Materials Engineering (KU 3195) Lecture #22 and #23

Professor Kwok Wai Lem Department of Materials Chemistry and Engineering Konkuk University May 22 and 23, 2010

Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010)

Lecture #22 and #23

Slide # 1

Materials Engineering (KU 3195)- Schedule
Lecture # 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. Contents Introduction the Need of Materials - Processing Structure Property Relation. Cost Analysis, Supply and Demand /Dr. Lem's Expectations (Lecture #1) Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding/Project Selection Finalize and Team Identify (Lecture #2) The Structure of Crystalline Solids Imperfection in Solids Diffusion Mechanical Properties of Metals Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanism Failure Phase Diagrams Phase Transformations: Development of Microstructure and Alteration of Mechanical Properties Applications of Processing of metal Alloys Structure and Properties of Ceramics Applications of Processing of Ceramics Team Project Interim Report Midterm Polymer Structures Characteristics, Applications, and Processing of Polymers Composites Corrosion and Degradation of Materials Electrical Properties Thermal Properties Magnetic Properties Optical Properties Design of Materials Using Design for Six Sigma Life Cycle of Materials - Economics, Environmental, and social Issues in Materials Science and Engineering Project Management and Lean Six Sigma - Applications in Materials engineering Best Practices/Team Project Final Report Presentation Final Examination
Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 2

Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010)

Homework Lecture #22 (HW –L22-1) (Due Lecture 24) 1. An electrochemical cell is constructed such that on one side a pure nickel electrode is in contact with a solution containing Ni2+ ions at a concentration of 3 × 10-3 M. The other cell half consists of a pure Fe electrode that is immersed in a solution of Fe2+ ions having a concentration of 0.1 M. At what temperature will the potential between the two electrodes be +0.140 V?

Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010)

Lecture #22 and #23

Slide # 3

The magnetization within a bar of some metal alloy is 3. Compute the following: (a) the magnetic susceptibility. (d) What type(s) of magnetism would you suggest as being displayed by this material? Why? Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Homework Lecture #23 (HW –L23-1) (Due Lecture 25) 1.2 × 105 A/m at an H field of 50 A/m. (b) the permeability. and (c) the magnetic flux density within this material. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 4 .

and 3.“Only 1.to speak English proficiently and effectively 2. Stand up ! . Have fun! – when you’re doing it Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 5 .... He said” Professor Lem’s Only 3 Expectations from You 1. Own it ! – all the materials become your knowledge capital 3.

Kim Su Jin. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 6 . 3.Team Project Final Presentation Preparation Resume Class Rep: Kim Su Jin 1. Practice… Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Park Ji Sung (me). 2010 Practice. Lee Chung Hwan 1:00 PM May 10. Members: Park Sung Eun. Team Leader: Park Ji Sung (me). Practice. Project: LED Lighting 2.

• How does corrosion occur? • Which metals are most likely to corrode? • What environmental parameters affect corrosion rate? • How do we prevent or control corrosion? Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 7 ..CORROSION AND DEGRADATION OF MATERIALS ISSUES TO ADDRESS.

Used with permission.the destructive electrochemical attack of a material. John Wiley and Sons. **Economic Report of the President (1998). Maestas.S. Sapona.. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Sandia National Labs..4 to 5% of the Gross National Product (GNP)* -. Uhlig and W.R. 3rd ed. off the coast of Bimini. Corrosion and Corrosion Control: An Introduction to Corrosion Science and Engineering. Revie. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 8 . 1985. Inc. this amounts to just over $400 billion/yr** * H. Photos courtesy L. • Cost: -.in the U. -.THE COST OF CORROSION • Corrosion: -.H.M.Ex: Al Capone's ship.

acidic solution O2 + 4H+ + 4e− → 2H2O Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. (Fig. McGrawHill Book Company. Fontana.2ein the metal H+ + H H+ H2(gas) H+ reduction reaction H+ Acid solution Adapted from Fig. 16.G.1.oxidation reaction: -. 1986. 16..1 is from M. Callister & Rethwisch 3e. 3rd ed.reduction reaction: 2H+ + 2e− → H2 (gas) H+ Oxidation reaction Zn Zn2+ H+ Zinc flow of e. Corrosion Engineering.ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION Ex: consider the corrosion of zinc in an acid solution • Two reactions are necessary: Zn → Zn2+ + 2e− -.) • Other reduction reactions in solutions with dissolved oxygen: -.neutral or basic solution O2 + 2H2O + 4e− → 4(OH)− Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 9 . Spring 2010) -.

(b) Which reaction occurs at the anode and which at the cathode? Solution (a) Oxidation is the process by which an atom gives up an electron (or electrons) to become a cation.Example (a) Briefly explain the difference between oxidation and reduction electrochemical reactions. Reduction is the process by which an atom acquires an extra electron (or electrons) and becomes an anion. reduction at the cathode. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 10 . (b) Oxidation occurs at the anode. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Metal is the cathode (+) o Vmetal > 0 (relative to Pt) Adapted from Fig. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Platinum Slide # 11 .2. M -. Standard Electrode Potential Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Metal is the anode (-) o Vmetal < 0 (relative to Pt) -. Callister & Rethwisch 3e.Electrodeposition eH2(gas) 2e Platinum ene metal. M eH+ 2e H+ Mn+ H+ ions H+ 25°C Mn+ ions 1M Mn+ sol’n 1M H + sol’n 1M Mn+ sol’n 1M H+ sol’n 25°C -. 16.Corrosion ene metal.STANDARD HYDROGEN ELECTRODE • Two outcomes: -.

STANDARD EMF SERIES • EMF series metal Au Cu Pb Sn Ni Co Cd Fe Cr Zn Al Mg Na K o Vmetal • Metal with smaller o Vmetal corrodes. Data based on Table 17. .924 Callister 7e.1.403 . Callister & Rethwisch 3e.744 . +1.363 Cd 2+ solution Ni 2+ solution .1.0.153V . 16.126 .277 0.0.662 1.2.2.250 ΔV o = .0.0.0.0.714 Adapted from Fig.2. Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 12 more anodic more cathodic Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.420 V • Ex: Cd-Ni cell +0. Spring 2010) .0 M .0 M 1.763 .0.2.340 o o VCd < VNi ∴ Cd corrodes .0.136 + .440 Cd Ni 25°C .

CORROSION IN A GRAPEFRUIT Cu (cathode) + Zn (anode) H+ H+ - Zn 2+ oxidation reaction H+ reduction reactions 2e H+ H+ 2H+ + 2e− → H2 (gas) O2 + 4H+ + 4e− → 2H2O Zn → Zn2+ + 2e− Acid H+ H+ Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 13 .

(b) In which of these solutions would you expect the magnesium to oxidize most rapidly? Why? Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Example (a) Write the possible oxidation and reduction halfreactions that occur when magnesium is immersed in each of the following solutions: (i) HCl. Fe2+ ions. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 14 . in addition. (ii) an HCl solution containing dissolved oxygen. (iii) an HCl solution containing dissolved oxygen and.

possible reactions are Mg → Mg 2+ + 2e . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 15 .→ 2H 2O (reduction) Fe 2+ + 2e.→ 2H 2O (reduction) (iii) In an HCl solution containing dissolved oxygen and Fe2+ ions.(oxidation) 4H + + O2 + 4e. possible reactions are Mg → Mg 2+ + 2e . (i) In HCl.→ Fe (reduction) Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. possible reactions are Mg → Mg 2+ + 2e .(oxidation) 4H + + O2 + 4e.→ H 2 (reduction) (ii) In an HCl solution containing dissolved oxygen.(oxidation) 2H + + 2e.Solution (Part a) (a) This problem asks that we write possible oxidation and reduction half-reactions for magnesium in various solutions.

Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 16 .Solution (Part b) (b) The magnesium would probably oxidize most rapidly in the HCl solution containing dissolved oxygen and Fe2+ ions because there are two reduction reactions that will consume electrons from the oxidation of magnesium.

EFFECT OF SOLUTION CONCENTRATION AND TEMPERATURE • Ex: Cd-Ni cell with standard 1 M solutions • Ex: Cd-Ni cell with non-standard solutions V −V = 0.increasing X -.0 M 1.increasing T Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.153 V o Ni o Cd VNi − VCd - + - RT X = V −V − ln nF Y o Ni o Cd + Cd 25°C Ni Cd T Ni 1.VCd by -. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 n = #eper unit oxid/red reaction (= 2 here) F= Faraday's constant = 96.decreasing Y -.500 C/mol. Slide # 17 .0 M Cd 2+ solution Ni 2+ solution XM YM Cd 2+ solution Ni 2+ solution • Reduce VNi .

McGrawHill Book Company. 1986. Corrosion Engineering. 3rd ed. Fontana.. (Source of Table 16. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 more cathodic (inert) Based on Table 16. Callister & Rethwisch 3e.2.2 is M.G.GALVANIC SERIES • Ranking of the reactivity of metals/alloys in seawater Platinum Gold Graphite Titanium Silver 316 Stainless Steel (passive) Nickel (passive) Copper Nickel (active) Tin Lead 316 Stainless Steel (active) Iron/Steel Aluminum Alloys Cadmium Zinc Magnesium Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.) more anodic (active) Slide # 18 .

(Fig.FORMS OF CORROSION • Stress corrosion Corrosion at crack tips • Uniform Attack when a tensile stress • Erosion-corrosion Oxidation & reduction Combined chemical attack and is present.15. elbows). Callister & Rethwisch 3e. reactions occur uniformly mechanical wear (e.17 from M. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. The Fig. Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 19 . McGraw-Hill Book Company. Inc.) • Galvanic • Crevice Narrow and Fig.18. Spring 2010) Dissimilar metals are confined spaces. particles form.. often where precip.) corrodes.b. 16. (Fig.g.. Fontana. Corrosion Engineering. g. • Pitting • Intergranular Corrosion along grain boundaries.17. Fig. 1986.G. Zn from brass (Cu-Zn)]. attacked zones Forms of corrosion Downward propagation of small pits and holes. prec. 16. 16. Rivet holes physically joined in the presence of an electrolyte. Callister & Rethwisch 3e.15 more anodic metal is courtesy LaQue Center for Corrosion Technology. 3rd ed. • Selective Leaching Preferred corrosion of one element/constituent [e. 16.g. Callister & Rethwisch 3e.. 16. pipe over surfaces.

stainless steel) • Lower the temperature (reduces rates of oxidation and reduction) • Apply physical barriers -.These metals form a thin. Al..e. Ni in basic solutions -..Use metals that are relatively unreactive in the corrosion environment -. Metal oxide Metal (e.Use metals that passivate .CORROSION PREVENTION (i) • Materials Selection -.g. adhering oxide layer that slows corrosion. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 20 ..e. films and coatings Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.g.g.

Slow oxidation/reduction reactions by removing reactants (e. Galvanized Steel Adapted from Fig.23. remove O2 gas by reacting it w/an inhibitor). Mg Anode Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 21 .g..2e steel zinc steel pipe e- Cu wire Mg Mg 2+ anode Earth Adapted from Fig.Attach a more anodic material to the one to be protected. Using a sacrificial anode Zn 2+ zinc 2e . e.CORROSION PREVENTION (ii) • Add inhibitors (substances added to solution that decrease its reactivity) -. Callister & Rethwisch 3e.22(a). Callister & Rethwisch 3e. zinc-coated nail Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) e.Slow oxidation reaction by attaching species to the surface. -.g. • Cathodic (or sacrificial) protection -. 16.g... 16.

6 M concentration of Cu2+. Calculate the concentration of Pb2+ ions if the temperature is 25°C.507 V.Example An electrochemical cell is composed of pure copper and pure lead electrodes immersed in solutions of their respective divalent ions. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 22 . the lead electrode is oxidized yielding a cell potential of 0. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. For a 0.

6M) exp (2. Equation 17.0296 [Cu2+ ] Solving this expression for [Pb2+] gives [Pb2+ ] = 2+ [Cu ] o o ⎡ ΔV − (VCu −VPb)⎤ exp−⎢(2. The electrochemical reaction that occurs within this cell is just Pb + Cu2+ → Pb2+ + Cu while ΔV = 0. Thus.507 V and [Cu2+] = 0.507V − {0.340 V and VPb = – 0.6 M.303) ⎥ 0.0296 ⎦ ⎣ o The standard potentials from Table are Vo = +0.5 × 10-2 M Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.0592 log [Pb ] ΔV = (VCu Pb 2 [Cu2+ ] This equation may be rewritten as o o [Pb2+ ] ΔV − (VCu − VPb) = log − 0.303) 0.20 is written in the form 2+ o − V o ) − 0. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 23 . Therefore.0296 ⎣ ⎦ = 2.Solution We are asked to calculate the concentration of Pb2+ ions in a copper-lead electrochemical cell.126V)} [Pb −⎢ ⎥ 0.126 V.340V − (−0. Cu ⎡ ⎤ 2+ ] = (0.

Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. The brine is circulated within the heat exchanger and contains some dissolved oxygen. other than cathodic protection. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 24 . Explain the rationale for each suggestion. Suggest three methods.Example A brine solution is used as a cooling medium in a steel heat exchanger. for reducing corrosion of the steel by the brine.

the dissolved oxygen may form bubbles. (4) Minimize the number of bends and/or changes in pipe contours in order to minimize erosion-corrosion. the corrosion rate is often quite dependent on the composition of the corrosion environment. (5) Add inhibitors. (3) Remove as much dissolved oxygen as possible.Solution Possible methods that may be used to reduce corrosion of the heat exchanger by the brine solution are as follows: (1) Reduce the temperature of the brine. (6) Avoid connections between different metal alloys. the rate of a corrosion reaction increases with increasing temperature. normally. Under some circumstances. which can lead to erosion-corrosion damage. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 25 . (2) Change the composition of the brine.

materials selection -.SUMMARY • Metallic corrosion involves electrochemical reactions -. • Temperature and solution composition affect corrosion rates.adding inhibitors -.reducing the temperature -.cathodic protection Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. • Forms of corrosion are classified according to mechanism • Corrosion may be prevented or controlled by: -.applying physical barriers -.these electrons are consumed in a reduction reaction • Metals and alloys are ranked according to their corrosiveness in standard emf and galvanic series.electrons are given up by metals in an oxidation reaction -. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 26 .

