Higher College of Technology Department of Engineering Mechanical Section


Prepared By

Lecturer, Department of Engineering (Mechanical Engineering Section)

Unit No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 A B C



Page No

Refrigeration Overview Basics of Thermodynamic concepts Refrigerant Mechanical Refrigeration System Compressor Condenser Evaporator Metering Devices Defrosting Non Mechanical Refrigeration System Air Conditioning Fundamentals Charging & Testing of refrigeration System References Question Bank Appendix

1,4 1,4 3 5,6 7,8,9 2,11 2,11 13 10 5 1,4 12 -

3 8 18 23 37 44 49 53 57 60 64 67 69 70 75

Unit-1 Refrigeration Overview
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1.1 Refrigeration and Air-conditioning
Refrigeration: The process of removing heat. Refrigeration may be defined as the process of achieving and maintaining a temperature below that of the surroundings, the aim being to cool some product or space to the required temperature. One of the most important applications of refrigeration has been the preservation of perishable food products by storing them at low temperatures. Refrigeration systems are also used extensively for providing thermal comfort to human beings by means of air conditioning. Air-conditioning: A form of air treatment whereby temperature, humidity, ventilation, and air cleanliness are all controlled within limits determined by the requirements of the air conditioned enclosure. Air Conditioning refers to the treatment of air so as to simultaneously control its temperature, moisture content, cleanliness, odour and circulation, as required by occupants, a process, or products in the space.

1.1.1 The first law of thermodynamics:  Heat and mechanical work were equivalent and stood in a fixed relationship to each other. 1.1.2 The second law of thermodynamics:  Wherever there is a temperature difference, a moving force can be generated. 1.1.3 Gas laws:  An understanding of the behaviour of what we call refrigerants is equally as important. i.e. the behaviour of the gas laws can be applied to refrigerants. PV=RT……………………EQ1.1

1.2 Applications of Refrigeration & Air Conditioning:
Now-a-days refrigeration and air conditioning find so many applications that they have become very essential for mankind, and without refrigeration and air conditioning the basic fabric of the society will be adversely affected. The major applications of refrigeration can be grouped into following four major MIAC2130 Refrigeration and Air conditioning Fundamentals Page 3

equally important areas. 1. Food processing, preservation and distribution 2. Chemical and process industries 3. Special Applications 4. Air-Conditioning

1.2.1 • • • • • • •







preservation and distribution Storage of Raw Fruits and Vegetables: Meat and poultry Fish Dairy Products Beverages Candy Processing and distribution of frozen food

1.2.3 Special applications of refrigeration • • • • • • Cold Treatment of Metals Medical Ice Skating Rinks Construction Desalination of Water Ice Manufacture

1.2.4 Application of air conditioning: • Industrial, such as in textiles, printing, manufacturing, photographic, computer rooms, power plants, vehicular etc. • Comfort Air Conditioning • Commercial air conditioning • Residential air conditioning
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1.3. Six Main Classifications of the Industry: The six main classifications of the industry are:  Appliance Servicing / Domestic Refrigeration  Commercial Refrigeration / Beverage Cooling and Commercial Cabinets  Industrial Refrigeration / Industrial Freezing and Equipment  Transport and Marine  Comfort Air Conditioning / Package and Central Air Conditioning Equipment  Process Air Conditioning / Industrial Air Conditioning / Specialised Air Conditioning Equipment Summary:  The appliance industry covers domestic refrigerators and freezers, and air conditioning systems  The refrigeration industry covers commercial and industrial applications, for example merchandising cabinets, coolroom, freezer room, icemakers, beverage coolers etc.  Air conditioning is the simultaneous year-round control of temperature, humidity, air purity, air movement and noise, within an enclosed space.  For short-term storage of food, the temperature is 3oC and the  freezer temperature -18oC. 1.4 Classification of Air conditioning System • • Ductable AC System Non Ductable AC System

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1.5 Classification of Refrigeration System


Domestic and Industrial HVACR System A typical Heat Ventilation Air Conditioning system comprises of the heating or

cooling producing equipment (boilers, chillers, etc), pumps or fans, piping networks and heat exchangers transferring or absorbing heat from a space or a process. The HVAC designer will recommend different types of air conditioning systems for different applications. The most commonly used air conditioning units are window and split air conditioners. There are various types of air conditioning systems. The application of a particular type of system depends upon a number of factors like how large the area is to be cooled, the total heat generated inside the enclosed area, etc. Heating Ventilating and Air conditioning (HVAC) System is capable of providing heating humidification during the winter, cooling and dehumidification during summer, the
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supply of fresh air through – out the year and capability to furnish each of these services in a controlled manner and when sought by building occupants. 1.7 Rating or Capacity of Refrigeration systems The Capacity of Refrigeration systems are rated in terms of Ton of refrigeration. 1.7.1 Ton of refrigeration (TR) One ton of refrigeration is defined as the amount of heat required to melt one ton of ice into water in 24 hours at 00C. 1TR=3.5KW (OR) 210 KJ/min 1.8 Method of Produce Refrigerating Effect  Mechanical Refrigeration Systems
 Vapour Compression Refrigeration Systems (VCR)

 Non Mechanical Refrigeration Systems
 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Systems (VAR)

 Steam Jet Refrigeration Systems  Thermoelectric refrigeration Systems


Basic Thermodynamic Concepts
2.1 Heat
Heat is a form of energy contained to some extent in every substance on earth and is commonly generated from chemical sources. Heat cannot be destroyed or lost. However, it can be transferred from one body or substance to another or to another form of energy. In other words, the heat of a body is its thermal or internal energy, and a change in this energy may show as a change of temperature or a change between the solid, liquid and gaseous states.

2.2 Temperature:
Temperature is a measure of the molecular activity of a substance. It is a measure of degree of hotness or coldness of the substance. The greater the movement of molecules, the higher the temperature Temperature is a property of the system. The usual means of measuring temperature is MIAC2130 Refrigeration and Air conditioning Fundamentals Page 7

with the help of a thermometer. It measures the degree or intensity of heat. The two most common thermometer scales are the Fahrenheit and the Celsius. On the Fahrenheit scale, there is a difference of 180° between freezing (32°) and the boiling point (212°) of water. On the Celsius scale, you have only 100° difference between the same points (0° freezing and 100° boiling point). A Celsius reading can be converted to a Fahrenheit reading, or vice versa. This can be expressed in terms of the following formula: F = (C x 1.8) + 32 To change Fahrenheit to a Celsius reading, the terms of the formula are as follows: C = (F-32) ÷ 1.8

Temperature Measurement: Temperature is measured with a thermometer; through uniform expansion of a liquid in a sealed glass tube. There is a bulb at the bottom of the tube and a quantity of liquid (mercury or alcohol) inside; the expansion and contraction of metal to measure temperature; b) by measuring a small electric voltage generated in a thermocouple;

The Kelvin scale is a scale using the same divisions as the Celsius scale, but setting the zero of the scale at the temperature at which all molecular movement ceases; that is, where no more heat exists in the body and the temperature cannot be lowered any further. This temperature is believed to correspond to -273degrees on the Celsiusscale; that is, absolute zero is 273degrees below the standard zero on the Celsius scale. Temperature Conversions
K = oC + 273 o C = K – 273

2.3 Specific Heat
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of an unit mass of a substance by a unit degree is known as specific heat.

2.4 Sensible Heat
Heat that is added to, or subtracted from, a substance that changes its temperature but not its physical state is called SENSIBLE HEAT. It is the heat that can be indicated on a thermometer. MIAC2130 Refrigeration and Air conditioning Fundamentals Page 8

2.5 Latent Heat
Latent Heat, or hidden heat, is the term used for the heat absorbed or given off by a substance while it is changing its physical state. When this occurs, the heat given off or absorbed does NOT cause a temperature change in the substance.

Figure 2.1 Change of State - Temperature Vs Enthalpy

2.6 Point


The temperature at which a liquid boils is not constant, but varies with the pressure. Thus, while the boiling point of water is commonly taken as 100°C, this is only true at a pressure of one standard atmosphere (1.013 bar) and, by varying the pressure, the boiling point can be changed

2.7 Pressure
PRESSURE is defined as a force per unit area. It is usually measured in pounds per square inch (psi) or in terms of kN/m2 or in Pascals

2.8 Atmospheric Pressure
Atmospheric pressure is the pressure of the weight of air above a point on, above, or under the earth. At sea level, ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE is 14.7 psia, As one ascends, the atmospheric pressure decreases about 1.0 psi for every 2,343 feet.

