Politics: Politics refers to the relationship between government and society What is Political Science-?

Political Science is concerned with a systematic study of ‗politics‘ in human societies. Integration and Conflict are two sides of coin ―Politics.‖ What is State-? State is a social organisation with a fixed territory and stability in society living within that territory. State is distinguished from other forms of social organisation in terms of sovereign power exercised by it. Here Sovereignty is defined as undisputed legal authority over a territory. In ancient India, the Saptanga Theory of State elaborated in Kautilya‘s Arthshastra mentions seven elements — Swami, Amatya, Janpada, Durga, Kosa, Danda and Mitra. In the west, writers like Harold J. Laski and J.W. Garner have referred to four elements of state as follows1. Population

2. Territory 3. Government 4. Sovereignty [Central theme] What is Government-? The state has to exercise sovereign power over the territory and the people within its jurisdiction. For doing this it needs an organisation with persons exercising power on its behalf. Government is such an organisation of the state, with defined powers and functions for the different organs [Legislature, Executive and Judiciary] of the governments. Government of a State can be democratic or nondemocratic, unitary or federal and Presidential or Parliamentary. What about Indian State-? The origin of State in India is as old as Vedas, when Dharma was the cardinal principle of Politics in India. Manusmiriti is the earliest text to elaborate the principles of social life, propounds decentralization and welfare activities as the basis of the state organisation. Gradually ancient state has evolved into modern state. John Locke propounded the Doctrine of Consent and John Stuart Mill gave much importance to representative and responsible government. NationThe concept of Nation refers to sense of belongings from a particular State or Region. A society claims distinction on the basis of some common characteristics of its people. Some characteristics that form the basis of such a claim are: lineage, culture, language, religion, territory, race, and so on.

when and how people learn about politics‖. belief and orientations is passed on from one generation to another is known as political socialization. Inter-generational continuity is the essence of political culture. Political SystemThe political system of a state refers to the sum total of ideology or principles on which government of a State has been organised to discharge its duties or functions towards Citizens and to exercise the sovereign power of State. historical events. Basis/Factors Nature of exercise of power Nature of executive agency Territorial distribution of power Nature of constitution Type of Government Democratic or Autocratic Parliamentary or Presidential Federal or Unitary Hard or Soft Political CulturePolitical Culture of a country refers to a set of beliefs and attitudes prevailed in a particular political society. No. unitary or federal and parliamentary or presidential etc. Classification of GovernmentGovernment of a modern state can be classified into various forms like democratic or autocratic. Political SocializationThe process by which a particular set of attitudes. Process of political socializations is not necessarily a conscious process. Various factors such as international developments.The idea of nation and the process of nationalism emphasize the sense of solidarity. and social stirrings shape the process of political socialization. This classification of government usually based upon the following factors- S. the learning process to acquire existing political culture is known as political socialization. Individuals acquire certain social obligations through ordinary course of interactions. There is a direct linkage between political culture and political socialization. and resemblances on various grounds. The willingness of people to accept new ideas and beliefs is a matter of learnt behaviour. 4. It is one of the main objectives of the sate to maximize the level of integration in society which is known as Nation Building. domestic transformations. 3. A sense of belonging among the people is provided by these factors either singly or in combination turned out as a Nation. It is study of ―what. Nation BuildingThis is the process of consolidation of various social groups [whole population] under a common tag. Thus. 1. The political system of modern states are organised on the basis of constitution of a particular state. Political socialization is . 2.

Political DevelopmentPolitical Development refers to gradual changes occurred into the political structure and political culture of a state during a certain time period. Latent political socialization process implies transmission of non-political attitudes towards prevalent institutions in a political system. Party system in a state varies from state to state as one party system. interest groups. It involves the fundamental aspects of culture in a political system. Cardinal Theories of PoliticsLiberalismAn ideology based on a commitment to individualism. According to this ideology economic system is based upon Laissezfaire approach and it advocated*capitalism. The concept of political capacity referred only to two basic areas of development: ability of a government to collect revenues from its subjects to implement its preferred policies and its ability to mobilize human resources. These are family. Political development is related to increasing governmental efficiency in the use of human and material resources of the nation for the common good. it is important to study the process of political socialization in order to understand political stability and development of political system. civil society and NGO‘s. value and attitude towards politics of a state through manifest and latent transmission of information. consent and toleration: modern liberalism differs from classical liberalism. In contemporary context effective participation of citizens in decision-making process has been emphasized through decentralization of power. Political PartiesPolitical Party refers to a political or social institution with a common ideology. It refers to the involvement of mango peoples in policy making. Political socialization takes place through a variety of institutions and situations. The teaching of civics syllabus in the schools is an example of manifest political socialization. Effective political participation is also achieved through the various emerging concepts like pressure groups. Thus. secondary groups/such as work place. Who makes Government in a State i. educational institutions. peer groups.the process by which political cultures are formed. An individual acquires a particular belief. maintained and changed. implementing and its evaluation. the mass media. Ideology also advocated the concept of free market and liberalization. It also highlighted the notion of national political capacity or efficiency. government and political party machineries. Almost all developed countries on globe supported this ideology . Political development it refers to the capacity building of the government in discharging its duties or responsibilities.e. two party system and multi party system Political ParticipationThe study of political participation implies the study of actual involvement of people in the decisionmaking process rather than popular attitude of becoming involved.