.Magnetic Properties ISSUES TO ADDRESS. • What is a conceptual introduction to magnetic particles? • What are the definitions and atomic sources • What are the important magnetic properties? • How do we explain magnetic phenomena? • How are magnetic materials classified? • How does magnetic memory storage work? • What is superconductivity and how do magnetic fields effect the behavior of superconductors? • What is effect of size on magnetic properties? Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 27 .

• What is a conceptual introduction to magnetic particles? • What are the definitions and atomic sources • What are the important magnetic properties? • How do we explain magnetic phenomena? • How are magnetic materials classified? • How does magnetic memory storage work? • What is superconductivity and how do magnetic fields effect the behavior of superconductors? • What is effect of size on magnetic properties? Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195..Magnetic Properties ISSUES TO ADDRESS.. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 28 .

an Empirical Approach • Section 2 – Magnetic Materials .Outline of Lectures • Section 1 – Magnetic Moments and Magnetic Fields – Magnetic Materials .the Microscopic Picture – Small Particle Magnetism • Section 3 – Magnetic Particles in Fluids – Design of magnetic carriers Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 29 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 30 .Section 1 Magnetic Moments and Magnetic Fields Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 31 .Magnetic fields are generated by movement of electric charges A loop of electric current generates a magnetic dipole field Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

2009 .A magnetic dipole • Field lines run from the North pole to the South pole Field lines indicate the direction of force that would be experienced by a North magnetic monopole Slide # 32 • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

2009 Slide # 33 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.A bar magnet A simple bar magnet behaves like a magnetic dipole Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 34 . for example • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Far field picture • Sometimes the dipoles are very small compared with their spatial field of influence An electron.

• Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 35 . The head of the arrow is the North pole.Schematic representation • A magnetic dipole is often represented schematically as an arrow.

Flux density. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. B • Density of flux (or field) lines determines forces on magnetic poles Direction of flux indicates direction of force on a North pole • φ B= Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 A Slide # 36 .

Flux density. 2009 Slide # 37 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. B • Higher flux density exerts more force on magnetic poles Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 38 .Magnetic field gradients • Magnetic field gradients exist when flux lines converge of diverge Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

2009 Slide # 39 . τ = mBsin(θ ) Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Magnetic Moment • A magnetic dipole in a field B experiences a torque. m. τ • Magnitude of τ depends on B and magnetic dipole moment. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Magnetic dipole in a field Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 40 .

2009 Slide # 41 .Magnetic dipole in a field Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Compass needles • A magnetic compass needle has a magnetic moment Needle is oriented in the Earth’s magnetic field. Note that both magnetic moment and field are vectors • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 42 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Magnetic Materials an Empirical Approach Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 43 .

M Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Magnetization. M • Material with a net magnetic moment is magnetized • Magnetization is the magnetic moment per unit volume within the material Magnetization. 2009 Slide # 44 .

Magnetization depends on……. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 45 .. • Number density of magnetic dipole moments within material Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Magnetization depends on……. • Magnitude of the magnetic dipole moments within the material Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 46 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre..

2009 Slide # 47 .Magnetization depends on……. • The arrangement of the magnetic dipoles within the material Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Magnetization in materials arises from……. 2009 Slide # 48 . • unpaired electron spins mainly • the orbital motion of electrons within the material to a lesser extent Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Generating a uniform magnetic field in the laboratory • An electric current run through a conducting coil (solenoid) generates a uniform flux density within the coil Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 49 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 50 . • Increases in proportion to the electric current • Increases in proportion to the number of turns per unit length in the coil Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195..Flux density in vacuum (or air) within coil…….

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. the orbital and spin magnetic moments within atoms respond to an applied magnetic field • Flux lines are perturbed by specimen Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 51 .Inserting a specimen into the coil • Generally.

Specimen in magnetic field • If specimen has no magnetic response. flux lines are not perturbed Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 52 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 53 .“Magnetic” materials • • “magnetic” materials tend to concentrate flux lines Examples: materials containing high concentrations of magnetic atoms such as iron. cobalt Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

protein. fat Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 54 .Diamagnetic materials • Diamagnetic materials tend to repel flux lines weakly • Examples: water. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Flux density B within material determined by both…… • Geometry and current in solenoid • Magnetic properties of the material • Geometry of material B = μ 0 (H + M ) Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 55 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 56 .The H Field • H is called the magnetic field strength • μ0 is a constant called the permeability of free space The H Field Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. B = μ0 H Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 57 .In the absence of material in the solenoid…… • There is no magnetization M • So….

2009 Slide # 58 .Measuring magnetic moment of specimen • • • Pass specimen thru small “sensing” coil Measure voltage generated across coil Voltage proportional to moment on specimen Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Measuring magnetic moment of specimen • Use large coil to apply magnetic field to specimen • Use a cryostat or furnace to vary temperature of specimen Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 59 .

M • Generally. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 60 . M changes in magnitude as H is varied.Response of material to applied magnetic field strength H Magnetization. • Magnitude of response is called the “magnetic susceptibility” of the material The H Field Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

e. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Response of material to applied magnetic field strength H • Diamagnetic materials have a very weak negative response • i. 2009 Slide # 61 . they have a small negative magnetic susceptibility Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

2009 Slide # 62 .Magnetic susceptibility. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. χ • Magnetic susceptibility is sometimes written as χ = MH • And sometimes as the slope of M vs H χ = dM dH Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 63 .How does M respond to H? • There is a variety of ways that M responds to H • Response depends on type of material • Response depends on temperature • Response can sometimes depend on the previous history of magnetic field strengths and directions applied to the material Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Non-linear responses Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 64 .

the response of M to H is non-linear • Only at small values of H or high temperatures is response sometimes linear Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 65 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Non-linear responses • Generally.

Non-linear responses • M tends to saturate at high fields and low temperatures Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 66 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Low field magnetic susceptibility • For some materials. 2009 Slide # 67 . low field magnetic susceptibility is inversely proportional to temperature • Curie’s Law χ = MH Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Magnetic hysteresis Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 68 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Coercivity is usually measured in oersted or ampere/meter units and is denoted HC. or magnetic tape) and magnetic separation. the coercivity. magnetic recording media (e. floppy disks. 2009 Slide # 69 . Coercivity can be measured using a B-H Analyzer. hard drives. A material with a low coercivity is said to be soft and may be used in microwave devices. also called the coercive field. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. Coercivity measures the resistance of a ferromagnetic material to becoming demagnetized. transformers. of a ferromagnetic material is the intensity of the applied magnetic field required to reduce the magnetization of that material to zero after the magnetization of the sample has been driven to saturation. Permanent magnets find application in electric motors.g. *In materials science. and are used to make permanent magnets. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. magnetic shielding.Magnetic hysteresis • • • M depends on previous state of magnetization Remnant magnetization Mr remains when applied field is removed Need to apply a field (coercive field*) in opposite direction to reduce M to zero. or recording heads. Materials with high coercivity are called hard ferromagnetic materials.

2009 Slide # 70 . • Remnant magnetization is reduced to zero above Curie temperature Tc Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Effect of temperature on remnant magnetization • Heating a magnetized material generally decreases its magnetization.

Effect of temperature on remnant magnetization • Heating a sample above its Curie temperature is a way of demagnetizing it • Thermal demagnetization Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 71 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Section 2 The Microscopic Picture of Magnetic Materials • We will now revisit the experimentally observed magnetic behaviours and try to understand them from a microscopic point of view Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 72 .

