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# CHAPTER 11

FLUIDS

ANSWERS TO FOCUS ON CONCEPTS QUESTIONS
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1. (b) According to the relation
2 1
P P gh = + (Equation 11.4), the pressure P
2
at the bottom
of the container depends on the height h of the fluid above it. Since this height is the same
for all three containers, the pressure at the bottom is the same for each container.

2. (d) According to the relation
2 1
P P gh = + (Equation 11.4), the pressure at any point
depends on the height h of the fluid above it. Since this height is the same for the ceiling of
chamber 1 and the floor of chamber 2, the pressure at these two locations is the same.

3. F = 3.0 10
5
N

4. (c) The pressure at the top of each liquid is the same, since the U-tube is open at both ends.
Also, the pressure at the location of the dashed line is the same in both the left and right
sides of the U tube, since these two locations are at the same level. Thus, the pressure
increment
1
gh
1
for liquid 1 must be equal to the pressure increment
2
gh
2
for liquid 2,
where h
1
and h
2
are the heights of the liquids above the dashed line. Since h
1
is greater than
h
2
,
1
must be less than
2
.
5. (b) The pressure at the top of each liquid is the same, since the U-tube is open at both ends.
Also, the pressure at the location of the dashed line is the same in both the left and right sides of
the U tube, since these two locations are at the same level. Thus, the pressure increment
1
gh
1

for liquid 1 must be equal to the pressure increment
2
gh
2
for liquid 2, where h
1
and h
2
are the
heights of the liquids above the dashed line. Since h
1
is 3 times as great as h
2
,
1
must be
one-third that of
2
.
6. (b) According to the relation,
2 1
P P gh = + (Equation 11.4), a drop in the pressure P
1
at
the top of the pool produces an identical drop in the pressure P
2
at the bottom of the pool.
7. W = 14 000 N
8. (a) According to Archimedes principle, the buoyant force equals the weight of the fluid
that the object displaces. Both objects displace the same weight of fluid, since they have the
same volume. The buoyant force does not depend on the depth of an object.
9. (d) The buoyant force (19.6 N) is less than the weight (29.4 N) of the object. Therefore, the
object sinks.
562 FLUIDS

10. (e) When an object floats, its weight
( )
object object
V g equals the buoyant force
( )
fluid displaced
V g , where V
displaced
is the volume of fluid displaced by the object. Thus,
object object fluid displaced
V g V g = , so the density of the object is
( )
object fluid displaced object
/ V V = . Thus, the density of the object is proportional to the ratio
displaced object
/ V V of the volumes. This ratio is greatest for object C and least for B.
11. (a) The beaker with the ball contains less water, because part of the ball is below the water
line. According to Archimedes principle, the weight of this missing (or displaced) water
is equal to the magnitude of the buoyant force that acts on the ball. Since the ball is floating,
the magnitude of the buoyant force equals the weight of the ball. Thus, the weight of the
missing water is exactly equal to the weight of the ball, so the two beakers weight the same.
12. (e) The volume flow rate is equal to the speed of the water times the cross-sectional area
through which the water flows (see Equation 11.10). If the speed doubles and the
cross-sectional area triples, the volume flow rate increases by a factor of six (2 3).
13. (c) Because water is incompressible and no water accumulates within the pipe, the volume
of water per second flowing through the wide section is equal to that flowing through the
narrow section. Thus, the volume flow rate is the same in both sections.
14. (b) Water is incompressible, so it cannot accumulate anywhere within the pipe. Thus, the
volume flow rate is the same everywhere. Since the volume flow rate is equal to the speed
of the water times the cross-sectional area of the pipe (see Equation 11.10), the speed is
greatest where the cross-sectional area is smallest.
15. (b) The volume flow rate Q of the blood is the same everywhere. Since Q = Av, we have
that A
2
v
2
= A
1
v
1
, where the subscript 2 denotes the unblocked region of the artery and 1 the
partially blocked region. Since the area of a circle is
2
, A r t = the speed v
1
of the blood in
the partially blocked region is ( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
1 2 2 2
1
2.0 mm
0.40 m/s = 1.6 m/s.
1.0 mm
r
v v
r
(
| |
( = =
|
|
(
\ .

16. (a) Since blood is an incompressible fluid, the volume flow rate Q is the same everywhere
within the artery. Q is equal to the cross-sectional area of the artery times the speed of the
blood, so the blood slows down, or decelerates, as it moves from the narrow region into the
wider region. Because the hemoglobin molecule decelerates, the direction of the net force
acting on it must be opposite to its velocity. Therefore, the pressure ahead of the molecule is
greater than that behind it, so the pressure in the wider region is greater than that in the
narrow region.

17. P
1
P
2
= 207 Pa
Chapter 11 Answers to Focus on Concepts Questions 563

18. (b) The pressure at C is greater than that at B. These two points are at the same elevation,
but the fluid is moving slower at C since it has a greater cross-sectional area. Since the fluid
is moving slower at C, its pressure is greater. The pressure at B is greater than that at A. The
speed of the fluid is the same at both points, since the pipe has the same cross-sectional area.
However, B is at the lower elevation and, consequently, has more water above it than A.
The greater the height of fluid above a given point, the greater is the pressure at that point,
provided the cross-sectional area does not change.

19. P
B
P
A
= 12 000 Pa

20. (d) A longer pipe offers a greater resistance to the flow of a viscous fluid than a shorter pipe
does. The volume flow rate depends inversely on the length of the pipe. For a given pipe
radius and pressure difference between the ends of the pipe, the volume flow rate is less in
longer pipes. In this case the longer pipe is twice as long, so its volume flow rate Q
B
is
one-half that of Q
A
.

21. Q
B
= 1.62 10
4
m
3
/s

564 FLUIDS

CHAPTER 11
FLUIDS

PROBLEMS

1. SSM REASONING The weight W of the water bed is equal to the mass m of water times
the acceleration g due to gravity; W = mg (Equation 4.5). The mass, on the other hand, is
equal to the density of the water times its volume V, or m = V (Equation 11.1).

SOLUTION Substituting m = V into the relation W = mg gives

( )
( )
( )
( )
3 3 2
1.00 10 kg/m 1.83 m 2.13 m 0.229 m 9.80 m/s 8750 N
W mg V g = =
= =

We have taken the density of water from Table 11.1. Since the weight of the water bed is
greater than the additional weight that the floor can tolerate, the bed should not be
purchased.

2. REASONING The density of the solvent is given by
m
V
= (Equation 11.1), where m is
the mass of the solvent and V is its volume. The solvent occupies a cylindrical tank of radius
r and height h. Its volume V, therefore, is the product of the circular cross-sectional area
2
r t of the tank and the height h of the solvent:

2
V r h t = (1)

SOLUTION Substituting Equation (1) into
m
V
= (Equation 11.1), we obtain the density
of the solvent:

( ) ( )
3
2 2
14 300 kg
824 kg/m
1.22 m 3.71 m
m m
V r h

t
t
= = = =

3. SSM REASONING Equation 11.1 can be used to find the volume occupied by 1.00 kg
of silver. Once the volume is known, the area of a sheet of silver of thickness d can be found
from the fact that the volume is equal to the area of the sheet times its thickness.

Chapter 11 Problems 565

SOLUTION Solving Equation 11.1 for V and using a value of = 10 500 kg/m
3
for the
density of silver (see Table 11.1), we find that the volume of 1.00 kg of silver is

5 3
3
1.00 kg
9.52 10 m
10 500 kg/m
m
V

= = =

The area of the silver, is, therefore,

5 3
2
7
9.52 10 m
317 m
3.00 10 m
V
A
d

= = =

4. REASONING AND SOLUTION
a. We will treat the neutron star as spherical in shape, so that its volume is given by the
familiar formula,
3 4
3
V r t = . Then, according to Equation 11.1, the density of the neutron
star described in the problem statement is

28
18 3
3 3 3 3
4
3
3 3(2.7 10 kg)
3.7 10 kg/m
4 4 (1.2 10 m)
m m m
V r r

t t t

= = = = =

b. If a dime of volume
7 3
2.0 10 m were made of this material, it would weigh

18 3 7 3 2 12
(3.7 10 kg/m )(2.0 10 m )(9.80 m/s )= 7.3 10 N W mg Vg = = =

This weight corresponds to
12 12
1 lb
7.3 10 N 1.6 10 lb
4.448 N
| |
=
|
\ .

5. REASONING AND SOLUTION 14.0 karat gold is (14.0)/(24.0) gold or 58.3%. The
weight of the gold in the necklace is then (1.27 N)(0.583) = 0.740 N. This corresponds to a
volume given by V = M/ = W/(g) . Thus,

( )( )
6 3
3 2
0.740 N
3.91 10 m
19 300 kg/m 9.80 m/s
V

= =

6. REASONING AND SOLUTION If the concrete were solid, it would have a mass of

M = V = (2200 kg/m
3
)(0.025 m
3
) = 55 kg

566 FLUIDS

The mass of concrete removed to make the hole is then 55 kg 33 kg = 22 kg. This
corresponds to a volume V = (22 kg)/(2200 kg/m
3
) = 0.010 m
3
. Since the hole is spherical
V = (4/3)t r
3
so

( )
3
3
3
3 0.010 m
3
0.13 m
4 4
V
r
t t
= = =

7. REASONING According to the definition of density given in Equation 11.1, the mass m
of a substance is m = V, where V is the volume. We will use this equation and the fact that
the mass of the water and the gold are equal to find our answer. To convert from a volume
in cubic meters to a volume in gallons, we refer to the inside of the front cover of the text to
find that 1 gal = 3.785 10
3
m
3
.

REASONING Using Equation 11.1, we find that

## Water Water Gold Gold Water

Gold Gold
Water
or V V V
V
= =

Using the fact that 1 gal = 3.785 10
3
m
3
and densities for gold and water from
Table 11.1, we find

V
V
Water
Gold Gold
Water
3
3 3
kg / m m m m
kg / m
gal
3.785 m
gal
=
=

F
H
G
I
K
J
=

## 19 300 0 15 0 050 0 050

1000
1
10
1 9
3
c hb gb gb g
c h
. . .
.

8. REASONING The total mass m
T
of the rock is the sum of the mass m
G
of the gold and the
mass m
Q
of the quartz: m
T
= m
G
+ m
Q
. Thus, the mass of the gold is

m
G
= m
T
m
Q
(1)

The total volume V
T
of the rock is the sum of the volume V
G
of the gold and volume V
Q
of
the quartz:
V
T
= V
G
+ V
Q
(2)

The volume of a substance is related to the mass and the density of the substance according
to the definition of density: = m/V (Equation 11.1). These relations will enable us to find
the mass of the gold in the rock.

Chapter 11 Problems 567

SOLUTION Substituting m
Q
=
Q
V
Q
from Equation 11.1 into Equation (1) gives

m
G
= m
T
m
Q

= m
T

Q
V
Q

(3)

Solving Equation (2) for the volume V
Q
of the quartz and substituting the result into
Equation (3) yields

m
G
= m
T

Q
V
Q
= m
T

Q
(V
T
V
G
)
(4)

Substituting V
G
= m
G
/
G
from Equation 11.1 into Equation (4) gives

( )
G
G T Q T G T Q T
G
m
m m V V m V

| |
= =
|
\ .

(5)

Solving Equation (5) for the mass of the gold, and using the densities for gold and quartz
given in Table 11.1, gives

( )
T
3 3
T
3
Q
G
3 3
G Q
12.0 kg
4.00 10 m
2660 kg/m
1.6 kg
1 1
1 1
19 300 kg/m 2660 kg/m
m
V
m

= = =
| |

|
|
\ .

9. SSM WWW REASONING The period T of a satellite is the time for it to make one
complete revolution around the planet. The period is the circumference of the circular orbit
(2t R) divided by the speed v of the satellite, so that T = (2t R)/v (see Equation 5.1). In
Section 5.5 we saw that the centripetal force required to keep a satellite moving in a circular
orbit is provided by the gravitational force. This relationship tells us that the speed of the
satellite must be / v GM R = (Equation 5.5), where G is the universal gravitational
constant and M is the mass of the planet. By combining this expression for the speed with
that for the period, and using the definition of density, we can obtain the period of the
satellite.

SOLUTION The period of the satellite is

3
2 2
2
R R R
T
v GM GM
R
t t
t = = =

568 FLUIDS

According to Equation 11.1, the mass of the planet is equal to its density times its volume
V. Since the planet is spherical,
3 4
3
V R t = . Thus,
( )
3 4
3
M V R t = = . Substituting this
expression for M into that for the period T gives

( )
3 3
3
4
3
3
2 2
R R
T
GM G
G R
t
t t

t
= = =

The density of iron is = 7860 kg/m
3
(see Table 11.1), so the period of the satellite is

( )( )
11 2 2 3
3 3
4240 s
6.67 10 N m /kg 7860 kg/m
T
G
t t

= = =

10. REASONING The total mass of the solution is the sum of the masses of its constituents.
Therefore,

s s w w g g
V V V = + (1)

where the subscripts s, w, and g refer to the solution, the water, and the ethylene glycol,
respectively. The volume of the water can be written as
w s g
V V V = . Making this
substitution for
w
V , Equation (1) above can be rearranged to give

g
s w
s g w
V
V

(2)

Equation (2) can be used to calculate the relative volume of ethylene glycol in the solution.

SOLUTION The density of ethylene glycol is given in the problem. The density of water
is given in Table 11.1 as
3 3
1.000 10 kg/m . The specific gravity of the solution is given as
1.0730. Therefore, the density of the solution is

s w
3 3 3 3
(specific gravity of solution)
(1.0730)(1.000 10 kg/m ) 1.0730 10 kg/m
=
= =

Substituting the values for the densities into Equation (2), we obtain

3 3 3 3
g
s w
3 3 3
s g w
1.0730 10 kg/m 1.000 10 kg/m
0.63
1116 kg/m 1.000 10 kg/m
V
V

= = =

Chapter 11 Problems 569

Therefore, the volume percentage of ethylene glycol is 63% .

