts about 35-45 days after planting and flowering stops 75-85 days after planting. Physiological maturity (PM) normally occurs 95-110 days after planting. wind. Some varieties are single stemmed and others have branches. Higher temperatures than normal will shorten the vegetative and reproductive phases. growers can stretch their water by planting part of their acres in sesame and the other part in higher moisture demanding crops like cotton. When planted early and under high moisture and fertility conditions. • Save money with low fertility demand. Sesame normally dries down in 120-150 days. or guar. Some varieties have a single capsule per leaf axil and others have triple capsules per leaf axil. and thus. They have divided sections much like a cotton boll. PM is when 75% of the capsules on the main stem have mature seed. or peanuts. and hard freeze will. It is a program crop that can be planted on cotton (or other program crop) acres and still receives direct payments.
By the third day after open flower. The white flowers opened the day of the photo and self-pollinated.Sesame Grower Guide 3 Sesame is characterized by a slow growth rate in the first 30-35 days to reach only 12” while the root is growing faster than the leaves and stems. there is a possibility that the crust will crack and allow for emergence. the sesame will begin to canopy in 30” rows and the rate of growth will level off. triple to 3 ft in the following 8 days. The stage ends when the seedlings emerge. This is the optimum stage to apply the rest of the fertilizer. The seed will be mature in each capsule from 40 days at the bottom of the plant to 25 days at the top. Vegetative Phase Germination Stage For the germination stage. and quadruple to 4 ft in the following 9 days. Juvenile Stage As shown in the graph before. Seedling Stage The seedling stage is a tough time for producers because of the slow pace of growth. The speed of growth will vary by variety. the final plant heights are lower. the bottom capsules will not dry until after all the capsules rippen. The stage ends when the 3rd pair of true leaves are as long as the 2nd pair. in the juvenile stage there is a dramatic surge in growth. This is the last chance to sidedress. Final stand should be judged at 7 days after planting. it is important to minimize stress to the crop. let alone get a tractor into the field in good sesame. and the sesame should be replanted. the plants reach about 1 foot in height. If the seed is located inside the crust. This is followed by a rapid increase in height of roughly 12” every 7-10 days to reach 4 feet by 60 days from planting. Many first time growers have been stopped driving to the field with a disk to plow up perfectly good sesame. but the pattern of very slow growth followed by fast growth during the reproductive phase exists under all conditions. In the first 34 days. TX] With limiting moisture conditions. 6 5 Plant height (ft) 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Days after planting (DAP) when they return. The larger yellowish buds opened the next day. From this stage until late bloom. Growers that go on vacation during this time are pleasantly surprised © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . During the germination stage. there is no hope for emergence. soil temperatures need to maintain minimum 70ºF at planting depth at 7 AM. If the seeds are germinating below the crust. The stage ends when the first green buds are visible. a rain can create a crust in the soil over the sesame. However. At this point. This is an important stage to consider beginning cultivation. They will double to 2 ft in the next 11 days. Applying fertilizer much after this stage may delay harvest without a commensurate return on investment. This stage is difficult to cultivate. and the first irrigation. [Average of 3 varieties under irrigation in 2004 in Uvalde. This stage ends when there are open flowers on 50% of the plants. Pre-reproductive Stage The pre-reproductive stage is the most important farming stage to optimize production. sidedressing. the capsules are visible and will grow to their final size about 4 days later. directed herbicides.
Mid Bloom Stage The mid bloom stage is the most productive stage because the main stem and branches are putting on capsules. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation .Sesame Grower Guide 4 Reproductive Phase Early Bloom Stage In the early bloom stage. even if it wasn’t planted first. Drying Phase Full Maturity Stage The plants yellow down more. the early flowers will not make capsules. The field that ends the late bloom stage first will most likely be the first to harvest. This stage ends at physiological maturity(PM). The capsule in the upper right has been cut open to show how the seeds are arranged in the capsules. At this stage. Photo by J. go to: www. Late Bloom Stage The late bloom stage defines the last irrigation. For more information on the Growth and Development of Sesame. During this phase. Cotton has to open to be harvested. the bulk of sesame’s weight is further down in the capsule and we are getting more seed in the bin than ever before from any other means. the lower leaves that are shaded will drop. most of the leaves fall off the plants. and the The capsules will open to speed up drying. the crop is less susceptible to yield loss due to frost. In sesame it is normal for the white portion (corolla) of the flower to drop off the plant in the evening. Sesame has to open to dry down.org. This stage ends when there are 5 pairs of capsule nodes. The seed will also have a dark seed line on one side. Even though the plants flower 5-6 weeks. There will be some light seed loss out of the tips of the capsules. Plants are pulling deep moisture at this time and from as deep as the plant is tall or deeper. plants. 70-75% of the flowers are put on the 2nd and 3rd week of flowering. Initial Drydown Stage During the initial drydown stage. The stage ends when the seed has 6% moisture and can be harvested. it starts during the reproductive phase when the first capsule is formed. leaves will turn yellowish green before dropping. This is also the time to compare fields to make harvesting plans. The leaves that drop due to drought are not considered self defoliation by maturity. in most cases. Differences in fertility and seasonal moisture influence the end of this stage. Simon.sesamegrowers. Ripening Phase This phase is not divided into stages and technically. and lose moisture in the seed. The full maturity stage ends when 90% of all plants have seeds mature to the top of the plant. new growers begin to worry about capsules opening. PM is important because after that point. Generally. They are supposed to open. The part of the flower that makes the capsule will remain on the plant. This stage ends when 10% of the plants have a dry capsule. Irrigating after this stage will be wasted or maybe even harmful in causing regrowth and/or preventing timely drydown. This stage ends when the branches and minor plants stop flowering. This stage ends when 90% of the plants have no open white flowers. the capsules. PM is when 75% of the capsules on the main stem have seed with final color and a dark tip. However. Late Drydown Stage The late drydown stage is the final stage we have been waiting for. lose the final leaves.
arid sesame will get many diseases in wet areas. Sesame needs sustained minimum soil temperatures of 70°F to plant. To see if it is planting time. Planting should begin with a favorable 5 day forecast.B. Mackenzie. M. Thermal response in the seedling phase. on Day 2 and 3 the temperatures were below minimums. Watch for cold fronts or rain in the forecast. Phasic development in field crops I. sesame varieties need to be developed.” A second rule of thumb. sesame for dry. Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 90 80 Temperature (F) 70 60 50 40 30 0 12 24 12 24 12 24 12 Time of day (24 hour clock) Soil temperature 1 inch deep Air temperature Growing Areas The rule of thumb was established by Thomas Jefferson over 200 years ago: sesame will grow where cotton grows. it takes longer for the crop to mature. the temperatures were up again. The northern and western boundary limitation is caused by not having a long enough growing season in northern climates or higher elevations with cool night temperatures. Field Crops Research 3. With a cold front.F. Sub-optimum temperatures during planting and germination are a common issue when trying to plant as early as possible.Sesame Grower Guide 5 FIELD SELECTION In considering a field. The threshold temperature for growing degree days of sesame is 60.6ºF1.H. Early planted sesame generally gives the best yields and the fewest pest problems!!! However. arid areas and sesame for wet. 1 © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . Angus. Cuningham. 1980. The daily swings in temperatures can be wide as shown below in April in Batesville. humid areas. J. Cool temperatures are more limiting to production than warm or hot temperatures. 365-378.” It is more important to watch temperatures and moisture than the calendar date. Sesame does not tolerate standing water on the stems and will die. The rule of thumb is “if you have to wear a jacket in the morning.. the most important consideration is drainage. planting too early can reduce yields because the seedlings will grow slowly in the cold weather. Dry. Rule of thumb is that you need 130 days from the time that the soil temperature is 70ºF and the first frost date. the temperature was above the 70 ºF minimum. Historically. arid areas.W. p. By Day 4. Temperature Requirements Sesame is a heat tolerant crop. and wet. and to date. On the morning of Day 1. SESACO has concentrated developing sesame varieties for the areas shown in the map above. R. which will lower temperatures down again. There are two types of sesame. sesame is susceptible to leaf diseases east of I35 to the Atlantic Coast. Sesame has provided excellent yields in very hot temperatures (120ºF) in the deserts in Arizona and around the world. it is too cold to plant. TX. However. “Sesame needs about 5 more degrees than cotton for good stand establishment. Moncur. take the planting depth soil temperature by 7:00 AM. just as cotton varieties have been developed for certain areas. When night temperatures go below the threshold. humid sesame will do poorly in dry conditions. SESACO varieties were developed for dry. and D. This graph shows what can happen as soil temperatures approach planting time.