2009 Slide # 73 .Paramagnetic gas • Imagine a classical gas of molecules each with a magnetic dipole moment • In zero field the gas would have zero magnetization Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Paramagnetic gas • Applying a magnetic field would tend to orient the dipole moments • Gas attains a magnetization Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 74 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Paramagnetic gas • Very high fields would saturate magnetization • Heating the gas would tend to disorder the moments and hence decrease magnetization Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 75 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

2009 Slide # 76 .Paramagnetic gas • • • • • • Theoretical model Non-interacting moments Boltzmann statistics Dipole interaction with B Yields good model for many materials Examples: ferrous sulfate crystals. ionic solutions of magnetic atoms Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

2009 Slide # 77 .Paramagnetic gas • Classical model yields Langevin function • Quantum model yields Brillouin function Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

cobalt • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Ferromagnetism • Materials that retain a magnetization in zero field Quantum mechanical exchange interactions favour parallel alignment of moments Examples: iron. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 78 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 79 .Ferromagnetism • Thermal energy can be used to overcome exchange interactions Curie temp is a measure of exchange interaction strength Note: exchange interactions much stronger than dipoledipole interactions • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

2009 Slide # 80 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Magnetic domains • Ferromagnetic materials tend to form magnetic domains Each domain is magnetized in a different direction Domain structure minimizes energy due to stray fields • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

2009 Slide # 81 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Magnetic domains • Applying a field changes domain structure • Domains with magnetization in direction of field grow • Other domains shrink Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

2009 Slide # 82 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Magnetic domains • Applying very strong fields can saturate magnetization by creating single domain Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Magnetic domains • Removing the field does not necessarily return domain structure to original state • Hence results in magnetic hysteresis Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 83 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Magnetic domain walls Wall thickness. 2009 Slide # 84 . is typically about 100 nm Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. t.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Single domain particles • Particles smaller than “t” have no domains <t Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 85 .

2009 Slide # 86 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Antiferromagnetism • In some materials. exchange interactions favour antiparallel alignment of atomic magnetic moments Materials are magnetically ordered but have zero remnant magnetization and very low χ Many metal oxides are antiferromagnetic • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

f. Curie temp) Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Antiferromagnetism • Thermal energy can be used to overcome exchange interactions • Magnetic order is broken down at the Néel temperature (c. 2009 Slide # 87 .

2009 Slide # 88 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Ferrimagnetism • Antiferromagnetic exchange interactions • Different sized moments on each sublattice • Results in net magnetization • Example: magnetite. maghemite Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 89 .Small Particle Magnetism Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 90 .Stoner-Wohlfarth Particle • Magnetic anisotropy energy favours magnetization along certain axes relative to the crystal lattice Easy axis of magnetization Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

2009 Slide # 91 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. V • Uniaxial single domain particle • Magnetocrystalline magnetic anisotropy energy given by 2 a E = KV sin (θ ) • K is a constant for the material Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Stoner-Wohlfarth Particle Particle volume.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 92 .Stoner-Wohlfarth Particle KV E a = KV sin (θ ) 2 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Thermal activation • At low temperature magnetic moment of particle trapped in one of the wells • Particle magnetic moment is “blocked” Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 93 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Thermal activation • At higher temps. thermal energy can buffet magnetic moment between the wells Results in rapid fluctuation of moment Particle moment becomes “unblocked” • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 94 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 95 . Tb. is the temp below which moment is blocked • Blocking temperature depends on particle size and timescale of observation • Larger particles have higher blocking temperatures • The longer the observation time.Magnetic blocking temperature • The magnetic blocking temp. the more likely it is that the moment will be observed to flip Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

τ Observation window Slope ∝ Vol Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Fluctuation timescales. 2009 Slide # 96 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

2009 Slide # 97 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Effect of applied field on single domain particles • Increasing field Applying field along easy axis favours moment aligned with field Above Tb this results in moment spending more time in lower well Particle exhibits time averaged magnetization in direction of field • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Superparamagnetism • Unblocked particles that respond to a field are known as superparamagnetic Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 98 .

2009 Slide # 99 .Superparamagnetism • Response of superparamagnets to applied field described by Langevin model Qualitatively similar to paramagnets At room temperature superparamagnetic materials have a much greater magnetic susceptibility per atom than paramagnetic materials Room temp • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

magnetofection Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. protein. RNA fishing Treatments: targeted drug delivery. Data analysis: superparamagnetic clustering (SPC) & its extension global SPC(gSPC) Imaging: Contrast agents in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) .Superparamagnetism Superparamagnets are often ideal for applications where… Room temp • • a high magnetic susceptibility is required zero magnetic remanence is required 1. Applications of superparamagnetism • • • General Applications: Ferrofluid: tunable viscosity . DNA-.separation. Magnetic separation: cell-. Biomedical applications • • . 2009 Slide # 100 2. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. magnetic hyperthermia.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 101 .Section 3 Magnetic particles in fluids Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

2009 Slide # 102 .Magnetic particles in fluids • Most clinical and biotechnological applications of magnetic carriers involve suspensions of particles in fluids • Here we review some of the basic principles governing the behaviour of magnetic particles in fluids Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

2009 Slide # 103 .Magnetic particles in fluids • Several forces involved – Force of applied magnetic fields on particles – Viscous drag forces – Interparticle magnetic forces – Interparticle electrostatic forces – Interparticle entropic “forces” Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Single magnetic particle in fluid • A uniform magnetic field tends to orient a magnetic dipole Uniform field does NOT exert translational force on dipole Forces on North and South pole balance • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 104 .

2009 Slide # 105 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Single magnetic particle in fluid • A uniform magnetic field tends to orient a magnetic dipole Uniform field does NOT exert translational force on dipole Forces on North and South pole balance • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 106 .Single magnetic particle in fluid • A uniform magnetic field tends to orient a magnetic dipole Uniform field does NOT exert translational force on dipole Forces on North and South pole balance • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

2009 Slide # 107 .Single magnetic particle in fluid • A field gradient is required to exert a translational force on dipole Figure shows a stronger force on the North pole than the South pole Net force causes translation • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

2009 Slide # 108 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Magnetic Field Gradients • A simple bar magnet generates magnetic field gradients Gradients tend to be larger at sharp corners of magnet Fine or sharply pointed magnetized objects generate high field gradients • • Disk-shaped magnet Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

High field gradients used in magnetic separators • Fine wire with high mag susceptibility and low remanence used in a column Magnetic particle bearing fluid passed thru column with applied field Particles attracted to wire Particles can be released by removing applied field to demagnetize wire • • • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 109 .

2009 Slide # 110 .Reynolds Numbers • The Reynolds number of an object in a fluid is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces experienced by the object • Micron and sub-micron particles in water have very low Reynolds numbers • Velocity ∝ externally applied force • i. objects reach their terminal speed almost instantaneously Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.e.