11. SSM REASONING Since the inside of the box is completely evacuated; there is no air
to exert an upward force on the lid from the inside. Furthermore, since the weight of the lid
is negligible, there is only one force that acts on the lid; the downward force caused by the
air pressure on the outside of the lid. In order to pull the lid off the box, one must supply a
force that is at least equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force exerted on the
lid by the outside air.

SOLUTION According to Equation 11.3, pressure is defined as / P F A = ; therefore, the
magnitude of the force on the lid due to the air pressure is

5 2 2 2 3
(0.85 10 N/m )(1.3 10 m ) 1.1 10 N F = =

12. REASONING Pressure is the magnitude of the force applied perpendicularly to a surface
divided by the area of the surface, according to Equation 11.3. The force magnitude,
therefore, is equal to the pressure times the area.

SOLUTION According to Equation 11.3, we have

F PA = = = 8 0 10 6 1 2 6 1 3 10
4 6
. . . . lb / in. in. in. lb
2
c h b gb g

13. REASONING According to Equation 11.3, the pressure P exerted on the ground by the
stack of blocks is equal to the force F exerted by the blocks (their combined weight) divided
by the area A of the blocks surface in contact with the ground, or P = F/A. Since the
pressure is largest when the area is smallest, the least number of blocks is used when the
surface area in contact with the ground is the smallest. This area is 0.200 m 0.100 m.

SOLUTION The pressure exerted by N blocks stacked on top of one another is

one block
NW
F
P
A A
= = (11.3)

where W
one block
is the weight of one block. The least number of whole blocks required to
produce a pressure of two atmospheres (2.02 10
5
Pa) is

( )
( )
5
one block
2.02 10 Pa 0.200 m 0.100 m
24
169 N
PA
N
W

= = =

570 FLUIDS

14. REASONING Since the weight is distributed uniformly, each tire exerts one-half of the
weight of the rider and bike on the ground. According to the definition of pressure,
Equation 11.3, the force that each tire exerts on the ground is equal to the pressure P inside
the tire times the area A of contact between the tire and the ground. From this relation, the
area of contact can be found.

SOLUTION The area of contact that each tire makes with the ground is

( ) ( )
1
1
person bike 2
4 2 2
5
625 N 98 N
4.76 10 m
7.60 10 Pa
W W
F
A
P P

+
+
= = = =

(11.3)

15. REASONING The cap is in equilibrium, so the sum of all the
forces acting on it must be zero. There are three forces in the
vertical direction: the force F
inside
due to the gas pressure inside
the bottle, the force F
outside
due to atmospheric pressure outside
the bottle, and the force F
that the screw thread exerts on
the cap. By setting the sum of these forces to zero, and using the
relation F = PA, where P is the pressure and A is the area of the
cap, we can determine the magnitude of the force that the screw threads exert on the cap.

SOLUTION The drawing shows the free-body diagram of the cap and the three vertical
forces that act on it. Since the cap is in equilibrium, the net force in the vertical direction
must be zero.
+ 0
y
F F F F E = =
(4.9b)

Solving this equation for F
, and using the fact that force equals pressure times area,
F = PA (Equation 11.3), we have

( ) ( )( )
5 5 4 2
inside outside
=
1.80 10 Pa 1.01 10 Pa 4.10 10 m 32 N
F F F P A P A
P P A

=
= = =

16. REASONING The power generated by the log splitter pump is the ratio of the work W
done on the piston to the elapsed time t:

Power
W
t
= (6.10a)

+y
F
outside

F
inside

F

Chapter 11 Problems 571

The work done on the piston by the pump is equal to the magnitude F of the force exerted
on the piston by the hydraulic oil, multiplied by the distance s through which the piston
moves:

( )
cos0 W F s Fs = = (6.1)

We have used = 0 in Equation 6.1 because the piston moves in the same direction as the
force acting on it. The magnitude F of the force applied to the piston is given by

F PA = (11.3)

where A is the cross-sectional area of the piston and P is the pressure of the hydraulic oil.

SOLUTION The head of the piston is circular with a radius r, so its cross-sectional area is
given by
2
A r t = . Substituting Equation 11.3 into Equation 6.1, therefore, yields

2
W PAs P r s t = = (1)

Substituting Equation (1) into Equation 6.10a gives the power required to operate the pump:

( )
( ) ( )
2
7
2
3
2.0 10 Pa 0.050 m 0.60 m
Power 3.8 10 W
25 s
W P r s
t t
t
t

= = = =

17. REASONING The pressure P due to the force F
SonF
that the suitcase exerts on the elevator
floor is given by
SonF
F
P
A
= (Equation 11.3), where A is the area of the elevator floor
beneath the suitcase (equal to the product of the length and width of that region). According
to Newtons 3
rd
law, the magnitude F
SonF
of the downward force the suitcase exerts on the
floor is equal to the magnitude F
FonS
of the upward force the floor exerts on the suitcase.
We will use Newtons 2
nd
law, F ma E = (Equation 4.1), to determine the magnitude F
FonS

of the upward force on the suitcase, which has a mass m and an upward acceleration of
magnitude a = 1.5 m/s
2
, equal to that of the elevator.

SOLUTION There are only two forces acting on the suitcase, the upward force F
FonS
that
the floor exerts on the suitcase, and the downward weight W = mg (Equation 4.5) exerted by
the earth, where g is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. Taking upwards as the
positive direction, Newtons 2
nd
law yields

FonS
F F mg ma E = = (1)

Solving Equation (1) for F
FonS
, and noting that by Newtons 3
rd
law, F
FonS
= F
SonF
, we
obtain
572 FLUIDS

FonS SonF
( ) F mg ma m g a F = + = + = (2)

Substituting Equation (2) into
SonF
F
P
A
= (Equation 11.3), we find that

( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
2 2
SonF
16 kg 9.80 m/s 1.5 m/s
2400 Pa
0.15 m 0.50 m
F m g a
P
A A
+ +
= = = =

18. The tension forces T acting on the edges of the square section of the bladder wall add up to
give a total inward force F
in
. Because the section is in equilibrium, the net force acting on it
must be zero. Therefore, the inward force F
in
balances the outward force F
out
due to the
internal pressure P of the bladder: F
in
= F
out
. The magnitude F
out
of the outward force is
found from
out
F PA = (Equation 11.3), where A is the area of the outer surface of the
bladder wall. Thus, we have that

in out
F F PA = = (1)

SOLUTION We note that the horizontal components
horiz
cos T T u = of the tension forces
acting on opposite edges of the section balance each other out. Thus, there is no net
horizontal force on the section. The inward components T
in
of the four tension forces are
equal to one another, and each is given by

in
sin T T u =

The magnitude F
in
of the net inward force is, therefore,

in
in in
4 4 sin or
4 sin
F
F T T T u
u
= = = (2)

Substituting F
in
= PA [Equation (1)] into Equation (2) yields

u
T
T
T
u
u
u
T
u
T
horiz

T
in

F
in

T F
out

Chapter 11 Problems 573

4sin
PA
T
u
= (3)

The area A of the square is the product of the lengths (l = 0.010 m) of two of its sides:
2
A l = . Making this substitution into Equation (3), we obtain

( )( )
2
2
3300 Pa 0.010 m
0.95 N
4sin 4sin
4sin5.0
PA Pl
T
u u
= = = =

19. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION Both the cylinder and the hemisphere have
circular cross sections. According to Equation 11.3, the pressure exerted on the ground by
the hemisphere is
P
W
A
W
r
= =
h
h
h
h
2
t

where W
h
and r
h
are the weight and radius of the hemisphere. Similarly, the pressure
exerted on the ground by the cylinder is

P
W
A
W
r
= =
c
c
c
c
2
t

where W
c
and r
c
are the weight and radius of the cylinder. Since each object exerts the
same pressure on the ground, we can equate the right-hand sides of the expressions above to
obtain
W
r
W
r
h
h
2
c
c
2
t t
=
Solving for r
h
2
, we obtain
r r
W
W
h c
h
c

2 2
= (1)
The weight of the hemisphere is

W gV g r g r
h h h
3
h
3
= = = t t
1
2
4
3
2
3
c h

where and V
h
are the density and volume of the hemisphere, respectively. The weight of
the cylinder is
W gV g r h
c c c
2
= = t

574 FLUIDS

where and V
c
are the density and volume of the cylinder, respectively, and h is the height
of the cylinder. Substituting these expressions for the weights into Equation (1) gives

r r
W
W
r
g r
g r h
h c
h
c
c
h
3
c
2

2 2 2
2
3
= =
t
t

Solving for r
h
gives
r h
h
.500 m 0.750 m = = =
3
2
3
2
0 ( )

20. REASONING The magnitude of the force that would be exerted on the window is given
by Equation 11.3, F PA = , where the pressure can be found from Equation 11.4:
P P gh
2 1
= + . Since P
1
represents the pressure at the surface of the water, it is equal to
atmospheric pressure, P
atm
. Therefore, the magnitude of the force is given by

F P gh A = + ( )
atm

where, if we assume that the window is circular with radius r, its area A is given by A = t r
2
.

SOLUTION
a. Thus, the magnitude of the force is

F = = 1 013 10 10
5
. )( )( Pa +(1025 kg / m 9.80 m/ s 11 000 m) (0.10 m) 3.5 N
3 2 2 6
t

b. The weight of a jetliner whose mass is 1 2 10 .
5
kg is

W mg = = = (1.2 kg)(9.80 m/ s 1.2 N
5 2 6
10 10 )

Therefore, the force exerted on the window at a depth of 11 000 m is about three times
greater than the weight of a jetliner!

21. REASONING AND SOLUTION The pump must generate an upward force to counteract
the weight of the column of water above it. Therefore, F = mg = (hA)g. The required
pressure is then

P = F/A = gh = (1.00 10
3
kg/m
3
)(9.80 m/s
2
)(71 m) =
5
7.0 10 Pa

22. REASONING The atmospheric pressure outside the tube pushes the sauce up the tube, to
the extent that the smaller pressure in the bulb allows it. The smaller the pressure in the
bulb, the higher the sauce will rise. The height h to which the sauce rises is related to the
Chapter 11 Problems 575

atmospheric pressure P
Atmospheric
outside the tube, the pressure P
Bulb
in the bulb, and the
density of the sauce by
Atmospheric Bulb
P P gh = + (Equation 11.4).

SOLUTION
a. Solving Equation (11.4) for the absolute pressure in the bulb when the height of the sauce
is 0.15 m, we find that

( )( )
( )
Bulb Atmospheric
5 3 2 4
1.013 10 Pa 1200 kg/m 9.80 m/s 0.15 m 9.95 10 Pa
P P gh =
= =

b. When the height of the sauce is 0.10 m, the absolute pressure in the bulb is

( )( )
( )
Bulb Atmospheric
5 3 2 5
1.013 10 Pa 1200 kg/m 9.80 m/s 0.10 m 1.001 10 Pa
P P gh =
= =

23. SSM REASONING As the depth h increases, the pressure increases according to
Equation 11.4 (P
2
= P
1
+ gh). In this equation, P
1
is the pressure at the shallow end, P
2
is
the pressure at the deep end, and is the density of water (1.00 10
3
kg/m
3
, see Table
11.1). We seek a value for the pressure at the deep end minus the pressure at the shallow
end.

SOLUTION Using Equation 11.4, we find

P P gh P P gh
Deep Shallow Deep Shallow
or = + =

The drawing at the right shows that a value for h can
be obtained from the 15-m length of the pool by using
the tangent of the 11 angle:

( )
( )
( )( )
( )
Deep Shallow
3 3 2 4
tan11 or 15 m tan11
15 m
15 m tan11
1.00 10 kg/m 9.80 m/s 15 m tan11 2.9 10 Pa
h
h
P P g
= =
=
= =

11
15 m
h
576 FLUIDS

24. REASONING AND SOLUTION The gauge pressure of the solution at the location of the
vein is
P = gh = (1030 kg/m
3
)(9.80 m/s
2
)(0.610 m) = 6.16 10
3
Pa
Now
1.013 10
5
Pa = 760 mm Hg so 1 Pa = 7.50 10
3
mm Hg
Then

( )
3
3
7.50 10 mmHg
6.16 10 Pa 46.2 mmHg
1Pa
P

| |

= =
|
|
\ .

25. REASONING Since the diver uses a snorkel, the pressure in her lungs is atmospheric
pressure. If she is swimming at a depth h below the surface, the pressure outside her lungs is
atmospheric pressure plus that due to the water. The water pressure P
2
at the depth h is
related to the pressure P
1
at the surface by Equation 11.4, P
2
= P
1
+ gh, where is the
density of the fluid, g is the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity, and h is the depth.
This relation can be used directly to find the depth.

SOLUTION We are given that the maximum difference in pressure between the outside
and inside of the lungs is one-twentieth of an atmosphere, or P
2
P
1
=
( )
5 1
20
1.01 10 Pa .
Solving Equation 11.4 for the depth h gives

( )
( )( )
5
1
20
2 1
3 2
1.01 10 Pa
0.50 m
1025 kg/m 9.80 m/s
P P
h
g

= = =

26. REASONING The pressure difference across the divers eardrum is
ext int
P P , where P
ext

is the external pressure and P
int
is the internal pressure. The divers eardrum ruptures when
ext int
35 kPa P P = . The exterior pressure P
ext
on the divers eardrum increases with the
depth h of the dive according to
ext atm
P P gh = + (Equation 11.4), where P
atm
is the
atmospheric pressure at the surface of the water, is the density of seawater, and g is the
magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity. Solving Equation 11.4 for the depth h yields

ext atm
P P
h
g

= (1)

SOLUTION When the diver is at the surface, the internal pressure is equalized with the
external pressure:
int atm
P P = . If the diver descends slowly from the surface, and takes steps
to equalize the exterior and interior pressures, there is no pressure difference across the
eardrum, regardless of depth:
ext int
P P = . But if the diver sinks rapidly to a depth h without
Chapter 11 Problems 577

equalizing the pressures, then the internal pressure is still atmospheric pressure. In this case,
P
atm
in Equation (1) equals P
int
, so the eardrum is at risk for rupture at the depth h given by

( )( ) ( )( )
3
3 2 3 2
35 kPa 35 10 Pa
3.5 m
1025 kg/m 9.80 m/s 1025 kg/m 9.80 m/s
h

= = =

27. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION
a. The pressure at the level of house A is given by Equation 11.4 as
atm
P P gh = + . Now
the height h consists of the 15.0 m and the diameter d of the tank. We first calculate the
radius of the tank, from which we can infer d. Since the tank is spherical, its full mass is
given by
3
[(4/ 3) ] M V r t = = . Therefore,

1/3
1/ 3
5
3
3 3
3 3 3(5.25 10 kg)
or 5.00 m
4 4
4 (1.000 10 kg/m )
M M
r r
t t
t
(
| |
= = = =
( |

\ .