the most prevalent usage refers to the one developed by Marx. merchants. In this sense proletariat includes those in industry. MarxismThis ideology was advocated and founded by Karl Marx. Traditional Socialism is different from ** democratic socialism. Marx advocated replacement of capitalism by communism.*A type of economic system which precedes socialism or communism. as opposed to the capitalist bourgeoisie. ProletariatIn ancient Rome the property–less class which served the state by producing children proles. SocialismA political ideology based on the principle of state ownership of resources and industry along with responsibility of socio-economic development. The ideology was consciously articulated by Nehru and endorsed by the Indian Parliament from time to time. Lenin of former USSR and Mayo of China were the main supporter of this ideology. agriculture and intellectual posts who live by the sale of their labour. Marxism is based upon the principle of classless society. . persons with a business of their own and members of liberal professions as opposed to the ‗proletariat‘ who live only by selling their labour.  **Democratic Socialism refers to a mixed ideology aiming at bringing about socialism through democratic means. capitalists. It is based on private ownership of the means of production and on the exploitation of the wage labour. manufacturers. The term is frequently used by Marxist socialists to denote the class of proprietors. Socialism is a clear contrast to Laissez faire and advocated more interference from government side. This ideology is based upon the principle of non-violence and decentralization of power to local government Few important terms in PolityBourgeoisieThis is a French term signifying citizen class or working class. NAZI party of Germany under leadership of Adolf Hitler and Italy‘s Mussolini were the prime advocator of this ideology GandhismOne more political or economic ideology put forward by Mahatma Gandhi of India is known as Gandhism. FascismFascism refers to a political ideology which advocates an authoritarian hierarchical government (as opposed to democracy or liberalism). However.

g. EC and CAGI Positive Discrimination PRI Government Form Parliamentary Government on lines of British Parliament Nature of State Quasi-Federal [India is union of states but centre is more powerful] Executive agency of Legislature and executive organs are based upon the fusion principle not on Government separation of power like in USA Liberty Fundamental Rights and Independent Judiciary Who made Indian Constitution-? . Indian PolityThe preamble of Indian constitution says that India is a Sovereign [undisputed legal right of Indian citizens over the state].‖ Independent Agencies like UPSC. Some cardinal features of Indian Polity incorporated by Indian Constitution          Written Partially rigid and partially flexible Impartial Judiciary with Judicial Review Directive Principles of State Policy Universal Adult franchise Emergency Provisions Power distribution between Union and State on doctrine of ―Pitch and Substance.EliteThis term denotes a group of persons who hold positions of eminence in society. Democratic [government by the people or by their elected representatives] Republic [A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens] country. political elite and business elite. The term is also used to refer to leaders in different fields. Secular [without any religion and equal respect for all prevailed ones]. Socialist [adhere to socialism ideology]. It originated under the influence of Robert Owen and acquired its more violent aspects in France besides getting its name from the word ‗Syndicate‘ (union trade). Trade UnionAn association of wage earners of workers for the purpose of improving their conditions and protecting their interests SyndicalismA movement of labour unions which favored ―direct action‖ culminating in a revolutionary general strike to secure workers‘ ownership and control of industry. e.