2009 Slide # 111 .Field gradients applied to small magnetic particles in fluids • Speed of particle ∝ field gradient force • Field gradient force ∝ moment on particle • Moment on particle ∝ volume of particle • ∴ Speed ∝ volume of particle • LARGER PARTICLES MOVE FASTER IN FIELD GRADIENT Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Field gradients applied to small magnetic particles in fluids • Magnetic separation techniques preferentially remove aggregates of particles • Magnetic microspheres will move faster than nanospheres Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 112 .

gravitational forces significant) Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 113 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Interparticle interactions: Aggregation • More likely to occur as magnetic moments on particles increase (due to interparticle magnetic dipole interactions) • Very large aggregates→precipitation (i.e.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. Attractive magnetic interactions within aggregate dominate Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 114 . Proximity of particles to each other results in mutual induction of dipole moments even in zero applied field.Reversible and irreversible aggregation • Reversible – Particles aggregate under applied field. Removing field lowers moments on particles sufficiently that repulsive forces dominate • Irreversible – Applying field causes aggregation.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 115 .Demagnetizing interactions in clusters • • Particles in close proximity with each other Moments tend to arrange themselves such as to minimize magnetization of aggregate Clusters of particles may show reduced susceptibility in low fields • Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Determined by chemistry of particle coatings.Design of magnetic carriers • High χ generally desirable • Low Mr desirable so that magnetic moments can be “switched off” • High interparticle repulsion to reduce aggregation – Electrostatic repulsion forces – Entropic repulsion forces – These forces are needed to overcome interparticle attractive magnetic forces. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 116 .

2009 Slide # 117 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.Design of magnetic microspheres • Make microsphere from aggregate of superparamagnetic nanoparticles • SP particles give high χ and zero Mr • Aggregate micron size yields faster movement in fluid Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Particles for Special Applications Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 118 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

2009 Slide # 119 .Particles for hyperthermia therapy • Magnetic hyperthermia therapy involves application of ac field to heat particles • Heat generated per field cycle ∝ area within hysteresis loop Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Particles for hyperthermia therapy • Therapeutic ac field amplitudes are limited (to avoid nerve stimulation) • Particles with low coercivity but high Ms are preferred Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 2009 Slide # 120 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre.

Particles for Brownian rotation studies • • • Magnetically blocked particles required Must stay in suspension Observe time dependent magnetic behaviour of fluid due to physical Brownian rotation of blocked dipoles Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 121 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 122 .Particles for Brownian rotation studies • • • Magnetically blocked particles required Must stay in suspension Observe time dependent magnetic behaviour of fluid due to physical Brownian rotation of blocked dipoles Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Scientific and Clinical Applications of Magnetic Carriers • • • • Magnetic separation applications Magnetically targeted drug delivery Magnetic labelling Magnetic hyperthermia therapy Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 After St Pierre. 2009 Slide # 123 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 124 .Magnetic Properties ISSUES TO ADDRESS. • What is a conceptual introduction to magnetic particles? • What are the definitions and atomic sources • What are the important magnetic properties? • How do we explain magnetic phenomena? • How are magnetic materials classified? • How does magnetic memory storage work? • What is superconductivity and how do magnetic fields effect the behavior of superconductors? • What is effect of size on magnetic properties? Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195...

Definitions and Atomic Sources Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly. College of William and Mary Slide # 125 .

31) 1. H and B 2. College of William and Mary Slide # 126 . Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic responses Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.After reviewing this lecture. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly. you should be familiar with: Material from this lecture is taken from Physics of Magnetism by Chikazumi and Solid State Physics by Ashcroft and Mermin (Chp. Definitions of M. Magnetic units 3. Atomic sources of magnetism 4.

Wb=m2kg/s2A) Magnetic force (N): m1m2 F= 2 4πμ0 r μ0=4π x 10-7 H/m Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Fundamental Definitions Magnets have two poles (north and south) Poles exert a force on each other N S +m1 N S -m1 +m2 -m2 Definition: magnetic pole m (SI units:Weber. College of William and Mary Slide # 127 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.

I = current Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly. College of William and Mary Slide # 128 .Fundamental Definitions Electric current in wire exerts a force on a magnetic pole I H N S +m -m Definition: magnetic field H (SI units: A/m) Magnetic force (N): Field from Solenoid: F = mH H = nI n = # turns/m.

College of William and Mary Slide # 129 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.Fundamental Definitions What happens to a magnet in a magnetic field? +mH N +mH -mH l θ S N S H H -mH Magnetic torque: τ = mlH sin θ ∂H Fx = ml ∂x Translational force ONLY if there is non-uniform H (gradient): Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Fundamental Definitions l
S N

+mH
θ

H

-mH Definition: magnetic moment M = ml (SI units: Wb m)
(dipole moment)

Magnetic torque: Magnetic Energy:

r r τ = M ×H

r r U = −M ⋅ H

Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010)

Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly, College of William and Mary Slide # 130

Fundamental Definitions Magnetic materials have a density of magnetic moments Definition: Magnetization M=NM (SI units: Wb/m2 or Tesla T)

N=moments per unit volume

N

M

S

Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010)

Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly, College of William and Mary Slide # 131

Fundamental Definitions
To measure magnetization, use induction (vibrating sample magnetometry)

H M B
V

Induced Voltage

dB V = − NA dt

Definition: magnetic flux density B (SI units: Tesla T)

r r r B = M + μ0 H
Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly, College of William and Mary Slide # 132

Fundamental Definitions Magnetization in materials is proportional to applied field H r r r B = M + μ0 H r r M = χH Definition: magnetic susceptibility χ (SI units: H/m) r r B = (χ + μ 0 )H = μH Definition: magnetic permeability μ (SI units: H/m) Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly. College of William and Mary Slide # 133 .

College of William and Mary Slide # 134 .Fundamental Definitions:Review H (externally applied) M B r r r B = M + μ0 H M = magnetization (T) H = magnetic field strength (A/m) B = magnetic flux density (also called field) (T) Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly. College of William and Mary Slide # 135 . the units of M are A/m Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Fundamental Definitions:Review Note that sometimes magnetic flux density is defined as: r r r B = μ0 M + μ0 H In this case.

or as 1000 A/m as a unit of magnetic dipole moment per unit volume. Electromagnetic Unit (emu) CGS unit of magnetic dipole moment (M) equal to 1. one emu/cm3 can be interpreted either as 1.256637 x 10-5 Oe. College of William and Mary Slide # 136 . Gauss (G) CGS unit of magnetic flux density (B). r r r B = 4πM + H Oersted (Oe) CGS unit of magnetic field (H). emu/cm3 or emu/cc CGS unit of magnetization (M) In SI units. A field of one Gauss exerts a force on a conductor of 0. The Oersted is defined to be the field strength in a vacuum at a distance 1 cm from a unit magnetic pole. Defined by magnetic poles.1 dyne/A cm. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Gaussian System of Units: Common system prior to 1980’s.256637 mT as a unit of excess magnetic induction. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.

1 G = 1 Oe Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.Unit Conversion: Gaussian unit (cgs-emu) B H M Gauss (G) Oersted (Oe) emu/cm3 Conversion (SI/cgs) x 10-4 = x 103/4π = x 103 = x 4π/10 = SI unit T or Wb/m2 A/m A/m mT Note: In free space (M=0). College of William and Mary Slide # 137 .