2.9 Boiling Point and Pressure
As the pressure of a refrigerant is increased, so is the temperature at which the refrigerant boils. Thus, by regulating the pressure of the refrigerant, the temperature at which evaporation takes place and at which the latent heat of evaporation is used can be controlled. MIAC2130 Refrigeration and Air conditioning Fundamentals Page 9

2.10 Vaporization
VAPORIZATION is the process of changing a liquid to vapor, either by evaporation or boiling.

2.11 Condensation
Condensation is the process of changing a vapor into a liquid.

2.12 Heat Transfer
Heat will move from a hot body to a colder one, and can do so by the following methods:

Heat transfer laws. Heat can only transfer from a hot ‘body’ to a cold ‘body’. The greater the heat difference, the faster the transfer will be between the two bodies. Where there is no heat difference there can be no transfer.

The three methods of heat transfer are:  Conduction:  by physical contact by two objects at different temperatures.

Figure 2.2Conduction (Courtesy from HMT Book 2006)
 Convection: by currents flowing in fluids (liquid and gas / vapour) caused by changes in pressure and temperature. Warmer / lighter fluid rises whilst heavier / colder fluid “falls”.

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Figure 2.3 Convection (Courtesy from HMT Book 2006)  Radiation: by heat rays / electromagnetic waves through a vacuum or gas. The most common method of radiation is the heat received from the sun.

Figure 2.4 Radiation (Courtesy from HMT Book 2006) 2.13 Matter:

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. It can exist as a solid, liquid or vapour / gas. The smallest particle of a piece of matter is an atom. B.Atom The atom consists of a nucleus at its centre, made up of protons (+ charge) and neutrons (no charge) with electrons (- charge) orbiting the nucleus in much the same way as the planets orbit the sun.

 Molecules are formed from the bonding of atoms into groups.  Molecules with the same types of atoms are called ELEMENTS.

 Molecules with two or more different types of atoms are called COMPOUNDS.

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 In gases, the molecules are comparatively far apart and can move freely within the space they occupy and they need to be contained.In liquids, the liquids are more closely crowded together; they can not move so freely and collide more often.In solids, the molecules occupy fixed positions but still vibrate. Solids need to be supported from the bottom only. The force exerted by a: Solid is downward, Liquid is downward and sideways Gas is in all directions

Figure 2.5 Force layout (Courtesy from ATD Book 2002) 2.14. Sensible & Latent Heat: Heat Measurement: The SI unit of heat is called the joule (J). However in refrigeration and air conditioning systems the kilojoule (kJ), 1000 joules is used. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1kg of water by 1K is equal to 4.187kJ. Similarly, the amount of heat removed to lower the temperature of 1kg of water by 1K is also 4.187kJ. Sensible Heat: Sensible heat is defined as heat which causes a change in temperature of a substance. The term sensible is applied to this particular heat because the changes in temperature it causes can be detected with the sense of touch and can be measured with a thermometer. Specific Heat: The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of heat that must be added or released to change the temperature of one kilogram of the substance one degree Kelvin (K). Latent Heat:
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Latent heat is defined as heat which brings about a change of state with no change in temperature. This refers to a change from a solid to a liquid, or a liquid to a vapour. Latent heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to be added to change a solid to a liquid OR the amount of heat required to be removed to change a liquid to a solid. Example: ice to water Latent heat of vaporisation is the amount of heat required to change liquid to vapour(gas). This is also known as the saturation point. Example boiling water to steam Latent heat of condensation is the amount of heat required to be removed to change a vapour (gas) to a liquid. Example Steam to water Sublimation is the amount of heat required to change the state of a substance from a solid to a vapour without passing through the liquid state, 2.15 Calculations: The amount of heat added to or removed from a body cannot be measured, it must be calculated. For the following calculations, Consider specific heat capacity of water c=4.187 KJ/KgK, specific heat capacity of air=1.005 KJ/KgK. 2.16 Sensible heat calculations: To calculate sensible heat it is necessary to have the following information available:  The mass of the matter  The ‘specific heat capacity’ for the matter  Temperature change of the matter. The formula used to determine sensible heat is: Q = mc∆t………………EQ2.1 Where Q = Quantity of heat in kilojoules (kJ) m = mass in kilograms (kg) c = specific heat capacity in kilojoules per kilogram Kelvin (kJ/kgK) ∆t = change in temperature of the mass in Kelvin
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Example: What is the sensible heat removed to reduce the temperature of 10kg of water from 20OC to 5OC? From the product storage data sheet it is determine that the specific heat capacity of water is 4.187kJ/kgK. The temperature difference is 20O – 5O = 15K Using the formula Q = mc∆t we can determine the heat quantity as follows:
Q = 10kg x 4.187kJ/kgK x 15K = 628.05kJ

2.17 Latent heat calculations: Latent heat calculations require the following information:
 The mass of the matter  The latent heat value The formula for calculating latent heat is: Q = mLH ………………………EQ2.2 Where Q = Quantity of heat in kilojoules (kJ) m = mass in kilograms (kg) LH = latent heat value in kilojoules per kilogram (kJ/kg) Example: Using the information as per the example sensible heat calculation and the product storage data sheet we can calculate the latent heat quantity as follows: From the product storage data sheet we have determined that the latent heat of water is 335kJ/kg. Using the formula Q = mLH we can determine the latent heat quantity. Q = 10kg x 335kJ/kg = 3350kJ

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2.18 Total heat calculations: Using the examples above and changing the 20OC water to -5Oc ice we need to perform the following calculations: 1. Determine the sensible heat removed from the water at 20OC to its freezing point of 0OC. Q1 = mc∆t = 10kg x 4.187kJ/kgK x 20K = 837.4kJ


Determine the latent heat removed. Q2 = mLH = 10kg x 335kJ/kg = 3350kJ


Determine the sensible heat removed below freezing point to -5OC. Q3 = mc∆t = 10kg x 2.11kJ/kgK x 5K = 105.5kJ


Add all of the above to achieve a total heat quantity. QT = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 837.4kJ + 3350kJ + 105.5kJ =4292.9kJ


To calculate the system capacity in kilowatts, the total amount of heat removed from the product can be divided by the number of seconds allowed to removed the heat.

Example: If the amount of heat removed in the above examples was done in one hour, the system capacity can be calculated as follows:
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Capacity = TotalHeat Time


4292.9kJ 3600s

Note: 3600s is the number of seconds in one hour (60 minutes x 60 seconds) = 1.192kJ/s or 1.192kW 2.19. Pressure: Pressure is defined as the force exerted per unit of area, expressed in Pascals (Pa). The normal pressure of air on the human body at sea level (atmospheric pressure) is approximately 101,300 Pascals or 101.3 kilopascals (kPa). 2.20 Types of Pressure Measuring Devices: Pressure can be measured by using the following types of instruments:  Gauges: Bourdon Tube; Pressure (measures pressure above 0 kPa G & Compound (measures pressure above and below 0 kPa G).

 Manometers gauge: U tube & Inclined; used to measure pressure drop or variation across air conditioning filters or duct pressures. General Gas Laws relate to Pressure – Temperature – Volume. All gas laws are based on “absolute” values. A.Charles’ Law: Gases behave consistently with temperature changes. This is stated in Charles’ Law. ‘At a constant pressure the volume of gas varies directly as the absolute temperature; and at a constant volume, the pressure varies directly as the absolute temperature.’ B.Boyle’s Law: This expresses a very interesting relation between the pressure and the volume of a gas. It is stated as follows: ‘The volume of a gas varies inversely as the pressure, provided the temperature remains constant.’ C.Dalton’s Law: Dalton’s Law of partial pressures is the foundation of the principal operation of the absorption type of refrigerators. The law may be stated as follows:   The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial
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pressures of each of the gases in the mixture’, e.g. mix two gases and the total pressure will equal the sum of their individual pressures.  The total pressure of the air is the sum of the oxygen, the nitrogen, the carbon dioxide and the water vapour pressure.

