B 12

Book 12 (Lesson 12)

Oral training. in Fluency Vocabulary
[Part- III)
KevNair

Unifying the world thro' fluent English ...

1M

~TM

Adult Faculties
World's

11>1

1st

& oldest fluency course

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ORAL TRAINING IN FLUENCY VOCABULARY - PART - III (Used as Lesson 12 in Fluenrzy : The Fluency Development Course). Copyright © 1982 K, E. V. Nair @ KevNair. First published 1982. This edition 2001. Reprinted, 2001 (twice), 2002. The right of K E. V, Nair @ KevNair to be identified as the author of this book has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright Act, 1957. All tights reserved. No part of this book shall be copied or reproduced or transmitted in any form or manner whatever, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except in the case of brief quotations or as allowed by the Copyright Act 1957. This book shall not be used for any purpose other than for self-study by the person to whom this is supplied by the Adult Faculties Council. ' All quotations from this book shall credit Mr. Kevblair. Any person who buys this book as pan of Fluentzy: The Fluency Development Course or otherwise, or acquires it in any other way, shall not circulate it, Any violation of these terms and conditions will invite civil and criminal proceedings and will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law. Published in India by Mrs. Urna V Nair, Adult Faculties Council, DP Lane, Elamakkara PO, Kochi~682 026. Printed in India by Ayodhya Printers Ltd., Elamakkara Kochi-682 026. Adult Faculties Council's website: www.fluentzy.com. Phone: (91)(0484) 538449, 536361. Fax:-(91){04S4-) 536361. F.-mail: info@f1uentzy.com. PO,

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Contents
Everyday Medical English: Speaking about health and illness, 4
Doctor to patient, 4 Case-taking: Questioning the patient, 5 Examination procedure, 8 Mental examination by doctor, 11 Diagnosis/treatment, 11 Language patients use, 13 General illness, 13 Patients speaking about their mental state, 18 General,19

Speech initiators in educated circles, 20
How do people judge you?, 20 The way to sound educated and cultured, 21 Image-building word groups, 21 Image-building word groups in use, 23

Adjective

+

noun, 27

Phrasal verbs, 30 Everyday questions for practice, 40
Yes-no questions, WhMquestions, 45 40

Prompt-response Rhythm drill, 54 Final words, 58

practice, 50

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Everyday Medical English: Speaking about health and illness
This is an area where even people who are generally fluent stumble quite often. You see, when you're ill, you'll have to describe and explain to your doctor (and to other people) how you'resuffering. The doctor would ask you a number of questions, and you'll have to understand those questions and answer them. And at home and when you're among your friends, you'll often have to talk about your own or someone's illness or health. And if you're a doctor or a medical professional, you'll have to discuss illness and health with patients and others. You'll have to speak to patients about the history and symptoms of their illness. You'll have to speak to them while examining them, while prescribing medicines, about the treatment. And even if you're not a doctor, you'll find it necessary to use these word groups quite often, because 'illness' is a topic that people speak to you about quite often. All this means that you need to be fluent in using a set of special kinds of word groups. Not a set oftechnical terms, but plain everyday language that hasto do with health and illness. For a fluent native speaker of English, this is not normally a problem, of course - just as this is not a problem for you in your own mother tongue. But for nonnative speakers of English, this is a real problein when they have to use English to speak. This Lesson will help you get over this difficulty.

Doctor to patient
Here are 3 separate collections of word groups, These are word groups that doctors (as well as others) usually use when they're speaking to patients. The 'first collection contains word groups that doctors (as well as others) use when they're speaking to patients in order to find out about an illness. The second collection contains word groups that doctors Caswell as others) use when they're speaking to patients while examining them. The third collection contains word groups that doctors Cas well as others) use when they're speaking to patients about the diagnosis that has been made and about the treatment. Now remember this: Just because this section has been given the heading "Doctor to patient", don't think that the word groups given are useful only to doctors. No, that's not so. You see, these are word groups that everybody will find useful when they have to speak to someone who is ill: Sons and daughters when they have to speak to

