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Unit 12: Day 2
The Emergence of Mass Society A. improved urban environment, new patterns of social structure, gender issues, mass education, and mass leisure; other features of the 2nd Rev. B. Population Growth 1. b/w 1850-1880, large birthrate; after 1880, decrease death rate; 2 main factors— medical discoveries and environmental conditions—stand out.; vaccinations for small pox 2. clean seweage and water supply; tradition became healthier; Better nutrition and food hygiene; food transported in a safer way C. Emigration 1. Indefinite time for agriculture- especially in areas that had little industrialization and severe overpopulation; most ppl moved to cities; 2. agricultural regions like southern Italy, Spain, Hungary, and Romania; land could not support pop. 3. NA offered place of mass emigration; oppressed minorities also came to NA (Poles, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats, Romanians, and Jews.) D. Transformation of the Urban Environment 1. Pop explosion-> urbanization; city pop increase due to Euro migration; 2. Urban pop grew fastest b/c rural migration as well; forced to-no food/work; improved living conditions increased pop as well 3. Improving Living Condition a. Legislature passed laws for public health; medical officers and inspectors began inspecting buildings; new building regulations; Public Health Act of 1875prevented new buildings from being built w/o running water and internal drainage; 1st time gov’t took part in regulation for living standards b. 2 major feats- bring fresh water and sewage system; fresh water problem solved by dams, resevoirs, and aqueducts-> bring in to individual homes c. Sewage pipes built underground- took waste to what would become highly polluted lakes/rivers 4. Housing Needs a. Middle-class reformers who denounced the unsanitary living conditions of the working classes also focused on their housing needs.
II. only 5% of all dwellings erected b/w 1890-1914 were constructed by municipalities under the Housing Act of 1890. a. b. h. the liberal principle that the government that governs least governs best had simply proved untrue. Overcrowded. governments by the 1880s came to the conclusion that private enterprise could not solve the housing crisis. liberal belief in the efficacy of private enterprise. One approach was the garden city. who rehabilitated some old dwellings and constructed new ones to house 3. Redesigning the Cities Housing was but one area of urban reconstruction after 1870. An example of this approach was Octavia Hill. d. confining the city to a compact area enclosed by defensive walls. many of them working-class slums. In housing. e. many of the old defensive walls were pulled down. In the 2nd ½ of the 19thc. j. B. the lukewarm measures failed to do much to meet the real housing needs of the working classes. In Britain. Other wealthy reformer-philanthropists took a different approach to the housing problem. Ebenezer Howard founded the British garden city movement. At the end of the 19thc. Early efforts to attack the housing problem emphasized the middle-class.500 tenants. and the areas were converted into parks and boulevards. f.V. a British law empowered local town councils to collect new taxes and construct cheap housing for the working classes. many European urban centers were redesigned during the 2nd ½ of the 19thc. c. governments were stepping into areas of activity that they would not have touched earlier.A. While the broad streets served a military purpose—the rapid deployment of troops to crush civil disturbances—they also offered powerful symbols of middle-class social values. which advocated the construction of new towns separated from each other by open country that would provide the recreational areas. i. As urban populations expanded in the 19thc. Reformers such as Huber believed that the construction of model dwellings renting at a reasonable price would force other private landlords to elevate their housing standards. disease-ridden slums were viewed as dangerous not only to physical health but also to the political and moral health of the entire nation. The old residential districts in the central city. thought that good housing was a prerequisite for a stable family life and hence a stable society. c. Huber. . Like Vienna. g. the older layout. d. II. As the number and size of cities continued to grow.b. 5. however. the foremost early German housing reformer. as in many other areas of life in the 19thc. fresh air. for example. IV. In 1890. seemed restrictive and useless. Everywhere. and sense of community that would encourage a healthy life. More and more.
In the course of the 19thc. reconstruction.e. Men-income. invested in railway shares. b. retail stores. Big business had produced this group of wealthy plutocrats. which were soon incorporated into the cities. government bonds. 7. the greatest fortunes shifted into the hands of the upper middle class Increasingly. and theaters. the average person enjoyed an improving standard of living. all of which provided for the shopping and recreational pleasures of the middle class. b. and businesses. Marriage and Domesticity a. There were many different groups of varying wealth b/w the small group of the elite at the top and the large number of poor at the very bottom. aristocrats and plutocrats fused as the wealthy upper middle-class purchased landed estates to join the aristocrats in country living and the aristocrats bought town houses for part-time urban life. The Upper Classes I. lower class women worked b/c low income 2. h. Great poverty did remain in Western society. public utilities. f. At the top of European society stood a wealthy elite. government office buildings. bankers. Question over role of women in society. males were the wage earners. were demolished and replaced w/town halls. The Question on Women 1. and merchants to form a new elite. could not enter convents anymore. The educated elite assumed leadership roles in government bureaucracies E. while aristocrats. d. g. sometimes on their own estates. c. Invention of contraceptives did not come into full use until after WWI. less children gave women more time for child care and domestic leisure. 3. time . cheap labor reduced role of women in household(servents). Cheap. Birthrates and Birthcontrol a. coitus interruptus. The construction of the streetcar and commuter train lines by the turn of the century enabled both working-class and middle-class populations to live in their own suburban neighborhoods far removed from their places of work. The Middle-Class Family a. modern transportation essentially separated home and work for many Europeans. museums. aristocrats coalesced w/the most successful industrialists. Gradually. cafés. 6. Historians generally agree that after 1871. a. women abandoned their babies/abortion/infanticide 4. city populations spilled over into the neighboring villages and countrysides. Social Structure of the Mass Society a. whose income from landed estates had declined. constituting 5% of the population but controlling 30-40% of its wealth. and the gap b/w rich and poor was enormous. women found it economically better to marry-low wages. Increase in marriage and deciline in illegitimatacy rate.
Family could live of father income. Boy Scouts in ENG(1908) 5.period encouraged family(July 4th. not wage earners . boys sent to school till age of 17-18. The Working Class Family a. Children viewed as own age(Roussou). work became more manageable. picnics). mass production of toys and dolls. women prepared for domestic recreation b.no work on Saturdays. sports to toughen up. children seen as dependent.
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