Therefore, the diameter of the tank is 10.0 m, and the height h is given by

10.0 m + 15.0 m = 25.0 m h =

According to Equation 11.4, the gauge pressure in house A is, therefore,

3 3 2 5
atm
(1.000 10 kg/m )(9.80 m/s )(25.0 m) = 2.45 10 Pa P P gh = =

b. The pressure at house B is
atm
P P gh = + , where

15.0 m 10.0 m 7.30 m 17.7 m h = + =

According to Equation 11.4, the gauge pressure in house B is

3 3 2 5
atm
(1.000 10 kg/m )(9.80 m/s )(17.7 m) = 1.73 10 Pa P P gh = =

28. REASONING In each case the pressure at point A in Figure 11.11 is atmospheric pressure
and the pressure in the tube above the top of the liquid column is P. In Equation 11.4 (P
2
=
P
1
+ gh), this means that P
2
= P
atmosphere
and P
1
= P. With this identification of the
pressures and a value of 13 600 kg/m
3
for the density of mercury (see Table 11.1),
Equation 11.4 provides a solution to the problem.

578 FLUIDS

SOLUTION Rearranging Equation 11.4, we have P
2
P
1
= gh. Applying this expression
to each setup gives
P P P P gh
P P P P gh
2 1
2 1
= =
= =
c h b g
c h b g
Mercury
Atmosphere Mercury
Unknown
Unknown Unknown

Since the left side of each of these equations is the same, we have

Mercury Mercury Unknown Unknown
Unknown Mercury
Mercury
Unknown
3
Mercury
Mercury
3
kg / m kg / m
gh gh
h
h
h
h
=
=
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
F
H
G
I
K
J
= 13600
16
850
c h

29. SSM REASONING Let the length of the tube be denoted by L, and let the length of the
liquid be denoted by . When the tube is whirled in a circle at a constant angular speed
about an axis through one end, the liquid collects at the other end and experiences a
centripetal force given by (see Equation 8.11, and use F ma = ) F mr mL = = e e
2 2
.

Since there is no air in the tube, this is the only radial force experienced by the liquid, and it
results in a pressure of
P
F
A
mL
A
= =
e
2

where A is the cross-sectional area of the tube. The mass of the liquid can be expressed in
terms of its density and volume V: m V A = = . The pressure may then be written as

2
2
A L
P L
A
e
e = = (1)

If the tube were completely filled with liquid and allowed to hang vertically, the pressure at
the bottom of the tube (that is, where h L = ) would be given by

P gL = (2)

SOLUTION According to the statement of the problem, the quantities calculated by
Equations (1) and (2) are equal, so that e L gL
2
= . Solving for e gives

e = = =
g

9.80 m/ s
0.0100 m
2

Chapter 11 Problems 579

30. REASONING According to Equation 11.4, the pressure P
mercury
at a point 7.10 cm below
the ethyl alcohol-mercury interface is

P P gh
mercury interface mercury mercury
= + (1)

where P
interface
is the pressure at the alcohol-mercury interface, and h
mercury
0.0710 m = .
The pressure at the interface is

P P gh
interface atm ethyl ethyl
= + (2)

Equation (2) can be used to find the pressure at the interface. This value can then be used in
Equation (1) to determine the pressure 7.10 cm below the interface.

SOLUTION Direct substitution of the numerical data into Equation (2) yields

P
interface
3 2
1.01 (806 kg / m 9.80 m/ s m) = = 10 1 10 1 10 10
5 5
Pa + Pa )( )( . .

Therefore, the pressure 7.10 cm below the ethyl alcohol-mercury interface is

P
mercury
3 2
1.10 (13 600 kg / m 9.80 m/ s m) = = 10 0 0710 119 10
5 5
Pa + Pa )( )( . .

31. REASONING Pressure is defined as the magnitude of the force acting perpendicular to a
surface divided by the area of the surface. Thus, the magnitude of the total force acting on
the vertical dam surface is the pressure times the area A of the surface. But exactly what
pressure should we use? According to Equation 11.4, the pressure at any depth h under the
water is
atm
P P gh = + , where P
atm
is the pressure of the atmosphere acting on the water at
the top of the reservoir. Clearly, P has different values at different depths. As a result, we
need to use an average pressure. In Equation 11.4, it is only the term gh that depends on
depth, and the dependence is linear. In other words, the value of gh is proportional to h.
Therefore, the average value of this term is
( )
1
2
g H , where H is the total depth of the
water in the full reservoir and
1
2
H is the average depth. The average pressure acting on the
vertical surface of the dam in contact with the water is, then,

( )
1
atm
2
P P g H = + (1)

SOLUTION According to the definition of pressure given in Equation 11.3, the magnitude
F
total
of the total force acting on the vertical surface of the dam is
total
F PA = , where P is
given by Equation (1). Using Equation (1) to substitute for P gives

580 FLUIDS

( )
1
total atm
2
F PA P g H A
(
= = +
(

The area is A = (120 m)(12 m), and
5
atm
1.01 10 Pa P = . Table 11.1 gives the density of
water as
3 3
1.00 10 kg/m = . With these values, we find that

( )
( )( )
( ) ( )( )
1
total atm
2
1
5 3 3 2 8
2
1.01 10 Pa 1.00 10 kg/m 9.80 m/s 12 m 120 m 12 m 2.3 10 N
F P g H A
(
= +
(

(
= + =

32. REASONING AND SOLUTION The force exerted on the top surface is

F
2
= P
2
A
2
= P
atm
t R
2
2

The force exerted on the bottom surface is F
1
= P
1
A
1
= (P
atm
+ gh)t R
1
2
. Equating and
rearranging yields
R
2
2
= R
1
2
(1 + gh/P
atm
)
or
R
2
2
= 1.485 R
1
2

(1)

Consider a right triangle formed by drawing a vertical line from a point on the
circumference of the bottom circle to the plane of the top circle so that two sides are equal to
R
2
R
1
and h. Then tan 30.0 = (R
2
R
1
)/h.

a. Now, R
1
= R
2
h tan 30.0 = R
2
2.887 m (2)

Substituting (2) into (1) and rearranging yields

0.485 R
2
2
8.57 R
2
+ 12.38 = 0

which has two roots, namely, R
2
= 16.1 m and 1.59 m. The value R
2
= 1.59 m leads to a
negative value for R
1
. Clearly, a radius cannot be negative, so we can eliminate the root
R
2
= 1.59 m, and we conclude that R
2
= 16.1 m .

b. Now that R
2
is known, Equation (2) gives R
1
= 13.2 m .

Chapter 11 Problems 581

33. SSM REASONING According to Equation 11.4, the initial pressure at the bottom of the
pool is P P gh
0
0
= +
atm
c h
, while the final pressure is P P gh
f atm
f
= +
c h
. Therefore, the
change in pressure at the bottom of the pool is

AP P P P gh P gh P P = = + + =
f 0 atm
f
atm
0
atm
f
atm
0
c h c h c h c h

According to Equation 11.3, F PA = , the change in the force at the bottom of the pool is

A A F P A P P A = = ( )
atm
f
atm
0
c h c h

SOLUTION Direct substitution of the data given in the problem into the expression above
yields
AF =
F
H
G
I
K
J
= 765 mm Hg 755 mm Hg (12 m)(24 m)
Pa
1.0 mm Hg
3.8 b g
133
10
5
N

Note that the conversion factor 133 Pa = 1.0 mm Hg is used to convert mm Hg to Pa.

34. REASONING Equation 11.5 gives the force F
2
of the output plunger in terms of the force
F
1
applied to the input piston as F
2
= F
1
(A
2
/A
1
), where A
2
and A
1
are the corresponding
areas. In this problem the chair begins to rise when the output force just barely exceeds the
weight, so F
2
= 2100 N. We are given the input force as 55 N. We seek the ratio of the radii,
so we will express the area of each circular cross section as t r
2
when we apply
Equation 11.5.

SOLUTION According to Equation 11.5, we have

A
A
F
F
r
r
F
F
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
= = or
t
t

Solving for the ratio of the radii yields

r
r
F
F
2
1
2
1
2100
6 2 = = =
N
55 N
.

35. REASONING We label the input piston as 2 and the output plunger as 1. When the
bottom surfaces of the input piston and output plunger are at the same level, Equation 11.5,
( )
2 1 2 1
/ F F A A = , applies. However, this equation is not applicable when the bottom surface
of the output plunger is h = 1.50 m above the input piston. In this case we must use Equation
582 FLUIDS

11.4,
2 1
P P gh = + , to account for the difference in heights. In either case, we will see that
the input force is less than the combined weight of the output plunger and car.

SOLUTION
a. Using A = t r
2
for the circular areas of the piston and plunger, the input force required to
support the 24 500-N weight is

( )
( )
( )
2
3
2
2 1
2
1
7.70 10 m
24 500 N 93.0 N
0.125 m
A
F F
A
t
t

| |
(
= = =
|
( |
\ .
(

(11.5)

b. The pressure P
2
at the input piston is related to the pressure P
1
at the bottom of the
output plunger by Equation 11.4, P
2
= P
1
+ gh, where h is the difference in heights. Setting
( )
2
2 2 2 2 2
/ / P F A F r t = = ,
( )
2
1 1 1
/ P F r t = , and solving for F
2
, we have

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
2 1 2
2
1
2
3
2
2
2 3 2 3
7.70 10 m
24 500 N
0.125 m
8.30 10 kg/m 9.80 m/s 1.30 m 7.70 10 m 94.9 N
r
F F gh r
r
t
t
t
t
t
t

| |
= + |
|
\ .
(

(
=
(
(

+ =

(11.4)

36. REASONING When a force of magnitude F
p
is applied to the piston, the hydraulic fluid
exerts a force of magnitude F
v
against the safety valve. The two forces are related by
Equation 11.5:

p
p v
v
A
F F
A
| |
=
|
|
\ .
(11.5)

where A
p
is the cross-sectional area of the piston and A
v
is the cross-sectional area of the
valve opening. In order for the valve to open, the outward force F
v
of the hydraulic fluid
must be at least as great as the inward force F
s
exerted on the valve by the compressed
spring:

v s
F F = . The magnitude of the spring force, in turn, is given by
s
F kx =
(Equation 10.2 without the minus sign), where k is the spring constant, and x is the amount
by which the spring is compressed. Therefore, we have

Chapter 11 Problems 583

v s
F F kx = = (1)

SOLUTION Substituting Equation (1) into Equation 11.5, we obtain

p
p
v
A
F kx
A
| |
=
|
|
\ .
(2)

Both the piston and the valve have circular cross-sections, so the area A of either one is
calculated from its radius r according to
2
A r t = . Substituting
2
A r t = into Equation (2),
we obtain the force F
p
on the piston needed to open the safety valve:

p
F kx
t
=
2
p
r
t
( )( )
2
2
p
2
v v
0.0281 m
885 N/m 0.0100 m 165 N
0.00650 m
r
kx
r r
| |
| |
= = =
|
|
\ .
\ .

37. REASONING AND SOLUTION From Pascal's principle, the pressure in the brake fluid at
the master cylinder is equal to the pressure in the brake fluid at the plungers: P
C
= P
P
, or

2
2
C P P P P
P C C C
2
C P C C C
or
F F A r r
F F F F
A A A
r r
t
t
| |
= = = = |
|
\ .

The torque on the pedal is equal to the torque that is applied to the master cylinder so that

C C C
C
or F F F F = =

Combining the expression for F
C
with the expression for F
P
above, we have

2 2
2
p
P
3
C C
0.150 m 1.90 10 m
(9.00 N) = 108 N
0.0500 m
9.50 10 m
r
F F
r
| | | |
| |
= = | |
|
| |
\ .
\ . \ .

38. REASONING The magnitude F
1
of the force the spring exerts on the piston is found from
1
F kx = (Equation 10.3, without the minus sign), where k is the spring constant of the
spring, and x is the amount by which the spring is compressed from its unstrained position.
The piston and the plunger are at the same height, so the fluid pressure
F
P
A
=
(Equation 11.3) at the piston is equal to the fluid pressure at the plunger. Therefore, the
584 FLUIDS

magnitude of the force F
2
that the rock exerts on the plunger is given by
2
2 1
1
A
F F
A
| |
=
|
|
\ .

(Equation 11.5) where A
1
is the area of the piston and A
2
is the area of the plunger. The
magnitude F
2
of the force the rock exerts on the plunger is equal to the magnitude W = mg
(Equation 4.5) of the rocks weight, where m is the rocks mass and g is the magnitude of
the acceleration due to gravity.

SOLUTION Solving
1
F kx = (Equation 10.3, without the minus sign) for x, we obtain

1
F
x
k
= (1)
Solving
2
2 1
1
A
F F
A
| |
=
|
|
\ .
(Equation 11.5) for F
1
and substituting F
2
= mg yields

1 1
1 2
2 2
A A
F F mg
A A
| | | |
= =
| |
| |
\ . \ .
(2)

Substituting Equation (2) into Equation (1), we find that

( )
( )
2 2
2 1 1
2
2
40.0 kg 9.80 m/s 15 cm
5.7 10 m
1600 N/m 65 cm
F A
mg
x
k k A

| | | |
= = = =
| |
|
\ .
\ .

