# Structures/Motion Lab 20-263-571, Sections 001, 002, 003

STRUCTURAL BEAM TEST LAB OBJECTIVE:
The objective of this test is to conduct a vibration test on a simple structure (free-free beam) in order to determine the damped natural frequencies ω r and mode shapes ψ r of the beam. Damping σ r (λ r = σ r + j ω r ) will be present in the beam (material damping) but will be assumed to be small and constant for each mode. For the purposes of preparing for the lab, assume that the the beam will be made of aluminum with dimensions 3.0 inches wide by 36.0 inches long by 0.75 inches thick.

BACKGROUND/THEORY:
The simplest way to ﬁnd the damped natural frequencies and mode shapes of a simple structure is to recognize that the damped natural frequencies are approximately the frequencies where the frequency response functions reach a relative maxima. This is demonstrated by the following Figures.
Frequency Response Functions − Magnitude 80

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Figure 1. Damped Natural Frequencies at Maxima of FRF Magnitude
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Damped Natural Frequencies at Maxima of FRF Magnitude As long as the modal frequencies are not too close together. Expansion Theorem . the β r coefﬁcient for that mode shape will dominate. The mode shapes can be found at these modal frequencies by understanding the Expansion Theorem.Frequency Domain: { X(ω i ) } = r=1 Σ N βr { ψr } The Expansion Theorem states that the response of the system is a linear combination of the mode shapes. will be approximately equal to the mode shapes.) 280 290 300 Figure 2. 2003 + . at the damped natural frequencies. + -2- Revision: September 24. At a speciﬁc damped natural frequency. the response at each measurement point will be proportional to the mode shape. the values of the frequency response functions. evaluated at the damped natural frequency ω r . Since the frequency response functions are normalized response functions. Thus. For a frequency response function. the relationship is: { H(ω r ) } ≈ ψ pr j 2 ω r Mr σ r { ψr } This idea is demonstrated by the following Figures.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Frequency Response Functions − Magnitude Damped Natural Frequency 60 50 40 Magnitude 30 20 10 0 220 230 240 250 260 270 Frequency (Hz. this simple approach will work well. since β r is a constant for each frequency.

) 265 270 275 280 Figure 4. Damped Natural Frequencies . 2003 + .FRF Real Part Frequency Response Functions − Real Part 30 20 10 Real Part 0 −10 −20 Damped Natural Frequency −30 −40 235 240 245 250 255 260 Frequency (Hz.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Frequency Response Functions − Real Part 40 30 20 10 Real Part 0 −10 −20 −30 −40 −50 0 100 200 300 Frequency (Hz.FRF Real Part + -3- Revision: September 24. Damped Natural Frequencies .) 400 500 600 Figure 3.

FRF Imaginary Part Frequency Response Functions − Imaginary Part 60 40 20 Imaginary Part 0 −20 −40 Damped Natural Frequency −60 230 240 250 260 Frequency (Hz. Damped Natural Frequencies . 2003 + .) 400 500 600 Figure 5.) 270 280 Figure 6.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Frequency Response Functions − Imaginary Part 80 60 40 20 Imaginary Part 0 −20 −40 −60 −80 0 100 200 300 Frequency (Hz.FRF Imaginary Part + -4- Revision: September 24. Damped Natural Frequencies .

10 0 -10 Log Magnitude. the dashed line (SDOF) is not identical with the solid line (MDOF).+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + This simple single degree of freedom (SDOF) approach assumes that the modal frequencies are sufﬁciently separated in frequency so that the modal vector can be approximated by the response vector with no contamination (error) from modes that are lower or higher in frequency. + -5- Revision: September 24. Note that when the natural frequencies are close together. (dB) -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 0 1 2 3 4 Frequency. 2003 + . The following Figure illustrates how single degree of freedom contrabutions combine to create the realistic multiple degree of freedom (MDOF) frequency response function. (Hertz) 5 6 7 8 0 -20 -40 -60 Phase. (Degrees) -80 -100 -120 -140 -160 -180 0 1 2 3 4 Frequency. (Hertz) 5 6 7 8 Figure 7. SDOF Contributions to Frequency Response Function Fur ther theoretical details are included in Appendix B.

