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such as achievement. etc.Contemporary theories Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort to organizational goals.  If correct. Cognitive evaluation theory suggests otherwise. This need is the internal state that makes certain Motivation is also the process that account for an individual’s intensity. Individuals differ in their basic motivational drive and the level of motivations varies both between individuals and within individuals at different times Cognitive Evaluation Theory In the late 1960s. The concept of motivation refers to internal factors that impel action and to external factors that can act as inducements to action. for work effort that had been previously intrinsically rewarding due to the pleasure associated with the content of the work itself. are reduced. etc. one researcher proposed that the introduction of extrinsic rewards. . are independent of extrinsic motivators such as high pay. conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need. direction. such as pay.  If pay or other extrinsic rewards are to be effective motivators. they should be made contingent on an individual’s performance.. and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. When extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs for superior performance.  Cognitive evaluation theorists would argue that this will tend only to decrease the internal satisfaction that the individual receives from doing the job. it would make sense to make an individual’s pay non-contingent on performance in order to avoid decreasing intrinsic motivation. Well researched and supported theorists have assumed that intrinsic motivations. which are derived from individuals doing what they like. This has come to be called the cognitive evaluation theory. the intrinsic rewards. outcomes appear attractive. would tend to decrease the overall level of motivation. promotions. it should have major implications for managerial practices. If the cognitive evaluation theory is valid.

The evidence strongly supports the value of goals. well-learned. Goal commitment: Goal-setting theory presupposes that an individual is committed to the goal. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort is needed. Task characteristics: Individual goal setting does not work equally well on all tasks. . If employees have the opportunity to participate in the setting of their own goals. If factors like ability and acceptance of the goals are held constant. four other factors influence the goals-performance relationship.Goal-Setting Theory In the late 1960s. Edwin Locke proposed that intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. The higher your self-efficacy. Adequate self-efficacy: Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. In addition to feedback. and independent. Goals seem to have a more substantial effect on performance when tasks are simple. the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task. There are contingencies in goal-setting theory. will they try harder? A major advantage of participation may be in increasing acceptance. National culture: Goal-setting theory is culture bound and it is well adapted to North American cultures. the higher the level of performance. The evidence is mixed regarding the superiority of participative over assigned goals. we can also state that the more difficult the goal.

It is when the individual looks back on the experience he or she is flooded with feelings of gratitude for the experience. the inner feelings and drives of individuals are ignored by Skinner. individual’s behaviour with positive consequences tends to be repeated. It is based on “law of effect”. Flow and Intrinsic Motivation Theory . according to Skinner. Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state of individual. This theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual when he takes some action. the external environment of the organization must be designed effectively and positively so as to motivate the employee.e.   When a person experiences the flow he or she is completely intrinsically motivated. However. Conditions likely to produce a flow state:    Task is challenging and require high level of skill They were goal directed and received feedback on how they were doing. it does not focus on the causes of individual’s behaviour.. . but individual’s behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated. i.e. It states that individual’s behaviour is a function of its consequences. Thus. This theory is a strong tool for analyzing controlling mechanism for individual’s behaviour. A key element of the flow experience is that its motivation is unrelated to end goals. Task demanded total concentration and creativity.  It is the desire to repeat the experience that creates continued motivation. i.Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. There is extreme concentration during the activity.

as described by Ken Thomas. Equity Theory Additionally.  Progress: Feeling you are making significant advancement in achieving the task’s purpose.A Model of Intrinsic Motivation. the referent that an employee selects adds to the complexity of equity theory.  Competence: The accomplishment you feel in skillfully performing task activities you have chosen.  Meaningfulness: The opportunity to pursue a worthy task purpose. There are four referent comparisons that an employee can use:  Self-inside: An employee’s experiences in a different position inside his or her current organization  Self-outside: An employee’s experiences in a situation or position outside his or her current organization  Other-inside: Another individual or group of individuals inside the employee’s organization Other-outside: Another individual or group of individuals outside the employee’s organization . is an extension of the flow concept. that matters in the larger scheme of things. He identifies the key elements that create intrinsic motivation as:  Choice: The ability to select task activities that make sense to you and perform them as you think appropriate.

Motivation is the force that initiates. J. May 1983. Early.C. and amount of education or professionalism. “High Status Job Title as Compensation for Underpayment: A Test of Equity Theory”. The forces that lie beneath motivation can be biological. Pearson Prentice Hall. emotional or cognitive in nature.  Men and women prefer same-sex comparisons. Journal of Applied Psychology. Ornstein. It is what causes us to take action. Wojnaroski.  There are four moderating variables: gender. P. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2007.or female-dominated.  Employees in jobs that are not sex-segregated will make more cross-sex comparisons than those in jobs that are either male. Which referent an employee chooses will be influenced by the information the employee holds about referents. Greenberg and S.. it may be due to the comparative standard they use. This also suggests that if women are tolerant of lower pay. and W. Prest. 12th Edition. whether to grab a snack to reduce hunger or enroll in college to earn a degree. social. Bibliography Robbins and Judge. “Organizational Behavior”. as well as by the attractiveness of the referent. length of tenure. P. guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. level in the organization. Feb 1987. “Task Planning and Energy Expended: Explorations of How Goals Influence Performance”. .