39. SSM REASONING The pressure ' P exerted on the bed of the truck by the plunger is
' = P P P
atm
. According to Equation 11.3, F P A = ' , so the force exerted on the bed of the
truck can be expressed as F P P A =
atm
c h
. If we assume that the plunger remains
perpendicular to the floor of the load bed, the torque that the plunger creates about the axis
shown in the figure in the text is

t t = = = F P P A P P r
atm atm
c h c h
( )
2

SOLUTION Direct substitution of the numerical data into the expression above gives

t t = = 3 .01 ( 150 m ( m 8.50
2
. . ) . ) 54 10 1 10 0 3 50 10
5 6 5
Pa Pa N m
c h

40. REASONING The ice with the bear on it is floating, so that the upward-acting buoyant
force balances the downward-acting weight W
ice
of the ice and weight W
bear
of the bear. The
magnitude F
B
of the buoyant force is the weight
2
H O
W of the displaced water, according to
Chapter 11 Problems 585

Archimedes principle. Thus, we have
2
B H O ice bear
F W W W = = + , the expression with which
we will obtain W
bear
. We can express each of the weights
2
H O
W and W
ice
as mass times the
magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity (Equation 4.5) and then relate the mass to the
density and the displaced volume by using Equation 11.1.

SOLUTION Since the ice with the bear on it is floating, the upward-acting buoyant force
F
B
balances the downward-acting weight W
ice
of the ice and the weight W
bear
of the bear.
The buoyant force has a magnitude that equals the weight
2
H O
W of the displaced water, as
stated by Archimedes principle. Thus, we have

2 2
B H O ice bear bear H O ice
or F W W W W W W = = + = (1)

In Equation (1), we can use Equation 4.5 to express the weights
2
H O
W and W
ice
as mass m
times the magnitude g of the acceleration due to gravity. Then, the each mass can be
expressed as m V = (Equation 11.1). With these substitutions, Equation (1) becomes

( )
2 2 2
bear H O ice H O H O ice ice
( ) W m g m g V g V g = = (2)

When the heaviest possible bear is on the ice, the ice is just below the water surface and
displaces a volume of water that is
2
H O ice
V V = . Substituting this result into Equation (2), we
find that
( )
( )( )( )
2 2
bear H O ice ice ice H O ice ice
3 3 3 2
( ) ( )
1025 kg/m 917 kg/m 5.2 m 9.80 m/s 5500 N
W V g V g V g = =
= =

41. SSM REASONING The buoyant force exerted on the balloon by the air must be equal in
magnitude to the weight of the balloon and its contents (load and hydrogen). The magnitude
of the buoyant force is given by
air
V g
. Therefore,

V g W V g = +

where, since the balloon is spherical,
3
(4/ 3) V r t =
. Making this substitution for V and
solving for r, we obtain
1/ 3
air hydrogen
3
4 g( )
W
r
t
(
= (

(

586 FLUIDS

SOLUTION Direct substitution of the data given in the problem yields

1/ 3
2 3 3
3(5750 N)
4.89 m
4 (9.80 m/s ) (1.29 kg/m 0.0899 kg/m )
r
t
(
= =
(

42. REASONING When the cylindrical tube is floating, it is in equilibrium, and there is no net
force acting on it. Therefore, the upward-directed buoyant force must have a magnitude that
equals the magnitude of the tubes weight, which acts downward. Since the magnitude F
B
of
the buoyant force equals the weight W of the tube, we have F
B
= W. This fact, together with
Archimedes principle, will guide our solution.

SOLUTION According to Archimedes principle, the magnitude of the buoyant force
equals the weight of the displaced fluid, which is the mass m of the displaced fluid times the
magnitude g of the acceleration due to gravity, or W = mg (Equation 4.5). But the mass is
equal to the density of the fluid times the displaced volume V, or m = V (Equation 11.1).
The result is that the weight of the displaced fluid is Vg. Therefore, F
B
= W becomes

Vg = W

The volume V of the displaced fluid equals the cross-sectional area A of the cylindrical tube
times the height h beneath the fluid surface, or V = Ah. With this substitution, our previous
result becomes Ahg = W. Thus, the height h to which the fluid rises is

W
h
Ag
=
a. The height h
acid
that the acid rises is

( )( )( )
2
2
acid
3 5 2 2
acid
5.88 10 N
5.97 10 m
1280 kg/m 7.85 10 m 9.80 m/s
W
h
Ag

= = =

b. The antifreeze rises to a height of

( )( )( )
antifreeze
antifreeze
2
2
3 5 2 2
5.88 10 N
7.12 10 m
1073 kg/m 7.85 10 m 9.80 m/s
W
h
Ag

= =

Chapter 11 Problems 587

43. REASONING Since the duck is in equilibrium, its downward-acting weight is balanced by
the upward-acting buoyant force. According to Archimedes principle, the magnitude of the
buoyant force is equal to the weight of the water displaced by the duck. Setting the weight
of the duck equal to the magnitude of the buoyant force will allow us to find the average
density of the duck.

SOLUTION Since the weight W
duck
of the duck is balanced by the magnitude F
B
of the
buoyant force, we have that W
duck
= F
B
. The ducks weight is W
duck
= mg = (
duck
V
duck
)g,
where
duck
is the average density of the duck and V
duck
is its volume. The magnitude of the
buoyant force, on the other hand, equals the weight of the water displaced by the duck, or
F
B
= m
water
g, where m
water
is the mass of the displaced water. But
( )
1
water water duck 4
= m V ,
since one-quarter of the ducks volume is beneath the water. Thus,

( )
1
duck duck water duck 4
Weight of duck
Magnitude of
buoyant force
V g V g =

Solving this equation for the average density of the duck (and taking the density of water
from Table 11.1) gives

( )
3 3 3 1 1
duck water 4 4
1.00 10 kg/m 250 kg/m = = =

44. REASONING The density of an object is equal to its mass m divided by its volume V, or
= m/V (Equation 11.1). The volume of a sphere is
3 4
3
V r t = , where r is the radius.
According to the discussion of Archimedes principle in Section 11.6, any object that is
solid throughout will float in a liquid if the density of the object is less than or equal to the
density of the liquid. If not, the object will sink.

SOLUTION
a. The average density of the sun is

( )
30
3 3
3 3
4
8
4
3
3
1.99 10 kg
1.41 10 kg/m
6.96 10 m
m m
V r

t
t

= = = =

b. Since the average density of the solid object (1.41 10
3
kg/m
3
) is greater than that of
water (1.00 10
3
kg/m
3
, see Table 11.1), the object will sink .

c. The average density of Saturn is

588 FLUIDS

( )
26
3 3
3 3
4
7
4
3
3
5.7 10 kg
0.63 10 kg/m
6.0 10 m
m m
V r

t
t

= = = =

The average density of this solid object (0.63 10
3
kg/m
3
) is less than that of water (1.00
10
3
kg/m
3
), so the object will float .

45. SSM WWW REASONING According to Equation 11.1, the density of the life jacket is
its mass divided by its volume. The volume is given. To obtain the mass, we note that the
person wearing the life jacket is floating, so that the upward-acting buoyant force balances
the downward-acting weight of the person and life jacket. The magnitude of the buoyant
force is the weight of the displaced water, according to Archimedes principle. We can
express each of the weights as mg (Equation 4.5) and then relate the mass of the displaced
water to the density of water and the displaced volume by using Equation 11.1.

SOLUTION According to Equation 11.1, the density of the life jacket is

J
J
J
m
V
= (1)

Since the person wearing the life jacket is floating, the upward-acting buoyant force F
B

balances the downward-acting weight W
P
of the person and the weight W
J
of the life jacket.
The buoyant force has a magnitude that equals the weight
2
H O
W of the displaced water, as
stated by Archimedes principle. Thus, we have

2
B H O P J
F W W W = = + (2)

In Equation (2), we can use Equation 4.5 to express each weight as mass m times the
magnitude g of the acceleration due to gravity. Then, the mass of the water can be expressed
as
2 2 2
H O H O H O
m V = (Equation 11.1). With these substitutions, Equation (2) becomes

2 2 2
H O P J H O H O P J
or ( ) m g m g m g V g m g m g = + = +

Solving this result for m
J
shows that

2 2
J H O H O P
m V m =

Chapter 11 Problems 589

Substituting this result into Equation (1) and noting that the volume of the displaced water is
2
2 3 2 3
H O
3.1 10 m 6.2 10 m V

= + gives

( )( )
2 2
3 3 2 3 2 3
H O H O P
3
J
2 3
J
1.00 10 kg/m 3.1 10 m 6.2 10 m 81 kg
390 kg/m
3.1 10 m
V m
V

+
= = =

46. REASONING The mass m of the shipping container is related to its weight by W mg =
(Equation 4.5). We neglect the mass of the balloon and the air contained in it. When it just
begins to rise off the ocean floor, the shipping containers weight W is balanced by the
upward buoyant force F
B
on the shipping container and the balloon:

B
mg F = (1)

Both the shipping container and the balloon are fully submerged in the water. Therefore,
Archimedes principle holds that the magnitude F
B
of the buoyant force is equal to the
weight
water water
W gV = of the water displaced by the total volume
container balloon
V V V = +
of the container and the balloon:

( )
B water water container balloon
F W g V V = = + (11.6)

The volume of the container is the product of its length l, width w, and height h:

container
V lwh = (2)

The volume of the spherical balloon depends on its radius r via

3 4
balloon 3
V r t = (3)

SOLUTION Substituting Equation 11.6 into Equation (1), we obtain

mg
water
g =
( ) ( )
container balloon water container balloon
or V V m V V + = + (4)

Replacing the volumes of the container and the balloon in Equation (4) with Equations (2)
and (3) yields the mass m of the shipping container:

( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 4
water
3
3
3 4 4
3
1025 kg/m 6.1m 2.4 m 2.6 m 1.5 m 5.4 10 kg
m lwh r t
t
= +
(
= + =

590 FLUIDS

47. REASONING When an object is completely submerged within a fluid, its apparent weight
in the fluid is equal to its true weight mg minus the upward-acting buoyant force. According
to Archimedes principle, the magnitude of the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the
fluid displaced by the object. The weight of the displaced fluid depends on the volume of
the object. We will apply this principle twice, once for the object submerged in each fluid,
to find the volume of the object.

SOLUTION The apparent weights of the object in ethyl alcohol and in water are:

Ethyl
alcohol
alcohol
Weight in
True
Magnitude of
alcohol weight
buoyant force
15.2 N = mg gV
(1)

Water
water
Weight
True
Magnitude of
in water
weight
buoyant force
13.7 N = mg gV
(2)

These equations contain two unknowns, the volume V of the object and its mass m. By
subtracting Equation (2) from Equation (1), we can eliminate the mass algebraically. The
result is
( )
water alcohol
15.2 N 13.7 N = gV

Solving this equation for the volume, and using the densities from Table 11.1, we have

( )
( )( )
4 3
2 3 3 3
water alcohol
15.2 N 13.7 N 1.5 N
= 7.9 10 m
9.80 m/s 1.00 10 kg/m 806 kg/m
V
g

= =

48. REASONING The free-body diagram shows the two forces
acting on the balloon, its weight W and the buoyant force F
B
.
Newtons second law, Equation 4.2b, states that the net force
EF
y
in the y direction is equal to the mass m of the balloon
times its acceleration a
y
in that direction:

B
=
y
y
F W ma
F

E
(4.2b)

Our solution is based on this statement.

W
F
B
Free-body diagram
for the balloon
+y

Chapter 11 Problems 591

SOLUTION Solving Equation 4.2b for the acceleration a
y
gives

B
y
F W
a
m

= (1)

The weight W of an object is equal to its mass m times the magnitude g of the acceleration
due to gravity, or W = mg (Equation 4.5). The mass, in turn, is equal to the product of an
objects density and its volume V, so m = V (Equation 11.1). Combining these two
relations, the weight can be expressed as W = V g.

According to Archimedes principle, the magnitude F
B
of the buoyant force is equal to the
weight of the cool air that the balloon displaces, so F
B
= m
cool air
g = (
cool air
V)g. Since we
are neglecting the weight of the balloon fabric and the basket, the weight of the balloon is
just that of the hot air inside the balloon. Thus, m = m
hot air
=
hot air
V and
W = m
hot air
g = (
hot air
V)g .

Substituting the expressions F
B
= (
cool air
V)g, m =
hot air
V, and W = (
hot air
V)g into
Equation (1) gives

( )
( )( )
cool air hot air cool air hot air B
hot air hot air
3 3 2
2
3

1.29 kg/m 0.93 kg/m 9.80 m/s
3.8 m/s
0.93 kg/m
y
g Vg Vg F W
a
m V

= = =

= =

49. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION The weight of the coin in air is equal to the sum
of the weights of the silver and copper that make up the coin:

W m g m m g V V g
air coin silver copper silver silver copper copper
= = + = +
e j e j
(1)

The weight of the coin in water is equal to its weight in air minus the buoyant force exerted
on the coin by the water. Therefore,

W W V V g
water air water silver copper
= + ( ) (2)

Solving Equation (2) for the sum of the volumes gives

V V
W W
g
m g W
g
silver copper
air water
water
coin water
water

+ =

=

592 FLUIDS

or
V V
silver copper
2
3 2
(1.150 (9.80 m/ s ) N
(1.000 ) (9.80 m/ s )
+ =

=
10 0 1011
10
1184 10
2
3
6 3
kg)
kg / m
m
.
.

From Equation (1) we have

V
m V
silver
coin copper copper
silver
3
copper
3
(8890 kg / m )V
10 500 kg / m
=

=

1 150 10 .
2
kg

or
V V
silver copper
= 1 095 10 0 8467 . ( . )
6
m
3
(3)

Substitution of Equation (3) into Equation (2) gives

W W V V g
water air water copper copper
= + 1 095 10 0 8467 . ( . )
6
m
3

Solving for V
copper
gives V
copper
= 5 806 10 .
7 3
m . Substituting into Equation (3) gives

V
silver
= = 1 095 10 0 8467 5 806 10 6 034 10 . ( . )( . ) .
6
m m m
3 7 3 7 3

From Equation 11.1, the mass of the silver is

3 7 3 3
silver silver silver
(10 500 kg/m )(6.034 10 m ) 6.3 10 kg m V

= = =

50. REASONING AND SOLUTION The buoyant force exerted by the water must at least
equal the weight of the logs plus the weight of the people,

F
B
= W
L
+ W
P

w
gV =
L
gV + W
P

Now the volume of logs needed is

( )
3 P
3 3 3
W L
4 80.0 kg
1.16 m
1.00 10 kg/m 725 kg/m
M
V

= = =

The volume of one log is

V
L
= t(8.00 10
2
m)
2
(3.00 m) = 6.03 10
2
m
3

Chapter 11 Problems 593

The number of logs needed is

N = V/V
L
= (1.16)/(6.03 10
2
) = 19.2

Therefore, at least 20 logs are needed .