these herbicides are not as potent. sesame will more than cover its costs and provides soil and yield benefits to cotton and wheat the next year. they will destroy a stand. diluted. and © 2009 Sesaco Corporation LAND PREPARATION Good land preparation is essential for a good stand since the sesame seed is small. It is a broadleaf like sunflower. Avoid these conditions by limiting irrigation rates or providing proper drainage for excessive rain. Monitor rainfall or irrigation since the previous crop herbicide application because these herbicides could have been dispersed. The sesame cycle is about 30 days shorter than cotton and thus can be planted later than cotton. In rare years.There have been mixed results after prometryn (Caparol). pendimethalin (Prowl). Sesame is regularly planted after the previous year’s cotton. and/or pH. The rule of thumb is that if a label restricts cotton to be planted after an herbicide. Sesame is more sensitive to saline soils than cotton or alfalfa.4D and other phenoxy herbicides have been used for early burndown. but in years of low rainfall. In peanuts. sesame needs about 110 days of night temperatures above 40ºF. last time did not harm the sesame. Corn and sorghum herbicides. Poor results . there will not be enough moisture. In some years. In using dimethenamid (Outlook) as a PRE in peanuts. corn. or soybeans without any problems. Sesame needs to reach physiological maturity prior to frost to make optimum yield. does not mean that Finesse will not harm the sesame this year. Herbicide Carryover Prior to Sesame Sesame is NOT a grass type crop. Clay soils are more prone to saturation. Sesame as a catch crop for failed out corn or sorghum. Growers have then gone out and planted and not had a stand. there have been results of no damage to complete stand destruction. temperatures. but the sesame can be disked in as a green manure to provide soil and yield benefits to cotton and wheat the next season. diuron (Direx). Ally. and pyrithiobac (Staple). conduct a field trial by hand planting sesame in various locations of the herbicide treated land to test emergence. the stands have been reduced substantially. Soil Requirements Sesame grows best on medium to light. In most years.Wheat herbicides (in the sulfuron family such as Amber. Using these herbicides just prior to planting sesame may reduce or destroy stands. In the dryland Rolling Plains and Oklahoma. are generally detrimental. alfalfa. The following observations have been made over the past 30 years: The degradation or breakdown of herbicides in the soil varies with light. There have been successful rotations with many vegetables as well.Many acres of sesame have been grown following hailed out cotton. Sesame prefers slightly acid to alkaline soils (pH 5-8) with moderate fertility. such as atrazine. Finesse. Mixed results . cotton. well-drained soil. sesame after wheat has yielded over 800 lbs/acre. or oats. Assert) applied to control broadleaf weeds have caused injury ranging from complete stand destruction to little damage. Sesame has been planted on tens of thousands of acres after failed out cotton in Texas and Oklahoma. Sesame as a second crop after wheat. Sesame has been planted after trifluralin (Treflan). but if used just prior to planting or after planting/before emergence. applied PRE in hailed out cotton. Sesame as a catch crop for failed out cotton. by the time of the cotton hail out. sesame provides a good second income. with yields close to using sesame as a primary crop. Burndown herbicides such as glyphosate (Roundup) and glufosinate (Ignite) are used widely. Few problems . 2. Rotations Sesame as a primary crop. and soybeans. used on wheat prior to planting sesame. moisture. unless that hot zone was moved away from the seed line. In irrigated or high rainfall areas. peanuts. No problems – alachlor (Intrro). Whether using conventional or no-till methods. . Normally. Just because an herbicide like Finesse. rye. Usually does not work because of the herbicides. linuron (Linex). From planting. with a few summer rains at the right time. or moved from the sesame root zone. do not plant sesame. If in doubt. sesame has followed imazapic (Cadre) or imazethapyr (Pursuit). many growers plant sesame as a second crop after wheat. sorghum. and metolachlor (Dual Magnum). having a proper seedbed with sesame is always critical. Glean.Sesame Grower Guide 6 Volunteer sesame can fool you in that it can germinate during a warm spell in March from shallow depths.
and Insure proper seed trench closure In standing residue conditions. Raised beds provide a way for excess moisture to be drained from the seed zone. When it is dry. Sesame is a deep-rooted crop. the more likely the grower is able to cultivate for weed control. is highly discouraged. When strip tilling. and lessens the chance of soil crusting at emergence. S32 on 15” rows in Kansas planted no-till. soil erosion from wind or rain. Periods of saturated soils that turn cotton yellow in low lying areas may kill sesame. Deep tillage should be done with sufficient time for rainfall or for © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . just before planting. Most sesame planting in predominantly cotton areas has been done with row planters. Narrower row spacing is used when irrigation is possible. Both row planters and modern drills can achieve good stands. The advantage of using planter units is the ability to use various planter attachments. Various planter covering systems can replace a light dry cover back over the seed trench. Wider row spacing is used when planting earlier or in drier areas. Raised Bed Planting Planting in or on preformed raised beds has its advantages. Set properly. In this time more acres may be planted before the soil dries out. away from the seedlings. in higher rainfall areas and/or when planting closer to the end of the planting window. allowing better aeration in the soil. Be cautious to not place the seed into a trench that would hold standing water directly on top of the seed. After heavy rains or in heavy soils. more soil can be removed. deep tillage. The wider the row. water needs to be drained into the furrows. Removing all of the dry soil and exposing moist soil may cause baking of the soil crust. these attachments will remove thick layers of dry soil to place the seed into moisture. In no-till. The basic principles of no-till are beneficial to planting sesame. no varieties respond well for below 15” row spacing. row spacing. two and one row patterns on 15-20” and a double (twin) row pattern work well when the twin is narrow from 6” to 15”. Avoid hair-pining. and increased herbicide-soil contact. immediate light reception at emergence. However. Optimum row spacing is from 15” to 40”. Some drills have been set with wide spacing in cases where cultivation is desired and on beds. the dry soil cap can be removed to find ideal planting moisture. while predominantly wheat areas use drills. minimal soil removal is needed. Must be good seed to soil contact. and patterns At present date. Planters and drills have been used to accomplish double (twin) row planting with or without beds.Sesame Grower Guide 7 Row versus drill planting. and hardpans may reduce yields. Surface and standing residue shades the ground to hold shallow moisture near the surface for a longer period of time. Planter unit attachments should be used to remove most of the dry soil but not all. no-till planting provides another way to protect adequate moisture for planting sesame at shallow depths. No-till and Strip-till Whether with a row planter or drill. Conventional Tillage Conventional tillage has its advantages as well as cautions to be aware of. protected by a cap of dry soil until temperatures rise to a sufficient level. the residue prevents evaporation. seedling damage from blowing sand. Two and one row patterns on 30-40” rows limit yield in most cases. Additionally. When the bed is moist. But. A raised bed provides a storage bank of moisture. be cautious of disturbing the seedbed too much and only clear the surface for increasing seed zone temperatures. it is preferred that the planting equipment knock down stubble near the seed line so that more light reaches the emerging seedlings to promote early plant establishment. sesame has been planted successfully in high residues as long as the proper equipment is used to achieve the following principles: Must be at the appropriate soil depth. With the proper equipment. No-till practices provide a firm seedbed in which to place the seed and reduce what is known as seed drift in the seed trench that occur in soft tilled soils. This reduces potential of seedling diseases prone to wet and cool conditions. Sesame is more sensitive to saturated soils than cotton. Deep tillage breaks hardpans in the root zone.
Planting is the most critical aspect of growing sesame. Understanding the depth of the moisture is critical. resulting in the seed being too deep and too shallow. The seed needs to have moisture around it for 3 days (late planting/warmer) to 5 days (early planting/cooler). insures a weed free environment to start the crop. the philosophy is the same: minimize seed depth to reduce the amount of time for emergence. establish a strong stand advantage for sesame to compete against weeds for light. Clean tilling increases soil temperatures. No root will push through dry dirt. make sure that the top moisture has joined the bottom moisture. Initiating roots quicker allows sesame to emerge on less moisture compared to many large seeded crops. Sesame is small enough to move considerably in large fractures in the soil when not using much down pressure on planting units or covering systems. the overall goal is proper seed placement in moisture. VARIETY SELECTION AND PLANTING DATES See inside of back cover in Appendix 3. a shallow mulching is recommended to get rid of weeds from the seedbed and seal in moisture. moisture. cotton growers that use this same philosophy. a high speed will bounce the planter units. soybeans. or mung beans. good stands are easy to achieve. Do not fill horizontal plate planter boxes above 6-8” because the seed will grind and cake up in the planting units. sorghum. Experienced growers testify that planting is the most challenging aspect of growing sesame and that the best way to become educated is with experience. Wait until the temperatures are 70ºF. Planting is the most crucial sesame operation. The following cautions are true for all types of planting: It is essential to have good moisture at planting – as good as or better than cotton. Slow down to increase uniformity in seeding depth. sesame imbibes moisture quicker. If a planting rain follows a drought. Once a grower grasps the planting concepts. Planting Concept No matter what equipment is used. It needs less cover and compaction than most other field crops. Whether a conventional drill. The planters will clog up and plant less seed. However. For shallow planting. A grower can do nothing to improve yield on poor stands except replant. In conventional tilled ground. PLANTING SESAME First time growers should consider all production techniques used to grow sesame. peanuts. This is a case where techniques used 600 miles away may actually work for you as well. The total seeding depth would be from ¾ inch to 1¼ inches. wheat. The sesame seed is small and has less push than cotton. The variations in sesame growing practices are as diverse from neighbor to neighbor as they are from the Coastal Bend of Texas to Southern Kansas. and nutrients before residual herbicides wear off. no-till drill or planter. A light irrigation or shower after the shallow mulching is beneficial to firm the seedbed as well. Planting sesame is management of adequate moisture and temperature to © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . place the sesame into good moisture. and removes residue that may tie up herbicides. and yet place the seed deep enough to ensure the seed will not dry out before emergence. and check for proper placement and depth as fields and conditions change. Planting into soft tilled soils may result in seed drift. Growers quickly gain confidence by following a few techniques and paying close attention to their moisture levels.Sesame Grower Guide 8 other seedbed firming equipment to be used to prepare the seedbed for proper planting conditions. maximum. this can be described by placing the seed ½ inch to ¾ inch below the defined moisture line with a ¼ inch to ¾ inch dry covering of dry soil above that line. being small. The mulch should be as shallow as possible to keep the moisture near the surface and prevent soil from blowing. SESACO research continually evaluates varieties on their ability to emerge quickly and under tough conditions. It is preferred to be less than one inch if possible. the planting seed depth adjustment may only be 1 or 2 clicks shallower than where they plant cotton. In most cases.