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fathers, mothers and others who are ill. Fathers and mothers when they have to speak to sons and daughters Who are ill. Friends when they have to speak to friends and others who are ill. Everyone to everyone else who is ill. So you can imagine how universally useful these word groups are. '

case-taking: Questioning the patient
Pick up each word group and utter it ALOUD ~

several times. Practise uttering the word groups until you can utter each of them with a ready flow. After that,come back to the word groups once a week (at least for 3 or 4 weeks at a stretch) and repeat uttering them several times - ALOUD .
• Any pain in your muscles? • Any pains in your chest when you cough? • Any problems with your chest? • Any problems with your waterworks? • Any shortness of breath? • Apart from your headaches, are there any other problems? • Are your parents fit and well? • Are your parents in good health? • Are you a heavy drinker?· Are you aware of anything when you swallow? • Are you breastfeeding? •• Are you doing better today} • Are you having any difficulty with your hearing? • Are you long-sighted? • Are you married? • Are you short: ofbreathz > Are you short-sighted? • .Are your bowels regular? • Are your stools black? • Can I JUSt come back for a moment to these dizzy spells? • Can you describe the pain? • Can you describe the problem? • Can you describe the symptoms? • Can you see any letters at all? • Can you show me where it hurts? :. Can you tell me exactly how you turned your foot? • Can you tell me which tooth is causing the problem? • Can you describe the dizzy spells? • Describe what's wrong; will you? • Did the tablets help? • Did you ever have any fractures? • Did you ever have trouble with your liver? • Did you have a comfortable night? • Do bright lights bother you? • Do the eyes water when you read?" Do you always sweat? • Do you belch? • Do you bring up any phlegm?' • Do you cough a lot? • Do you cough much? • Do you cough up phlegm? • Do you cough when you smell certain foods or other smells? • Do you drink a lot? • Do you drink? • Do you ever bring something up? • Do you ever faint? • Do you ever feel completely possessed by another person? • Do you ever feel giddy? • Do you ever feel like vomiting? • Do you ever get short of breath? • Do you ever get wheezy? • Do you ever have dizzy spells? • Do you ever have nose bleeds? • Do you ever See double images in front of your eyes? • Do you ever see distorted images before your eyes? • Doyou ever see unusual shapes before your eyes? • Do you ever suffer from headaches? • Do you ever wet the bed? • Do you feel any pain inside your ears? • Do you feel any pain or discomfort down below? • Do you feel any weakness in your limbs? • Do you ever take aspirins or anything like that? • Do you relate the cramps in anyway to your meals? • Do you