51. SSM REASONING The height of the cylinder that is in the oil is given by
h V r
oil oil
= / ( ) t
2
, where V
oil
is the volume of oil displaced by the cylinder and r is the
radius of the cylinder. We must, therefore, find the volume of oil displaced by the cylinder.
After the oil is poured in, the buoyant force that acts on the cylinder is equal to the sum of
the weight of the water displaced by the cylinder and the weight of the oil displaced by the
cylinder. Therefore, the magnitude of the buoyant force is given by
F gV gV = +
water water oil oil
. Since the cylinder floats in the fluid, the net force that acts on
the cylinder must be zero. Therefore, the buoyant force that supports the cylinder must be
equal to the weight of the cylinder, or

water water oil oil
gV gV mg + =

where m is the mass of the cylinder. Substituting values into the expression above leads to

V V
water oil
3
+ = ( . ) . 0 725 7 00 10
3
m (1)

From the figure in the text,
cylinder water oil
V V V + = . Substituting values into the expression
for V
cylinder
gives
V V
water oil
3
8.48 + = 10
3
m (2)

Subtracting Equation (1) from Equation (2) yields V
oil
= 5 38 10 .
3 3
m .

SOLUTION The height of the cylinder that is in the oil is, therefore,

h
V
r
oil
oil
2
5.38
0.150 m)
7.6 = =

=
t t
2
10
10
3 3
2
m
m
(

52. REASONING AND SOLUTION Only the weight of the block compresses the spring.
Applying Hooke's law gives W = kx. The spring is stretched by the buoyant force acting on
the block minus the weight of the block. Hooke's law again gives F
B
W = 2kx.
Eliminating kx gives F
B
= 3W. Now F
B
=
w
gV, so that the volume of the block is

594 FLUIDS

V = 3M/
w
= 3(8.00 kg)/(1.00 10
3
kg/m
3
) = 2.40 10
2
m
3

The volume of wood in the block is

V
w
= M/
b
= (8.00 kg)/(840 kg/m
3
) = 9.52 10
3
m
3

The volume of the block that is hollow is V V
w
= 1.45 10
2
m
3
. The percentage of the
block that is hollow is then

100(1.45 10
2
)/(2.40 10
2
) = 60.3 % .

53. REASONING AND SOLUTION The figure at the right shows the
forces that act on the balloon as it holds the passengers and the ballast
stationary above the earth. W
0
is the combined weight of the balloon,
the load of passengers, and the ballast. The quantity F
B
is the buoyant
force provided by the air outside the balloon and is given by

F
B
=
air
gV
balloon
(1)

Since the balloon is stationary, it follows that F
B
W
0
= 0, or

F
B
= W
0
(2)

Then the ballast is dropped overboard, the balloon accelerates upward through a distance y
in a time t with acceleration a
y
, where (from kinematics) a
y
=
2
2y
t
.

The figure at the right shows the forces that act on the balloon while it
accelerates upward.

Applying Newton's second law, we have F
B
W = ma
y
, where W is the
weight of the balloon and the load of passengers. Replacing m by (W/g)
we have

B y
W
F W a
g
=
Thus,
B
2 2
2 2
1
W y y
F W W
g t gt
| |
| |
= + = +
|
|
\ .
\ .

Solving for W gives
F
B
W
0
F
B
W
Chapter 11 Problems 595

2
B
B
2
2
2 2
1
F
gt
W F
gt y y
gt
| |
= =
|
|
| | +
\ .
+
|
\ .

The amount of ballast that must be thrown overboard is therefore [using Equations (1) and
(2)]
AW = W
0
W
2 2
B B
2 2
1
2 2
gt gt
F F
gt y gt y
| | | |
= =
| |
| |
+ +
\ . \ .

air
gV
balloon

AW
( )
2
3 4
air balloon 3 2
1
2
gt
r g r
gt y

| |
=
|
|
+
\ .

2 2
3 2 3 4
3 2 2
(9.80 m/s )(15.0 s)
(1.29 kg/m )(9.80 m/s ) (6.25 m) 1
(9.80 m/s )(15.0 s) 2(105 m)
1120 N
W t
(
(
A =
(

+

=

54. REASONING The speed v of the gasoline in the fuel line is related to its mass flow rate,
the density of the gasoline, and the cross-sectional area A of the fuel line by
Mass flow rate Av = (Equation 11.7). Solving Equation 11.7 for the speed v, we obtain

Mass flow rate
v
A
= (1)

SOLUTION The fuel line has a circular cross-section with a radius r. Therefore, its cross-
sectional area is
2
A r t = . Equation (1) then yields the speed of the gasoline in the fuel line:

( ) ( )
2
2 2
3 3
Mass flow rate 5.88 10 kg/s
2.52 m/s
735 kg/m 3.18 10 m
v
r t
t

= = =

55. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION The mass flow rate Q
mass
is the amount of fluid
mass that flows per unit time. Therefore,

3 4 3
5
mass
(1030 kg/m )(9.5 10 m ) 1.0 h
4.5 10 kg/s
6.0 h 3600 s
V m
Q
t t

| |
= = = =
|
\ .

596 FLUIDS

56. REASONING The volume flow rate (in cubic meters per second) of the falling water is
the same as it was when it left the faucet. This is because no water is added to or taken out
of the stream after the water leaves the faucet. With the volume flow rate unchanging, the
equation of continuity applies in the form
1 1 2 2
Av A v = (Equation 11.9). We will assign A
1

and v
1
to be the cross-sectional area and speed of the water at any point below the faucet,
and A
2
and v
2
to be the cross-sectional area and speed of the water at the faucet.

SOLUTION Using the equation of continuity as given in Equation 11.9, we have

2 2
1 1 2 2 1
1
Below faucet At faucet
or
A v
Av A v A
v
= = (11.9)

Since the effects of air resistance are being ignored, the water can be treated as a
freely-falling object, as Chapter 2 discusses. Thus, the acceleration of the water is that due
to gravity. To find the speed v
1
of the water, given its initial speed v
2
as it leaves the faucet,
we use the relation
( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
2 or 2 v v ay v v ay = + = + from Equation 2.9 of the equations of
kinematics. Substituting Equation 2.9 into Equation 11.9 gives

2 2 2 2
1
2
1
2
2
A v A v
A
v
v ay
= =
+

Choosing downward as the positive direction, so y = +0.10 m and a = +9.80 m/s
2
, the
cross-sectional area of the stream at a distance of 0.10 m below the faucet is

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
4 2
5 2 2 2
1
2 2
2
2
1.8 10 m 0.85 m/s
9.3 10 m
2
0.85 m/s 2 9.80 m/s 0.10 m
A v
A
v ay

= = =
+
+

57. REASONING The length L of the side of the square can be obtained, if we can find a value
for the cross-sectional area A of the ducts. The area is related to the volume flow rate Q and
the air speed v by Equation 11.10 (Q = Av). The volume flow rate can be obtained from the
volume V of the room and the replacement time t as Q = V/t.

SOLUTION For a square cross section with sides of length L, we have A = L
2
. And we
know that the volume flow rate is Q = V/t. Therefore, using Equation 11.10 gives

Q Av
V
t
L v = = or
2

Solving for L shows that

Chapter 11 Problems 597

(a)
(b)

m
1200 s m/ s
m

m
1200 s m/ s
m
3
3
Air speed = 3.0 m / s
Air speed = 5.0 m / s
L
V
tv
L
V
tv
= = =
= = =
120
3 0
0 18
120
5 0
0 14
b gb g
b gb g
.
.
.
.

58. REASONING
a. According to Equation 11.10, the volume flow rate Q is equal to the product of the cross-
sectional area A of the artery and the speed v of the blood, Q = Av. Since Q and A are
known, we can determine v.

b. Since the volume flow rate Q
2
through the constriction is the same as the volume flow
rate Q
1
in the normal part of the artery, Q
2
= Q
1
. We can use this relation to find the blood
speed in the constricted region.

SOLUTION
a. Since the artery is assumed to have a circular cross-section, its cross-sectional area is
A
1
=
2
1
r t , where r
1
is the radius. Thus, the speed of the blood is

( )
6 3
2 1 1
1
2 2
3
1
1
3.6 10 m / s
4.2 10 m/s
5.2 10 m
Q Q
v
A r t
t

= = = =

(11.10)

b. The volume flow rate is the same in the normal and constricted parts of the artery, so
Q
2
= Q
1
. Since
2 2 2
, Q A v = the blood speed is v
2
= Q
2
/A
2
= Q
1
/A
2
. We are given that the
radius of the constricted part of the artery is one-third that of the normal artery, so
1
2 1 3
. r r =
Thus, the speed of the blood at the constriction is

( )
( )
6 3
1 1 1
2
2 2 2
1 3
1
2 2
1 3
3
3.6 10 m / s
0.38 m/s
5.2 10 m
Q Q Q
v
A r
r
t
t
t

= = = = =
(

598 FLUIDS

59. REASONING AND SOLUTION Let r
h
represent the inside radius of the hose, and r
p
the
radius of the plug, as suggested by the figure below.

Then, from Equation 11.9, A
1
v
1
= A
2
v
2
, we have
2 2 2
h 1 h p 2
( ) r v r r v t t t = , or

( )
2 2 2
h p p p
1 1
2
2 h h 2
h
1 or 1
r r r r
v v
v r r v
r

| |
= = =
|
|
\ .

According to the problem statement, v
2
= 3v
1
, or

p
1
h 1
2
1 0.816
3 3
r
v
r v
= = =

60. REASONING The number N of capillaries can be obtained by dividing the total cross-
sectional area A
cap
of all the capillaries by the cross-sectional area a
cap
of a single capillary.
cap
of a single capillary, so a
cap
can be calculated as
2
cap cap
a r t = . To
find A
cap
, we will use the equation of continuity.

SOLUTION The number N of capillaries is

cap cap
2
cap cap
A A
N
a r t
= = (1)

where the cross-sectional area a
cap
of a single capillary has been replaced by
2
cap cap
a r t = .
To obtain the total cross-sectional area A
cap
of all the capillaries, we use the equation of
continuity for an incompressible fluid (see Equation 11.9). For present purposes, this
equation is
aorta aorta
aorta aorta cap cap cap
cap
or
A v
A v A v A
v
= = (2)

r
h r
p
hose
plug
Chapter 11 Problems 599

The cross-sectional area of the aorta is
2
aorta aorta
A r t = , and with this substitution,
Equation (2) becomes
2
aorta aorta
aorta aorta
cap
cap cap
A v
r v
A
v v
t
= =

Substituting this result into Equation (1), we find that

( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
aorta
aorta
2
cap cap
aorta aorta
2 2 2
cap cap cap cap
2
9
2
4
1.1 cm 40 cm/s
2 10
6 10 cm 0.07 cm/s
r
v
v A
r v
N
r r r v
t
t t

| |
|
|
\ .
= = =
= =

61. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION
a. Using Equation 11.12, the form of Bernoulli's equation with y y
1 2
= , we have

( )
( )
3
2 1
2 2 2
1 2 2 1
2
1.29 kg/m
(15 m/s) 0 m/s 150 Pa
2
P P v v
(
= = =
(

b. The pressure inside the roof is greater than the pressure on the outside. Therefore, there is
a net outward force on the roof. If the wind speed is sufficiently high, some roofs are "blown
outward."

62. REASONING We apply Bernoullis equation as follows:

2 2 1 1
S S S O O O 2 2
At surface of At opening
vaccine in reservoir
P v gy P v gy + + = + +

SOLUTION The vaccines surface in the reservoir is stationary during the inoculation, so
that v
S
= 0 m/s. The vertical height between the vaccines surface in reservoir and the
opening can be ignored, so y
S
= y
O
. With these simplifications Bernoullis equation becomes

2 1
S O O 2
P P v = +

Solving for the speed at the opening gives
600 FLUIDS

( ) ( )
6
S O
O
3
2 4.1 10 Pa
2
86 m/s
1100 kg/m
P P
v

= = =

63. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION Let the speed of the air below and above the
wing be given by v
1
and v
2
, respectively. According to Equation 11.12, the form of
Bernoulli's equation with y y
1 2
= , we have

P P v v
1 2
1
2 2
2
1
2
2
10 = = =
1.29 kg / m
251 m/ s) 225 m/ s) 7.98 Pa
3
2 2
c h
( (
3

From Equation 11.3, the lifting force is, therefore,

F P P A = = =
1 2
7 98 10 10
c h
( . )
3 2 5
Pa)(24.0 m N 1.92

64. REASONING The absolute pressure in the pipe must be greater than atmospheric
pressure. Our solution proceeds in two steps. We will begin with Bernoullis equation.
Then we will incorporate the equation of continuity.

SOLUTION According to Bernoullis equation, as given by Equation 11.11, we have

2 2 1 1
1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
Pipe Nozzle
P v gy P v gy + + = + +

The pipe and nozzle are horizontal, so that y
1
= y
2
and Bernoullis equation simplifies to

( )
2 2 2 2 1 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1
2 2 2
or P v P v P P v v + = + = +

where P
1
is the absolute pressure of the water in the pipe. We have values for the pressure
P
2
(atmospheric pressure) at the nozzle opening and the speed v
1
in the pipe. However, to
solve this expression we also need a value for the speed v
2
at the nozzle opening. We
obtain this value by using the equation of continuity, as given by Equation 11.9:

2
2 2 1 1
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2
2
2
or or
r v
Av A v r v r v v
r
t t = = =

Chapter 11 Problems 601

Here, we have used that fact that the area of a circle is A = t r
2
. Substituting this result for
v
2
into Bernoullis equation, we find that

4
2 1 1
1 2 1 2 4
2
1
r
P P v
r

| |
= +
|
|
\ .