Unit-3 Refrigerant 3.0 Refrigerant  Refrigerants are substances which act as carriers of heat in a refrigeration cycle.  Refrigerants for Industrial, Commercial and Institutional refrigeration and heat pump systems are selected considering many points, to provide the best refrigeration effect at a reasonable cost. 3.1. Ideal properties for a refrigerant
It will be useful to remind ourselves of the requirements for a fluid used as a refrigerant. • • • • • • • • • • A high latent heat of vaporization A high density of suction gas Non-corrosive, non-toxic and non-flammable Critical temperature and triple point outside the working range Compatibility with component materials and lubricating oil Reasonable working pressures (not too high, or below atmospheric pressure) High dielectric strength (for compressors with integral motors) Low cost Ease of leak detection Environmentally friendly

3.2 Classification of Refrigerants Most refrigerants commonly used today are classified into four areas.  Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
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 Hvdrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCS)  Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)  Refrigerant blends (azeotropic and zeotropic) 3.3 Selection of Refrigerants  Selection of refrigerant for a particular application is based on the following requirements:  Thermodynamic and thermo-physical properties  Environmental and safety properties, and  Economics
 Thermodynamic & Thermo physical Properties

 Suction pressure  Discharge pressure  Pressure ratio  Latent heat of vaporization  Viscosity  Thermal conductivity  Environmental and safety properties  Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)  Global Warming Potential (GWP)  Total Equivalent Warming Index (TEWI)  Toxicity  Flammability  Ease of leak detection 3.4 ODP & GWP ODP is an index of a substance’s ability to destroy atmospheric ozone.

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GWP is an index of a substance’s ability to be a greenhouse gas. 3.5 Refrigerant classification & Chart

Table 3.1 Refrigerant Properties (Courtesy from ASHRAE Book 2006)

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3.6 Secondary Refrigerants: When an evaporator cools a product or space, the cooling effect is called direct refrigeration. When an evaporator is used to cool some other fluid, e.g. water or brine and that fluid is then pumped to cool the product or space, this cooling effect is called indirect or secondary cooling. The fluids used are called secondary refrigerants. There are many fluids that can be used as secondary refrigerants but the three most commonly used are:  Water: a very commonly used secondary refrigerant because of its low cost. It cannot be circulated at temperatures below 0OC (as it turns to ice) and it can cause corrosion. are a mixture of water and salt, usually calcium chloride or sodium chloride can be used at temperatures below However, calcium chloride can 0OC. contaminate solutions can cause corrosion food, chloride and cannot transfer heat as effectively as they water. are an exact mixture of water and anti-freeze agents. The most commonly used glycol solution

 Chloride solutions:

 Glycol solutions:

3.6.1 Refrigerant Mixtures The Two types of Refrigerant mixtures Commercially available, They are Azeotropic mixtures and Zeotropic mixtures. 3.7 Identification of Refrigerant By numbers

Chemical Formula for Refrigerant is CmHnFpClq Designation is R(m-1)(n+1)p
m is number of carbon atom n is number of hydrogen atom p is number of fluorine atom q is number of chlorine atom

Example 1 Tri chloro monochloro methane CCl3F
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One carbon atom m=1 No hydrogen atom n=0 One fluorine atom p=1

Designation is R(m-1)(n+1)p
R (1-1)(0+1)1 R11 Example 2 Dichloro-difluro ethane CCl2F2 One carbon atom m=1 No hydrogen atom n=0 Two fluorine atom p=2

Designation is R(m-1)(n+1)p
R (1-1)(0+1)2 R12 Example 3 Tetra Fluro Ethane CF3CH2F Two carbon atom m=2 Two hydrogen atom n=2 Fourfluorine atom p=4

Designation is R(m-1)(n+1)p
R (2-1)(2+1)4 R134a Unit-4 Mechanical Refrigeration System
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4.1 Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCR)
Continuous refrigeration can be accomplished by several different methods. In this chapter, the basic simple vapour refrigeration system is discussed and the significance of using the p-h plots for the cycle is emphasized

4.2 Refrigeration cycle
As the refrigerant circulates through the system, it passes through numbers of changes in state or condition, each of which is called a process. The refrigerant starts at some initial state or condition, passes through a series of processes in a definite sequence, and returns to the initial condition. This series of processes is called a "refrigeration cycle ". The simple refrigeration cycle is made up of four fundamental processes. (1)Compression (2)Condensation (3)Expansion (4)Vaporisation 4.2.1 Compression By the action of the compressor, the vapor resulting from the vaporization is drawn from the evaporator through the suction line into the suction inlet of the compressor. In the compressor, the temperature and pressure of the vapor are raised by compression and the hightemperature, high-pressure vapor is discharged from the compressor into the discharge line. 4.2.2 Condensation The vapor flows through the discharge line to the condenser where it gives off heat to the relatively cool air being drawn across the condenser by the Condenser fan. As the hot vapor gives off heat to the cooler air, its temperature is reduced to the new saturation temperature corresponding to its new pressure, and the vapor condenses back into
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the liquid state as additional heat is removed. By the time the refrigerant reaches the bottom of thecondenser, all of the vapor is condensed and further subcooled. Then the sub-cooled liquid passes into the receiver and ready to be recirculated. 4.2.3 Expansion Starting at the receiver, high-temperature, high-pressure liquid refrigerant flows from the receiver through the liquid line to the refrigerant flow control. The pressure of the liquid is reduced to the evaporator pressure as the liquid passes through the refrigerant flow Control so that the saturation temperature of the refrigerant entering the evaporator will be below the temperature of the refrigerated space. 4.2.4 Vaporization In the evaporator, the liquid vaporizes at a constant pressure and temperature as heat to supply the latent heat of vaporization passes from the refrigerated space through the walls of the evaporator to the vaporizing liquid. All the refrigerant is completely vaporized within the evaporator, and superheated by the end of the evaporator. Although the temperature of the vapor increases somewhat by the end of the evaporator as the result of superheating, the pressure of the vapor does not change. Although the temperature of the vapor increases somewhat by the end of the evaporator as the result of superheating, the pressure of the vapor does not change. Although the vapor absorbs heat from the air surrounding the suction line, raising its temperature and also decreases its pressure slightly because of the friction loss in the suction line, those changes are neglected in the explanation of a simple refrigeration cycle.

4.3 Principal parts of the cycle
The principal parts of the refrigeration system are as stated below.

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4.3.1 Receiver Its function is to provide storage for the liquid condenser so that a constant supply of liquid is available to the evaporator as needed. 4.3.2 Liquid line Its function is to carry the liquid refrigerant from the receiver to the refrigerant flow control. 4.3.3 Refrigerant flow control Its functions are to meter the proper amount of refrigerant to the evaporator and to reduce the pressure of the liquid entering the evaporator so that the liquid vaporizes in the evaporator at the desired low temperature. 4.3.4 Evaporator Its function is to provide a heat transfer surface though which heat can pass from the refrigerated space into the vaporizing refrigerant. 4.3.5 Suction line Its function is to convey the low pressure vapor from the evaporator to the suction inlet of the compressor.

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Figure 4-2 State of Refrigerant in the circuit

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(Source: "Service Manual," Daikin Industries Inc., New York, Technical Report 2004)

4.3.6 Compressor Its functions are to remove the vapor from the evaporator, and to raise the temperature and pressure of the vapor to such a point that the vapor can be condensed with normally available condensing media. 4.3.7 Discharge line Its function is to deliver the high-pressure, high-temperature vapor from the discharge of the compressor to the condenser. 4.3.8 Condenser Its function is to provide a heat transfer surface through which heat passes from the hot refrigerant vapor to the condensing medium.

4.4 Low & High Sides of the circuit
A refrigerating system is divided into two parts according to the pressure exerted by the refrigerant in the circuit. 4.4.1 Low side The low pressure part of the system consists of the refrigerant flow control, the evaporator and the suction line. The pressure exerted by the refrigerant in these parts is the low pressure under which the refrigerant is vaporizing in the evaporator. This pressure is known variously as "low pressure", "low side pressure", "suction pressure" or "vaporizing pressure". 4.4.2 High side The high pressure part of the system consists of the compressor, the discharge line, the condenser, the receiver and the liquid line. The condenser. pressure exerted by the refrigerant in this part of the system is the high pressure under which the refrigerant is condensed in the This pressure is called "high pressure", "discharge pressure" or
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"condensing pressure". The dividing points between the high and low pressure sides of the system are the refrigerant flow control, where the pressure of the refrigerant is reduced from the condensing pressure to the vaporizing pressure, and the discharge valves in the compressor, through which the high pressure vapor is exhausted after compression.

