# A2 Geographical Skills Key terms glossary – in order Alternative hypothesis Null hypothesis SMART title Primary data Secondary

data Risk assessment denoted by H1 or Ha, is the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by some non-random cause denoted by H0, is usually the hypothesis that sample observations result purely from chance. An investigation that is: Smart, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic & Timed Data observed or collected directly from first-hand experience Published data and the data collected in the past or other parties The identification, evaluation, and estimation of the levels of risks involved in a situation, their comparison against benchmarks or standards, and determination of an acceptable level of risk. Survey that can claim to be more representative than a survey of simple random sampling or systematic sampling. eg: If the respondents needed to reflect the diversity of the population, the researcher would specifically seek to include participants of various minority groups such as race or religion, based on their proportionality to the total population is one chosen by a method involving an unpredictable component – can be generated using published random number table This involves taking a sample from the available data in a set pattern, rather than at random. A telephone survey that called every hundredth caller listed in the phone book would be a systematic sample. Sampling where you can – taking into account access issues. “dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations” is a system of hardware and software used for storage, retrieval, mapping, and analysis of geographic data. Are ways of collecting data which are concerned with describing meaning, rather than with drawing statistical inferences. Data measured or identified on a numerical scale. This numerical data can be analyzed using statistical methods, and results can be displayed using tables, charts, histograms and graphs In many real-life situations, it is helpful to describe data by a single number that is most representative of the entire collection of numbers. Such a number is called this. Examples are: Mean, median, range, standard deviation Examples are Mann-Whitney (compares medians and ranks to see if the data set differs). Chi-squared (compares observed and expected frequencies). Examples are Spearman’s rank (measures strength of relationships between sets of data) and Chi-squared compares observed and expected frequencies). Something that deviates from what is standard, normal, or expected

Stratified sampling

Random sampling Systematic sampling Pragmatic sampling

GIS Qualitative data Quantitative data

Central tendency and dispersion tests Tests for differences Tests for association Anomalies

A2 Geographical Skills Key terms glossary – jumbled Alternative hypothesis Null hypothesis Data measured or identified on a numerical scale. This numerical data can be analyzed using statistical methods, and results can be displayed using tables, charts, histograms and graphs Examples are Mann-Whitney (compares medians and ranks to see if the data set differs). Chi-squared (compares observed and expected frequencies). In many real-life situations, it is helpful to describe data by a single number that is most representative of the entire collection of numbers. Such a number is called this. Examples are: Mean, median, range, standard deviation is a system of hardware and software used for storage, retrieval, mapping, and analysis of geographic data. denoted by H1 or Ha, is the hypothesis that sample observations are influenced by some non-random cause The identification, evaluation, and estimation of the levels of risks involved in a situation, their comparison against benchmarks or standards, and determination of an acceptable level of risk. Published data and the data collected in the past or other parties Survey that can claim to be more representative than a survey of simple random sampling or systematic sampling. eg: If the respondents needed to reflect the diversity of the population, the researcher would specifically seek to include participants of various minority groups such as race or religion, based on their proportionality to the total population This involves taking a sample from the available data in a set pattern, rather than at random. A telephone survey that called every hundredth caller listed in the phone book would be a systematic sample. Something that deviates from what is standard, normal, or expected is one chosen by a method involving an unpredictable component – can be generated using published random number table Sampling where you can – taking into account access issues. “dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations” denoted by H0, is usually the hypothesis that sample observations result purely from chance. Data observed or collected directly from first-hand experience

SMART title

Primary data Secondary data Risk assessment

Stratified sampling Random sampling

Systematic sampling Pragmatic sampling GIS Qualitative data

Quantitative data Central tendency and dispersion tests Tests for differences Tests for association Anomalies

Are ways of collecting data which are concerned with describing meaning, rather than with drawing statistical inferences. An investigation that is: Smart, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic & Timed Examples are Spearman’s rank (measures strength of relationships between sets of data) and Chi-squared compares observed and expected frequencies).