impact test approach to estimate the frequency response functions. Typical views of the Analyzer Setup and a typical views of the time domain histories (force and response) and frequency domain measurements (frequency response function and coherence) are included at the end of this lab documentation as Appendix B. • The load cell that is permanently mounted in the impact hammer is to be connected to Channel 1 of the Zonic Medallion Signal Analyzer. Utilize the coherence function (measure of linearity between the measured input and output) to determine the quality of the measured frequency response functions. 2003 + .+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + PROCEDURE: The testing procedure will utilize a single reference. The location of the reference accelerometer and the location of the impact points is at the discretion of each lab group. Damping will be small enough to ignore. The measurement sequence will be triggered on Channel 1 with a small pre-trigger delay (1-3% of the total block). Be sure to turn on Manual Rejection for each average so that you can reject any average that has a double impact on the force signal or has an overloaded signal on either the force or response signal. A force window (rectangular) should be applied to the force signal to minimize noise problems. The impact hammer should have a nylon or plastic tip appropriate for the frequency range of the modes of the test structure. A response window (exponential) should be applied to the accelerometer signal to minimize the truncation error known as leakage. All damped natural frequencies and mode shapes should be identiﬁed before leaving the lab. Use 3-5 averages for each measured frequency response function. • • • • • • • • + -6- Revision: September 24. The stiffness of the foam pad may alter the free-free modal frequencies estimates by a ver y small amount. Save the measured frequency response functions to disc and move the data to MATLAB for plotting and/or processing. Be sure to choose the frequency range (Bandwidth) large enough to ﬁnd the highest frequency mode of interest. Be sure to choose a Frame Size (number of time domain data points) of at least 1024. The accelerometer should be mounted with wax on the beam. The frequency response functions will be calculated by the Zonic Medalion Signal Analyzer. The accelerometer is connected to Channel 2. Free-free boundary conditions are to be approximated by resting the beam on a foam pad. This approach uses a single ﬁxed accelerometer as the response (output) sensor and an instrumented hammer as the excitation (input).

.C. For example. Manual Number 35660-90005. Note that the ﬁrst six deformation modes may include bending or torsion modes involving any orientation of the rectangular beam. Plots of the mode shapes should be included in the report along with a verbal description of each mode. see Reference 1 or 2. 2. Charles E. Merril Books. E. Getting Started Guide . Inc.B56) Volterra. 3. Blevins. Zachmanoglou. + -7- Revision: September 24. Be sure to measure and weigh the beam to verify your analytical estimation. Experimentally determine the damped natural frequencies and associated mode shapes for the ﬁrst six deformation modes of the beam. 1979. 293-366) HP-35660 Dynamic Signal Analyzer. 492 pp. 1988. • • • DISCUSSION The discussion should include the following issues: • • • Summarize the procedure used to identify the damped natural frequencies and mode shapes. (Call Number TA654. Which answer is correct? REFERENCES 1. 2003 + . 1965. Several references are available that provide the analytical solution for a simple free-free beam. 622 pp. Be sure to note that your experimental data has a ﬁnite frequency resolution. (pp. The measured frequency response functions should be saved and moved to MATLAB to simplify the plotting of the mode shapes.. Enrico. Rober t D. Compare these values to your predictions. The HewlettPackard Company. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Discuss the reasons for any differences (what are the actual boundar y conditions?). Comment on any difﬁculties encountered in identifying the mode shapes.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + RESULTS: • PRIOR TO COMING TO LAB. Formulas for Natural Frequency and Mode Shapes . Compare/contrast damped natural frequencies with theoretical values estimated from a reference. Dynamics of Vibration . the damped natural frequencies for the ﬁrst six (6) deformation modes should be estimated analytically.

the evaluation of these modes (estimation of frequency.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + APPENDIX A: SDOF EXPERIMENTAL MODAL ANALYSIS CONCEPT Figure 8. The above diagram explains how this will be done. damping. The primar y assumption is that each mode of vibration is well separated in frequency from the other modes. these modes are plotted in a wireframe model showing the extrema of the modal vector so that the motion can be easily understood. modal vector and modal scaling) can often be accomplished with essentially single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) concepts. 2003 + . Different modes of vibration of the beam can be visulaized in the above ﬁgure by noting the solid black line connecting the peaks of the imaginary par ts of each frequency response. Figures 2 and 3 show the ﬁrst two bending modes of a uniform beam that is pinned at each end. + -8- Revision: September 24.Uniform Beam Even though a contiuous beam has an inﬁnite number of modes. This is often the case for lightly damped structures. Normally. Modal Analysis Concept .