Figure 4.3 Pressure & Temperature Measurements in the circuit

(Source: "Service Manual," Daikin Industries Inc., New York, Technical Report 2004)

4.5 Refrigeration Processes in Mollier Chart
The state of refrigerant in a refrigeration cycle varies with a wide range of conditions while an air conditioner or a chiller is in operation. When the changes in state under these conditions are plotted on a chart, each state and the numerical values of the state in every part of the equipment can be estimated.Furthermore, the capacity or the operating state can be estimated using these values. This chart is called the P-h
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Chart. The vertical axis of the P-h Chart specifies the pressure (P), And the horizontal axis specifies the specific enthalpy (h). This Chart has received another name derived from the name of the inventor of the Chart, that is, "Mollier Chart". 4.5.1 Composition of P-h Chart

Figure 4-4 Different Lines in the Mollier Diagram
(Source: "Service Manual," Daikin Industries Inc., New York, Technical Report 2004)

If the state of the refrigerant is known with the help of any two information, then the following properties can be found out very easily from the chart. Pressure: P [MPa abs] Specific enthalpy: h [kJ/kg] Temperature: t (°C) Specific volume: v [m3/kg ] Dryness factor: X
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Specific entropy: s [kJ/(kg·K)] Dryness Fraction(x)= The ratio of mass of dry steam to the total mass of Steam.

4.5.2 Example 1 In the following table, try to fill up the answers with the help of the chart Table 4-1 Example Problem


4.5.3 Vapor compression refrigeration cycle in the Mollier Diagram:

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Chiller and air conditioners consist of four major components such as evaporator, compressor, condenser, and expansion valve. The refrigerant flows through these components and the process of evaporation → compression → condensation → expansion repeats to carry out refrigeration. This process is called the refrigeration cycle . The same can be plotted in the Mollier Diagram as shown in the Figure.


Figure 4-5 Refrigeration Processes


In order to draw the refrigeration cycle on the P-h Chart, the following four operating conditions are required. In other words, if the four conditions are known, the refrigeration cycle can be drawn on the P-h Chart. Conditions: 1. Evaporating pressure or evaporating temperature 2. Suction gas temperature or superheated degree 3. Condensing pressure or condensing temperature 4. Liquid temperature at expansion valve inlet or sub-cooled degree

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Superheated degree = Suction gas temperature – Evaporating temperature Sub-cooled degree = Condensing temperature – Liquid temperature at expansion valve inlet 4.5.4 Example :2 Draw the refrigeration cycle on the R22 P-h Chart based on the following operating conditions. Conditions: Evaporating temperature = 6°C Condensing temperature = 36°C Superheated degree = 5°C valve inlet = 31°C Figure 4-6 Example Problem
(Source: "Service Manual," Daikin Industries Inc., New York, Technical Report 2004)





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4.6 Calculation method of refrigeration cycle
4.6.1 Refrigeration effect (R.E) The amount of heat absorbed by 1-kg mass of refrigerant in the evaporation process is called refrigeration effect or the refrigerating capacity. It is found by the difference in the specific enthalpy between the suction gas of the compressor (Point 1) and the liquid at the evaporator inlet (Point 4). The refrigeration effect represents the amount of heat absorbed by 1-kg mass of refrigerant flowing through the evaporator but does not represent the refrigerating capacity (kJ/kg). On the same compressor, it can be said that the larger the refrigeration effect, the better its operation is. R.E. (kJ/kg) = h1 (kJ/kg) h4 (kJ/kg) ………………………..Eq4.1 4.6.2 Thermal equivalent of compressor work Wc The change in the refrigerant state while in the compression process, that is, the increase of specific enthalpy is performed by adding the compressor work of an electric motor as the amount of heat due to adiabatic compression, in other words, no external heat exchanges. This value is found by drawing the refrigeration cycle on the P-h Chart, and based on the calculation of the specific enthalpy difference with the work volume taken as the amount of heat. It means that the amount of heat has been found by taking the work volume of a electric motor required for compressing 1-kg mass of refrigerant as heat energy. Wc [kJ/kg ] = h2 [kJ/kg ] h1[kJ/kg ]

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4.6.3 Condensing load The amount of heat extracted while in the condensation process is called condensing load, which is found by the difference in the specific enthalpy between the discharge gas from the compressor (Point 2) and the refrigerant at the inlet of the expansion valve (Point 3). Wc [kJ/kg ] = h2 [kJ/kg ] h3[kJ/kg ] ………………………….EQ4.3 4.6.4 Coefficient of performance (COP) The coefficient of performance represents how much cooling capacity is obtained per input of an electric motor (the thermal equivalent). Comparing evaporation heat absorbed while in the evaporation process with the amount of heat required for compression work, it is understood that the amount of heat absorbed while cooling is many times higher than the thermal equivalent of the compressor work, which is called "coefficient of performance". Namely, if the coefficient of performance is larger , higher effective operation is performed. COP =Refrigerating Effect/Work of Compression=h1-h4/h2h1………………….EQ4.4

4.7 Actual Cycle:
The cycle analysed so far is the ideal one as the Irreversibilities of the system are not taken into the consideration. But actually there would be a lot of deviations and the same are listed below. 4.7.1 Deviations in the Compression system  The compression process can never be Isentropic.  The index of compression (n) is not equal to γ lower.  The suction and delivery valves results in pressure drops.  Internal and External Leakage is expected.
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but it becomes

 Friction of moving parts.  Mixing between lubricating oil and refrigerant. 4.7.2 Deviation in the heat exchangers:  The tube of the heat exchangers causes considerable pressure drops.  To reduce the pressure drops, the internal surfaces must have minimum coefficient of friction. Also it can be designed with multipasses.  Tube material must have high coefficient of heat transfer, with minimum wall thickness. Figure 4-7 Actual Cycle
(Source: "Service Manual," Daikin Industries Inc., New York, Technical Report 2004)

Refer the figure: 4-6  Theoretical cycle ABCD.  Actual cycle 1,2,3,4,5,6.
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 Process 6-1 pressure drop in delivery valve.  Process 2-3 pressure drop in delivery valve.  Process 1-2 non isentropic compression.  Process 3-4 condensation and sub-cooling with pressure drop.  Process 4-5 non ideal throttling expansion.  Process 5-6 evaporation and super-heating with pressure drop. 4.8. Superheating: To ensure that the refrigerant entering the compressor is vapor, it is necessary to be at temperature higher than the saturation one. This can be done by superheating the refrigerant vapour higher than its saturation temperature. 4.9. Sub Cooling  To improve the expansion process in the EV, the entering refrigerant must be absolute liquid. Thus it must be at temperature lower than the saturation one. 4.10. Basic Vapour Compression System: A cycle is a series of events occurring in a specific sequence which enables a continued repetition of the sequence without interference, i.e. a cycle is one complete unit of a series of repetition.

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Fig 4.7 basic vapour compression system (Courtesy from R&AC Book) 4.10.1 Basic System Operation: The basic refrigeration cycle is as follows: The compressor increases the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant vapour. During compression, the refrigerant is “superheated”. The “superheated” refrigerant then passes via the discharge line into the condenser. As the refrigerant vapour ‘cools’ (rejects heat energy to the atmosphere) it is said to be a “saturated liquid vapour” and as it continues to cool it further changes state into a “subcooled” high pressure, high temperature liquid. This “subcooled” high pressure; high temperature liquid then passes through the liquid receiver and via the liquid line to the RMD (Refrigerant Metering Device). As the liquid passes through the RMD (Refrigerant Metering Device) it becomes a low pressure, low temperature liquid which then flows into the evaporator. This is where flash gas is found in the system. The low pressure, low temperature liquid passes through the evaporator absorbing heat from the surrounding atmosphere / product and changes state to a low pressure, low temperature “saturated vapour” as it absorbs heat energy. The low pressure, low temperature “saturated vapour” then returns to the compressor via the suction line and continues to absorb heat. This additional heat absorption changes the “saturated vapour” into a low pressure, low temperature “superheated vapour”. The compressor’s pumping capacity will determine the Saturated Suction Temperature, SST.The refrigerant having returned to the compressor then enables the “vapour compression cycle” to continue. 4.10.2 State of Refrigerant Table 4.2 Refrigerant State Component Compressor Condenser Expansion valve Evaporator State vapour Liquid and vapour Liquid Liquid and vapour Entry Low pressure vapour High pressure vapour High pressure liquid low pressure liquid Exit High pressure vapour High pressure liquid low pressure liquid low pressure vapour