College of William and Mary Slide # 138 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.Source of Magnetic Moment: Moving Electric Charge (Current) Atomic Magnetism arises from electron angular momentum and spin ML I r ML= orbital magnetic moment = IA=1/2 eL/me S L v e- Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly. College of William and Mary Slide # 139 .Source of Magnetic Moment: Moving Electric Charge (Current) Atomic Magnetism arises from electron angular momentum and spin ML I r ML= orbital magnetic moment = IA=1/2 eL/me S L Atomic magnetic moment: v e- r r r M = −μ B L − ge μ B S Angular momentum vector Spin vector Bohr magneton eh μB = 2m Gyromagnetic ratio ge~ 2 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Largest total S is achieved 2. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. College of William and Mary Slide # 140 . Largest total L is achieved 3. L and S Hund’s rules: electrons fill shells such that 1. J=|L-S| (minimum) in shells less than half full and J=|L+S| (maximum) in shells more than half full.Source of Magnetic Moment: Moving Electric Charge (Current) Multi-electron atoms: total magnetic moment determined by total J.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.Example: m = -2 -1 0 n =4 Iron (Fe) 26 n =3 4s 3s 2p 2s n =1 1s Maximum values: L=2+2+1+0-1-2=2 S=4/2 = 2 J=4 1 2 (lz) 3d 3p n =2 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. College of William and Mary Slide # 141 .

L-shell n = 2 K-shell n = 1 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.atomic # = 26 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d 6 4s2 4d 4p 3d 4s Energy 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s N-shell n = 4 valence electrons M-shell n = 3 Adapted from Fig. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 142 . Callister 7e. 2.4.Electronic Configurations Fe .

College of William and Mary Slide # 143 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.Source of Magnetic Moment: Quantum Derivation (for multi-atom systems) Magnetization Defined to be: 1 ∂E ( H ) (at T=0) M (H ) = − V ∂H M n ( H )e − E n / k BT ∑ (at T>0) M (H .T ) = n e − E n / k BT ∑ where n 1 ∂En ( H ) M n (H ) = − V ∂H Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.Source of Magnetic Moment: Quantum Derivation (for multi-atom systems) In terms of Helmholtz free energy F: 1 ∂F M (H ) = − V ∂H N ∂2F ∂M =− χ= ∂H V ∂H 2 To calculate magnetic properites. consider Hamiltonian in magnetic field and find energy Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. College of William and Mary Slide # 144 .

College of William and Mary Slide # 145 .Source of Magnetic Moment: Quantum Derivation Write Hamiltonian for atomic electrons in a Magnetic Field (ignore Vatom) r r r e r r 2 1 H= ∑ ( pi + c A(ri )) + ge μ B H ⋅ S 2m i r 1r r A = − ri × H = Vector potential 2 Consider first term: r r ⎞2 r 2 e r r r r ⎛ e ⎞2 2 ⎛r e ⎜ pi + A(ri )⎟ = pi + pi ⋅ A + A ⋅ pi + ⎜ ⎟ A c c ⎝ ⎠ ⎝c⎠ ( ) Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.

College of William and Mary Slide # 146 .Source of Magnetic Moment: Quantum Derivation Consider first term: With r ˆ H = Hz r r ⎞2 r 2 e r r r r ⎛ e ⎞2 2 ⎛r e ⎜ pi + A(ri )⎟ = pi + pi ⋅ A + A ⋅ pi + ⎜ ⎟ A c c ⎝c⎠ ⎝ ⎠ e r r r e2 r r 2 (ri × p ) ⋅ H r ×H Using these relationships: c 2 i r r r r c A⋅ B = B ⋅ A r r r r r r e2 2 A ⋅ ( B × C ) = ( A × B) ⋅ C xi + yi2 H r r 4c 2 r r hL = ∑ ri × pi eh i L⋅H c ( ) ( ) r r ⎞2 r r e2 1 1 ⎛r e pi + A(ri )⎟ = pi2 + μ B L ⋅ H + H 2 ∑ xi2 + yi2 ∑ ⎜ c ⎠ 2m ∑ 2m i ⎝ 8mc 2 i i ( ) Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.

Hamiltonian in a Magnetic Field r r r r r 1 e2 2 2 2 H= ∑ pi + μB L ⋅ H + 8mc 2 H ∑ xi + yi + ge μB H ⋅ S 2m i i ( ) H0 H’ Magnetic field dependent terms considered as perturbation: r r r e2 H' = μ B ( L + g e S ) ⋅ H + H 2 ∑ ( xi2 + yi2 ) 8mc 2 i Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly. College of William and Mary Slide # 147 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.Magnetic field as a perturbation: E = En + ΔEn ΔEn = n H' n + ∑ Energy (En is ground state energy) n H' n' En − En ' 2 n '≠ n Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. College of William and Mary Slide # 148 .

College of William and Mary Slide # 149 . Spring 2010) r r r n μ B H ⋅ L + g e S n' En − En ' ( ) 2 + n '≠ n Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.Magnetic field as a perturbation: E = En + ΔEn ΔEn = n H' n + ∑ Energy (En is ground state energy) n H' n' En − En ' 2 n '≠ n paramagnetism r r r ΔEn = μ B H ⋅ n L + g e S n + ∑ e2 H 2 n ∑ ( xi2 + yi2 ) n 8mc 2 i diamagnetism Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 r 3 Slide # 150 .In ground state atoms or ions with closed (filled) shells: J 0 =L0 =S 0 =0 0 r r r ΔEn = μ B H ⋅ n L + g e S n + ∑ e2 H 2 n ∑ ( xi2 + yi2 ) n 8mc 2 i r r r n μ B H ⋅ L + g e S n' En − En ' ( 0 ) 2 + n '≠ n Larmor Diamagnetism is only response: e2 ΔE0 = H 2 0 ∑ ri 2 0 12mc 2 i let x = y = z = N ∂ 2 ΔE0 e2 N χ =− =− 0 ∑ ri 2 0 V ∂H 2 6mc 2 V i Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

opposes H) paramagnetic (aligns with H) M H B χ<<1. College of William and Mary Slide # 151 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly. negative M BB H χ<<1. positive M=magnetization Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Summary of magnetic responses: Diamagnetic (by Lenz’s Law.

edu Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. College of William and Mary Slide # 152 . Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly.from http://www.umn.geo.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Source: Reilly. positive ferromagnetic (even without H!) M BB χ>1. positive Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. negative M H B paramagnetic (aligns with H) M BB H χ<<1. College of William and Mary Slide # 153 .Summary of magnetic responses: diamagnetic (opposes H) χ<<1.