Taking the density of water to be = 1.00 10
3
kg/m
3
(see Table 11.1), we find that the
absolute pressure of the water in the pipe is

( )
( )
( )
( )
4
2 1 1
1 2 1
2 4
2
4
2
2
5 3 3 5 1
2 4
3
1
1.9 10 m
1.01 10 Pa 1.00 10 kg/m 1 0.62 m/s 1.48 10 Pa
4.8 10 m
r
P P v
r

| |
= +
|
|
\ .
(

(
= + =
(

(

65. REASONING We assume that region 1 contains the constriction and region 2 is the normal
region. The difference in blood pressures between the two points in the horizontal artery is
given by Bernoullis equation (Equation 11.12) as
2 2 1 1
2 1 1 2 2 2
= P P v v , where v
1
and
v
2
are the speeds at the two points. Since the volume flow rate is the same at the two points,
the speed at 1 is related to the speed at 2 by Equation 11.9, the equation of continuity:
A
1
v
1
= A
2
v
2
, where A
1
and A
2
are the cross-sectional areas of the artery. By combining these
two relations, we will be able to determine the pressure difference.

SOLUTION Solving the equation of continuity for the blood speed in region 1 gives
v
1
= v
2
A
2
/A
1
. Substituting this result into Bernoullis equation yields

2
2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
1
= =
v A
P P v v v
A

| |

|
|
\ .

Since
1
1 2 4
= A A , the pressure difference is

( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2 2 2 1
2 4
2
3 1
2
= = 16 1
1060 kg/m 0.11 m/s 15 96 Pa
v A
P P v v
A

| |
|
|
\ .
= =

We have taken the density of blood from Table 11.1.
602 FLUIDS

66. REASONING The volume of water per second leaking into the hold is the volume flow
rate Q. The volume flow rate is the product of the effective area A of the hole and the speed
v
1
of the water entering the hold, Q = Av
1
(Equation 11.10). We can find the speed v
1
with
the aid of Bernoullis equation.

SOLUTION According to Bernoullis equation, which relates the pressure P, water speed
v, and elevation y of two points in the water:

2 2 1 1
1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
P v gy P v gy + + = + + (11.11)

In this equation, the subscript 1 refers to the point below the surface where the water
enters the hold, and the subscript 2 refers to a point on the surface of the lake. Since the
amount of water in the lake is large, the water level at the surface drops very, very slowly
as water enters the hold of the ship. Thus, to a very good approximation, the speed of the
water at the surface is zero, so v
2
= 0 m/s. Setting P
1
= P
2
(since the empty hold is open to
the atmosphere) and v
2
= 0 m/s, and then solving for v
1
, we obtain
( )
1 2 1
2 v g y y = .
Substituting
( )
1 2 1
2 v g y y = into Equation 11.10, we find that the volume flow rate Q
of the water entering the hold is

( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3 2 2 2 3
1 2 1
2 8.0 10 m 2 9.80 m/s 2.0 m 5.0 10 m /s Q Av A g y y

= = = =

67. REASONING The pressure P, the fluid speed v, and the elevation y at any two points in an
ideal fluid of density are related by Bernoullis equation:
1 1
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
2 2
P v gy P v gy + + = + + (Equation 11.11), where 1 and 2 denote, respectively,
the first and second floors. With the given data and a density of = 1.00 10
3
kg/m
3
for
water (see Table 11.1), we can solve Bernoullis equation for the desired pressure P
2
.

SOLUTION
Solving Bernoullis equation for P
2
and taking the elevation at the first floor to be
1
0 m y = ,
we have

( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
1
2 2
2 1 1 2 1 2
2
2 2 1
5 3 3
2
3 3 2 5
3.4 10 Pa 1.00 10 kg/m 2.1 m/s 3.7 m/s
1.00 10 kg/m 9.80 m/s 0 m 4.0 m 3.0 10 Pa
P P v v g y y = + +
(
= +
(

+ =

Chapter 11 Problems 603

68. REASONING
a. The drawing shows two
points, labeled 1 and 2, in the
fluid. Point 1 is at the top of
the water, and point 2 is
where it flows out of the dam
at the bottom. Bernoullis
equation, Equation 11.11,
can be used to determine the
speed v
2
of the water exiting
the dam.

b. The number of cubic
meters per second of water
that leaves the dam is the volume flow rate Q. According to Equation 11.10, the volume
flow rate is the product of the cross-sectional area A
2
of the crack and the speed v
2
of the
water; Q = A
2
v
2
.

SOLUTION
a. According to Bernoullis equation, as given in Equation 11.11, we have

2 2 1 1
1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
P v gy P v gy + + = + +

Setting P
1
= P
2
, v
1
= 0 m/s, and solving for v
2
, we obtain

( ) ( )
( )
2
2 1 2
2 2 9.80 m/s 15.0 m 17.1 m/s v g y y = = =

b. The volume flow rate of the water leaving the dam is

( )
( )
3 2 2 3
2 2
1.30 10 m 17.1 m/s 2.22 10 m /s Q A v

= = = (11.10)

69. SSM REASONING Since the pressure difference is known, Bernoulli's equation can be
used to find the speed v
2
of the gas in the pipe. Bernoulli's equation also contains the
unknown speed v
1
of the gas in the Venturi meter; therefore, we must first express v
1
in
terms of v
2
. This can be done by using Equation 11.9, the equation of continuity.

1
2
P
1
= 1 atmosphere
v
1
= 0 m/s
y
1

y
2
P
2
= 1 atmosphere
v
2
604 FLUIDS

SOLUTION
a. From the equation of continuity (Equation 11.9) it follows that v A A v
1 2 1 2
= /
c h
.
Therefore,
v v v
1 2 2
1 40 = =
0.0700 m
0.0500 m
2
2
( . )

Substituting this expression into Bernoulli's equation (Equation 11.12), we have

P v P v
1
1
2 2
2
2
1
2 2
2
1 40 + = + ( . )
Solving for v
2
, we obtain

v
P P
2
2 1
2
2
1 40 1
120 Pa)
=

=
( )
( . )
2(
(1.30 kg / m ) (1.40) 1
14 m/ s
3 2

b. According to Equation 11.10, the volume flow rate is

Q A v = =
2 2
(0.0700 m 14 m/ s) = 0.98 m / s
2 3
)(

70. REASONING The gauge pressure in the reservoir is the pressure difference
2 1
P P
between the reservoir (P
2
) and the atmosphere (P
1
). The muzzle is open to the atmosphere,
so the pressure there is atmospheric pressure. Because we are ignoring the height difference
between the reservoir and the muzzle, this is an example of fluid flow in a horizontal pipe,
for which Bernoullis equation is

2 2 1 1
1 1 2 2 2 2
P v P v + = + (11.12)

Solving Equation 11.12 for the gauge pressure
2 1
P P yields

2 2 2 1 1 1
2 1 1 2 1
2 2 2
P P v v v = = (1)

where we have used the fact that the speed v
2
of the water in the reservoir is zero. We will
determine the speed v
1
of the water stream at the muzzle by considering its subsequent
projectile motion. The horizontal displacement of the water stream after leaving the muzzle
is given by
2 1
0 2 x x
x v t a t = + (Equation 3.5a). With air resistance neglected, the water stream
undergoes no horizontal acceleration (a
x
= 0 m/s
2
). The horizontal component v
0x
of the
initial velocity of the water stream is identical with the velocity v
1
in Equation (1), so
Equation 3.5a becomes
Chapter 11 Problems 605

( )
2 2 1
1 1 2
0 m/s or
x
x v t t v
t
= + = (2)

The vertical displacement y of the water stream is given by
2 1
0 2 y y
y v t a t = +
(Equation 3.5b), where a
y
= 9.8 m/s
2
is the acceleration due to gravity, with upward taken
as the positive direction. The velocity of the water at the instant it leaves the muzzle is
horizontal, so the vertical component of its velocity is zero. This means that we have
v
0y
= 0 m/s in Equation 3.5b. Solving Equation 3.5b for the elapsed time t, we obtain

( )
2 1
2
2
0 m/s or
y
y
y
y t a t t
a
= + = (3)

SOLUTION Substituting Equation (3) into Equation (2) gives

1
2 2
y
y
a
x
v x
y y
a
= = (4)

Substituting Equation (4) for v
1
into Equation (1), we obtain the gauge pressure
2 1
P P :

( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 1 1
2 1 2 2
2
3 3 2
5
2 2 4
1.000 10 kg/m 7.3 m 9.80 m/s
1.7 10 Pa
4 0.75 m
y y y
a a x a
P P x x
y y y

| |
| |
| = = =
|
|
\ .
\ .

= =

71. REASONING AND SOLUTION
a. Taking the nozzle as position 1 and the top of the tank as position 2 we have, using
Bernoulli's equation, P
1
+ (1/2)v
1
2
= P
2
+ gh, we can solve for v
1
so that

v
1
2
= 2[(P
2
P
1
)/ + gh]

5 3 3 2

1
2[(5.00 10 Pa)/(1.00 10 kg/m ) (9.80 m/s )(4.00 m)] 32.8 m/s v = + =

606 FLUIDS

b. To find the height of the water use (1/2)v
1
2
= gh so that

h = (1/2)v
1
2
/g = (1/2)(32.8 m/s)
2
/(9.80 m/s
2
) = 54.9 m

72. REASONING In level flight the lift force must balance the planes weight W, so its
magnitude is also W. The lift force arises because the pressure P
B
beneath the wings is
greater than the pressure P
T
on top of the wings. The lift force, then, is the pressure
difference times the effective wing surface area A, so that W = (P
B
P
T
)A. The area is
given, and we can determine the pressure difference by using Bernoullis equation.

SOLUTION According to Bernoullis equation, we have

2 2 1 1
B B B T T T 2 2
P v gy P v gy + + = + +

Since the flight is level, the height is constant and y
B
= y
T
, where we assume that the wing
thickness may be ignored. Then, Bernoullis equation simplifies and may be rearranged as
follows:
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
B B T T B T T B 2 2 2 2
or P v P v P P v v + = + =

Recognizing that W = (P
B
P
T
)A, we can substitute for the pressure difference from
Bernoullis equation to show that

( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2 1
B T T B 2
2 2
3 2 1
2
1.29 kg/m 62.0 m/s 54.0 m/s 16 m 9600 N
W P P A v v A = =
(
= =
(

We have used a value of 1.29 kg/m
3
from Table 11.1 for the density of air. This is an
approximation, since the density of air decreases with increasing altitude above sea level.

73. REASONING The top and bottom surfaces of the roof are at the same height, so we can
use Bernoullis equation in the form of Equation 11.12,
2 2 1 1
1 1 2 2 2 2
P v P v + = + , to
determine the wind speed. We take point 1 to be inside the roof and point 2 to be outside the
roof. Since the air inside the roof is not moving, v
1
= 0 m/s. The net outward force EF acting
on the roof is the difference in pressure P
1
P
2
times the area A of the roof, so
EF = (P
1
P
2
)A.

Chapter 11 Problems 607

SOLUTION Setting v
1
= 0 m/s in Bernoullis equation and solving it for the speed v
2
of the
wind, we obtain

( )
1 2
2
2 P P
v

=

Since the pressure difference is equal to the net outward force divided by the area of the
roof, (P
1
P
2
) = EF /A, the speed of the wind is

( )
2
3
2
2(22 000 N)
33 m/s
(1.29 kg/m )(5.0 m 6.3 m)
F
v
A
E
= = =

74. REASONING AND SOLUTION As seen in the figure, the lower pipe is at the level of zero
potential energy.

A
1
v
2
v
1
A
2
h

If the flow rate is uniform in both pipes, we have (1/2)v
1
2
= (1/2)v
2
2
+ gh (since
P
1
= P
2
) and A
1
v
1
= A
2
v
2
. We can solve for v
1
, i.e., v
1
= v
2
(A
2
/A
1
), and plug into the
previous expression to find v
2
, so that

( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
1
2 9.80 m/s 10.0 m
2
3.61 m/s
0.0400 m
1
1
0.0200 m
gh
v
A
A
t
t
= = =
| | (

| (

\ .
(

The volume flow rate is then given by

Q = A
2
v
2
= t r
2
2
v
2
= t (0.0400 m)
2
(3.61 m/s) =
2 3
1.81 10 m /s

608 FLUIDS

75. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION Bernoulli's equation (Equation 11.12) is

P v P v
1
1
2 1
2
2
1
2 2
2
+ = +

If we let the right hand side refer to the air above the plate, and the left hand side refer to the
air below the plate, then v
1
0 = m/s, since the air below the plate is stationary. We wish to
find v
2
for the situation illustrated in part b of the figure shown in the text. Solving the
equation above for v v v v
2 2 2 1
0 ( ) with and
b
= = gives

v
P P
2 b
=
2
1 2
( )

(1)

In Equation (1), P
1
is atmospheric pressure and P
2
must be determined. We must first
consider the situation in part a of the text figure.

The figure at the right shows the forces that act on the rectangular plate
in part a of the text drawing. F
1
is the force exerted on the plate from
the air below the plate, and F
2
is the force exerted on the plate from the
air above the plate. Applying Newton's second law, we have (taking
"up" to be the positive direction),

F F mg
1 2
0 =

F F mg
1 2
=

Thus, the difference in pressures exerted by the air on the plate in part a of the drawing is

P P
F F
A
mg
A
1 2
1 2
=

= (2)

where A is the area of the plate. From Bernoulli's equation ( Equation 11.12) we have, with

2 2a 1a
and 0 v v v = = m/s,
P P v
1 2
1
2 2
2
=
a
(3)

where v
2 a
is the speed of the air along the top of the plate in part a of the text drawing.
Combining Equations (2) and (3) we have

mg
A
v =
1
2 2
2

a
(4)

F
1
F
2
mg
Chapter 11 Problems 609

The figure below, on the left, shows the forces that act on the plate in part b of the text
drawing. The notation is the same as that used when the plate was horizontal (part a of the
text figure). The figure at the right below shows the same forces resolved into components
along the plate and perpendicular to the plate.