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Unit-5 Compressor
5.1 Major Components of the Vapour Compression System Compressor: compresses and ‘circulates’ refrigerant vapour. Condenser: rejects heat to the atmosphere (a heat exchanger). Liquid Receiver: a vessel designed to store liquid refrigerant. RMD (Refrigerant Metering Device): regulates flow of refrigerant into the evaporator. Evaporator: absorbs heat from the medium being cooled (a heat exchanger). 5.1.1 Compressors: A compressor enables refrigerant to circulate throughout the system by creating a pressure difference between the high and the low sides of the system. It supplies the forces necessary to keep the system operating.Without the operation of the compressor there can be no refrigeration generated by this type of system. The compressor as such can be likened to being the ‘heart’ of the system.
Compressors fall into the following categories:

•  Open Drive – direct or belt driven. •  Semi Hermetic or semi sealed. •  Hermetic or fully sealed.
A. Open drive Compressors:

Here the motor is separate from the compressor. The compressor and the motor may be connected by means of belts or by direct drive couplings.They are readily serviceable and do not have the potential for system contamination due to electrical burn out.One of the main concerns with an open drive compressor is the shaft seal. Wear of the shaft seal can cause refrigerant leakage and the ingress of air and contaminants. Misalignment of drive couplings and pulleys put undue strain on the seal and bearings causing undue wear and shortened life. Belt slip due to stretching or wear can reduce the compressor output and efficiency.

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Fig 5.1 Open drive, reciprocating compressor.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book) B. Semi hermetic compressors:

These incorporate the electric motor and the compressor in the one unit and are field serviceable; i.e. the motor and compressor are housed in one common body and can be dismantled on site.

Fig 5.2 Semi Hermitic compressor.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

C. Hermetic or fully sealed compressors: Have all of their components sealed into a housing that does not allow field serviceability. Being built to exacting standards, these are reliable, long life compressors that require little or no maintenance or service. The motor and compressor are totally sealed in the one housing which is welded together rending it unserviceable as it cannot be dismantled.
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Fig 5.3 Hermitic compressor.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book) 5.1.2Methods of compression:

The mechanical action of the compressor parts determines its classification, however, regardless of the type of compressor the effect on the refrigerant and the system is identical. There are 5 types of compressor commonly used in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry, they are:  Reciprocating: a piston (reciprocates) within a cylinder. travels back and forth

Fig 5.4 Reciprocating compressor.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

This is the most widely used compressor in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. Reciprocating compressors range in size from small single cylinder hermetic units up to large industrial multi cylinder compressors. They are of relatively high efficiency but they are not designed to pump liquid. Rotary: an eccentric rotates within a cylinder and because of the vane seal they have no need for suction valves but they do require a discharge valve..

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Fig 5.5 Rotary compressor.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

Rotary compressors are very quiet, mechanically and electrically efficient and they have the ability to pump small amounts of liquid. There are two types of rotary compressor: o Rotating Blade (or vane):The eccentric has a blade or vane fitted; this enables the separation of the high and low sides of the system. o Stationary Blade (or vane):The blade or vane is fitted to the compressor housing a n d is spring operated maintaining contact of the blade and eccentric whilst separating the high and low sides of the compressor. Scroll: the vapour is compressed between two identical involute spiral scrolls. One scroll is fixed and the other rotates, compressing the vapour as it is pushed from the periphery to the centre of the spiral as it discharges. Scroll compressors are efficient, quiet, lightweight and smaller than reciprocating compressors.

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Fig 5.6 Scroll compressor.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

Screw (also known as a Helical Rotary): The vapour is compressed between two rotating screws which intermesh and compress the vapour trapped between the lobes or threads as they turn and push the vapour to the discharge port. Refrigerant flow is smooth, there is no ‘piston pulse’.

Fig 5.7 Screw Compressor.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book) Screw compressors are noisy in operation but this is offset by their high efficiency and capacity range (20% to 100%). They can pump small amounts of liquid and are generally used in industrial refrigeration due to their large capacity. Centrifugal: a rotor (or impeller) with many blades rotating in a housing, draws in vapour and discharges it at a high velocity by centrifugal force.

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Fig 5.8Centrfugal compressor.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

Centrifugals are popular in the air conditioning of large buildings due to their low noise levels. They have a large capacity range (15% to 100%) and are efficient. 5.1.3 Lubrication: Compressor lubrication is provided by one of two means:  Splash Method  Force Feed
A. The Splash Method:

Is generally attributed to the reciprocating compressor and refers to the ‘dipping’ of the crankthrow (eccentric) into the oil in the compressor sump causing the oil to ‘splash’ to where lubrication is required.
B. Force Feed:

An oil pump circulates the oil from the compressor sump to the components requiring lubrication by means of oil lines.

5.2 Capacity Control for Compressor  Each component in the refrigeration cycle depends upon the other’s performance & rating.  Hence balancing of all the components should be done carefully.  If the load of the room goes down, the room temperature falls which may lead to frosting  There must be a control over the system capacity to match the prevailing loads. This method is known as capacity control of compressors.  To cycle the plant automatically with the help of thermostat.  Automated cap. Control methods include:  Variable speed motor for the compressor
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 Compressor Cylinder unloading  Hot gas by pass

 When the load of the system is more than the capacity of a single compressor, multiple compressors are used to handle the load.  Parallel operation of hermetic / semi hermetic compressors is not advisable, as the complete system gets contaminated even if the compressor motors burns out 5.3 Mechanical Refrigeration System  Consists of compressor, condenser, expansion device & evaporator  Uses high grade energy (electrical energy) as input source (to run the compressor)  Widely used in all types of air conditioners as well as small refrigeration systems such as refrigerators, bottle coolers etc.,  Also used in heat pumps  Compressor is a major equipment of Refrigeration System  Work input system

Unit-6 Condenser 6.1 Condensers: The condenser is a heat exchange device which rejects heat, both sensible and latent, from the system. The entering high temperature high pressure refrigerant vapour de-superheats and cools to its saturation temperature at which point it begins to condense, a process which continues as it passes through the condenser. Towards the end of the condenser it cools to a temperature below its saturation temperature and in so doing becomes a sub-cooled liquid.
6.1.1 There are three groupings of condenser:

 Air cooled   Water cooled  Evaporative
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A. Types of Air Cooled condenser:

  Forced/Induced draft  Natural draft

Forced Draft

Induced Draft

Fig 6.1 Air cooled Condenser.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

Forced / Induced draft condensers use a fan to provide air circulation. They can be remotely mounted away from the remainder of the system and can include the compressor. When in this combination they are referred to as the condensing unit. Natural draft or static condensers are usually limited to domestic applications. They rely on natural air movement or convection currents.Construction is generally of bare pipe but to increase their surface area, wire fins or plates may be added.
B.Water Cooled:

Water cooled condensers use water as their cooling medium. They are more efficient than air cooled condensers but they need a supply of cool water, i.e. from a cooling tower. Water flow in general is in the opposing direction (counter flow) to the refrigerant flow.
They fall into three basic styles: MIAC2130 Refrigeration and Air conditioning Fundamentals Page 43

 Tube in tube: have a small tube inside a larger tube. The water flows through the smaller tube whilst the refrigerant flows in the outer / larger tube. Some heat rejection will be to the surrounding to be cleaned chemically. air. They need

Fig 6.2 Tube in Tube Condenser.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

 Shell and coil:

generally have a coil of tube fitted inside a casing/shell. The water flows through the coil whilst the refrigerant is contained in the casing/ shell. This type of condenser can act as a liquid receiver. They need to be cleaned chemically.

Fig 6.3 Shell and coil Condenser.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

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 Shell and tube:


have straight lengths of tubing running the full length of the shell. The tubes are fastened to the shell end plates and “water boxes” are then fitted to the ends of the shell. Water flows through the tubes and the refrigerant is contained in the shell. As with the shell and coil condenser, this type of condenser acts as a liquid receiver. This type of condenser requires dismantling to enable manual cleaning.