36”. various row unit attachments made to go mainly on planters can benefit sesame. Removing excess dry soil and residue from the seed line to provide a better seedbed is often needed. Of the types of single press wheel systems. If the population is too high. It is excellent in no-till high residue conditions. it will branch more to fill the spaces. the single press wheel should be careful to cover the seed without adding too much pressure causing compaction on top of the seed. It is best for all sesame seeds to germinate at once and quickly to compete with weeds. the wider double ribbed type will help reduce compaction directly above the seed trench.Sesame Grower Guide 9 Put as little pressure as possible on the packer wheels in accordance with soil types. the cotyledons will open below even ground. Dusted in sesame that germinates on light showers may dry out before reaching more moisture. Sometimes a chain is dragged behind the unit to remove any excess dry soil and covering where the wheels may have missed. there is an economical limit to what can be accomplished. Even if the seed does not dry out. Be careful to leave a small amount of dry soil and not enter into the moisture layer because it will cause the moist soil to “cake up” on the gage wheels. Planting Seed Equipment and Settings See Appendix 1. and 40” row Seed Metering Equipment Most metering mechanisms used to date have worked successfully when maintained. it may become baked inside the crust at the surface. check again in same field if there has been a strong sun and/or wind drying down the soil. This includes plate planters. The issue here is that planting sesame in a furrow exposes it to the potential of being flooded out with just a small rain.5 to 5. Depending how much of an advantage the weeds may have on the sesame. There have been no statistical differences in yield between 3-8 plants per foot at harvest in studies on 30”. Watch for hair-pinning in high residue. volumetric drill meters.0 lbs/ac. Press Wheels and Covering Systems Most planter unit covering systems have been used with sesame. it will self-thin itself in most situations. Recheck depth settings in different parts of a field. In low populations. Buster Planting Like “Dry Planting”. they may not have the energy required to break through that crust. Sesame can adjust to the population. The White positive air pressure system has successfully been used for two years with grower made plates. set and calibrated properly. Be careful with the large cast iron covering wheel of the JD 90 series opener. and air drill meters. depending on row spacing and planting conditions. weed seeds. Because sesame seeds are small. Release most all pressure with just enough to ensure proper covering. Giving weeds any head start in sesame is failure waiting to happen since there is no economical total control of broadleaf weeds once sesame has emerged. Many times dry planting sesame does not establish a stand sufficient to compete with weeds. Dry Planting Planting dry is a dangerous proposition and most often does not work. Row Unit Attachments As stated before. and herbicides. this can cause severe baking by exposing the moist soil to the sun. The idea is to cover with a thin dry layer of soil above the seed placed in moist soil. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . Also. vacuum planters. It has had excellent success in the right conditions as well. Buster planting should only be attempted in light sandy soils that have high infiltration rates or a forecast with a high probability of no rain for 10 days. If the sesame is planted shallow in dry conditions and receives a rain. This will lead to laying the seed on the surface and not in the trench. buster planting is a hazardous proposition and often does not work. Do not use the vertical plate with brush meters in planters and double run meters in drills. The wheel does not compact the seed but in soft soils may apply too much soil above the trench. In windy areas. The issue is where the sesame seed is in relation to moisture. 38”. The cheapest insurance for sesame is to plant enough seed the first time. Over-seeding is much better than under-seeding. exposing them to being covered by running water from heavy rains or blowing sand. blowing sand can cover the emerged seedlings. Closing the seed trench is essential. Planting Rates Most growers plant between 2. Leaving an open trench will lead to the seed drying out. check again the next day or when moving into a new field. On grain drills.
e.4 3. much higher populations can still yield well. trashy soil In cooler temperatures In less than good moisture When soil changes within a field In possible harmful herbicides residues In fields with hills and low spots Plant less (20-25 seeds/ft) when planted In closer row spacing.500-105. they help to push up soil and emerge.8 2. mintweed. A shot in the dark can be a shot in the pocket book when you run out of seed or don’t put out enough seed to make a stand. it is better to have more plants than not enough. Start with a clean field.4 19 40 3.5 1. With the use of air seeders. Loads delivered with seed from these weeds may lower your grade.g.200 pl/ac with lines that adjust to the population.3 1.Sesame Grower Guide 10 spacing. will use about 3. Final grades can be affected by weedy fields. Plant more (30-40 seeds/ft) when planting Deeper Under compaction In cloddy. but then will grow to 4 ft in the next 30 days. wild cucumber.0 4.6 5 20 1.8 8 25 2. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . planting 30 seeds/ft on 36” rows. ground cherry.1 3. and when there is adequate moisture and fertility. For those that still want to know optimum plants per acre.0 4.8 6. lambsquarter. A worn metering cup is like a worn spray nozzle putting out too much. It is not critical to the level of knowing the exact seeds per foot like in current high valued crops. fall panicum. Johnsongrass. Make repairs where needed. Many times. For average conditions. Row space 40" 36" 30" 22" 15" Seeds per ft planted 15 1. Take the time to calibrate your planting equipment properly. growers continue to try to plant one seed per unit area to achieve the optimum population.0 2. i.. Expect emergence of 11 to 19 seedlings/ft.6 4.8 2.2 15 35 3. For S32.5 24 are best decided the day you plant.0 11 30 2.. planting rates It takes a bit over 30 days for sesame to get 1 ft tall.7 8. Two common errors are not checking seed depth for all planter rows and not adjusting planter settings to changing field conditions. Seeds are small.7 3. and it will reward you later by taking care of itself.g.6 4.5 4.e. Planting less seed/ft usually ends up in skips. kochia. Again.1 6. SESACO has found little difference in numerous yield analyses in the yields of populations between 40. sunflower. the following table shows the number of lbs/ac planted depending on number of seeds/ft and row spacing. and expect harvest population of 5-10 plants/ft. considering immediate planting conditions. Seed per foot of planted row is more important to yield than population per acre.4 3.2 2.0 3.3 4.. When the stands are uniform.9 7. even lower populations plants can provide equal yields. plant 25-35 seeds/ft. e. together.2 5. produce more branches in low populations.5 9. A sesame seed by itself does not have enough push to end up with a perfect stand.0 lbs/ac. but it is easy with small seed to be off by a pound or two. there is enough of a population to cover the ground and produce economical yields. You absolutely need to plant more seeds in order to make sure that in tough conditions. in 15” row spacing 5 lbs/ac is about right In well prepared soil with good moisture With no herbicides When soil temperatures reach 80 degrees Calibrating your planting equipment is critical.5 3. Seeds per ft normally emerged WEED MANAGEMENT An important philosophy to producing sesame is to give sesame an early season clear advantage. and smell melon seed are difficult to clean out of sesame.
Leaf damage or early loss of leaves from Paraquat reduces yields. Do not spray Select during flowering. Cultivating . Sesame may die or will turn yellow and not make capsules for 1-3 weeks. In one study Dual was applied preplant incorporated. the fibrous roots of grasses are very competitive for moisture. The work on “postemergence over the top” (POST OTT) applications of herbicides for grasses has shown many work. allowing the product to break down to an acceptable level. pendimethalin (Prowl). High moisture grass content may delay harvest and should be controlled. Although the sesame has plenty of light. The affected plants will continue flowering longer and can delay harvest of the rest of the field or may not flower again. Dual was applied after planting and immediately followed by a heavy irrigation. but before the seedlings emerge. In some areas of the world. For burndown. and Oklahoma State Universities. Damaged plants from drift have twisting stems and will not make capsules for 1-3 weeks. BASF will not support any more research on Prowl H2O for sesame. Other current work includes POST directed sprays. In the past. Sesame will suffer from contact with glufosinate.org/herbicideresearch. Paraquat (Gramoxone). Residual 2. The study can be accessed on the internet at http://sesamegrowers. Africa. and a premix of the two (LaybyPro) are also good PRE herbicides. diuron (Direx).htm. the roots may grow laterally and stay near the surface. Cultivation Cultivation is a very effective means of weed control in sesame. and verification in 2009 may lead to requesting a Section 18 in the near future. There have been only 2 experiments worldwide that shown substantial stand reduction when using Dual. growers waited 3-4 weeks to cultivate. Glyphosate (Roundup). [Extensive work in the US on pendimethalin and trifluralin have indicated that full rates recommended for cotton may reduce stands on sesame unless they are applied in early Spring. Thick stands of weeds may need to be sprayed twice before planting because taller weeds may protect the smaller weeds from being contacted by the herbicide. haloxyfop (Verdict). Select Max (clethodim) is a grass herbicide and can be sprayed at all stages except during flowering. If the label says cotton is affected by the chemicals. there are only two herbicides labeled for sesame: Roundup Max (glyphosate) may be applied as a burndown.4D. Glufosinate (Ignite). more precision is possible.not directed on the stems]. and sethoxydim (Poast). metolachlor (Dual magnum). fluometuron (Cotoran) [Preliminary work in the US in 2008 showed extensive potential damage from Cotoran]. Most herbicides that kill broadleaf weeds will also kill or damage the sesame. There is still no good POST OTT herbicide for broadleaf weeds. linuron (Linex). glyphosate should be applied before. Sesame is extremely susceptible. ASGA has requested a Section 18 for use of Dual Magnum in Texas and Oklahoma for 2009. a second PRE herbicide has been applied over the top to extend the longevity of the PRE activity. Texas Tech. diuron (Direx). sesame probably will also be affected. Keep the following in mind: Sesame roots follow moisture. Herbicide research (currently not labeled) The American Sesame Growers Association (ASGA) is currently supporting herbicide research at Texas A&M. but with GPS equipment or very slow vegetable cultivators. There are flushes of grass that can come up later in the season and grow lower than the sesame. and in the other study.Sesame Grower Guide 11 Herbicides with labels Presently in the US. Central America. provides good control of grass and small seeded broadleaf (pigweed) weeds. and diuron (Direx). and trifluralin (Treflan). fluazifop-P (Fusilade). glyphosate (Roundup).] POST OTT: clethodim (Select). With rain or irrigation in the first few weeks after planting. during. Herbicide Drift Sesame is extremely susceptible when it comes in contact with some herbicides whether by drift or direct contact. with wiper applicators. 2. POST DIR: glyphosate (Roundup) [only between rows . ASGA supported a study of world wide research and use of sesame herbicides. and South America: PRE: alachlor (Intrro). and/or hooded sprayers in row-middles. Initial work has also shown that diuron (Direx). When capsule formation does somewhat recover. or just after planting.4D of a preplant application may remain in the soil and can destroy a stand of sesame. The following herbicides are used in © 2009 Sesaco Corporation grower sesame fields in Asia. Preemergence (PRE) experiments have shown that metolachlor (Dual Magnum). the capsules will be smaller and will have less seeds and seed weight. under most conditions. linuron (Lorox).