SDOF theory must be reviewed and extended slightly.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Figure 9. The general mathematical representation of a single degree of freedom system is expressed using Newton’s second law in Equation 1: M x(t) + C x(t) + K x(t) = f (t) ¨ ˙ (1) For the general case with a forcing function that can be represented as a summation of sin and cosine terms. 2003 + . First Bending Mode at First Damped Natural Frequency (ω 1 ) Figure 10. Second Bending Mode at Second Damped Natural Frequency (ω 2 ) In order to understand why this information can be determined from the imaginary par t of the frequency response functions. the forcing function can be represented as: f (t) = Σ F(ω ) e jω t + F * (ω ) e− jω t ω =0 -9- ∞ (2) + Revision: September 24. primarily from a notational point of view.

this would provide redundant information (no new information) but it becomes important as the extension to multple degrees-of-freedom occurs. H qp (ω ) = X q (ω ) 1 = F p (ω ) −M ω 2 + C jω + K (5) The system is still a SDOF system so H qp = H pp = H qq = H qs = . At the undamped natural frequency. Modal coefﬁcient information. Equation 3 and the derivatives of Equation 3 can substituted into Equation 1 yielding the following frequency response function (FRF) relationship for a SDOF system: H(ω ) = X(ω ) 1 = F(ω ) −M ω 2 + C jω + K (4) Note the characteristic of the above frequency response function when it is evaluated (measured) at the undamped natural frequency. X(ω ) and F(ω ) are complex valued. A form of modal scaling is already represented by noting the the mass term in the denominator scales the equation. H qp (ω ) = ψq ψ p X q (ω ) = 2 + C jω + K F p (ω ) −M ω (6) + -10- Revision: September 24. . The ﬁrst extension that is necessary provides a description for the case where x(t) and f (t) are not located at the same point.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Assuming that the system is underdamped and that enough time has passed that any transient response of the system due to initial condition or startup of the excitation has decayed to zero. Working with any arbitrary frequency term in Equations 2 and 3. 2003 + . This clearly demonstrates that the number of modes (one in this case) is unrelated to the number of input and output sensors that are used to measure the system. which is relative not absolute information. can be added by changing the numerator to reﬂect this. For example. Equation 2. but the input and output location can now be described. the mass and stiffness terms cancel each other and the FRF is purely imaginary valued. . On a single degree-of-freedom system. The modal frequency is already represented by noting that the denominator is related to the characteristic equation. the response of the system can be represented as: x(t) = Σ X(ω ) e jω t + X * (ω ) e− jω t ω =0 ∞ (3) Note that. assume that the par ticular point (and direction) on the mass where the force is applied is referred to as DOF p and the particular point (and direction) on the mass where the response is measured is referred to as DOF q. The second extension that is necessary provides a way to indicate that the modal characteristics (modal coefﬁcients) of both the input and output are represented in the frequency response function model. while x(t) and f (t) are real valued functions. Equation 4 now can be written as follows to note this information.

Finally. Note that. this means + -11Revision: September 24. The ﬁnal form of the frequency response function is: H qp (ω ) = ψ qr ψ pr X q (ω ) ∞ =Σ 2 + C jω + K F p (ω ) r=1 −M r ω r r (7) Equation 7 is one common representation of the FRF of a MDOF system. linear superposition can be used in the frequency domain to add the information associated with each mode together to represent the frequency response function of a MDOF system. every term in Equation 6 will need a subcript (r) to indicate which mode the information is associated with. Note as before. either sensor (input or output) can be held ﬁxed with the other sensor allowed to rove or map the DOFs that deﬁne the modal vector. Note that for a linear system. To desribe this. if the FRF is evaluated (measured) at the undamped natural frequency). Note that the SDOF contribution to the FRF (dotted line) is nearly the same as the MDOF contribution to the FRF (solid line) in the neighborhood of the undamped natural frequency. damping and stiffness parameters or experimentally using more complicated parameter estimation algorithms. the FRF is once again imaginary valued and is a function of the modal coefﬁcients and damping. damping and stiffness parameters. C r and K r terms in the denominator are the modal or generalized mass. the information in the neighborhood of the undamped natural frequency for a given mode can be found from: H qp (ω ) = ψ qr ψ pr X q (ω ) ≈ 2 + C jω + K F p (ω ) M r ω r r (8) This characteristic is observable in Figure 4. Assuming the damping is unknown but constant means that the product of the modal coefﬁcients is proportional to the imaginary par t of the FRF. the third extension that is necessary provides for the change from SDOF to MDOF. as long as the modes are well separated in frequency. since the system is still a SDOF system.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Note that. the relative motion at each DOF would be normalized to 1 such that ψ p = ψ q = ψ s = 1 which shows that Equation 5 and 6 still represent the same information. 2003 + . since mechanical systems obey Maxwell’s Reciprocity Theorem (H pq = H qp ). the only information that changes in Equation 8 as different FRFs are measured is the information relative to the modal coefﬁcient for the particular mode of interest. as long as the natural frequencies are well separated. Note that. The modal or generalized parameters can be found analytically from the physical mass. not the physical mass. damping and stifness parameters. {H(ω )} p ≈ Mr ω2 {ψ r } ψ pr + C r jω + K r (9) If Equation 8 is evaluated (measured) near the undamped natural frequency. if the output DOF (point and location) is held ﬁxed while the input DOF is moved. Note that. Note that the M r .