Fig 6.4 Shell and Tube Condenser.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book) C. Evaporative Condensers:

Evaporative condensers use both air and water as the cooling medium and are a very efficient form of condenser. The condenser is housed within a tower arrangement and can easily be confused with a cooling tower. Water is constantly pumped from the sump/basin/reservoir of the tower to the distributor heads where it is sprayed evenly over the condenser pipes. Forced air flows in the opposing direction to the water flow increases the cooling effect and efficiency by replacing moist air with dry air. The need for bacteria control is mandatory to comply with the Public Health Act and must be done to AS / NZS 3666 Parts 2 and 3.

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Fig 6.5 Evaporative Condenser.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

6.1.2 Cooling Towers: Cooling towers are devices which enable air movement over the water to remove the system heat from the water. They are needed when water cooled condensers are installed.
Cooling Tower Operation:

Water is drawn from the sump/basin/reservoir of the cooling tower and circulated throughout the condenser circuitry before returning to the cooling tower distributor. The distributor is located toward the top of the cooling tower and enables the water to be evenly sprayed over the fill which increases the water surface area for the air flow to evaporate and cool the water.The cooled water then collects in the sump/basin/reservoir for recirculation.As water evaporates, air draws heat from the body of the water. The larger the surface area of the water the more heat can be rejected.

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Fig 6.6 Cooling tower.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book) A.Water Pumps:

Water pumps are mechanical devices, generally centrifugal type, used to circulate water through pipes and equipment such as water cooled condensers, cooling towers evaporative condensers, water chillers, cooling coils, boilers and hot water coils.
B.water Regulating Valves:

Water regulating valves were commonly used on waste water systems which are now illegal in most states; however, some old systems may be in existence.Water regulating valves are commonly used on water cooled condensers to maintain proper condensing conditions and to minimise water usage. Their sensing bulb is connected to the discharge line and operates in response to changes to the system discharge pressure. They are used to regulate the flow of water through the condenser. Unit-7 Receiver and Evaporator 7.1 Liquid Receivers: Liquid receivers are used to store the liquid refrigerant after it leaves the condenser. It should be located below the condenser to enable natural flow.
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The receiver may be constructed either vertically or horizontally and should have sufficient capacity to hold the entire system’s refrigerant charge. The design should be such that only liquid refrigerant leaves the receiver and enters the liquid line.

Fig 7.1 Receiver.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

7.2 Evaporators: An evaporator is a heat exchanger which absorbs heat from the product/space to be cooled. This heat absorbing process is accomplished by maintaining the evaporator at a lower temperature than the medium to be cooled. The heat absorbed in the evaporator “boils” the refrigerant creating a change in state from liquid to vapour (latent heat).
There are two groupings of evaporator:

 Flooded   Dry Expansion Flooded system evaporators are always filled with liquid refrigerant. Dry system evaporators are fed refrigerant as quickly as is needed to maintain the desired temperature. The evaporator pipes have more vapour than liquid per volume. At the end of the evaporator there is no liquid, i.e. it is dry. The type of refrigerant metering device, RMD, determines the type of evaporator to be used. There are two broad classifications of evaporator:  Air cooling, i.e. the evaporator is used to cooled the air which in turn cools the product.  Liquid cooling, i.e. the evaporator cools secondary refrigerant which then cools the product.
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 Type of construction:  Bare tube evaporators:  normally used for cooling liquids, but sometimes used for air cooling in freezer applications.

Fig 7.2 Bare tube Evaporator.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

 Plate surface evaporators: used for both air and contact cooling in domestic refrigerators and in commercial and industrial plants.

Fig 7.3 Plate surface Evaporator.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

 Finned evaporators: mainly used for air cooling, either with natural or forced air convection.

Fig 7.4 Finned Evaporator.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

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 Shell and evaporators: tube or shell and coil with the refrigerant in a tank like vessel and the liquid to be cooled circulated through straight or coiled tubing inside the vessel.

Shell & Tube Evaporator

Shell & Evaporator


Fig 7.5Shell and Tube Evaporator.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

 Amount of ice build up during operation:  Frosting: for air cooling, bare pipe, plate or finned coils with wide spacing between fins are
Regular manual defrosting is required.

 Defrosting:

for air cooling, this type is normally closer finned, allowing less than 1mm of ice to accumulate during the ‘on’ cycle, with controls set to permit full defrost in ‘off’ cycle, or at set intervals.

 Non-frosting: these are evaporators of any type whose
operating temperature is high enough to prevent ice formation. With air cooling evaporators, fins can be very closely spaced, with 300 to 400 fins per meter, as in air conditioners. MIAC2130 Refrigeration and Air conditioning Fundamentals Page 50

  Air cooling applications include:   Domestic refrigerators – plate convection, frosting, and dry expansion. surface, natural

 Coolrooms – finned surface, forced convection, defrosting, and dry expansion.  Liquid cooling applications:  Baudelot cooler – bare tube, natural convection, nonfrosting, and flooded evaporator.

Fig 7.6 Shell and coil Evaporator.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

Unit-8 Metering Devices 8.1 Refrigerant Flow Controls: Throughout this package we have used the term RMD (Refrigerant Metering Device). We will now use another terminology depicting this same component and that is Flow Control. The flow control is the component used to reduce the high pressure in the high side of the system to a low pressure in the low side of the system. This drop in pressure can be achieved by various methods of restriction, dependant on the type of flow control.The flow control governs the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator at the same rate as it is evaporating so that the evaporator maintains its efficiency without overloading the rest of the system. The operation of any flow control depends on one or all of the following:  pressure change 
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 temperature change  volume or quantity change Hand Expansion Valve A manually operated valve which requires the system to be monitored by an operator who then adjusts the valve as required. Typically found in industrial applications where there is Liquid Recirculation. Low Side Float Is found in the low pressure side of the system and operates on the level of liquid refrigerant in the evaporator. Most typical application is a Temprite.

Fig8.1 Low Side float.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

High Side Float Is found in the high pressure side of the system. Found in critical charge systems where the liquid level in the evaporator is controlled by the level of liquid refrigerant in the high side float. Most common application is on air conditioning chillers and industrial systems.

Fig8.2High Side float.(Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

Automatic Expansion Valve (AXV)
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Maintains a constant pressure in the evaporator and responds to evaporator pressure and spring pressure. As it does not have a temperature or pressure sensing bulb it cannot adjust to varying loads. Usage is limited but can be found on industrial ammonia systems and small constant load applications, eg ice-cream holding cabinets.

Fig8.3 Automatic Expansion valve (Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

Thermostatic Expansion Valve (TXV) Regulates the amount of liquid refrigerant flowing into the evaporator proportionately to the rate of vaporisation. It is the most common flow control used in the refrigeration and air conditioning industry. TX valves are commonly used in small air conditioning units through to large industrial applications.

Capillary Tube The simplest type of refrigerant control used in the industry today. The capillary length and bore are sized to meter refrigerant and create a pressure drop. This type of system requires a critical refrigerant charge and negates the need to use a liquid receiver. Most common applications are domestic refrigerators and air conditioners and small commercial systems.
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Fig8.4 Thermostatic Expansion valve (Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)


Fig8.4 Capillary tube (Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

Two Way Flow Control Valve Also known as Chatleff or Accurator valves. Commonly used in reverse cycle residential and light commercial air conditioning applications and they may be used in small refrigeration equipment such as beverage coolers and ice-makers.

Fig8.5 Two way Expansion valve (Courtesy from R&AC Hand book)

8.2 Refrigerant Distributors: Distributors are used to connect the metering device to the evaporator and ensure an even flow of refrigerant liquid/vapour mix to each evaporator circuit. They are used where an evaporator has multiple refrigerant circuits. There are four types of distributor in use, they are: Venturi: Creates a minimum of turbulence in the refrigerant. It has minimal
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overall pressure loss and can be mounted in any position. Pressure drop: Creates turbulence in the refrigerant. The nozzle creates a pressure drop but it does increase the velocity which causes the liquid and vapour to mix evenly. The size of the nozzle determines the capacity of the distributor. Centrifugal: Depends on a high refrigerant entrance velocity. It creates a swirling effect to ensure a thorough mix of liquid and vapour refrigerant. Manifold (or Weir): Depends upon a level mounting position and a low refrigerant entrance velocity. It can overfeed circuits directly in front of the inlet and it needs special baffles to ensure even liquid distribution.