and rotary hoeing may cause more damage than help. Soils that crack along the seed line can provide an opening. followed by planting equipment that can remove dry soil to find good moisture. Full profile moisture prior to planting Close to 85% of the sesame grown in the US is under dryland conditions or does not receive irrigation. Sesame can be cultivated when it is a little taller than tractor axle. and the next day may damage the stand forcing a replant. Sesame uses less water than cotton. Very rarely will moisture or nutrients escape sesame roots. In the days prior to sesame’s rapid growth phase (2030 days after planting) is the opportune time to catch a height differential between sesame and weeds. When using a wick. drive slow and make sure there are no leaks. full moisture profile before planting. Rains after the ripening phase do not increase yield and may delay harvest. the ancient rope wick technology has been brought back with excellent results. Rope wick applicators For narrow row spacing. Sesame has an extensive taproot that grows deep to reach moisture and nutrients. followed by immediate crusting. corn. during a dry season. because of crusting and cooling of the soil. One day may be too early to be effective. Roundup Max is labeled for use on sesame in wiper applications. Being a small seed. but it should be done in the afternoon when the plants are less turgid. may be rotary hoed in 36 to 48 hours. Surface moisture in no-till planting has worked effectively with sesame. (2) behind baled or grazed-out wheat. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . Three scenarios: (1) planting after 12 months of chemical fallow. the moisture layer needs to be near the surface. roots may grow more vertically allowing closer cultivation. WATER MANAGEMENT Sesame is one of the most drought tolerant crops in the world but will give higher yields with higher moisture. and additional moisture during flowering. a common management strategy is to preirrigate sesame ground when irrigation is available. For this reason. When irrigating. soybeans or peanuts. Flower petals may fall. Sesame initially grows very slowly and after 30 days. There are three systems to increase your chances of having surface moisture at planting: Use reduced tillage or no-till with standing residue to protect surface moisture. and then concentrate water on the higher demanding crops during the growing season. For irrigated producers. The lack of uniform moisture here is the most common cause of poor stand establishment. As commodity Surface moisture at Planting Adequate moisture surrounding the seed at planting is most critical to all crops. will grow up above many weeds.Sesame Grower Guide 12 too close to the plant will cut the roots and plants will wilt quickly. some growers put it to the test at this stage. Stretch your limited water with sesame! Yields are based on total amount of water in the soil profile before planting and the rainfall or irrigations between planting and physiological maturity. Sesame will push through crusts softened by more rain. After that. sesame has been grown in a cleaned tilled system but more and more are moving to no-till. it is better to irrigate prior to planting. However. Use tillage equipment to prepare the seedbed to store moisture. and (3)double cropped with harvested wheat/rye/oats. Do not give up on what looks like a loss to weeds. sorghum. sesame needs less imbibed moisture to sprout than larger seeded crops. Using a rotary hoe to break through crusting is time critical. Irrigate. A cultivation will help. Because sesame is such a drought tolerant crop. stored profile moisture is the next most valuable moisture sesame uses. Traditionally. but the young capsules are rarely knocked off by the tractor. thinking that drought tolerance will overcome poor surface moisture. Another reason for applying preplant irrigation is to melt clods and firm the seedbed. Three types of moisture have a direct benefit to yield: surface moisture at planting. The double crop only works when the fields are planted immediately after harvest into moist soil. than after. The same techniques used to reduce crusting in other crops should be applied to sesame. before evaporation losses from canopy removal can occur. Depending on a myriad of exact conditions. Conversely. The cultivation process can throw soil up on the base of the plant covering any small weed after the sesame plants are about 12” tall. Crusting that occurs exactly when the sesame is about to emerge usually results in replanting. the sesame may be into the crust. Deep moisture is of no benefit to the sesame if there is no surface moisture. Breaking or creasing the main stem damages the sesame. a rain that falls the day you plant.
sesame prefers more frequent light irrigations than complete or sustained flood irrigating.75” every 5-8 days for 6-8 applications. plan on 1 to 1. In very dry years. sorghum or peanuts. Do not pay attention to surface moisture. unless (1) preceded by good rains. One of the common mistakes is to turn off the pumps when there has been less than an inch of rain. the plant will not wilt. start watching moisture levels about the 4th-5th week. Last irrigation The last key decision to be made in water management is when to stop irrigating. Use that rain to accelerate the irrigation and pump less water.1 compared to cotton at 1. (2) very low pivot rates are used (less than 0. in general. For furrow irrigation. As the ground dries and the dry line moves down. growers are reluctant to put down 4” of preplant moisture to provide a decent profile. A two inch or more rain can hold off irrigations. the first row irrigation should come at 4-5 weeks after planting. you should only irrigate 2-3 more times. or (3) first irrigation is also the last. sesame roots generally stay ahead of the dry line. it is significantly less than required for corn. Do not try first irrigation after 6 weeks. cotton.5”). The best time to check a field for irrigation is 3:00 PM. the water cannot be forced down by saturating the soil like with cotton.5 to 0. During this time you should ensure the sesame has adequate moisture to enter the flowering period.Sesame Grower Guide 13 prices drop and input prices rise. Past growers have commented that sesame is the last crop to wilt on their farm. applies 2-4 inches in each application. At that time. In these cases. the plants will need water soon. there is little moisture deep where the roots are taking up moisture. the taller the plants. Do not allow the water to stack up and saturating the soil can be a problem. Additional moisture during flowering The next most critical time to have water is during the flowering stages. and specifically in low areas. Caution should be used to prevent overwatering. depending on how much was applied and drying conditions. Since furrow irrigating. Sesame is a desert crop. demand is much less. in the most common form of irrigation – pivots. The sesame will yellow and not grow well. it is better to use 0. Assuming you have had good moisture early and not much since. From emergence to flowering. As long as the roots continue to stay ahead of the drying line and find © 2009 Sesaco Corporation new moisture deeper. The plant will tell you when to water. These applications should be 10-16 days apart. For drip or pivot irrigation. This means that sesame can go longer on the same moisture as cotton without stressing. Do not worry if plants droop in late afternoon. as shown below. Watering every other row has worked well. In these conditions. Although it is the greatest demand period for moisture for sesame. For those with more limited water. The first irrigation is in the late juvenile stage just before visible buds. The last irrigation is when the flowering is ending. any amount of moisture during this period is beneficial. and the sesame crop ends up being shallow rooted. The amount of water and pumping costs are the same. If there is not much moisture below 6-12”. the deeper they draw their moisture.5 inches per application about every 7-12 days for 3-4 applications. The goal is to provide adequate moisture for capsule filling and maturation without excessive moisture which can . such as 2006 and 2008. A short run or slope will help. When the leaves wilt by 2:00 PM. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization documents that sesame’s crop coefficient (Kc) is 1. in general.2. more growers are realizing stretching their water with sesame is the best option. There are times when the soil at the surface is muddy and the plants are wilting.
Historically. Irrigated growers can control their destiny better than the dryland growers. If most plants are still flowering. there is less microbial action to change the nitrogen into a form that can be used by plants. it will produce better with some added moisture. The rule of thumb is sesame uses 5 lbs of nitrogen for every inch of water available during its growing season (the first 90 days after planting). A deep root system allows the sesame to capture mobile nutrients as they move down into the soil.Sesame Grower Guide 14 promote regrowth. if you stay too long on your other crops. a sesame crop would be planted into a full six foot profile of moist soil. Unless you can furrow irrigate fast (good slope or short run). efficient user of available nutrients. 2) Water has not been sufficiently provided to the sesame throughout the year. the sesame plants may adjust to lower moisture by dropping lower leaves. Ideally. The successful exceptions have been with systems that can put on just enough water to wet the surface without crusting or saturating the soils. Basically. In the past. The most yield limiting factor for any crop is generally water availability. In most soils. for irrigated growers who can do split applications (sidedress or in a pivot). this can provide 3-12 inches of available moisture. If 50% of the plants have stopped flowering. (about 40 days after planting). Cut in half the amount watered in the pivot or drip. The ideal is to have water depletion at the time the third node pair from the top is mature. the highest yields are with a balance of water and nitrogen. Do not confuse water stress leaf drop with normal leaf drop. • Under-irrigation is much better than overirrigation. In a dry year. use a slow release fertilizer to avoid excessive vegetative growth at the expense of yield. the recommendations have been as shown in the following table. it takes 25-40 days from an individual flower to make a mature capsule. Determining the correct level of nitrogen demand for the crop is based on several factors: soil moisture in the profile at planting. Normal leaf drop occurs when the lower leaves are inside the canopy and no longer get light or as the lower capsules mature. Without any additional rainfall or irrigation. A yield goal makes for a good place to start in thinking of your fertility plan. For growers that cannot do a split application. the sesame should not be pushed with more water. add all of the fertility before flowering. Plain and simple. do not water any more. The following discussion is based on the rule of thumb of 5 lbs of N per inch of available water. with the shorter period at the top of the plant. the only successful late irrigations have been with systems that leave some aeration in the soil: watering every other row in furrow irrigation. These leaves fall without previous wilt. planting date. nutrients such as nitrogen do not move below the sesame root zone. many fertility programs have been developed off the principle of a “yield goal” and amount of nutrients per bushel combined to develop the fertility recommendation. In most situations this is ideal. Two scenarios commonly appear: 1) Timely water has been provided to the sesame throughout the year. but in most cases. a good understanding of how these relate will allow you to make a more accurate rate determination for nitrogen applications. the crop would require 15-60 lbs of total nitrogen. Amount of moisture Dryland under 28” annual rainfall Dryland over 27” annual rainfall Full irrigation (10-12”) Semi-irrigation (6-8”) Semi-irrigation (2-4”) Units of N/ac 25-35 30-60 60-80 40-60 30-50 NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT As with all crops. give it one more watering. Sesame is a low input. In some pivots. they produce very little seed (yield). watering every other row with drag hoses on a pivot. consider the following. If in doubt and next irrigation is due within 3 days. To combine the two most limiting yield factors of water and nitrogen. Two other points on irrigation: • Watering up or watering back to help a poor stand seldom works and brings on weeds. but in dry years. After missing 1-2 irrigations (with no rain). A blanket rate of nitrogen may not be the best management decision. etc. the yield goal seldom equals harvested production. but make it light. All the fertility should be in place by one week after the start of flowering. Sesame is much the same in that it can produce well in dry conditions. final stand . Depending on soil type. put on half of the fertility before planting and the other half just prior to flowering © 2009 Sesaco Corporation Now fertilizer is so expensive that an educated guess is necessary. Once these lower leaves are lost. Do not worry about the top 2 node pairs. drip systems that are not under every row. however. Stop irrigating when 50% of the plants do not have an open flower at the main stem. do not irrigate any more. Generally. the fertility can be added with the water.
