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Submitted to : Submitted by : Asst. Professor Sumit Mahajan Kalra Mechanical Engineering Department Lovely Professional University R04B15 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Yatin 11004987 RM1

S. No. PARTICULARS 1. WHAT ARE GEARS 3 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.





S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.



WHAT ARE GEARS??? Gears are machine elements used to transmit rotary motion between two shafts, no rmally with a constant ratio. The pinion is the smallest gear and the larger g ear is called the gear wheel. A rack is a rectangular prism with gear teeth ma chined along one side- it is in effect a gear wheel with an infinite pitch circl e diameter. In practice the action of gears in transmitting motion is a cam ac tion each pair of mating teeth acting as cams. Gear design has evolved to such a level that throughout the motion of each contacting pair of teeth the velocity ratio of the gears is maintained fixed and the velocity ratio is still fixed as each subsequent pair of teeth come into contact. When the teeth action is suc h that the driving tooth moving at constant angular velocity produces a proporti onal constant velocity of the driven tooth the action is termed a conjugate acti on. The teeth shape universally selected for the gear teeth is the involute prof ile. Gear sets are used to transmit rotary motion and power from one shaft to another . The magnitudes and directions of the tangential, radial and axial components o f gear forces are important because they act on the shafts that The gears are mounted on and contribute to the forces acting on the bearings That supports the shafts. Since the conditions of static equilibrium will be use d To determine bearing reactions, correct directions for the gear forces acting on A shaft must be established

1.1 GEAR MESH WHAT ARE SPUR GEARS??? The spur gear is simplest type of gear manufactured and is generally used for tr ansmission of rotary motion between parallel shafts. The spur gear is the first choice option for gears except when high speeds, loads, and ratios direct towar ds their options. A single spur gear is generally selected to have a ratio ran ge of between 1:1 and 1:6 with a pitch line velocity up to 25 m/s. The spur gea r has an operating efficiency of 98-99%. The pinion is made from a harder mater ial than the wheel.

1.2 Gear Geometry


Some Important Terms 1.4 GEAR TOOTH 1. Pitch circle - It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action, would give the same motion as the actual gear. 2. Pitch circle diameter - . It is the diameter of the pitch circle. The size o f the gear is usually specified by the pitch circle diameter. It is also known a s pitch diameter. 3. Pitch point - . It is a common point of contact between two pitch circles. 4. Pitch surface - . It is the surface of the rolling discs which the meshing g ears have replaced at the pitch circle. 5. Pressure angle or angle of obliquity - It is the angle between the common no rmal to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the common tangent at the pit ch point. It is usually denoted by . .The standard pressure angles are 12, 14 and 20. 6. Addendum - It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of the tooth. 7. Dedendum - It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth. 8. Addendum circle - . It is the circle drawn through the top of the teeth and is concentric with the pitch circle. 9. Dedendum circle - . It is the circle drawn through the bottom of the teeth. It is also called root circle. 10. Circular pitch - . It is the distance measured on the circumference of the p itch circle from point of one tooth to the corresponding point on the next tooth . 11. Diametral pitch - It is the ratio of number of teeth to the pitch circle di ameter in millimeters. 12. Module - It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimeters to the number of teeth. It is usually denoted by m 13. Clearance - It is the radial distance from the top of the tooth to the botto m of the tooth, in meshing gear. A circle passing through the top of the meshing gear is known as clearance circle. 14. Total depth - . It is the radial distance between the addendum and the deden dum circles of a gear. It is equal to the sum of the addendum and dedendum 15. Working depth - . It is the radial distance from the addendum circle to the clearance circle. It is equal to the sum of the addendum of the two meshing gear s. 16. Tooth thickness - . It is the width of the tooth measured along the pitch ci rcle. 17. Tooth space - . It is the width of space between the two adjacent teeth meas ured along the pitch circle. 18. Backlash - . It is the difference between the tooth space and the tooth thi ckness, as mea-sured along the pitch circle. Theoretically, the backlash should be zero, but in actual practice some backlash must be allowed to prevent jamming of the teeth due to tooth errors and thermal expansion. 19. Face of tooth - . It is the surface of the gear tooth above the pitch surfa ce. 20. Flank of tooth - . It is the surface of the gear tooth below the pitch surf ace. 21. Top land - . It is the surface of the top of the tooth. 22. Face width - . It is the width of the gear tooth measured parallel to its a

xis. 23. Profile - . It is the curve formed by the face and flank of the tooth. 24. Fillet radius - . It is the radius that connects the root circle to the pro file of the tooth. 25. Path of contact - . It is the path traced by the point of contact of two te eth from the beginning to the end of engagement. 26. Length of the path of contact - . It is the length of the common normal cut -off by the addendum circles of the wheel and pinion. 27. Arc of contact - . It is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle fro m the beginning to the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. Equations for Basic Gear Relationships 1.5 Relationships in gear It is acceptable to marginally modify these relationships e.g. to modify the add endum /dedendum to allow Centre Distance adjustments. Any changes modifications will affect the gear performance in good and bad ways... Addendum h a = m = 0.3183 p Base Circle diameter Db = d.cos Centre distance a = ( d g + d p) / 2 Circular pitch p = m. Circul r tooth thickness ctt = p/2 Dedendum h f = h - a = 1,25m = 0,3979 p Module m = d /z Number of teeth z = d / m Outside diameter D o = (z + 2) x m Pitch circle diameter d = z . m ... (d g = gear & d p = pinion ) Whole depth(min) h = 2.25 . m Top land width (min) t o = 0,25 . m 1.6 Gear Train Contact Ratio