Unit-9 Defrosting 9.0 DEFROST CONTROLS Formation of ice over the cooling coils is called frosting. The process of removing the ice formation is called defrosting. Frosting over the evaporator coils will act on insulator. Hence there is no heat transfer between the refrigerant and the surroundings. The refrigerants are remaining in liquid state even at the exit of the evaporator. The liquid refrigerant will affect the compressor. 9.1 Types of defrost controls

1. Manual defrosting Using Manual defrost switch (integrated with thermostat switch) 2. Automatic defrosting 1. Compressor shut down 2. Hot gas 3. Electric 4. Components of Defrost Controls Defrost timer, Heater, Fan and Thermostat
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• • • • • • Solenoid valve opens and hot gas defrost cycle begins. Vapor from evaporators is drawn into compressor. It discharges into the water evaporating plate, heating the surface. Hot compressed vapor flows through the drain sump bypass line and flows into the freezer evaporator. Vapor flows into the refrigerator compartment evaporator through the accumulator. It flows back into the suction side of the compressor.

Fig 9.1Hot gas defrosting (Courtesy of Ashrae Handbook) 9.2 DEFROSTING TIMERS Most of the refrigeration system evaporators should be defrosted periodically to achieve better performance. There are two types of defrosting timers. They are

• •

Adjustable Non adjustable

Adjustable type defrost timers are most widely used in commercial refrigeration and air conditioning applications. The non adjustable type defrost timers are used in small capacity refrigeration units such as domestic refrigerators. Table 9.1 Defrost wiring connection MIAC2130 Refrigeration and Air conditioning Fundamentals Page 56


FIG 9.2 Defrost Timer and Circuits (Courtesy of Blue star Handbook) 9.3 Automatic Defrost by Electric Heater • • • • Frost-free or no-frost-cycle refrigerators have the evaporator located outside the refrigerated compartment. This air is forced into the freezer and refrigerator compartments by a motor-driven fan. During the off cycle, evaporators automatically defrost. Evaporator condensation is carried to an evaporating pan. Heat from the compressor evaporates this moisture into the room’s atmosphere.

FIG 9.3 Evaporator heater (Courtesy of Blue star Handbook) 9.3.1 General Methods of Defrosting o o o Compressor shut down Water spray defrosting Hot gas Defrosting and Electric Defrosting

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FIG 9.4Schematic diagrams for Defrost timer (Courtesy of Blue star Handbook)

Unit-10 Non Mechanical Refrigeration System 10.1 Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System   Compressor is replaced in the circuit Heat Energy is used as input source in the generator.

 In vapour compression cycle, power input is made for compressing refrigerant from low pressure to high pressure. For constant refrigerating capacity the COP of refrigeration system can be improved by reducing the work input to cycle.

 In order to reduce work input to cycle the compressor is being replaced by pump as the refrigerant is in liquid form instead of being in gas (vapour) form.  Since the average specific volume of liquid solution is much less than that of refrigerant in vapour form so considerably less amount of work is required for increasing its pressure in pump.     Instead of compressor, the cycle consists of Generator Absorber Pump

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Absorber: Absorption of refrigerant vapour by a suitable absorbent or adsorbent, forming a strong or rich solution of the refrigerant in the absorbent/ adsorbent Pump: Pumping of the rich solution and raising its pressure to the pressure of the Condenser Generator: Distillation of the vapour from the rich solution leaving the poor solution for recycling

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10.2 Water-Ammonia Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System  Ammonia works as refrigerant and water acts as carrier for refrigerant in this cycle.

 Ammonia vapour leaving evaporator enter the absorber where ammonia vapours are released through perforated pipe into water for getting absorbed in water  This dissolving of NH3 in water result in strong aqua-ammonia solution.  Generator is used for separating out NH3 vapour. For driving out ammonia from strong-aquaammonia solution heat is added to generator  Ammonia vapours leaving generator at high pressure are sent to condenser at state 2 where the condensation of ammonia takes place yielding high pressure ammonia in liquid form at state 3.  This strong aqua-ammonia solution prepared in absorber is pumped employing a pump for being sent to generator at high pressure i.e. condenser pressure.  High pressure ammonia liquid is passed through expansion valve from state 3 to 4. Weak solution of aqua ammonia left inside generator is sent to absorber at state d.  Thus, it is seen that the combination of absorber, pump and generator helps in getting high pressure refrigerant (ammonia) without using compressor. 10.2.1 Advantages of VAR System  Vapour absorption system has no moving component throughout cycle, so it works quietly and has reduced maintenance requirement  Vapour absorption system may be run with some installation rejecting waste heat, which may be used to run generator, thus energy conservation 10.2.2 Disadvantages of VAR System  Size of absorption system is large and is bulky to handle.  If heating source (such as electric heating) is costly then the vapour absorption system becomes costlier than the vapour compression system
 Vapour absorption system may be run with some installation rejecting waste

heat, which may be used to run generator, thus energy conservation is achieved

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Figure 10.1 Vapour absorption System (Courtesy of Blue star Handbook)

10.3 Steam Jet Refrigeration System
 Uses the principle of boiling water below 100oC.  Pressure is reduced below atmospheric and water is made to boil at low temperatures.  Water boils at 6oC when the pressure on the surface of the water is 5 cm of Hg  Boils at 10oC when the pressure is 6.5 cm of Hg.

10.4 Thermoelectric Refrigeration System  Cooling is achieved electronically due to the “PELTIER EFFECT”

10.5 Types of Vapour Absorption System 1. Ammonia- water System 2. Water –Lithium bromide System
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Types Ammonia-water Water-LiBr Refrigerant Ammonia Water Absorbent Water Lithium bromide Application Refrigeration Air conditioning

10.6 Comparison between Mechanical and Non mechanical Refrigeration System

Unit-11 Air Conditioning Fundamentals 11.1 Air Conditioning Fundamentals Air conditioning is the automatic control of:
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 Temperature.  Relative Humidity.  Air Cleanliness.  Air Distribution.  Noise.  Purity. Metabolic rate is the heat generated by a living body. This is determined by a number of factors, such as the level of activity of the body. Occupied zone is the area that people occupy within air conditioned space 1.83m above floor level with air movement (velocity) of 0.125m/s. Psychometrics is the study of the properties of air and moisture vapour mixtures. Standard air is air at a barometric pressure of 1013.25 KPa at 20OC and 50 % relative humidity. Ventilation is the introduction of fresh air into a space to satisfy ventilation code requirements. 11.2 Types of Air Conditioning The main types of air conditioning and their uses are listed below: Room air conditioners (RACs) are used mainly in single rooms in domestic areas or small offices for comfort conditions. Split system air conditioners are used in single rooms or groups of rooms, mainly for domestic use to create comfort conditions. Chiller set and direct expansion are used in large commercial office spaces and industrial areas, e.g. operating theatres, chocolate factories, art galleries for comfort and industrial conditions. Evaporative coolers are used in areas with low moisture content in the air. 11.3 Comfort Conditions Temperature= 240C, Humidity=60%.

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11.4 Major air handling unit components. A basic air handling unit comprises:   Supply air fan  Cooling coil  Heating coil  Filter  Duct work for: Supply air Return air Outside air  Outlets and grills  Dampers

Figure 11.1 Air handling unit System (Courtesy of Blue star Handbook)

11.5 Psychrometry • • • • Psychrometry is the study of the properties of mixtures of air and water vapour (moisture) Air is the mixture of gases oxygen, nitrogen etc.

Temperature is the measure of heat density.

Pressure is the force acting per unit area of the internal surface.
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• Dry bulb temperature (DBT) is the temperature of the moist air as measured by a standard thermometer

Wet bulb temperature (WBT) is the temperature of the moist air as measured by a standard thermometer but the bulb is covered by wet cloth.

• •

Saturation means maximum quantity of water vapour present in the air.

Relative humidity (Φ) is defined as the ratio of the mass of water vapour in moist air to mass of water vapour in saturated air at the same temperature and pressure.

Humidity ratio (W): The humidity ratio (or specific humidity) W is the mass of water associated with each kilogram of dry air

Dew-point temperature: If unsaturated moist air is cooled at constant pressure, then the temperature at which the moisture in the air begins to condense.