When the silverleaf whitefly appeared in 1991. The sesame plant drops the flower corollas each evening but retains the portion of the flower that will make the capsule and seed. and cotton is not susceptible to sesame root rots. An unidentified leaf disease (probably Pseudomonas) has appeared in several years when there are cloudy damp cool days. varieties are tolerant but not resistant to the root rots. but the plants have grown out of the problem when sunny days return. insect damage. Silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii). present varieties have incorporated tolerance to all insects encountered since 1978. Phytophtora parasitica. the populations of beneficial insects have increased. With less spraying on cotton because of the boll weevil eradication program and transgenic (Bt). Helmintosporium. • There is no research on petiole analysis or foliar feeding to know the appropriate levels of nitrates at the different growth stages. A more accurate determination of growing conditions will be made in season. the cotton 40” away from the sesame is covered with honeydew while there are no aphids on the sesame. Since 1978. and water availability during the growing season. Applying the fertility during planting below or to the side of the seed line has worked well. postplant nitrogen depends on the amount of rain in the 30-45 days after planting.000 lb crop per acre will have about 30 lbs of N. This will be your preplant nitrogen rate. Soil moisture and planting date are known factors at planting. and if drier than usual.000 lbs of sesame seed contains 18 to 21 lbs of N. Rhizoctonia. Verticillium. Sesame root rots (combination of Fusarium oxysporum.there has been little economic damage. and Macrophomina phaseolina) have been encountered mostly on fields where sesame is planted after sesame. Normally. and you are regretting your decision. if it is wetter than usual. • Do not apply nitrogen or potash in contact with the seed! The fertilizer will inhibit germination. Total nitrogen demand for a high yielding dryland crop can range from 60-80# from emergence to mature seed. the varieties were DISEASES Through plant breeding. The current © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . and it is estimated that 1. Cotton root rot (Phymatotrichum omnivoum). However. INSECTS Through plant breeding.Sesame Grower Guide 15 establishment. the local weather expert predictions of the effects of La Niña or El Niño. sesame is close enough to cotton to believe that foliar feeding will help reduce the amount of fertilizer used and provide nitrogen in a timely manner. The best way to avoid sesame root rot is to rotate every other year. the beneficial populations of insects control the few insects seen. Thielaviopsis. Sesame is not susceptible to cotton root rot. Other nutrient considerations • If soil testing shows extreme deficiencies of P and/or K. A good average is that sesame will need 30 lbs of nitrogen in a dryland situation. less than 5 fields have been destroyed by insects and less than 10 have had significant economic damage. Sesame is not susceptible. Cornespora. Cercoseptoria. Pseudomonas. In many years in fields with both crops planted side-by side. and you are losing money. Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii). • Sesame seed contains about 25% protein. try to make additional applications prior to the bloom stage (roughly 45 days after planting). which will go back into the soil at harvest. or your own gut feeling? Put on fertilizer with no rain to take the N to the root zone. or disease. The plants (without the seed) on a 1. add more. This loss is natural and not caused by stress. and Leveillula have been reported in sesame in the US in research nurseries but have not been seen in commercial fields since 1978. For a dryland grower. At planting. Additional nitrogen may be needed in years when dryland conditions are favorable for a high yielding crop. A new type of Alternaria was seen in 2006 on the Caprock in both sesame and cotton but did not repeat in 2007. fertilizer applications may be needed. not putting on fertilizer before rain. use less. Normally. Do you believe the signs of nature. In this case. Cercospora. All of these problems occurred prior to 1994 and were on fields planted late. present varieties have incorporated tolerance to all diseases encountered since 1978.
Moisture Matters For best yields. Sesame has 50% oil. The appropriate planting dates per area are covered in Appendix 3. No economic damage from aphids has been seen in sesame since 1992. a timely harvest will always maximize yield. in the Rolling Plains. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . the loopers did not move into the sesame. there was very limited whitefly damage in Uvalde.000 whiteflies in 32 days. but to date. when a single whitefly can become between 22. in the Rolling Plains. Sesame self-defoliates without a chemical. the army worm did not attack the sesame where cotton and alfalfa were devastated next to sesame fields. Most pesticides are not labeled for sesame. Fire ants (Solenopsis invicta) can move down a seed line and take every seed to their mound. Miscellaneous caterpillars can damage sesame. there has not been enough pressure to spray. Newer varieties have more tolerance to whiteflies. Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) and neem (Axadirachtin) are cleared for use on sesame. A harvest aid can reduce time to drydown.500 to 90. Cabbage loopers (Pieris rapae). Grasshoppers (Trichoplusia ni) can damage the edges of the fields near pastures in dry years. Since that time. In the Fall of 2006. In any way possible. The color of the seed changes at physiological maturity from a pale white in the capsule below to a cream color in the capsule on top. the whitefly populations have never built up to pose a significant economic threat to sesame. In 2000. whitefly tolerant varieties have succeeded when planted on time. Sesame should be planted prior to June 1 to have the sesame ripening before the whitefly cycle increases. a year with very high whitefly populations. HARVEST Understanding the principles of sesame harvest is the key to easing harvest tensions. HARVESTING SESAME BELOW 6% IS CRITICAL. In 1995. Yellow striped blister beetles (Epicauta vittata) which can devastate other crops such as alfalfa and soybeans have not affected sesame. In the Winter Garden area.Sesame Grower Guide 16 very susceptible. Rains appear to suppress the whitefly. army worm devoured pigweeds within the sesame field before moving to retire on the sesame. although loopers have done some damage in the San Angelo area in previous varieties. Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Previous varieties of late planted sesame were susceptible to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) – the major aphid in pecan groves. Although SESACO has made huge accomplishments in the harvesting of sesame. and 6% moisture in sesame is equivalent to 12% moisture in corn. you should not minimize the importance of obtaining proper moisture on sesame. In 1995. Sesame cannot be cost-effectively dried once it is combined. There will be a visible line and the tip of the seed is black as the placenta attachment dries. DO NOT TAKE THIS LIGHTLY. Bollworms (Heliocoverpa zea) and garden webworms (Achyra rantalis) have been seen in sesame but damage has never reached an economic level. Cutworms (Various species) can mow down a seedling stand and usually appear for a limited time that may or may not coincide with the seedling stage. allowing earlier harvest. you will agree that SESACO sesame is one of the easiest crops to harvest. Once you understand these principles. sesame must be harvested as soon as crop moisture falls below 6%. late planted sesame is susceptible to the whitefly in a hot dry year. Beet army worm (Cupis unipuncta). North of I10 in Texas.
Continually having sesame flowing in reduces losses. Header Starting at the cutter bar. The initial settings in Appendix 2 are a starting point and not a final setting. check the belts for loss that may occur between belts. and whether the crop dried down naturally or froze. It is not swathed prior to combining. Auger headers allow the sesame to stand up as it moves across the header and is then pulled in at the center. header height is set according to the lowest capsules expected to be harvested. PHILOSOPHY OF OPERATING A COMBINE IN SESAME Sesame is one of the gentlest crops on harvesting equipment. Do not wait to sample till you fill the combine bin. Yield reductions of 30-40% can occur due to inability to remove the seed from the capsules. The quality of the stalks depends on the amount of rain. Be sure the angle plate is in place in front of the center belt. but the drapers can result in the center belt throwing sesame back out the front of the header. A few days of patience may be all it takes. It is well worth the effort of sampling a field for moisture at the elevator. and the results on the 100 acres were poor. Harvesting in a circular pattern to keep the center of the header always loaded and cutting sesame will help. The most common header used in sesame is the conventional platform header. and fog during the drying phase. Insure proper header height by looking out the side cab window to see that no capsules are left on the lower plant stems. Harvesting below 6% will result in efficient seed removal from the capsules with very little effort from the combine. Also. Large draper headers appear to be very good at harvesting sesame. this will be 1 to 1 ½ ft from the ground. only 100 acres of sesame have been swathed. The crop should not be rushed or it will cost the grower to have a lower grade resulting in price discounts. There is no one setting for a combine that will work in all conditions. Only Direct Harvesting SESACO sesame is harvested directly. Most of the seed comes out in the feeder housing before the plants reach the cylinder. Make proper adjustments to belt Color of the combine © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . High moisture sesame is often caused by negligence from the grower.Sesame Grower Guide 17 High moisture sesame is much more cumbersome in the combine and difficult to thresh. It is the most common reason for a grower to receive a price discount or even for a load to be rejected. As sesame matures and dries down. Since 2000. Any color combine will work in sesame No Swathing. dew. In most cases. Reaching 6% moisture IS NOT DIFFICULT. Swathing has been tried and rarely works and results in price discounts. Rarely will the header touch the ground on well grown sesame. the amount of time between the time the crop is ready to cut and is actually cut. it will self-defoliate.