1.7 Contact ratio The gear design is such that when in mesh the rotating gears have more than one gear in contact and transferring the torque for some of the time. This propert y is called the contact ratio. This is a ratio of the length of the line-of-act ion to the base pitch. The higher the contact ratio the more the load is share d between teeth. It is good practice to maintain a contact ratio of 1.2 or grea ter. Under no circumstances should the ratio drop below 1.1. A contact ratio between 1 and 2 means that part of the time two pairs of teeth a re in contact and during the remaining time one pair is in contact. A ratio be tween 2 and 3 means 2 or 3 pairs of teeth are always in contact. Such as high contact ratio generally is not obtained with external spur gears, but can be dev eloped in the meshing of an internal and external spur gear pair or specially de signed non-standard external spur gears. contact ratio R go = D go / R gb = D gb / R po = D po / R pb = D pb / (Rgo2 m = p cos 2..Radius of 2..Radius of 2..Radius of 2..Radius of Rgb2 )1/2 + (Rpo2 - Rpb2 )1/2 - a sin Outside Dia Base Dia of Outside Dia Base Dia of of Gear Gear of Pinion Pinion

p = circular pitch. a = ( d g+ d p )/2 = center distance. Spur Gear Forces, Torques, Velocities & Powers 1.8 Gear forces * line * * * * * * * * * * * * F = tooth force between contacting teeth (at angle pressure angle to pitch tangent. (N) F t = tangential component of tooth force (N) F s = Separating component of tooth force = Pressure angle d 1 = Pitch Circle Dia -driving gear (m) d 2 = Pitch Circle Dia -driven gear (m) 1 = Angular velocity of driver gear (Rads/s) 2 = Angular velocity of driven gear (Rads/s) z 1 = Number of teeth on driver gear z 2 = Number of teeth on driven gear P = power transmitted (Watts) M = torque (Nm) = efficiency

Tangential force on gears F t = F cos Se r ting force on gears F s = F t tan Torque on driver gear T 1 = F t d 1 / 2 Torque on driver gear T 2 = F t d 2 / 2 Speed Ratio = 1 / 2 = d 2 / d 1 = z 2 /z 1 Input Power P 1 = T1 . 1 Output Power P 2 =.T 1 . 2

Spur gear Strength and durability calculations Designing spur gears is normally done in accordance with standards the two most popular series are listed under standards above: The notes below relate to approximate methods for estimating gear strengths. The methods are really only useful for first approximations and/or selection of sto ck gears (ref links below). Detailed design of spur and helical gears is best co mpleted using the standards. Books are available providing the necessary guida nce. Software is also available making the process very easy. A very reasona bly priced and easy to use package is included in the links below ( The determination of the capacity of gears to transfer the required torque for t he desired operating life is completed by determining the strength of the gear t eeth in bending and also the durability i.e. of the teeth ( resistance to wearin g/bearing/scuffing loads ) .. The equations below are based on methods used by B uckingham..

Bending The basic bending stress for gear teeth is obtained by using the Lewis formula = Ft / ( ba. m. Y ) * F t = Tangential force on tooth * = Tooth Bending stress (MPa) * b a = Face width (mm) * Y = Lewis Form Factor * m = Module (mm) Note: The Lewis formula is often expressed as = Ft / ( ba. p. y ) Where y = Y/ and p = circular pitch When a gear wheel is rotating the gear teeth come into contact with some degree of impact. To allow for this a velocity factor ( Kv ) is introduced into the eq uation. This is given by the Barth equation... V = the pitch line velocity = d./2 (m/s) The Lewis formula is thus modified as follows = K v.Ft / ( ba. m. Y ) Surface Durability This calculation involves determining the contact stress between the gear teeth and uses the Herz Formula w = 2.F / ( .b .l ) w = largest surface pressure F = force pressing the two cylinders (gears) together l = length of the cylinders (gear) b = halfwidth = d 1 ,d 2 Are the diameters for the two contacting cylinders. 1, 2 Poisson ratio for the two gear materials E 1 ,E 2 Are the Young's Modulus Values for the two gears To arrive at the formula used for gear calculations the following changes are ma de F is replaced by F t/ cos d is replaced by 2.r l is replaced by W The velocity factor K v as described above is introduced. Also an elastic constant Z E is created When the value of E used is in MPa then the units of Cp are MPa = KPa The result ing formula for the compressive stress developed is as shown below The dynamic contact stress c developed by the transmitted torque must be less tha n the allowable contact stress Se... Note: Values for Allowable stress values Se and ZE for some materials are provid ed at Gear Table r1 = d1 sin /2 r2 = d2 sin /2

REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. THOERY OF MACHINES RS Rattan THOERY OF MACHINES Khurmi Various books in Library Various research papers of different universities.