Enthalpy is the total heat of the substance (heat of dry air and moist air)

11.5.1 The various psychometric processes involved in air conditioning:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Sensible Heating Sensible Cooling Humidification Dehumidification Cooling and Humidification Heating and Dehumidification

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Unit-12 Charging and Testing 12.1 Charging of Refrigerant Refrigerant may be charged as a liquid through the connection shown in Figure 12.1. The cylinder is connected as shown and the connecting pipe purged through with a little of the gas to expel air from it. For small charges, the bottle may be supported on a weighing machine, or a calibrated charging cylinder may be used. The compressor must not be started while the system is under vacuum, so refrigerant is admitted first up to cylinder pressure. At this point, the compressor may be started, assuming that all auxiliary systems (condenser fan, pump, tower, cooler fan, etc.) are running. The liquid-line valve upstream of the charging connection is partially closed to reduce the line pressure at this point below that of the supply cylinder, and the refrigerant will flow in. While the refrigerant can be safely admitted in this way, the system is not running normally, since the throttle valve is reducing the pressure across the expansion valve. At intervals during charging, the cylinder valve must be closed and the throttle valve opened fully. Only under these conditions can correct running be observed. When fully charged, the sight glass will be clear . Raising the cylinder pressure in this way avoids the use of the throttle valve and the charging process is much quicker. If no receiver is fitted, extra charge may be added, possibly another 5% above that already in the plant, to allow for seasonal and load variations. If a receiver is in circuit, this should be about one-sixth full under normal running conditions. Systems having high-pressure float expansion valves, and those without sight glasses, must be charged gradually, observing the frost line or using a contact thermometer to measure superheat. Small packages will have the charge marked on the nameplate and must be carefully harged to this weight, which will be critical. Systems may need to have further lubricating oil added, to make up for that which will be carried around with the refrigerant. In the absence of any firm guidance from the supplier, the crankcase must be topped up gradually during normal running, until it is level with the middle of the sight glass under operating conditions. This is not so with the small hermetic systems, where there is usually sufficient oil in the compressor to supply the needs of the circuit, and which, in any case, have no oil level sight glass.

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Figure 12.1 Charging R&AC System (Courtesy of Blue star Handbook)

12.2 Testing For Refrigeration System

1. Compressors are generally of gray cast iron, but some makes are fabricated from mild steel. 2. Compressor pistons are of cast iron or aluminium, the latter following automobile practice. 3. Piping for the smaller halocarbon installations is usually of copper, because of the cleanliness and the ease of fabrication and jointing. 4. Some stainless steel pipe is used, mainly because of its cleanliness, although it is difficult to join. 5. Most other piping will be of mild steel. For working temperatures below – 45°C, only low-carbon steels of high notch strength are used. 6. Aluminium tube is used to a limited extent, with the common halocarbons and also with ammonia. 7. Copper and its alloys are not used with ammonia. 8. Sheet steel for ductwork, general air-conditioning components, and outdoor equipment is galvanized. 9.Purging of gases(Nitrogen) must always be to the open air. 10.Evacuation of Refrigerant circuit lines using vacuum pump 11. Pressure Safety Test by Pressure Cutouts. 12. Temperature Cutout using by Thermostat.
12.2 Controls used For Refrigeration and Air conditioning System

 Thermostat- Temperature control  Pressure stat- Pressure control  Humidistat- Humidity control  Expansion valve-Refrigerant flow controls

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 Damper- Air flow control  Motor controls- Relay& overload protector  Defrost control- Heater and Timer


1. Whiteman WC, Johnson WM, Tomczyk JA. Refrigeration and air conditioning

Technology, Thomson Learning.

2. Arora CP. Refrigeration and Air conditioning, Tata Mc Graw hill Publishers.

3. Langley BC. Electrical applications for air conditioning and refrigeration systems. The

Fairmont Press. Lilburn.

4. Swenson DS. HVAC controls and control systems. Regents/Prentice Hall.

5. GW. Air conditioning systems and principles-An energy approach. Prentice Hall. New


6. DOSSAT, R. J., Principles of Refrigeration, John Wiley, New York, 1981


Blue star Refrigeration Engineer’s Handbook, ICI plc, 1978


American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Equipment Handbook, ASHRAE, Atlanta, Georgia, 1988

9 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning
MIAC2130 Refrigeration and Air conditioning Fundamentals Page 68

Engineers, Systems Handbook, ASHRAE, Atlanta, Georgia, 1987

10 HMT, "Fluidic Output Interfaces,', Automation, September 1969, pp. 54-58.

11 APV bakers, G., "Updating the VAV Outside Air Economise Controls.

12. Refrigeration Fundamentals, Rajput, Dhanpatrai Publications ,2009.

Note 1: Courtesy of figures from ASHRAE handbook,, GW air conditioning system, Blue star R&AC Handbook.

Note 2: Courtesy of Symbols from ASHRAE handbook 2006.

Question Bank


What three components make up an atom?


What is the “charge” of: A electron? A neutron? A proton?


In what direction is force exerted on: A solid? A liquid? A vapour or gas?

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4. What is an element?


What is a compound?


What is matter?


What is heat?


Heat can flow between two bodies. What is required for the flow of heat?


Describe the following methods of heat flow: Convection




List the two main types of Refrigerant mixtures:


Air pressure at atmosphere is known as?


Define first law of thermodynamics

13. 14.

Application of Refrigeration and Air conditioning List and define the two SI scales used for measuring pressure?


List two Secondary Refrigerants.
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Define Vapour Compression Refrigeration system


Briefly explain each of the following gas laws: Charles’ Law Boyle’s Law

Dalton’s Law


What is meant by the following terms? i. Saturated temperature

ii. Saturated liquid

iii. Saturated vapour

iv. Superheated vapour

v. Sub cooled liquid


Classification of AC and Refrigeration System?


Where in the system can we find: Superheated vapour? Sub cooled liquid?

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21. control? What is the condition of the refrigerant as it leaves the RMD / flow

22. Write the method of Producing Refrigeration Effect 23. Define Ton of Refrigeration


Pressure / Enthalpy charts display what refrigerant relationship?


write the Classification of Refrigerants


Write the Properties of Refrigerant


Define ODP and GWP


Define Pressure


Write the SI unit for Energy and Power


Label the individual components of the reciprocating compressor below.

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(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 31. List the three categories of compressors.

(6) (7) (8) (9) (10)


List each of the five types of compressor and describe the operation of each.


What are the two main methods of compressor lubrication? Briefly describe

each method. 34. There are two types of rotary compressor, what are they and how do they differ?


Screw compressors are known by what other name?


Complete this statement: “A condenser is a heat exchange device which……..


What happens to the refrigerant as it passes through the condenser?
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List three main types of condenser.


What are the two main Types of air cooled condenser? Describe each style.


What are the three basic styles of water cooled condenser? Briefly describe

the construction of each.


Describe the operation of an evaporative condenser.


What is the purpose of a water pump?


What is the function of a cooling tower?


Describe the operation of a cooling tower.


What is the function of the liquid receiver?


Liquid receivers may be mounted vertically or horizontally, what other design

characteristics must also be considered?


There are two main types of evaporator, what are they and what are their

main characteristics?


List the two ‘broad’ classifications of evaporators.
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List four styles of construction of evaporator.


Give two examples of application for: Air cooled evaporators:

Liquid cooling evaporators:


Define Frosting and Defrosting:


Define relative humidity?


Explain the Refrigerant Distributors.


Write the types of Defrost Controls


What is a secondary refrigerant?


Explain the Defrost Timer


What is the purpose of a flow control?


What is the function of a Defrost Heater


Write the types of flow control used in the air conditioning and refrigeration
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What is the name given to the study of the properties of air?


Define ‘metabolic’ rate.


Define ‘occupied zone’.


List the following properties of Comfort Condition Temperature C

Relative humidity



Define Non mechanical Refrigeration System?


Define the term ‘comfort conditions’.

66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72.

What are the Components used in Vapour Absorption system Write the Advantage and disadvantages of VAR System Comparison of VCR and VAR System Explain Steam jet and Thermo electric Refrigeration system Write the major Air handling unit Components Define Psychrometry Define Dry bulb and Wet bulb Temperature

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73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. Define Humidity Ratio Write the any four Psychrometric Process Explain the Charging of Refrigerant Explain the Testing for refrigeration System Write the name of Controls used in R&AC System List three factors that affect human comfort in a conditioned space. Define Ventilation

80. Write the Standard Air pressure, Temperature and Humidity of air.


P-H Chart for R12 and R134a Refrigerants list Psychrometric Chart

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