The open concave prevents the sesame from being scuffed or broken. Header screens have been developed from almost any framing material. The immediate direction change force cracks the capsule. invert it. On conventional machines with a pre-cleaner. The reel speed should match ground speed to gently lay the sesame into the header. feeding them into the header if need be. A bat reel should be adjusted to the most extended height up and pulled as far back into the header as can be accomplished. what the header shook out. and the sieve is open to 1/8 inch. You can monitor the amount of loss from the header by noting the build up of sesame on the feeder housing without a screen. allowing the sesame to fall through and not ride out the back. When the capsule snaps or cracks. the pre-cleaner should be closed. More likely.Sesame Grower Guide 18 alignments to keep the sesame from going under the belts. Closed sieves and chaffers reduce airflow. To simulate the goal of threshing sesame. Sesame in the tailings will be scuffed or broken. The best way to gauge if the seed is being blown out the back is to look at the tailings at the end of the field as the combine turns. First time growers are amazed to see whole capsules exiting the combine without any seed in them. As sesame enters the cylinder or rotor. The most common header is a platform header Operators that intend on harvesting many acres of sesame. releasing the seed. The slow RPM allows the seed to be gently dumped from the capsule. a broom. take a dry sesame capsule.3/8 inch. Concaves are set equal to corn or beans (½”-1”). or what came out the back. Hume or pickup reels knock off too many capsules. Reduced airflow allows the capsules and plant parts to ride on the sieves with the sesame seed riding on top of them. it is difficult to differentiate between what the wind blew out before the harvest. the abrupt change in direction does a majority of the threshing. thumb and forefinger while applying gentle pressure equal to snapping a peanut shell. or those that harvest fields with large plants and high yielding sesame. it can be easily removed by thumping the screen with your hand. the reel needs to be set to not touch the sesame plant until the cutter bar is under the plant to prevent loss of sesame in front of the header. Seed Separation Cleaning is a delicate process of balancing air force and sieve openings. and twist it between your © 2009 Sesaco Corporation This is the goal: a lot of sesame coming out of the bin auger and a clean sample. Threshing Cylinder and rotor speeds are set low to be gentle on the crop (350-400 rpm). or compressed air gun. If trash builds up on the screen. Another way is to take a large oil draining pan and toss it under the combine as it passes by. Empty bin when seed reaches auger The combine bin should be emptied when the seed reaches the bin auger. attach a screen to the back of the header to retain sesame from going over the header. The idea is to lightly touch the top 6 inches of the plants. The sesame is 50% oil and the constant churning of the seed pushing up the bin . Within the field. There needs to be adequate air turbulence to keep the plant material floating above sieves. while using three foot nylon window screening from a hardware store. The chaffer is opened to about 1/4 . all of the sesame will be released without grinding the capsules. Many would think that such small seed would require the sieves to be closed. Another goal is to be gentle enough that some of the capsules are not even removed from the plant stems. Start with having your air set from medium force air and watch to avoid seed in the tailings. The reel needs to have minimum effect on the sesame.
Fortunately. Nematode levels are reduced and yields significantly increased among those crops in fields previously planted in sesame. react to it right away. The soil retains more moisture. or near the exhaust where sparks may fly out. Of particular concern are places where dust can collect near a hot surface such as a bearing. Growers ripping diagonally across fields with cotton. Cotton After Sesame Many growers have incorporated sesame into their cotton rotation because it increases yield. Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria. and sorghum. incognita. No. Stalks disk into soil easily and break down quickly. have been able to operate one gear higher on the sesame ground. J. incognita). it is easy to smell the smoke. However. Many growers have done one light disking and planted wheat. Growers report that after sesame. Sesame has a deep tap root. Soil Improvements After Sesame Sesame is an excellent soil builder. Growers walking across split planted fields can feel under their boots how much more mellow the ground is after sesame. and M. when planting directly behind the combine. Sesame rotation is not effective. on the transmission. sesame does not have enough surface residues to qualify as a high residue crop. but it is easier to just carry a spray bottle (old Windex bottle) filled with water. 44. cool season crops. Rainfall that occurs traditionally in September is stored moisture for the fall planted. ROTATIONAL CROP BENEFITS AFTER SESAME Water Use One of the major reasons for sesame expansion in Oklahoma is the benefit that sesame provides for protecting September rains for planting double crops in the fall. C. Nematology 27(4S):624-627. however. peanuts. javanica). cotton. In high erosion areas. Growers listing across pivots have to raise the lister when on sesame ground. Unlike sorghum that is a perennial and continues to pull moisture from the soil until a freeze. 1995. Soil is very mellow and requires little work for next crop. Sesame residue has never interfered with good planting as long as it was spread properly. Putting out a fire inside a combine is a challenge. which produces a natural biocide that suppresses most nematodes. In dry years after sesame in split planted fields. Research shows that sesame may be an effective rotation crop to control peanut root knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and southern root knot nematode (M. J. Effects on Cotton Root Rot Growers in Arizona and Texas have reported that cotton following sesame has significantly less cotton root rot (Phymatotrichopsis omnivora) the following year. Spring 1997. (Anon. 1997. (Starr and Black. Black. M. and M. 1. L. the soil retains moisture better for planting the next crop. 1995). Larger plant parts are preferred on the surface. Caution: do not use a blow gun to blow the smoldering trash into the combine where it can ignite accumulated residue in corners and crevices. Highlights of Agricultural Research. and other crops. ground after sesame does not blow as much as many crops. 1 Growers in Alabama have added sesame into rotation with cotton. during the last 30 days of drydown of sesame. sesame self-defoliates and gets rid of most of its transpiring surfaces. soil water use is minimal. the trash on the back of the combine will begin to smoke. Most operators just brush it off. Roots have as much mass as the visible plant. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . and soybeans. javanica on sesame. The plant has naturally gone into drydown and transpiration is minimal. Effects on Nematodes Researchers at Texas A&M and Auburn University and growers have found that sesame reduces rootknot nematode populations that attack peanuts. 2 1 Anon. Beginning in the late reproductive phase and continuing through the ripening phase. Tilth and moisture retention is improved. for the Javanese root knot nematode (M. Sesame rotation controls nematodes and provides Alabama a new cash crop. 1997)2 Sesame Residue Management Variable speed spreaders are preferred over choppers because choppers disintegrate sesame residue. suppresses Starr. sesame. Suppl. Vol.Sesame Grower Guide 19 level will damage the seed and lead to price discounts. Fires Under some conditions. corn and cotton do not show as much stress after sesame. When there is a smoke odor.
and cattle do not like green sesame. In Northwestern regions of Oklahoma. Sesame is extremely susceptible to glyphosate and glufosinate. The only damage is in the bedding area and the trails to water and food. In most years. The sesame mined the deep residual fertility the previous year and will not repeat its yield without additional fertility. Growers easily control sesame in Roundup Ready and Liberty Link cotton. Deer set up trails in the sesame on their way to corn and sorghum fields which can be devastated. There has not been any significant damage from birds. In dryland conditions in a dry year. but most have had to disk it in . The only time there will be deer damage is when there is no other food. but there has been little to no testing in the past 10 years in grower fields. there is seed loss that may volunteer the next year. Doves normally eat fallen sesame. there may not be enough moisture for both crops. and extends limited water so that grower can concentrate water for peanuts. In South Texas. but by that time. With early warm weather or delayed planting date. If gambling by planting sesame after sesame. horses. HOG AND DEER TOLERANT Deer do not like green sesame. suppresses populations of root knot nematodes. Peanuts After Sesame Many growers have incorporated sesame into their peanut rotation because it increases yield. The problem is normally © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . and pheasants. Sesame can volunteer in peanuts. overpopulation and no way of controlling the broadleaf weeds. Blackbirds from nearby sorghum fields may stop in the sesame and break over a few tops but will not eat the sesame. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Sheep. the deer may pick off capsules. The current varieties have more tolerance than previous varieties. Sesame provides good food plots for doves. Some growers prefer a wiper with glyphosate. Sesame ahead of wheat will use resources moisture and fertility. Imazapic (Cadre) and 2-4D provide effective control. They do minimal damage to sesame. Sheep. Sesame After Sesame SESACO recommends not to plant sesame after sesame. the sesame should have been harvested. A few growers have successfully grown a volunteer crop. In the past. the sesame will not come through prometryn (Caparol). the cotton grade has never been affected and volunteers have rarely bothered pickers or strippers. As with other crops. and cattle have been turned into weedy sesame fields and they will do a good job cleaning weeds from the sesame. Wild hogs are becoming a major problem in many areas. use fertilizer.Sesame Grower Guide 20 populations of root knot nematodes. and extends limited water so that they can concentrate their water for cotton. Wheat After Sesame Many growers have incorporated sesame into their wheat rotation because it increases yield and provides a second cash crop. is not susceptible to cotton root rot. planting rye for grazing after sesame has increased the number of days the cattle can stay on the field and has increased daily weight gain. but goats will eat it. Wild hogs may bed down in sesame but do not eat the sesame. quail. sesame can volunteer in cotton. Flocks of doves have stayed around sesame nurseries well into March in Oklahoma. sesame will push wheat planting into November or December and will not work for grazing wheat. If sesame survives in the cotton. When the sesame dries down. horses. there have been problems with root rot spores increasing in the soil that could reduce the sesame stands substantially.