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have any cough or phlegm? • Do your ankles ever swell up? • Do you feel sick when you get these headaches? • DO'you find that you're losing your eyelashes? • Do you get any pain on breathing? • Do you get any pains in the chest? • Do you get headaches when you're-reading? • Do YOl1 get headaches? • Do you get out of breath easily? • Do you get tired easily? • Do you give him liquids? • Do you go out drinking much? • Do you have a coldz > Do you have a history of any serious illness? • Do you have a sore throat? • Do YI:)U have any allergies? • Do you have any chest pai:ns after exercise? • Do you have any difficulty moving your arms or legs? • Do you have any discharge from YOU! eyes?DO'you have a cough? ~ Do you have any aches or pains? • Do you have any pain in passing water? • Do you have any trouble-with passing water? • Do you have any trouble with your stomach or bowels? • Do you have any pain while passing urine? • Do you have bad breath? • Do you have headachesv> Do you have palpitationst > Do you have to' strain to pass your motions? • Do you have to strain to pass your water? • Do you know when these headaches are coming on?· Do your muscles feel stiff in the morning? • Do you often get diarrhoea? • Do you often get constipation?· Do you often have a fever? • Do you often lose your temper? .• Do you play any sports? • Do you see spots in front of your eyes? • Do you smoke? • Do you socialize much? • Do you strain when you pass water? • Do you suffer from double vision? • Do you sweat at night? • Do you vomit? • Do you wheeze? • Do your eyeballs feel painful? • Do your eyes get red easily? • Do your eyes get tired easily? • Do your eyes itch?· Do your eyes water? • Do your legs swell? • Do your motions smell bad? • Do you wear glasses? • Do these headaches come on at any particular time? • Do you ever get these headaches at night? • Does it bother you when you are walking? • Does any special food upset your stomach? • Does anyone else in your family suffer from this problem? • Does anything in particular bring on this pain? • Does anything make the pain better? • Does anything make the pain worse? • Does he cough a lot? • Does he ever bring up his food? • Does he ever get diarrhoea? • Does he pass wind as normal? • Does the pain affect your work? • Does it bother you in any way? • Does it bum when you pass water? • Does it come on anyparticular time? • Does the discharge have a bad smell? • Does it hurt if you bend your knee? • Does it hurt much? • Does it hurt when I do this? • Does it hurt when you swallow? ~ Does the pain stay in one place, or does it go anywhere else? • Does light bother you? • Does lying down helpthe pain? • Does she eat at the usual times? • Does she have a good appetite? • Does she have any rashes? • Does she sleep at the normal time? • Does that medicine have any effect? • Does that hurt at all? • Does the knee feel tender here? • Does the pain have any relation to all this? • Does your husband smoke? • Does your nose run a lot? • Does your water dribble? • Has he ever had a fever? • Has there been any changes in your health since your last visit? • Has this been a problem before? • Have these headaches affected your vision at alI? • Have you brought

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your urine sample? • Have you noticedany problems with your eyesight? .. Have you got a cough - a persistent cough? • Have you ever been admitted to ahospital? • Have you ever been operated on? • Have you ever blacked out?· Have Y011ever coughed up blood? • Have you ever fainted? .. Have you ever had backaches before? • Have you ever had any problems? • Have you ever had.chicken pox? • Have you ever had measles? Have you ever had your tonsils. out? • Have you had a head injury? .. Have you had an anaesthetic before? .. Have you had any cough.at all? .. Have you had any diseases in the family -like diabetes or high blood pressure? • Have you had any falls? .. Have you had any miscarriages? .~Have you had any pain in your Chest? • Have you had any serious illness in the past? • Have you had any shortness ofbreath? • Have you had (this) problem before? .. Have you had this (problem) long? • Have yculost.anywelghtt « Have you noticed any blood inyour stools? • Have you noticed any blood in your water? • Have you noticed any swelhng of your ankles? • Have you noticed any twitching of your muscles? • H.ilVe you noticed any weakness, or tingling in yourlimbs? • Have you put on weight recently? • Have you taken any aspirin? • Have you taken anything for it? • Have you usually got lots of energy?
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• How about sore throats? • How about your bowels? • How about your relations with your colleagues? • How about your relations with your husband?' Hew are you at the moment? ..•How are you feeling today? • How can I help you?· How do you feel in general? • How are you feeling .at the moment? • How does it feel? • How have you been keeping up to now? • How is your appetite? • HoW long do these headacheslastv « How long does the pain last?- How long has it been bothering you? • How long has this been going on? • How long has this bothered you? ~.How long has your voice been hoarse? • How long have the headaches been bothering you? " How long have' they been bothering you?' How long have you had this pain? e How longhave you had these pairrsr > How long have you-had this boil? • How long have you had this discharge? • Howlong have you had this. problem with your visionx > How long have you had this problem? • How longhave your gums been bleeding? • How many do you smoke each day? • How many times do you have to go during the night? • How often do you feed him? • How often do you get this pain? • How old are you? • How old is your last child? • How wouldyou describe the paints)? How many episodes (ofcramps) a day were you getting? • How's your health otherwise? • How about your weight? Is it steady?
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• Is his toilet norma}? • Is it a localized or general pain 7 '" Is the pain bad enough to wake you up? • Is it broken? .. Is the pain continuous or does it come and go? • Is it sore all the time? ~ Is it sore to the touch? • Is it thick or light? • she active, like other children? .. Is there a history of diabetes in your family? • Is there any bad smell from your nose? • Is there any blood in it?· Is there any discharge from your ears? ~ Isthere any discharge or Watering of the eyes? • Is there any heart disease inthe family? • Is there any rash on. the body? • Is there anybody with blood pressure trouble in the family? ~ Is there anybody