Here it should be noted that Mr. 1935. Out of which 93 were representative of Indian States and rest were from British Indian council. The words socialist and secular added into preamble of India constitution by 42nd Amendment Act in 1976. The Assemblies themselves were elected in 1946 according to the provisions of the Government of India Act.26th January 1950 [this date was choosed because on the same date earlier National Congress adopted Indian Constitution in 1930s] It took 2 years.26th November 1949 Full adoption or ratification. After partition total number members of constitutional assembly reduced to 299 but of whom 284 members were actually present and signed on the final Indian Constitution on 26th November 1949. Muslim and Sikh 1st meeting of Constitution Assembly. Rajendra Prasad Constitution assembly worked through various individual committees on separate subject matter which later drafted into a single unified document by Drafting Committee of Constitution Assembly     Drafted Committee was established in 1947 under chairmanship of Mr. Rajendra Prasad Do Do Do . B. In fact. Shah [then member of constitution assembly] advocated addition of these word into preamble but move was strongly opposed by Nehru. K. December 1946 Objective Resolution of Indian Constitution put forward by Nehru on 13thDecember 1946 and adopted by assembly on 22nd Jan 1947 after a comprehensive debate Dr. 11 months and 18 days to frame Indian Constitution Important Committees established by Constitution Assembly- Committee Committee on the Rules of Procedure Steering Committee Finance and Staff Committee Ad hoc Committee on the National Flag Chairman Dr.Indian Constitution was drafted and adopted by a Constituent Assembly that was not elected directly by the people. Total 205 members were from Indian national congress. Sinha was elected as temporary president of Constitution Assembly who later replaced by Dr. the Legislative Assemblies of the Indian Provinces elected it indirectly. R.      The main communities recognized for appropriate representation were General. The Constituent Assembly could be called real representative of the people because it had representation of almost all shades of opinions. T. Ambedkar 11th last meeting and adoption.9-23. Here are few important details regarding development of Indian constitution   Cabinet Mission recommended the establishment of constitution assembly Each province was allotted seats in constitution assembly in proportion of its population and members were elected from provincial legislative assemblies indirectly Total member of constitution assembly was 385.

It was. Single Citizenship. as opted by the Constituent Assembly in 1949. Parliamentary system. Commerce Australia and interstate trade. Munshi G. Pattabhi Sitaramayya K. Federal Structure. Quasi Federal Structure with strong center [residuary Canada powers]. influenced by the Government of India Act of 1935 that was passed by the British Parliament. Indirect election of RS members South Africa and PRIs 9. Prerogative writs and Bicameralism 3. to a great extent. Power Division. Rule of Law. GOI Act 1935 Judiciary and Public service commission 2. Preamble & Fundamental Duties USSR 7. Ambedkar Various provisions copied from outside sources in Indian ConstitutionThe Constitution of India.. Joint Sitting of Parliament 6. Cabinet form of govt. Directive Principles of State Policy. M. Independence of Judiciary. V. Office of Governor. Freedom of trade. Mavalanker Jawahar Lal Nehru Do Do Sardar Patel H. Kriplani Gopinath Bardoloi B. The provisions took by constitution assembly from various country‘s constitutions are as follows- S.Credential or Bonafide Committee House Committee Order of Business Committee Committee on the Functions of the Constituent Assembly States Committee Union Powers Committee Union Constitution Committee Advisory Committee on Fundamental Rights. Mukherjee J. B. Minorities and Tribal and Excluded Areas Minorities Sub-Committee Fundamental Rights Sub-Committee North-East Frontier Tribal Areas Committee Drafting Committee Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar B. R. Appointment of state governors by center and Advisory/review role of supreme court 5. was not something absolutely new. Provision Source 1. Election process of Irish Constitution of Ireland President & Nomination of members by President . Amendment Procedure. No. Impeachment of President and Impeachment process of SC and HCs Judges 4. Judicial Review. Legislation. In addition Constitution Assembly copied many provisions from the already working constitution of various countries which makes Indian Constitution most lengthy and comprehensive document in world of constitution. Office of ViceUSA President. C. Emergency Provisions and suspension of rights during Weimer constitution of emergency Germany 8. Britain Office of CAG. Concurrent List [List III]. Fundamental Rights.

out of which 12 members are nominated by the President for their expertise in specific fields of art. The Deputy Speaker presides during the absence of the Speaker. The House can be dissolved before the completion of the term or it can be extended by a Proclamation of Emergency. EDUCATION. 17891799 Indian Parliament- What is Parliament? According to the Constitution of India. The House has a maximum of 250 members. the maximum strength of the Lok Sabha can be 552 members. Procedures established by law Idea of Justice in SOCIAL. But one third of its members retire at the expiration of every two years. The period of extension cannot exceed one year at a time. This kind of system. The remaining 238 members are elected by the members of the legislative bodies from the States and Union Territories. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and unlike the Lok Sabha. up to 20 members would represent the Union Territories. The electorate consists of all citizens who have attained 18 years of age and are otherwise not disqualified to vote under the law. 1917 French Revolution. there is an overlap of the legislative and executive functions for several members) For those members who are part of . the Council of Ministers are also Members of Parliament (that is.10. at the end of which the House is dissolved. and two members would be appointed by the President to represent the Anglo-Indian community if there is inadequate representation of the community. however. and to represent the interests of the people. 12. The minimum age for qualification as a member of the Lok Sabha is 25 years. conduct day to day business. The Vice-President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. is called a bicameral legislature Rajya SabhaThe Rajya Sabha (Council of States) is the Upper House of Parliament. Lok SabhaThe Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the Lower House of Parliament. elected by the members of the Lok Sabha. literature. science. Each member of the Rajya Sabha serves for a term of six years. The members are directly elected to the House. to oversee the work of the government. Each Lok Sabha is formed for a period of five years. A Speaker and a Deputy Speaker. The Parliament includes the President and the two Houses – the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Equality and fraternity Japan Russian Revolution. What are the functions of Parliament? Parliament has four primary functions. The Hindi term for Parliament is Sansad. 11. ECONOMIC and POLITICAL Idea of Liberty. elects a Deputy Chairman from among its members who takes care of the day-to-day working of the House. and social services. In the Indian system. The Constitution provides that up to 530 members would represent territorial constituencies in the states. the union legislative body is called the Parliament.to make laws. It. Under the Constitution. it cannot be dissolved at any time. Both Houses have equal legislative powers except in the area of finance where the Lok Sabha is given overriding powers. with two Houses. to sanction government expenditure.