if force is applied to loosen the hub. and they will be happy to assist you in making recommendations for setting up your equipment. Also.JD Part No. this setup can take just a few minutes. . If the planter is new or recently overhauled. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation Nearly all planters can be adjusted to plant sesame in many row spacings. A43066 Sorghum or . and where the vacuum baffle is held to the housing. Planting equipment 21 APPENDIX 1. give SESACO a call in advance.25-2. where the vacuum brush clip attaches to the housing. Rough fields and high speeds may cause overfilling of the meter. parts can be broken requiring replacement parts. Does not work: It is easier to list the things tried that have not worked in comparison to the number of things that have worked in planting sesame.75 1. Check for other leaks from where the seed box attaches to the meter housing. Kinze brush meters do not work because seed will build up in the brushes and flow past the plate. H136445 Mono-germ Sugar Beet JD Part No. The best solution is a small application of silicon. do not expect to go directly to the field.JD Part No.25 2. It is important to always verify your rate. In some planters tomato and sugar beet plates work. All of the factors above can affect your actual seeding rate in the field. Always take time to double check and verify your seeding rates as you plant and especially when you start. like one or two bags before filling the planter. If your planter is old or has planted a lot of treated seed. even while running low air. Lower the Vacuum Baffle in the position for small seed. beds or flat. PLANTING EQUIPMENT If you don’t find your planter mentioned here. It can take some time to clear rust and seed treatment buildup. conventional to no-till. There is usually a small amount of leakage past the disk. AH129125 Seed Knockout Wheel Low Range Input Sprocket Driver – changes about ½ lb/ac on 30” rows Driver 29 24 20 Rate in lbs/ac 2.75-2.75-3. Continue to monitor seeding rates to gain more and more confidence that there are no problems. Follow Operator’s Manual “Adjusting Meter Hubs” for seed leaking sesame between the disk and seed meter housing. Vacuum Planters John Deere MaxEmerge Type Setup: Disk . Start verifying your rate by using a minimum known amount of seed. Vacuum should be set for 4-5 inches. Broadcasting the seed and working it in with a Brillion planter has been tried a dozen times or more and has never worked! Does work: A setting for low rate sorghum plates is usually close to the same rate for sesame.Appendix 1. Double run drills often crush the seed.25 Driven – changes about 1/10 lb/ac on 30”rows Recommended to start with Driver 24 and Driven 26 and adjust from there.
3 or 4 places on your steel false bottom "springs" the plastic plate set upwards. Hints to control leakage and grinding seed: A piece of duct tape over the sprung cutoffs riding the plate will stop leakage there. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation Cup or Bowl Meters John Deere 80: "Low rate sorghum attachment".clear any binding. Some growers have used weather striping instead of duct tape. 386. Plate Planters Accurate 2 piece plastic plate sets for IHC and John Deere planters can be ordered from: Lincoln AgProducts Company. The grower used a die cast grinder with thin grinding wheel to make notches in a blank seed plate.5 mph. Replace cutoff if worn or grooved excessively. • There have been mixed results because it is difficult to plant enough seed and requires a slow planting speed (2 MPH works best). the new Kinze vacuum planter has not been used to plant sesame. These compensate for false bottom wear and provide good seed control. White In 2007. Planting equipment 22 New Kinze –EdgeVac To date. a White planter was successfully used. B31300 Thrust Washer. Air Planters IH Drum Planting system • IHC part # 1546936C1 "Small seed drum". A red "Star Knocker" #CSK-1 helps these plates avoid seed damage. Because a Monosem can actually singulate sesame seed. Talk to your equipment dealer for ordering custom made plates at least 45 days ahead of your intended planting date. 80. BFR-1 Ring. At high plate speeds. 6100. sticky side out.Appendix 1. 60. A hollow 1" roll of duct tape. The plate contained 45 notches equal to the number cells in a JD vacuum plate. A 72 cell plate restricts planter traveling speeds to below 2. the plate must turn at extremely fast speeds when having a lower cell count to the plate. Monosem NG Plus Planter Setup: DC144-08 Plate Light vacuum setting When selecting a Monosem plate. even higher than 144 if possible. . plate style MaxEmerge. and older units: Lincoln Ag Products part # C-Sorg 00-30 Plate. and other older JD plate style planters: Lincoln Ag Products part # B-Sorg 00-30 Plate. Lincoln. John Deere 71 flex. One West Texas grower has modified his meter housing to contain the “JD Knocker Assembly” #AH129125 for use with other small seed crops. a CNH AMS 1200 vacuum planter has not been used to plant sesame.com. B31205 32 Cell Feed Cup. Test plate rotation . International 186. Nebraska. stopping leakage over the plate. at (402) 4646367. There is no mechanism to remove the blockage and soon all cells can be blocked. sesame are cut in half by the brass seed scraper and sucked into the cell causing cell blockage by the vacuum. Contact your equipment dealer and SESACO representative early to investigate a suggested setup. CFR-1 Ring. lincolnagproducts. CNH AMS 1200 To date. 50. • Must carefully shrink vent holes by hammer blows. JD part # B31298 Feed Cup Spacer. check to get as many cells on the plate as possible.
The most common is covering every other meter of a 7.5” drill with every other meter covered to achieve 15” spacing equals 50% open meters. Be sure to consider half the initial setting compared to flax when seeding in this manner. Example 1: A 7. This made a 30” middle that allowed the grower to cultivate once and spray a harvest aid by ground. follow the operator’s manual for standard calibration test. In this case. and AA25319 bowl set. 6” drills cover two out of three meters to make 18” rows. the dry dirt can be kept out until the seed falls on to the firm. moist seedbed . 5lbs/ac ÷ 0. If you have to grind off 2 of the drive 'dogs' of the JD plates. By adding a 2" extension on each side of the tube. In General Again. Conduct a stationary test to get with in range of the proper calibrated setting and then do an in field calibration of at least 2. Various setups with the air cart and drill can accomplish the same results. Drill Seeding Units JD 90 Series Openers are excellent for seeding a firm seedbed. and then divide the determined metering volume in half and close the gate to one half of the meter.5” drill. Modern drills do an excellent job of planting sesame. Use the narrowest one to calibrate. do not grind any deeper than necessary. A vented “Y” was used to connect air hoses at the planting unit. Double disk openers are great. Remember if you are covering meters to get wider row spacing. Another spacing that will be tried in 2009 is to cover every third row of a 7. the meter should be set on 2lbs/ac of flax. Planting equipment 23 John Deere bowl style dispenser MaxEmerge: JD part # A25081 Shim.000 ft to accurately set the planter. Check metering cups for proper placement to have equal openings. but initial care is essential because sesame is not as easy to plant as wheat. Air Drills JD 1910 Commodity Air Carts been used to seed over thousands of acres. Start calibrating with the flax setting at 10lbs/ac.Appendix 1.5” drill to make 15” rows.33 = 15lbs/ac. Use the fine seed meter (yellow and order from your dealer way in advance of the planting season). Many drills can be set with various configurations. If the desire rate is 4lbs/ac of sesame. It is easier to © 2009 Sesaco Corporation Great Plains No-till Air Drill have been used to plant in 15” row spacing. A starting point for the proper settings is to use the flax setting and compare to the pounds of sesame desired. To calibrate the air cart. the cast iron closing wheel moves too much soil on top of the seed. Hoe drills can be used with modifications since they tend to mix dry dirt with the seed. A36323 Plate. divide by the percentage of openers remaining open. a 10” drill was configured with two meters open and two meters closed. and the over half is directed to only the front gang of a 1890 No-till Air Drill. calibrate the drill with both halves of the meter open. narrow drill spacing (below 15”) has not worked reliably and only resulted in higher planting seed rates and cost. 5lbs/ac ÷ 0. but in softer soils. In 2007. Example 2: A 6” drill with two of three meters covered to achieve 18” spacing equals 33% open meters. Start calibrating with the flax setting at 15lbs/ac. Drill Planting Equipment Box Drills Drills must have the ability to meter seeding rates to 25-35 seeds per foot without grinding seed.50 = 10lbs/ac. half of the meter is shut off. There should be minimal compaction over the seed line.