Magnetic Properties
ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
• What is a conceptual introduction to magnetic particles? • What are the definitions and atomic sources • What are the important magnetic properties? • How do we explain magnetic phenomena? • How are magnetic materials classified? • How does magnetic memory storage work? • What is superconductivity and how do magnetic fields effect the behavior of superconductors? • What is effect of size on magnetic properties?
Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 154

Generation of a Magnetic Field -Vacuum
• Created by current through a coil:
B0
H I N = total number of turns l = length of each turn (m) I = current (ampere) H = applied magnetic field (ampere-turns/m) B0 = magnetic flux density in a vacuum (tesla)

• Computation of the applied magnetic field, H:

NI H= l
• Computation of the magnetic flux density in a vacuum, B0: B0 = μ0H
permeability of a vacuum (1.257 x 10-6 Henry/m)
Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23

155
Slide # 155

Generation of a Magnetic Field -within a Solid Material
• A magnetic field is induced in the material
B applied magnetic field H current I B = Magnetic Induction (tesla) inside the material

B = μH
permeability of a solid

μ • Relative permeability (dimensionless) μr = μ0

156
Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 156

Generation of a Magnetic Field -within a Solid Material (cont.)
• Magnetization M = χmH
Magnetic susceptibility (dimensionless)

• B in terms of H and M

B = μ0H + μ0M B = μ0H + μ0 χmH

• Combining the above two equations:

B

χm > 0 vacuum χm = 0 χm < 0

= (1 + χm)μ0H
permeability of a vacuum: (1.26 x 10-6 Henry/m)

H
Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010)

χm is a measure of a material’s magnetic response relative to a vacuum
Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 157

Origins of Magnetic Moments
• Magnetic moments arise from electron motions and the spins on electrons.
magnetic moments
electron nucleus electron spin

Adapted from Fig. 18.4, Callister & Rethwisch 3e.

electron orbital motion

electron spin

• Net atomic magnetic moment:
-- sum of moments from all electrons.

• Four types of response...
158
Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 158

Example
(a) Explain the two sources of magnetic moments for electrons. (b) Do all electrons have a net magnetic moment? Why or why not? (c) Do all atoms have a net magnetic moment? Why or why not?

Solution
(a) The two sources of magnetic moments for electrons are the electron's orbital motion around the nucleus, and also, its spin. (b) Each electron will have a net magnetic moment from spin, and possibly, orbital contributions, which do not cancel for an isolated atom. (c) All atoms do not have a net magnetic moment. If an atom has completely filled electron shells or subshells, there will be a cancellation of both orbital and spin magnetic moments.
Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 159

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 160 . (c) What type(s) of magnetism would you suggest is(are) being displayed by this material? Why? Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.435 tesla at an H field of 3.Example The magnetic flux density within a bar of some material is 0. and (b) the magnetic susceptibility.44 × 105 A/m. Compute the following for this material: (a) the magnetic permeability.

and since χm is positive and on the order of 10-3.44 × 10 (b) The magnetic susceptibility is calculated using a combined form of Equations as χ m = μr − 1 = μ −1 μ0 1. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.0 × 10 -3 −6 H / m 1.2645 × 10 -6 H/m 5 A /m H 3. All materials are diamagnetic.Solution (a) The magnetic permeability of this material may be determined according to Equation as μ = B 0. there would also be a paramagnetic contribution. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 161 .435 tesla = = 1.257 × 10 (c) This material would display both diamagnetic and paramagnetic behavior.2645 × 10−6 H / m = − 1 = 6.

• What is a conceptual introduction to magnetic particles? • What are the definitions and atomic sources • What are the important magnetic properties? • How do we explain magnetic phenomena? • How are magnetic materials classified? • How does magnetic memory storage work? • What is superconductivity and how do magnetic fields effect the behavior of superconductors? • What is effect of size on magnetic properties? Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Magnetic Properties ISSUES TO ADDRESS. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 162 ...

Si.Types of Magnetism (3) ferromagnetic e. Ag. Gd ( χm as large as 106 !) (2) paramagnetic ( χm ~ 10-4) e. Au. Callister & Rethwisch 3e. Co. NiFe2O4 (4) ferrimagnetic e.6.. Values and materials from Table 18. Cr. Na. Zn H (ampere-turns/m) Plot adapted from Fig. Ni. Al.g. Ti. 18.g..g.g. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 163 . Callister & Rethwisch 3e. Al2O3. ferrite(α). Cu. 163 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Mo.2 and discussion in Section 18. Zr B (tesla) vacuum (χm = 0) (1) diamagnetic (χm ~ -10-5) e. Fe3O4.4.

18.7. 18. (2) paramagnetic random Adapted from Fig. Callister & Rethwisch 3e. 164 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 164 . Callister & Rethwisch 3e. Callister & Rethwisch 3e.Magnetic Responses for 4 Types No Applied Magnetic Field (H = 0) (1) diamagnetic none Applied Magnetic Field (H) opposing aligned aligned Adapted from Fig. (3) ferromagnetic (4) ferrimagnetic aligned Adapted from Fig.5(b). 18.5(a).

Metals. and Polymers.) 0 H=0 Applied Magnetic Field (H) 165 Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 165 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.H. (Fig. Ceramics. 18. Wyatt and D. 1974. Callister & Rethwisch 3e.13. Dew-Hughes. 18. Spring 2010) . B sat H H H H H Magnetic induction (B) • “Domains” with aligned magnetic moment grow at expense of poorly aligned ones! Adapted from Fig. Cambridge University Press.Domains in Ferromagnetic & Ferrimagnetic Materials • As the applied field (H) increases the magnetic domains change shape and size by movement of domain boundaries.13 adapted from O.

Close the hysteresis loop 166 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 166 . align domains Stage 6. Initial (unmagnetized state) Stage 5. Apply H.14. Callister & Rethwisch 3e. Remove H. alignment remains! => permanent magnet! Stage 2. HC Negative H needed to demagnitize! Stage 1. Apply -H. Coercivity.Hysteresis and Permanent Magnetization • The magnetic hysteresis phenomenon B Stage 3. H Stage 4. align domains Adapted from Fig. 18.

used for permanent magnets -. and J. (Fig. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 167 . Callister & Rethwisch 3e.H.Hard and Soft Magnetic Materials Hard magnetic materials: -.add particles/voids to inhibit domain wall motion -.95 Fe Adapted from Fig. 18.example: commercial iron 99.large coercivities -.M. 18.used for electric motors -. Introduction to Materials Science and Engineering. Courtney.small coercivities -. John Wiley and Sons. Inc.example: tungsten steel -Hc = 5900 amp-turn/m) B Soft Hard H Soft magnetic materials: -.) 167 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 1976.19. Wulff. T. Ralls..19 from K.

even after total removal of the magnetic field. the atomic dipoles assume random orientations. Solution Ferromagnetic materials may be permanently magnetized (whereas paramagnetic ones may not) because of the ability of net spin magnetic moments of adjacent atoms to align with one another. and. domains do not form. the magnetization of some net domain volume will be aligned near the direction that the external field was oriented. by the motion of domain walls. This mutual magnetic moment alignment in the same direction exists within small volume regions--domains. Explain why ferromagnetic materials can be permanently magnetized whereas paramagnetic ones cannot. When a magnetic field is applied. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 168 . consequently. When a magnetic field is removed. there remains a net magnetization by virtue of the resistance to movement of domain walls. favorably oriented domains grow at the expense of unfavorably oriented ones. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. For paramagnetic materials. When the magnetic field is removed. there is no magnetic dipole coupling. and no magnetic moment remains.Example There is associated with each atom in paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials a net magnetic moment.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 169 .. • What is a conceptual introduction to magnetic particles? • What are the definitions and atomic sources • What are the important magnetic properties? • How do we explain magnetic phenomena? • How are magnetic materials classified? • How does magnetic memory storage work? • What is superconductivity and how do magnetic fields effect the behavior of superconductors? • What is effect of size on magnetic properties? Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195..Magnetic Properties ISSUES TO ADDRESS.