Applying Newton's second law we have F F mg
1 2
0 = sinu , or

F F mg
1 2
= sinu

Thus, the difference in pressures exerted by the air on the plate in part b of the text figure is

P P
F F
A
mg
A
1 2
1 2
=

=
sinu

Using Equation (4) above,

P P v
1 2
1
2 2
2
= u
a
sin

Thus, Equation (1) becomes
v
v
2
1
2 2
2
2
b
a
=
u

sin
c h

Therefore,

v v
2 2
2
b a
7.78 m/ s = = = sin (11.0 m/ s) sin 30.0
2
u

76. REASONING AND SOLUTION
a. At the surface of the water (position 1) and at the exit of the hose (position 2) the
pressures are equal (P
1
= P
2
) to the atmospheric pressure. If the hose exit defines y = 0 m,
we have from Bernoulli's equation (1/2)v
1
2
+ gy = (1/2)v
2
2
. If we take the speed at the
surface of the water to be zero (i.e., v
1
= 0 m/s) we find that

2
2 v gy =

610 FLUIDS

b. The siphon will stop working when v
2
= 0 m/s, or y = 0 m , i.e., when the end of the
hose is at the water level in the tank.

c. At point A we have
P
A
+ g(h + y) + (1/2)v
A
2
= P
0
+ (1/2)v
2
2

But v
A
= v
2
so that

A 0
( ) P P g y h = +

77. SSM WWW REASONING AND SOLUTION
a. If the water behaves as an ideal fluid, and since the pipe is horizontal and has the same
radius throughout, the speed and pressure of the water are the same at all points in the pipe.
Since the right end of the pipe is open to the atmosphere, the pressure at the right end is
atmospheric pressure; therefore, the pressure at the left end is also atmospheric pressure, or
1.01 Pa
5
10 .

b. If the water is treated as a viscous fluid, the volume flow rate Q is described by
Poiseuille's law (Equation 11.14):

Q
R P P
L
=
t
q
4
2 1
8
( )

Let P
1
represent the pressure at the right end of the pipe, and let P
2
represent the pressure
at the left end of the pipe. Solving for P
2
(with P
1
equal to atmospheric pressure), we
obtain
P
LQ
R
P
2 4 1
8
= +
q
t

Therefore,

P
2
3
10 10
6 4 10
1 013 10 10 =

## 8(1.00 Pa s)(1.3 m)(9.0 m

( m)
Pa =
3 3
3 4
5 5
/ s
1.19 Pa
)
.
.
t

78. REASONING AND SOLUTION The Reynold's number, Re, can be written as
Re = 2 / v R q . To find the average speed v ,

( )
( )
( )( )
3
3 3
2000 4.0 10 Pa s
(Re)
0.5 m/s
2
2 1060 kg/m 8.0 10 m
v
R
q

= = =

Chapter 11 Problems 611

79. REASONING The volume flow rate Q is governed by Poiseuilles law:
( )
4
2 1
8
R P P
Q
L
t
q

=
(Equation 11.14). We will obtain the factor R
dilated
/R
normal
by applying this law to the dilated
and to the normal blood vessel.

SOLUTION Solving Poiseuilles law for the radius R gives
( )
4
2 1
8 LQ
R
P P
q
t
=

. When the
vessel dilates, the viscosity q, the length L of the vessel, and the pressures P
1
and P
2
at the
ends of the vessel do not change. Thus, applying this result to the dilated and normal vessel,
we find that

( )
( )
dilated
4
2 1
4 dilated dilated
4
normal normal normal
4
2 1
8
2 1.19
8
LQ
P P
R Q
R Q LQ
P P
q
t
q
t

= = = =

where we have used
dilated
normal
2
Q
Q
= , since the effect of the dilation is to double the volume
flow rate.

80. REASONING Because the level of the blood in the transfusion bottle is a height h above
the input end of the needle, the pressure P
2
at the input end of the needle is greater than one
atmosphere, as we see from
2 Atm
P P gh = + (Equation 11.4), where P
Atm
is the pressure at
the level of the blood in the bottle, is the density of blood, and g is the magnitude of the
acceleration due to gravity. The pressure at the output end of the needle is atmospheric
(P
1
= P
Atm
), so that there is the pressure difference P
2
P
1
necessary to push blood, a
viscous fluid, through the needle. The volume flow rate Q of blood through the needle is
given by Poiseuilles law as
( )
4
2 1
8
R P P
Q
L
t
q

= (Equation 11.14), where R and L are,
respectively, the radius and length of the needle, and q is the viscosity of blood.

SOLUTION Solving
2 Atm
P P gh = + (Equation 11.4) for h, we find that

2 Atm
P P
h
g

= (1)

612 FLUIDS

Because the pressure P
1
at the output end of the needle is equal to P
Atm
, Equation 11.4
becomes
( )
4
2 Atm
8
R P P
Q
L
t
q

## = . Solving for the pressure difference, we obtain

2 Atm
4
8 LQ
P P
R
q
t
= (2)

Substituting Equation (2) into Equation (1) yields

( )( )( )
( )
( )
( )
3 8 3
4
4 4
4 3 2
8
8 8 4.0 10 Pa s 0.030 m 4.5 10 m /s
0.34 m
2.5 10 m 1060 kg/m 9.80 m/s
LQ
LQ
R
h
g R g
q
q
t
t
t

| |
|

\ .
= = = =

81. SSM REASONING The volume flow rate Q of a viscous fluid flowing through a pipe of
radius R is given by Equation 11.14 as
( )
4
2 1
,
8
R P P
Q
L
t
q

= where P
2
P
1
is the pressure
difference between the ends of the pipe, L is the length of the pipe, and q is the viscosity of
the fluid. Since all the variables are known except L, we can use this relation to find it.

SOLUTION Solving Equation 11.14 for the pipe length, we have

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
4
3 3
4
2 1
3 4 3
5.1 10 m 1.8 10 Pa
1.7 m
8
8 1.0 10 Pa s 2.8 10 m /s
R P P
L
Q
t
t
q

= = =

82. REASONING The radius R of the pipe is related to the volume flow rate Q, the length L of
the pipe, the viscosity q of the glycerol, and the pressure difference
2 1
P P between the
input and output ends by Poiseuilles law:
( )
4
2 1
8
R P P
Q
L
t
q

= (Equation 11.14). Solving
Equation 11.14 for the radius R, we obtain

( ) ( )
4
4
2 1 2 1
8 8
or
LQ LQ
R R
P P P P
q q
t t
= =

(1)

The volume flow rate Q is the ratio of the volume V of glycerol that flows through the pipe
to the total elapsed time t:

V
Q
t
= (2)
Chapter 11 Problems 613

Substituting Equation (2) into Equation (1) yields

( )
4
2 1
8 LV
R
P P t
q
t
=

(3)

SOLUTION Because the output end of the pipe is at atmospheric pressure,
5
1
1.013 10 Pa. P = The elapsed time t must be converted to SI units (seconds):
55 min t =
( )
60 s
1 min
3300 s
| |
=
|
\ .
. Therefore, the radius of the pipe is

( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
3
2
4
5 5
8 0.934 Pa s 15 m 7.2 m
1.8 10 m
8.6 10 Pa 1.013 10 Pa 3300 s
R
t

= =
(

83. REASONING The speed v of the water in the hose is related to the volume flow rate Q by
v = Q/A (Equation 11.10), where A is the cross-sectional area of the hose. Since the hose is
cylindrical (radius = R), A = tR
2
. Thus, we have that

2
Q Q
v
A R t
= = (1)

We turn to Poiseuilles law to express Q in terms of the upstream pressure P
2
and the
downstream pressure P
1

( )
4
2 1
8
R P P
Q
L
t
q

=
(11.14)

In Poiseuilles law, the upstream pressure P
2
is the same for both hoses, because it is the
pressure at the outlet. The downstream pressure P
1
is also the same for both hoses, since
each is open to the atmosphere at the exit end. Therefore, the term P
2
P
1
is the same for
both hoses.

SOLUTION Substituting Equation 11.14 into Equation (1) gives

( )
( )
4
2 1
2
2 1
2 2
8

8
R P P
R P P
Q L
v
L R R
t
q
q t t

= = =

614 FLUIDS

To find the ratio v
B
/v
A
of the speeds, we apply this result to each hose, recognizing that the
pressure difference P
2
P
1
, the length L, and the viscosity q of the water are the same for
both hoses:
( )
( )
( )
2
B 2 1
2
2
B B
2 2
A
A 2 1 A
8
1.50 2.25
8
R P P
v R
L
v
R P P R
L
q
q

= = = =

84. REASONING AND SOLUTION
a. Using Stoke's law, the viscous force is

F Rv = = 6 6 10 10 10 tq t (1.00 5.0 3.0 m/ s) = 2.8
3 4 5
Pa s)( m)( N

b. When the sphere reaches its terminal speed, the net force on the sphere is zero, so that the
magnitude of F must be equal to the magnitude of mg, or F mg = . Therefore,
6tqRv mg
T
= , where v
T
is the terminal speed of the sphere. Solving for v
T
, we have

v
mg
R
T
2
(1.0 (9.80 m/ s
6 ( (5.0
1.0 = =

=
6
10
1 00 10 10
10
tq t
5
3 4
1
kg)
Pa s) m)
m/ s
)
.

85. SSM REASONING Since the faucet is closed, the water in the pipe may be treated as a
static fluid. The gauge pressure P
2
at the faucet on the first floor is related to the gauge
pressure P
1
at the faucet on the second floor by Equation 11.4, P P gh
2 1
= + .

SOLUTION
a. Solving Equation 11.4 for P
1
, we find the gauge pressure at the second-floor faucet is

P P gh
1 2
3
10 10 10 = = = 1.90 9.80 m/ s 6.50 m 1.26
2 5 3 5
Pa (1.00 kg / m Pa )( )( )

b. If the second faucet were placed at a height h above the first-floor faucet so that the
gauge pressure P
1
at the second faucet were zero, then no water would flow from the
second faucet, even if it were open. Solving Equation 11.4 for h when P
1
equals zero, we
obtain

h
P P
g
=

=

=
2 1
10 0
10
1.90
(1.00 )(9.80 m/ s
19.4 m
3 2
5
3
Pa
kg / m )

Chapter 11 Problems 615

86. REASONING AND SOLUTION Using Bernoulli's equation

AP = P
1
P
2
= (1/2)v
2
2
(1/2)v
1
2
= (1/2)(1.29 kg/m
3
)[(8.5 m/s)
2
(1.1 m/s)
2
]

AP = 46 Pa

The air flows from high pressure to low pressure (from lower to higher velocity), so it
enters at and exits at B A .

87. SSM REASONING According to Archimedes principle, the buoyant force that acts on
the block is equal to the weight of the water that is displaced by the block. The block
displaces an amount of water V, where V is the volume of the block. Therefore, the weight
of the water displaced by the block is
( )
water
W mg V g = = .

SOLUTION The buoyant force that acts on the block is, therefore,

3 3 2
water
(1.00 10 kg/m )(0.10 m 0.20 m 0.30 m)(9.80 m/s ) 59 N F V g = = =

88. REASONING The pressure P
2
at a lower point in a static fluid is related to the pressure P
1

at a higher point by Equation 11.4, P
2
= P
1
+ gh, where is the density of the fluid, g is
the magnitude of the acceleration due to gravity, and h is the difference in heights between
the two points. This relation can be used directly to find the pressure in the artery in the
brain.

SOLUTION Solving Equation 11.4 for pressure P
1
in the brain (the higher point), gives

( )( )
( )
4 3 2 4
1 2
1.6 10 Pa 1060 kg/m 9.80 m/s 0.45 m 1.1 10 Pa P P gh = = =

89. REASONING According to Equation 4.5, the pillars weight is W mg = . Equation 11.1
can be solved for the mass m to show that the pillars mass is m V = . The volume V of the
cylindrical pillar is its height times its circular cross-sectional area.

SOLUTION Expressing the weight as W mg = (Equation 4.5) and substituting m V =
(Equation 11.1) for the mass give

( ) W mg V g = = (1)

616 FLUIDS

The volume of the pillar is
2
V h r t = , where h is the height and r is the radius of the pillar.
Substituting this expression for the volume into Equation (1), we find that the weight is

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2 3 3 2 4
2.2 10 kg/m 2.2 m 0.50 m 9.80 m/s 3.7 10 N W V g h r g t t
(
= = = =

Converting newtons (N) to pounds (lb) gives

( )
4 3
0.2248 lb
3.7 10 N 8.3 10 lb
1 N
W
| |
= =
|
\ .

90. REASONING The flow rate Q of water in the pipe is given by Poiseuilles law
( )
4
2 1
8
R P P
Q
L
t
q

= (Equation 11.14), where R is the radius of the pipe,
2 1
P P is the
difference in pressure between the ends of the pipe, q is the viscosity of water, and L is the
length of the pipe. As the radius R of the pipe gets smaller, its length L does not change, nor
does the viscosity q of the water. We are told that the pressure difference
2 1
P P also
remains constant. Moving all of the constant quantities to one side of Equation 11.14, we
obtain

( )
2 1
4
Each quantity
is constant
8
P P
Q
L R
t
q

= (1)

We will use Equation (1) to find the final flow rate Q
f
in terms of the initial flow rate Q
0
, the
0
f
of the pipe.

SOLUTION Equation (1) shows that the ratio
4
Q
R
of the flow rate to the fourth power of
the pipes inner radius remains constant as the inner radius decreases to R
f
from R
0
.
Therefore, we have that

4
4
0 0 f f f
f 0
4 4 4
0
f 0 0
or
Q Q R Q R
Q Q
R
R R R
| |
= = =
|
|
\ .
(2)

Note that the ratio
4
f
0
R
R
| |
|
|
\ .
multiplying the initial flow rate Q
0
in Equation (2) is unitless, so
that Q
f
will have the same units as Q
0
. Thus, to obtain the final flow rate in gallons per
Chapter 11 Problems 617

minute, there is no need to convert Q
0
to SI units (m
3
/s). Substituting the given values into
Equation (2) yields the final flow rate:

( )
4
f
0.19 m
740 gal/min 290 gal/min
0.24 m
Q
| |
= =
|
\ .