dew can collect and go to the auger and start to spoil the sesame that the auger does not clean out. Empty combine bin before it reaches the auger. There are 70 seeds per capsule.but not disconnected Top sieve open 3/8" (width of a pencil) Bottom sieve closed Test cutting Ground speed needs to be fast enough to load the sieves. Open sieves lead to trashier sesame and can lead to price discounts JD 95/96 series: Cylinder rpm: 400 Concave: open to corn Air: 750 Top sieve (wheat): barely open Combination sieve: completely closed Bottom sieve: completely closed A JD9650 in 2007 had premiums with: Cylinder rpm: 400 Concave setting at 33 Air: 750 Chaffer set at 10 Sieve set at 0 IHC 1680: Cylinder rpm: 350 Air: 450 Fine grain concave (wires in) Skirts/blockers out Transport vanes – fast exit of crop Set for very easy thrash © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . . Even if it has not rained. INITIAL COMBINE SETTINGS General comments Sesame is 50% oil and can be easily damaged. The cylinder speed is only increased if problems in feeding occur in the smaller machines.Appendix 2. No settings will remove 100% of the seeds from the capsules. sesame does not clean up in a combine as well as wheat. the sieves will not close because there is a sorghum or corn stalk caught in the sieve.3-4 MPH in heavy crops (irrigated) . Like with other crops. Expect 510% deduction from the gross weight. Sesame needs to be less than 6% moisture. The auger will churn the seed and cause damage. Recheck seed return to insure there is no seed. At times. and the field will not be ready to combine again until later the next day. the seed will begin picking up moisture in humid areas.0 to 0. Check for broken seed – should be less than 1 seed in 50 broken.4-7 MPH in light crops (dryland) Adjust ground speed to help bring the crop into the header. Increase the air until seed starts coming out the back and then lower just a bit. or corn. Clean the combines before starting – wet or spoiled seed can ruin a truckload of sesame!!!! If it rains between cuttings. cut a small sample and test for moisture. If more. open 50 capsules without deformities and there are usually 0 to 10 seeds left in . slow down cylinder and/or open concave. Initial combine settings 24 APPENDIX 2. Combine settings should be as slow and gentle as possible while still moving the crop through and the air as high as possible without blowing seed out the back. sorghum. Churning is a major cause of deductions in grades. Good reports of avoiding fine trash problems by enclosing cage with ‘cage skirts’ AGCO R65: Cylinder 375 Concave clearance: 1” Air set on 1 Chaffer: 1/4 to 3/8 open Sieve: Closed Other conventional combines: Feeder housing chain adjusted fast and close Concave adjusted for ‘corn’ Cylinder at slowest RPM Air at minimum . As the sun sets. Partial stalks with many capsules still attached are normally seen coming off the straw walkers. releasing free fatty acids and turning the seed rancid. Sesame is food grade. There are often price discounts from broken seeds when combines come in to a sesame field from other crops without adjusting the settings. Sesame uses slower cylinder speeds and wider opened concaves than comparable crops.3%. Never open the concave all the way because plugs will take a long time to remove. There can be capsule deformities that will not allow the seed to flow out. Bring concaves in towards ‘soy’ only enough to remove mature seed from capsules. reclean the combine. Like other small seeds.
SESACO VARIETY CHARACTERISTICS Sesaco 26 (S26) has been a major variety for high heat areas of southern Oklahoma. (US patent 6. S32 has better shatter resistance than S26 and S28.148. Like S26. It is similar to S30 but will branch more and is better than S30 for wide spacing.100. plant S32. Of all the varieties.403) Sesaco 30 (S30) was an experimental variety in 2008 planted on the Rolling Plains and Oklahoma.452 and 7. When in doubt. S28 good in low populations because of branching. as the branches make up for the spaces.100. It has been planted primarily in irrigated fields but has done well in dryland in the Rolling Plains. It has a single stem.100. (US patent 6.781.452 and 2 patents pending) Sesaco 32 (S32) was the main variety in 2008.452 and 6. It has the same growing range as S26. It has proven to be very drought tolerant and is the best variety against the silverleaf whitefly.100.Appendix 3. Texas Rolling Plains and south Texas since 2003. S30 has the best lodging tolerance and shatter resistance. planted from the Coastal Bend of Texas to southern Kansas.452 and 2 patents pending) © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . but it will branch some in the open. It will not do well on the Caprock or in Oklahoma north of I40. It is intended for 15” spacing for growers who have the experience in having consistent stands. S26 is the best line in low populations. (US patent 6. Sesaco variety characteristics 25 APPENDIX 3.031) Sesaco 28 (S28) was selected to be an earlier variety than S26. (US patents 6.
and grower practices. The yields are replicated extrapolations from cutting 10 ft of sesame in a representative part of the field. TX in 2006 to 2008.dryland S26 S26 S28 S28 S30 S30 S32 0 300 600 900 Yield (lbs/ac) 1200 1500 1800 S32 0 300 600 900 Yield (lbs/ac) 1200 1500 1800 Averages from 2006 through 2008. planted on 40” beds in mid June. In 2007. research yield sampling results often exceed combined yields. The samples were not taken from the best or the worst parts of the field. but only one irrigation was necessary because of above normal rainfall. moisture/fertility. TX – semi-irrigated 2008 2007 2006 RULE. Averages from 2006 through 2008. The yields were taken in Lynn Dale Dudensing’s dryland field in Rule. The yields are replicated extrapolations from cutting 10 ft of sesame in a representative part of the field with a uniform stand.irrigated LORENZO. there were timely rains. and grower practices. The yields change under different planting dates. The strips were one mile long and samples were taken at the north and south ends of the field. As with all other crops. WALL. TX . YIELD DATA FROM GROWER FIELDS These yields are taken in grower fields planted with grower equipment and should only be used as an indication of potential and for comparison between varieties. SESACO plants its nurseries in grower fields using local farming practices. UVALDE. TX) nurseries are planted on 40” beds in mid June with 30 units of N preplant. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . The Caprock (Lorenzo. Sesaco variety characteristics 26 YIELD DATA FROM SESACO RESEARCH (lbs/ac) These yields were taken in research nurseries. 2006 was dryland in a dry year. 2008 was a very dry year. weather patterns. moisture/fertility. The yields change under different planting dates. while 2007 was irrigated. 2008 was irrigated once in a very dry year. planted on 32” beds in late June.dryland 2008 South 2007 North 2007 S26 S26 S28 S28 S30 S30 S32 S32 0 300 600 900 Yield (lbs/ac) 1200 1500 1800 0 300 600 900 Yield (lbs/ac) 1200 1500 1800 The yields were taken in Billy Schwartz’ fields in Wall. TX . TX. TX . The yields should only be used as an indication of potential and for comparison between varieties. The Uvalde nurseries are planted on 30” beds in late May and are furrow irrigated with 30 units of N preplant and 30 units side-dressed 3-4 weeks after planting. and each variety was tested side-by-side with the other varieties.Appendix 3. weather patterns.
There are later lines. AVERAGE CYCLES UVALDE. from dryland to semi-irrigated. but the final stand will be OK. from early to late planting. In 2007. There are earlier lines. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . The average covers from 32” to 40” beds.dryland 2008 2007 AVERAGE OF ROLLING PLAINS S26 S26 S28 S28 S30 S30 S32 S32 0 300 600 900 Yield (lbs/ac) 1200 1500 1800 0 300 600 900 Yield (lbs/ac) 1200 1500 1800 The yields were taken in Darren Streit’s dryland field in Vernon. and may result in a skippy stand.dryland S26 S26 S28 Vegetative Reproductive Ripening Drying S28 Vegetative Reproductive Ripening Drying S30 S30 S32 S32 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Number of days from planting Number of days from planting Cycles of sesame planted 21 days apart are fairly similar with Lorenzo drying down a bit faster. from San Angelo to Vernon. This graph is an average of all of the yields in Texas Rolling Plains planted in grower fields using standard farming equipment. TX. but they do not have as much push in rough conditions. Sesaco variety characteristics 27 VERNON.26 0. but they lose any yield advantage by pushing into riskier combining weather.Appendix 3. but they do not have quite as much yield.28 0.24 0.32 0.30 0.irrigated LORENZO. that difference is more about humidity and being dryland than planting date. S30 and S32 dry down a bit faster than S26 and S28. TX . S26 and S28 start flowering a bit later than S30 and S32. TX. TX . TX . Planting S26/S28 with S30/S32 settings will plant less pounds per acre. 2008 was a very dry year. Planting S30/S32 with S26/S28 settings will plant more pounds per acre. SEED SIZES HUNDRED SEED WT (g) S26 S26 NUMBER OF SEEDS PER POUND S28 S28 S30 S30 S32 S32 0.34 132000 136000 140000 144000 148000 Smaller seeds imbibe moisture faster and germinate faster. planted on 40” beds in late June. However. there were timely rains.
little wind. Sesaco variety characteristics 28 PLANTING DATES The following chart indicates the recommended planting dates for each area.Appendix 3. There are warmer years that allow earlier planting and colder years that force later planting. The optimum dates are based on averages over many years. S28 is the traditional variety in Knippa with little testing elsewhere. the grower who plants earlier will have higher yields because the day-length and heat are better. and more testing is needed. The earliest date is based on normal time the soils reach 70ºF at 7:00 AM. S26 and S28 had the highest yields. and/or primarily higher humidity. Area 6: S32 was the only variety grown in 2008 and had good yields. Limited testing using S30 on 15” rows proved to be very good. In the same area. If in doubt. the grower that plants early going into the dry period will have lower yields than the grower who plants later as the rains return. Area 2: S32 performed very well in this area in 2008. there can be periods of no rain for as much as 45 days during the sesame growing season. in a normal year. In 2008. In the sesame planting areas. VARIETY RECOMMENDATIONS Area 1: S26 has the most whitefly tolerance. S26 and S28 should not be grown in this area. S32 had the highest yields. © 2009 Sesaco Corporation . Some testing with the other varieties will be done. S32 was comparable to the other varieties. Area 5: S32 and S30. Area 3: S26 has proven to be a very good variety in dry and wet years. The light green shows the earliest and latest planting dates. and the dark green shows the optimum time to plant. less heat. In the dry 2006 and 2008. The last planting dates are based on a combination of frost dates in the northern areas and poorer combining weather in the southern areas due to shorter days. In the wet 2007. Area 4: S26 and S28 have proven to be very good varieties in dry and wet years. S32 looked very good in irrigation and needs to be tested in dryland. In those years. S26 and S28 should not be grown in this area. plant S32. S32 performed very well in this area in 2007 and 2008.
OK Cell: (580) 623-1017 For growing information in Winter Garden of Texas. TX Cell: (210) 413-0895 For research information contact: Ray Langham Sesaco Corporation San Antonio.com Visit the American Sesame Growers Association at: www. contact: Terry Wiemers Sesaco Corporation San Antonio. TX Cell: (210) 219-0976 Visit our website: www.sesaco.org .sesamegrowers. contact: Jerry Riney Sesaco Corporation Lubbock.FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For growing information in Texas except Winter Garden area. contact Danny Peeper Sesaco Corporation Okeene. TX Cell: (806) 778-2193 For growing information in Oklahoma or Kansas.
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