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3.0 Methodology 3.1 Applied research According to http://psychology.about.

com, 1999, applied research refers to scientific study and research that seeks to solve practical problems. Applied research is used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies. Psychologists working in human factors or organizational fields often do this type of research. The research that I conduct is with the intention of applying results to specific problems which I aim at finding a solution for smoking problems that facing by society. 3.2 Positivist According to http://www.thefreedictionary.com, 2009, positivist is a doctrine contending that sense perceptions are the only admissible basis of human knowledge and precise thought. This doctrine is applicable in logic, epistemology, and ethics. It is also someone who emphasizes observable facts and excludes metaphysical speculation about origins or ultimate causes. According to http://www.tw.org, 1996, positivism believes that there is an external world out there which means we can learn the facts about the external world only through experimentation and manipulation. Positivism is a more deductive approach to research. It is based on scientific principles. The research process moves from theory- testing to data gathering. It requires the collection of quantitative data. This approach suits my research. 3.3 Quantitative research According to http://www.marketresearchworld.net, 2005, quantitative research is used to measure how many people feel, think or act in a particular way. These surveys tend to include large samples, anything from 50 to any number of interviews. Structured questionnaires are usually used incorporating mainly closed questions which mean questions with set responses. There are various vehicles used for collecting quantitative information but the most common are on-street or telephone interviews. My research need questionnaire to collect data that I needs and it is considered as quantitative method.

3.4 Deduction As mentioned in above, I had chose positivism which is a more deductive approach. According to http://www.socialresearchmethods.net, 2006, deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific. Sometimes this is informally called a topdown approach. We might begin with thinking up a theory about our topic of interest. We then narrow that down into more specific hypothesis that we can test. We narrow down even further when we collect observations to address the hypothesis. This ultimately leads us to e able to test the hypothesis with specific data which is a confirmation (or not) of our original theories. 3.5 Non-experimental research According to http://www.southalabama.edu, 1998, non- experimental research is needed because there are many independent variables that we cannot manipulate for one reason or the other such as for ethical reasons, for practical reasons, and for literal reasons such as it is impossible to manipulate some variables. For example, in some cases, it would be unethical to randomly assign individuals to different treatment conditions. We could not study the effects of smoking by randomly assigning individuals to either a smoking or a nonsmoking group for a given number of years. The only ethical way to investigate the potential effects of smoking would be to identify a group of smokers and a group of nonsmokers and compare them for differences in their current state of health. The researcher, however, would also need to take other variables into account, such as how long people had smoked, their gender, age, and general health level. (http://media.wiley.com, 2008, GABRIELLA BELLI) 3.6 Primary and Secondary Data According to http://www.adfoster.com, 2010, primary data is data which collected by the researchers themselves. While, secondary data is data that had collected previously by other researchers for their own research or non-research purpose such as financial report. In my research, primary data is data which collect by using questionnaire given to people in Puchong area. Besides, secondary data are data which I collected through

websites, magazine and other media which collected by others previously. I used it for reference and understanding of the research problem. 3.7 Self- reported data The data I collected is consider self- reported data because the research is based on information provided by subjects such as in an interview, and it is dependent on people responding whether honest or not. It is reliance on information from individuals. This is same like what I do to collect information from people through questionnaire for my research. 3.8 Questionnaire- based survey According to http://www.nvcc.edu, 2002, the questionnaire as known as survey is a set of questions given to a sample of people. The purpose is to gather information about the peoples attitudes, thoughts, behaviors, and so forth. The researchers compile the answers of the people in the sample in order to know how the group as a whole thinks or behaves. It is usually based on a sample selected from a population. I had chose questionnaire as tool for the research because there are few advantages of it such as the responses are gathered in a standardized way, it is relatively quick to collect information using a questionnaire and potentially information can be collected from a large portion of a group (http://www.icbl.hw.ac.uk, 1999). Moreover, questionnaire is suitable for descriptive and explanatory research. According to http://www.blurtit.com, 2000, explanatory research attempts to go above and beyond what exploratory and descriptive research to identify the actual reasons a phenomenon occurs. An example of descriptive research would be a study that finds that Christian couples are twice as likely to divorce as Jewish couples. An explanatory researcher would then be interested in the reasons behind these facts. I had decided to distribute questionnaire through internet which is E-surveys and give questionnaire to respondent selected in street or shopping mall. These are fall under self- administered and interviewer- administered types of questionnaire.

3.8.1 Closed questions According to http://www.zoomerang.com, 1999, closed ended survey questions give respondents specific choices (e.g. Yes or No), making it easier to analyze results. Closed ended questions can take the form of yes/no, multiple choices or rating scale .In my questionnaire, most questions, the answer is either yes or no. For example, are you a smoker? These types of question can help respondents to make quick decision. 3.8.2 Likert scale Besides, I used likert scale in my questionnaire too. For example, you are affected by second- hand smoke, respondent will show their respond with 5 choices which are strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly agree. 3.9 Scales of measurement The data collected through questionnaire can be classified being quantitative since it is numerical data. According to David R. Anderson, Dennis J. Sweeney, Thomas A. Williams (2010), Essentials of Statistics for Business and Economics, p.20, quantitative data use either interval or ratio scales of measurement. According to http://stattrek.com, 2004, the interval scale of measurement has the properties of identity, magnitude, and equal intervals. A perfect example of an interval scale is the Fahrenheit scale to measure temperature. The scale is made up of equal temperature units, so that the difference between 40 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit is equal to the difference between 50 and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. With an interval scale, you know not only whether different values are bigger or smaller, you also know how much bigger or smaller they are. For example, suppose it is 60 degrees Fahrenheit on Monday and 70 degrees on Tuesday. You know not only that it was hotter on Tuesday; you also know that it was 10 degrees hotter.

Besides, the ratio scale of measurement satisfies all four of the properties of measurement: identity, magnitude, equal intervals, and an absolute zero. The weight of an object would be an example of a ratio scale. Each value on the weight scale has a unique meaning, weights can be rank ordered, units along the weight scale are equal to one another, and there is an absolute zero. Absolute zero is a property of the weight scale because objects at rest can be weightless, but they cannot have negative weight. 3.10 Population According http://www.investorwords.com, 1997, population can be defined as a group of individuals or items that share one or more characteristics from which data can be gathered and analyzed. According to http://www.sahs.utmb.edu, 1992, sample is a group of people or events drawn from a population. A research study is carried out on a sample from a population. Population I had chosen is resident in Puchong; samples are shoppers in IOI Mall.