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8 with kidney trouble in the family? • Is there anything else you feel the same time? ,~Is there anything that makes the pain better? • Is there anything that makes the pain worse? • Is there anything you need? • Is this a life-long habit? • Is your digestion all right? • Is your hearing affected? • Is there anybody with heart trouble in the family? • So you fell over and grazed your knees? • Try and explain 'what happens when the pain comes on . • Was it painful? • Was it something you tried to lift? • Was there any other position that might bring the cramp on? • Was there anything that started it off? • With the right eye, can you see anything? • What about coughsv > What about wheezing? • What about shortness of breath? • What are you taking for your headache? • What brings on your cough? • What brings 'you here? • What brought this on? • What caused this? • What colour is the stuff you bring up? • What colour is the vomit? • What effect does food have? • What has your health been like? • What kind of pain is it? • What seems to be the problem? • What seems to bring it on? • What sort of exercise do you take? .. What sorts of things. makes it sore? • What's your appetite like? .. What's brought you along today? • What's the colour of this discharge? • What's the matter? .. What's the pain like? • What's the stream (== urine) like? • What's the trouble? • What medication are you taking now? • Were you breathless? .. Were you breathless with this discomfort? • Were you aware of palpitations? • Were you sneezing and coughing? - When did his first tooth appearz > When did the trouble first start? • When did the pain(s) start? • When did you first notice the lump? • When did you first notice the pain? • When did you first notice this? .. When did you move into town from the country? • When does the pain come on? • When was the last time you had a tetanus shot? • When was the last time youvisited your dentist? • Where did you catch the infection? • Where does it hurt? .. Where is it sore? • Where is the pain exactly? • Where is the pain most severe? • Where are these headaches? • Which one is worse - the top teeth or bottom teeth? • Which part of your chest is affected? • Which part of your back is affected? • Which part of your head is affected? • Would it be sore if I were to tap the tooth? ti Where is the pain exactly? • You're not vomiting now? • No black-looking stool? • You don't think the cramps ate likely to come on before or after meals? • And the longest episode (of cramps) lasted for? • And your bowels? Have they changed? • You don't feel sick at all? • Any questions, or anything we can do for you?

Examination procedure
Here's a collection of word groups that doctors use when they're examining patients.