After the Lok Sabha elections. there is an additional responsibility of the executive as compared to those who are not in the Council of Ministers. As the leader of the majority. The leader of the largest party in opposition in each House is designated as the Leader of the Opposition. the President can enact or promulgate Ordinances having the same validity as a law passed in Parliament.the Council of Ministers. the Prime Minister is also the Leader of the Lok Sabha. The Council of Ministers constitutes the Government of India and the government is headed by the Prime Minister. The President performs certain constitutional functions         The President invites the leader of the majority party to form the Government after a new Lok Sabha is duly elected The President nominates 12 members of the Rajya Sabha and has the right to nominate two members from the Anglo Indian community to the Lok Sabha if they are underrepresented On the advice of the Executive.To represent the views and aspirations of the people of their constituency in Parliament  “Power of the Purse” responsibility.To approve and oversee the revenues and expenditures proposed by the government What constitutes the Government of India? The President is the formal.e. The Council of Ministers. the term of the Government comes to an end. The political power is vested with the Prime Minister and his team of ministers – the Council of Ministers. The ministers can be chosen from both Houses of Parliament. constitutional head of the Republic of India. Aadvani but at present he has replaced by Susma Swaraj What is the role of the President of India with regard to Parliament? The President is the constitutional head of Republic of India. He has to perform certain parliamentary functions like proposing dates of calling the House in session to the Speaker and drawing up the programme of official business. The President has the power to appoint the Speaker of the Lok Sabha and the Chairman of Rajya Sabha on an interim basis .To ensure that the executive (i. directly elected by an electoral college that includes elected members of both Houses of Parliament and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States. government) performs its duties satisfactorily  Representative responsibility. If the Lok Sabha passes a motion of no-confidence against the Council of Ministers. L. headed by the Prime Minister. K.To pass laws Oversight responsibility. The President appoints the leader of the majority party as the Prime Minister and on the advice of the Prime Minister appoints other ministers. the President invites the leader of the party or parties with the majority of votes in the Lok Sabha to form the Government. (together forming the Executive) is responsible for the governance of the country and is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. The broad functions of Parliament can be described as followsLegislative responsibility. the President summons the two Houses of Parliament to meet from time to time The President has the power to discontinue a session in the two Houses and dissolve the Lok Sabha (in consultation with the Executive) The President has to agree to sign a Bill before it can become a law If the Houses are not in session. Till 18thDecember 2009 leader of opposition in LS was Mr.

as separate scheme of Youth Parliament for Kendriya Vidyalayas at the National Level was launched in 1988. Similarly. in 1997-98. Subsequently. What do you mean by Youth Parliament Competition-? In order to develop democratic ethos in the younger generation the Ministry conducts Youth Parliament Competition in various categories of schools and colleges/universities. if it is deemed to serve the national interest. The services such as the Indian Administrative Service. The Youth Parliament Scheme was first introduced in the Schools in Delhi in 1966-67. and All-India Judicial Service are part of the All India Services. The 21st National Youth Parliament Competition for Kendriya Vidyalayas was held and 90 Kendriya Vidyalayas participated. the 43rd Youth Parliament Competition for Delhi Schools was completed and 33 schools had participated. Indian Police Service. The 12th National Youth Parliament Competition for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas was completed. Kendriya Vidyalayas located in and around Delhi were incorporated into the ongoing Scheme for Delhi Schools in 1978. which would be common to the Union and State. one for Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas and the other for Universities/Colleges were launched. During 2008-09. The Ninth National Youth Parliament Competition for Universities/Colleges is in progress . In the joint sitting. two new Youth Parliament Schemes at the national level.The President has the right to address either or both Houses of Parliament The President has the power to call both Houses for a joint sitting in case a dispute arises over passing a Bill. They are as follows    Rajya Sabha can declare that it would be in the national interest for the Parliament to make laws on any subject in the State List Rajya Sabha is empowered to make laws creating one or more All India Services. the matter is decided by majority vote What are the special powers of Rajya Sabha? Rajya Sabha enjoys certain special powers.

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