less than 10 percent of critical damping (ζ less than 0. the difference between the damped natural frequency and the undamped natural frequency is less than one percent. This is a practical assumption for many realistic. if the response is evaluated at the undamped natural frequency of mode r. This will be reasonably accurate as long as the undamped natural frequencies are well separated and the damping is small (undamped and damped natural frequencies nearly equal). the expansion coefﬁcient β r will dominate and be approximately equal to alpha deﬁned in Equation 9.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + that the imaginary par t of the FRF will be proportional to the modal coefﬁcient.Frequency Domain: { X(ω i ) } = r=1 Σ N βr { ψr } r=1 Σ N βr { ψr } Using the frequency domain form of the expansion theorem. + -12- Revision: September 24. the value of the constant is not important unless damping or modal scaling is required. The propor tionality constant α r ) is: αr ≈ ψ pr −M r ω 2 + C r jω + K r (10) Since mode shapes are relative patterns.Time Domain: { x(t i ) } = Expansion Theorem . 2003 + . Damping Issues Note that the experimental analysis assumes that damping is samll and constant for each mode. Therefore. Even with damping at 10 percent of critical damping. This result is consistent with the expansion theorem concept (the response of the system at any instant in time or at any frequency is a linear combination of the modal vectors): Expansion Theorem .10) and constant for all measurements. modal vectors can be estimated from the imaginary par t of the frequency response functions at the damped natural frequencies (or from the magnitude and phase information of the frequency response functions at the damped natural frequencies). simple systems. not absolute motions.

+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Appendix B: Impact Testing + -13- Revision: September 24. 2003 + .

2 0.2 0.3 0.076 0.086 0.) 1 1.092 0.078 0.084 0.4 0.2 1.4 0.05 0 −0.4 0.094 0.09 0.15 0.5 0.Time Domain + -14- Revision: September 24.1 0 0. 2003 + .8 Time (Sec.4 Figure 11.3 Volts 0.1 0 −0.082 0. Typical Force Signal (Impact) .096 Volts Figure 12.08 0.Time Domain 0.6 0.088 Time (Sec.35 0. Typical Force Signal (Impact) .+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Time Domain Histories 0.) 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.25 0.6 0.

8 Time (Sec.02 −0. 2003 + .5 0.4 Figure 14.02 Volts 0 −0.005 −0.02 −0.3 0.Time Domain + -15- Revision: September 24.025 0. Typical Force Signal (Impact) .9 1 1.Time Domain 0.06 0 0.025 0.1 Figure 13.7 Time (Sec.015 −0.02 0.) 1 1.6 0.01 0.) 0.005 Volts 0 −0.015 0. Typical Responce Signal (Exponential Decay) .06 0.01 −0.2 1.04 −0.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Time Domain Histories 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.04 0.

Frequency Domain 10 1 10 0 Magnitude (Volt/Volt) 10 −1 10 −2 10 −3 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (Hz) 1200 1400 1600 1800 Figure 16.6 Coherence 0. Typical Coherence Function .8 0.3 0.+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + Frequency Domain Measurements 400 300 200 100 Phase (Degrees) 0 −100 −200 −300 −400 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (Hz) 1200 1400 1600 1800 Figure 15.9 0.2 0.4 0.7 0. Typical Frequency Response Function (Magnitude) .5 0.Frequency Domain + -16Revision: September 24.Frequency Domain 1 0.1 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Frequency (Hz) 1200 1400 1600 1800 Figure 17. 2003 + . Typical Frequency Response Function (Phase) .

+ 20-263-571 Structures/Motion Lab UC-MINE + + -17- Revision: September 24. 2003 + .