the transition distance (80% CGR). continuous magnetic thin film with high Hc. in turn. decreasing thickness and. 2006: 1st TMR head for 80-100 Gbit in-2 longitudinal recording Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. 1990: 1st MR read head. Ferrite ring head (~10Mbin-2) 1980: 1st thin film read head. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 170 . small α(25% CGR). 1997: 1st GMR read head (100% CGR). increasing the effective volume. 2000: 1st AFM medium.The develop of the magnetic recording Before 1985: γFe2O3 medium.

hard drive).. Appl.. J. Adapted Callister & Rethwisch 3e. No.i. 3.U. Domains are ~ 10-30 nm wide (e.25(a) from M.23 from J. Guruswamy. Callister & Rethwisch 3e.E.24. MRS Bulletin. (Fig. Phys. 18.e. 1990. 18. XV. Vol. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 171 .g. IBM Corporation. 4646. 18. 18. tape). 74 (7).. recording medium -. 18. Kim. from Fig. Lemke..g.e. (Fig.) • Two media types: -. magnetic moment aligned with axis (e. Johnson. (Fig.R.i.. detect a change in the magnetization in small regions of the recording medium recording head Adapted from Fig. Adapted from Fig.. 31.“write” .) --Thin film: CoPtCr or CoCrTa alloy. apply a magnetic field and align domains in small regions of the recording medium -.25(a).Magnetic Storage • Information can be stored using magnetic materials.Particulate: needle-shaped γ-Fe2O3. S.5 μm ~120 nm Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Callister & Rethwisch 3e. Head. Vol. p. 1993. • Recording head can. 18.“read” . Rayner and N.24 courtesy P.L.23. ) 171 ~2.. p. and K.

Magnetic Data Storage
(1) Magnetic recording (a) General (longitudinal recording) (b) Thermal stability (c) Advantage Media Oriented longitudinal media Anti-ferromagnetic coupling media Perpendicular recording Pattern media and nano-particle media High Ku medium (HAMR) (2) Magneto-optical recording (3) MRAM (STT RAM) and Flash disc (4) RRAM and PRAM (Random Access Memory) (5) Optical storage and other memory

Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010)

Lecture #22 and #23

Slide # 172

1Tbits/in2
100Gbit in-2

Areal density progress in magnetic recording since its invention (Moser et al. J.Phys D: Phys. 35(2002)R157-167)
Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 173

Magnetic recording areal density growth along with transistor count per integrated circuit device (McDaniel J. Phys: Condens. Matt. 17(2005)R315).

Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195, Spring 2010)

Lecture #22 and #23

Slide # 174

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 175 .Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

J. Tech. 42(2006)122)..Areal density trends in HDD magnetic recording (Fujitsu Sci. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 176 .

42(2006)97). Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Industry first 120 GB 2.5-in Seagate Momentus Ⅱ high capacity mobile drive using TMR reading element (IEEE on Mag. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 177 .

1. 4. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 178 . 3. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Schematic Drawing of Longitudinal Recording System. D is Flying Height of the Head above the Medium. W is the Track Width T is the Medium Thickness. 2. B is the Bit Length.

Digital Magnetic Recording Write Process. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Schematic Representation of Longitudinal. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 179 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 180 .Transition width α (depends on Mrt / Hc) Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

(b) magnetic field detected by read head. pw50 is shown for a read head with zero gap. solid line is for longitudinal. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 181 . Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.(a) magnetization of two transition at x=0 and 200nm.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 182 . α is transition parameter.SNR≈0.31PW50BWread / α2d(1+σ2) ≈B2Wread / α2 d3 (1+σ2) B is bit length. Wread is read width of head. σ normalized grain size distribution width Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. d grain diameter.

(3) the signal is proportional to the number of measured events or particles per bit. the transition becomes less sharp and pickup signal decreases. About 400 isolated particles are required. Hence SNR ~ N1/2. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. (2) Noise is due primarily to the formation of zigzag transition between bits and this sawtooth pattern scales roughly as Ms2/Ku1/2.Recording Media Requirements (1) for few particles per bit. (4) the heads must approach to the hard disc surface. N. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 183 .

PtCoCrB films Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 184 .

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 185 .Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

an adequate magnetic permeability (easy saturated). Read head: low Hc. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 186 . low noise and extremely high permeability in order to respond with a substantial change in flux to the weak fringe field above the medium Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.Write head : having a sufficient high Ms so that the fringe field exceeds the Hc of the medium (500-3000Oe).

Hc = 0 Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 187 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. µ >>1 . Ms large and Br=0. Spring 2010) .Schematic M-H loop for ideal magnetic recording medium and head material. For write head: For read head: µ >>1.

layout of pole pieces and windings. enlarged. right.Thin film recording head Film thickness 2-3 micrometer. Gap 200 nm. cross-sectional view of magnetic pole pieces Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. Left. Thin film recording head. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 188 .

0% Ni81Fe19 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. w=2-4 µm t=10-20 nm Δρ/ρ =2. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 189 .Magnetoresistive read head (1980-90 from 10 -100 Mbit in-2) h=1-2 µm.

Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 190 .Spin-Valve Read head h=2-6 µ m and w=10 µ m Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

large GMR or TMR (4) Areal density: decreasing the dimensions: B. small distance between head and disc. (2) Transition width α(depends on Mrt / Hc) (3) Signal: small Mrt.Summary (1) SNR≈0. Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. large Hc. diameter of grain.31PW50BWread /α2d(1+σ2) ≈B2 Wread / α2 d3 (1+σ2). Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 191 . WRead.

1990: 1st MR read head.The develop of the magnetic recording Before 1985: γFe2O3 medium. 2006: 1st TMR head for 80-100 Gbit in-2 longitudinal recording Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195. the transition distance (80% CGR). 1997: 1st GMR read head (100% CGR). increasing the effective volume. decreasing thickness and. in turn. small α(25% CGR). continuous magnetic thin film with high Hc. 2000: 1st AFM medium. Ferrite ring head (~10Mbin-2) 1980: 1st thin film read head. Spring 2010) Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 192 .

21. 18. 10.Economics. 12. 16.Materials Engineering (KU 3195).Processing Structure Property Relation. 9. 17. 13. and social Issues in Materials Science and Engineering Project Management and Lean Six Sigma . 11. Lem's Expectations (Lecture #1) Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding/Project Selection Finalize and Team Identify (Lecture #2) The Structure of Crystalline Solids Imperfection in Solids Diffusion Mechanical Properties of Metals Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanism Failure Phase Diagrams Phase Transformations: Development of Microstructure and Alteration of Mechanical Properties Applications of Processing of metal Alloys Structure and Properties of Ceramics Applications of Processing of Ceramics Team Project Interim Report Midterm Polymer Structures Characteristics. 25. 5. 14. 4. 3. 24. Cost Analysis.Next Class Lecture # 1. 23. Contents Introduction the Need of Materials . 8. 15. 7. 19. Supply and Demand /Dr. 2. and Processing of Polymers Composites Corrosion and Degradation of Materials Electrical Properties Thermal Properties Magnetic Properties Optical Properties Design of Materials Using Design for Six Sigma Life Cycle of Materials . 6. Applications. 22. Environmental. 26. Spring 2010) . 20.Applications in Materials engineering Best Practices/Team Project Final Report Presentation Final Examination Lecture #22 and #23 Slide # 193 Kwok Wai Lem – (KU 3195.

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