91. REASONING The density of the brass ball is given by Equation 11.1: = m V / . Since
the ball is spherical, its volume is given by the expression V r = ( / ) 4 3
3
t , so that the density
may be written as

t
= =
m
V
m
r
3
4
3

This expression can be solved for the radius r; but first, we must eliminate the mass m from
the equation since its value is not specified explicitly in the problem. We can determine an
expression for the mass m of the brass ball by analyzing the forces on the ball.

The only two forces that act on the ball are the upward tension T in the wire and the
downward weight mg of the ball. If we take up as the positive direction, and we apply
Newton's second law, we find that T mg = 0, or m T g = / . Therefore, the density can be
written as

t t
= =
3
4
3
4
3 3
m
r
T
r g

This expression can now be solved for r.

SOLUTION We find that
r
T
g
3
3
4
=
t

Taking the cube root of both sides of this result and using a value of = 8470 kg/m
3
for the
density of brass (see Table 11.1), we find that

r
T
g
= = =
3
4 8470
10
3
t t
3(120 N)
4 ( kg / m )(9.80 m/ s
7.0 m
3 2
3
2
)

92. REASONING In this problem, we are treating air as a viscous fluid. According to
Poiseuille's law, a fluid with viscosity q flowing through a pipe of radius R and length L
has a volume flow rate Q given by Equation 11.14: Q R P P L = t q
4
2 1
8 ( ) / ( ) . This
expression can be solved for the quantity P P
2 1
, the difference in pressure between the
ends of the air duct. First, however, we must determine the volume flow rate Q of the air.

618 FLUIDS

SOLUTION Since the fan forces air through the duct such that 280 m
3
of air is
replenished every ten minutes, the volume flow rate is

Q =
F
H
G
I
K
J
F
H
G
I
K
J
=
280 m
10.0 min
1.0 min
60 s
0.467 m / s
3
3

The difference in pressure between the ends of the air duct is, according to Poiseuille's law,

P P
LQ
R
2 1 4
8 10
10
= =

=
q
t t
8(1.8 Pa s)(5.5 m)(0.467 m / s)
(7.2 m)
4.4 Pa
5 3
2 4

93. REASONING The drawing at the
right shows the situation. As discussed
in Conceptual Example 6, the job of
the pump is to draw air out of the pipe
that dips down into the water. The
atmospheric pressure in the well then
pushes the water upward into the pipe.
In the drawing, the best the pump can
do is to remove all of the air, in which
case, the pressure P
1
at the top of the
water in the pipe is zero. The pressure
P
2
at the bottom of the pipe at point A
is the same as that at the point B,
namely, it is equal to atmospheric
pressure (1 013 10 .
5
Pa ), because the
two points are at the same elevation,

and point B is open to the atmosphere. Equation 11.4, P P gh
2 1
= + can be applied to
obtain the maximum depth h of the well.

SOLUTION Setting P
1
0 = Pa, and solving Equation 11.4 for h, we have

h
P
g
= =

=
1
3
10
10
1.013 Pa
(1.000 kg / m (9.80 m/ s
10.3 m
5
3 2
) )

94. REASONING The paperweight weighs less in water than in air, because of the buoyant
force F
B
of the water. The buoyant force points upward, while the weight points downward,
leading to an effective weight in water of W
In water
= W F
B
. There is also a buoyant force
when the paperweight is weighed in air, but it is negligibly small. Thus, from the given
weights, we can obtain the buoyant force, which is the weight of the displaced water,
according to Archimedes principle. From the weight of the displaced water and the density
Chapter 11 Problems 619

of water, we can obtain the volume of the water, which is also the volume of the completely
immersed paperweight.

SOLUTION We have

W W F F W W
B In water B In water
or = =

According to Archimedes principle, the buoyant force is the weight of the displaced water,
which is mg, where m is the mass of the displaced water. Using Equation 11.1, we can write
the mass as the density times the volume or m = V. Thus, for the buoyant force, we have

F W W Vg
B In water
= =

Solving for the volume and using = 1.00 10
3
kg/m
3
for the density of water (see
Table 11.1), we find

V
W W
g
=

=

=
In water
3 2
3
N N
1.00 kg / m m/ s
m

6 9 4 3
10 9 80
2 7 10
3
4
. .
.
.
c hc h

95. SSM REASONING AND SOLUTION
a. The volume flow rate is given by Equation 11.10. Assuming that the line has a circular
cross section,
2
A r t = , we have

2 2 4 3
( ) (0.0065 m) (1.2 m/s) 1.6 10 m / s Q Av r v t t = = = =

b. The volume flow rate calculated in part (a) above is the flow rate for all twelve holes.
Therefore, the volume flow rate through one of the twelve holes is

2
hole hole hole
( )
12
Q
Q r v t = =

Solving for v
hole
we have

4 3
1
hole
2 4 2
hole
1.6 10 m /s
2.0 10 m/s
12 12 (4.6 10 m)
Q
v
r t t

= = =

620 FLUIDS

96. REASONING Pressure is defined in Equation 11.3
as the magnitude of the force acting perpendicular to
a surface divided by the area over which the force
acts. The force acting perpendicular to the slope is
due to the component of the skiers weight W that is
directed perpendicular to the slope. In the drawing at
the right, this component is labeled W
perpendicular
.
Note that the fact that the skier is moving is of no
importance.

SOLUTION We assume that each ski bears the same amount of force, namely
1
perpendicular
2
W (see the drawing). According to Equation 11.3, the pressure that each ski
applies to the snow is
1
perpendicular
2
W
P
A
=

where A is the area of each ski in contact with the snow. From the drawing, we see that
perpendicular
cos35 W W = , so that the pressure exerted by each ski on the snow is

( )
( )
( )
1 2
perpendicular
3 2
2
58 kg 9.80 m/s cos35
cos35
1.8 10 Pa
2
2 0.13 m
W
W
P
A A

= = = =

where we have used the fact that W mg = (Equation 4.5).

97. REASONING AND SOLUTION The figure at the right shows the two
forces that initially act on the box. Since the box is not accelerated, the
two forces must have zero resultant: F
B0
W
box
= 0 . Therefore,

F
B0
= W
box
(1)

From Archimedes' principle, the buoyant force on the box is equal to
the weight of the water that is displaced by the box:

F
B0
= W
disp
(2)

Combining (1) and (2) we have W
box
= W
disp
, or m
box
g =
water
gV
disp
. Therefore,

m
box
=
water
V
disp

Since the box floats with one-third of its height beneath the water, V
disp
= (1/3)V
box
, or
V
disp
= (1/3)L
3.

Therefore,

F
B0
W
box
35
35
W
W
perpendicular

Chapter 11 Problems 621

3
water
box
3
L
m

= (3)

The figure at the right shows the three forces that act on the box after
water is poured into the box. The box begins to sink when

W
box
+ W
water
> F
B
(4)

The box just begins to sink when the equality is satisfied. From
Archimedes' principle, the buoyant force on the system is equal to the
weight of the water that is displaced by the system: F
B
= W
displaced
.

The equality in (4) can be written as

m
box
g + m
water
g = m
displaced
g (5)

When the box begins to sink, the volume of the water displaced is equal to the volume of the
box; Equation (5) then becomes

m
box
+
water
V
water
=
water
V
box
.

The volume of water in the box at this instant is V
water
= L
2
h, where h is the depth of the
water in the box. Thus, the equation above becomes

m
box
+
water
L
2
h =
water
L
3

Using Equation (3) for the mass of the box, we obtain

3
2 3 water
water water
3
L
L h L

+ =
Solving for h gives

2 2
3 3
(0.30 m) 0.20 m h L = = =

98. REASONING AND SOLUTION The mercury, being more dense, will flow from the right
container into the left container until the pressure is equalized. Then the pressure at the
bottom of the left container will be P =
w
gh
w
+
m
gh
mL
and the pressure at the bottom of
the right container will be P =
m
gh
mR
. Equating gives

w
gh
w
+
m
g(h
mL
h
mR
) = 0 (1)

F
B
W
box
W
water
622 FLUIDS

Both liquids are incompressible and immiscible so

h
w
= 1.00 m and h
mL
+ h
mR
= 1.00 m

Using these in (1) and solving for h
mL
gives, h
mL
= (1/2)(1.00
w
/
m
) = 0.46 m.

So the fluid level in the left container is 1.00 m + 0.46 m 1.46 m = from the bottom.

99. SSM WWW REASONING AND SOLUTION The pressure at the bottom of the
container is
P = P
atm
+
w
gh
w
+
m
gh
m

We want P = 2P
atm
, and we know h = h
w
+ h
m
= 1.00 m. Using the above and rearranging
gives

( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
5 3 3 2
atm w
m
3 3 3 3 2
m w
1.01 10 Pa 1.00 10 kg/m 9.80 m/s 1.00 m
0.74 m
13.6 10 kg/m 1.00 10 kg/m 9.80 m/s
P gh
h
g

= = =

100. REASONING AND SOLUTION We refer to Table 11.1 for values of

soda
=
water
= 1.000 10
3
kg/m
3
and
Al
= 2700 kg/m
3
for the density of aluminum. The
mass of aluminum required to make the can is

m
Al
= m
total
m
soda

where the mass of the soda is

m
soda
=
soda
V
soda
= (1.000 10
3
kg/m
3
)(3.54 10
4
m
3
) = 0.354 kg

Therefore, the mass of the aluminum used to make the can is

m
Al
= 0.416 kg 0.354 kg = 0.062 kg

Using the definition of density, = m/V, we have

5 3 Al
Al
3
Al
0.062 kg
2.3 10 m
2700 kg/m
m
V

= = =

Chapter 11 Problems 623

101. REASONING The number of gallons per minute of water that the fountain uses is the
volume flow rate Q of the water. According to Equation 11.10, the volume flow rate is
Q Av = , where A is the cross-sectional area of the pipe and v is the speed at which the
water leaves the pipe. The area is given. To find a value for the speed, we will use
Bernoullis equation. This equation states that the pressure P, the fluid speed v, and the
elevation y at any two points (1 and 2) in an ideal fluid of density are related according to
1 1
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
2 2
P v gy P v gy + + = + + (Equation 11.11). Point 1 is where the water leaves
the pipe, so we are seeking v
1
. We must now select point 2. Note that the problem specifies
the maximum height to which the water rises. The maximum height occurs when the water
comes to a momentary halt at the top of its path in the air. Therefore, we choose this point
as point 2, so that we can take advantage of the fact that v
2
= 0 m/s.

SOLUTION We know that
1 2 atmospheric
P P P = = and v
2
= 0 m/s. Substituting this
information into Bernoullis equation, we obtain

( )
2 1 1
2
atmospheric 1 1 atmospheric 2
2 2
0 m/s P v gy P gy + + = + +

Solving for v
1
gives
( )
1 2 1
2 v g y y = , which we now substitute for the speed v in the
expression Q Av = for the volume flow rate:

( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 2 1
4 2 2 3 3
2
5.00 10 m 2 9.80 m/s 5.00 m 0 m 4.95 10 m / s
Q Av A g y y

= =
= =

To convert this result to gal / min, we use the facts that 1 gal = 3.79 10
3
m
3
and
1 min = 60 s:

3
3
m
4.95 10 Q

=
3 3
1 gal
s
3.79 10 m

| |
|
|

\ .
60 s
78.4 gal / min
1 min
| |
| |
= |
|
|
\ .
\ .

102. REASONING AND SOLUTION The upward buoyant force must equal the weight of the
shell if it is floating,
w
gV = W. The submerged volume of the shell is V = (4/3)t R
2
3
,
where R
2
is its outer radius. Now R
2
3
= (3/4)m/(
w
t ) gives

( )
( )
2
3
3
2
3 3
w
3 1.00 kg
3
6.20 10 m
4
4 1.00 10 kg/m
m
R
t
t

= = =

624 FLUIDS

The weight of the shell is W =
g
g(V
2
V
1
) so R
1
3
= R
2
3
(3/4)m/(t
g
), and

( )
3 3
1
3 3 3 3
w g
2
3 1.00 kg
3 1 1 1 1
4 4 1.00 10 kg/m 2.60 10 kg/m
5.28 10 m
m
R
t t

| |
| |
| = =
|
|

\ .
\ .
=

103. REASONING AND SOLUTION The force exerted by a pressure is F = PA and is
perpendicular to the surface. The force on the outside of each half of the roof is

( )
2
4
133 N/m
(10.0 mmHg) 14.5 m 4.21m 8.11 10 N
1mmHg
F
| |
= =
|
|
\ .

Adding the forces vectorially gives for the vertical force

F
v
= 2F cos 30.0 = 1.41 10
5
N

and for the horizontal force F
h
= 0 N. The net force is then
5
1.41 10 N .

The direction of the force is downward , since the horizontal components of the forces on
the halves cancel.

104. REASONING AND SOLUTION
a. Since the volume flow rate, Q = Av, is the same at each point, and since v is greater at the
lower point, the upper hole must have the larger area .

b. Call the upper hole number 1 and the lower hole number 2 (the surface of the water is
position 0). Take the zero level of potential energy at the bottom hole and then write
Bernoulli's equation as

P
1
+ (1/2)v
1
2
+ gh = P
2
+ (1/2)v
2
2
= P
0
+ g(2h)

in which P
1
= P
2
= P
0
and from which we obtain

1 2 2 1
2 and 4 or / 2 v gh v gh v v = = =

Chapter 11 Problems 625

Using the fact that Q
1
= A
1
v
1
= Q
2
= A
2
v
2
, we have v
2
/v
1
= A
1
/A
2
. But since the ratio of the
areas is A
1
/A
2
= r
1
2
/r
2
2
,

we can write that

4 1 1 2
2 2 1
2 1.19
r A v
r A v
= = = =