9 pick up each word group and utter itALOUD - several times. Practise uttering the word groups until you can utter each of them with a ready flow. After that, comeback to the word groups once a week (at least for 3 or 4 weeks at a stretch) and repeat uttering them several times - ALOUD.
• Bend your knees .• Breathe in as far as you can. • Can I have a look at you? • Can I just have you walk to the doorand back? • Can you bend both your knees? • Can you bend over and touch your toes? • Can you flex the hip? • Can you flex the knee? • Can you put your hands on your hips? ~ Can you raise. your arm a little? • Can you take a deep breath and hold it? • Can you try flexing the legs? • Close your eyes and say 'yes' each time you feel me touching the skin of your legs .• Could you bend down and touch your toes? • Could you bend down as far as you can? • Could you fix your eyes on the tip of this pen and' keep your eyes On it?- Could you give me your arm? • Could you just hop on to the couch for a moment? • Could you JUSt look this way? • Could you just take off your skirt for a second? .. Curl lip ... Drink this liquid nowI'll be taking pictures of it as it goes down .• Extend the knee, will you? • First of all, you must lie down ... First of all, I listen to your front and then your hack ... Grip my hand firmly • I just want to see you Walking. • I want to find out where your bad cough is coming from .• I want to test how well you can feel things on the skin .• I want you to keep this thing under your tongue until I remove it. • I want you to lie down with your legs stretched out in front of you, • I want you to push as hard as you can against my hand, • I'd just like to check your reflexes. • I'd just like to examine your mouth .• I'd just like to take the pulse .• I'd just like to take the temperature. • I'd like to feel your neck and under your arms ... I'd like to have a sample of your water. • I'd like to observe your chest while you're breathing. • I'd like to run some tests. • I'd like to see your tummy. • I'd like to take a blood sample ... I'd like you to kneel on that straight-backed chair ... I'll have to extract a tooth ... I'll just check your blood pressure. • I'll just feel your stomach here .• I'll just take your blood pressure .• I'll just take your pulse .• I'll touch the back of your hand with it now. • I'm going to fill the tooth .• I'm going to give a local anaesthetic, so it won't be painful. • I'm going to give an eye test .• I'm going to give you an injection of local anaesthetic. • I'm going to inspect the base of the tongue. • I'm going to inspect the ear. • I'm going to inspect the tonsils. • I'm going to listen to your chest .• I'm going to press this vibrating fork on the ankle bone. '" I'm going to remove the needle from your chest. • I'm going to stroke the sole of your foot with this key.• I'm going to tap your feet behind your heel with this hammer. • I'm going to test your reflexes. • I'm going to test your reflexes by tapping you with this little hammer. • I'm going to wash the area with a bit of antiseptic .• I'm just going to find out where the soft spot is. • I'm just going to press behind your knee. • I'm now going to test the pulses in your legs .. • I'm trying to check the throat for any congestion. • I'm trying to check the throat for

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any growth .• I'm trying to identify the heart sound .• I'd like to test your hearing. - Is there any discharge? • Just breathe normally ~ I want to listen to your heart .... Just hold OUt your arms for a second .• Just keep your arms straight there . .; Just slip. off your pants, will You? Keep the knee straight .• Keep your head still. .• Keep your knees and feet steady. • Let me see you standing. • Let's check the baby's weight and height.

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- Lie On the bench. - Lie on your left side .• Lie on your right side. -Lie on your tummy > Lie still.> Lift it up as far as you can go, will you? • Look downwards, will you? • Look straight ahead, will you? • Now blow the air OUt and hold it. • Now I justwant to See you standing. , Now I'll rake your pressure .• Now I want yOLl to move right to the edge of the bed.« Now Lwould like you to lean backwards.> Now I'll takea sample of your blood to check your haemoglobin. • Now I'm going to lift your thigh off the couch, • Now I'm going to put this thing on yourchest, • Now Tmgoing to raise. your leg off the couch, • Now I'm .going to take your left leg and see how far we can lift it. • Now I'm going to take your tight arm and see how far we can raise it. • Now I'm going to tap your leg .• (To a pregnant lady) Now if you'd like to lie down on the couch, I'll take a look.at the baby > Now let'S see what happens if I bend your toes back • Now let's see what happens when we straighten your leg again; .. Now we'll put you onto the table there .• Now would you like to sit up? • Now would you roll over onto your tummy?" Open your mouth .• Open your mouth ~ I want to pass this little tube down into your tummy; • Place your hands on your back. • Put the thermometer under your tongue .• Put your head down .• PUt your head right down to meet your knees ..• Put your tongue out. • Remove your sock and shoe .• Remove your top clothing .• Roll over on to your left side .• Roll your sleeves up .• Say Aah ... ' • Show me where the problem is. ~ Show me where you get most pain ..• Sit forward .. • Squat down, please .• Stand up. • Take a deep breath in and out. • Take your right heel and run it down you feel it vibrating. ~ There doesn't seem anything wrong with you. There's a little infection.' This is a common condition, and it should clear up in a day or two, • This may be a bit uncomfortable. • This must be because of an emotional upset. .. Tilt your head back. .. Try to keep as still as you possibly can .• Tum over and lie on your back. • Turn your head this way, • Want to lie down? .. We need to get your chest Xcrayed .• We'll have to take an x~ ray. • We'll have to clean out the filling. • We'll put a dressing over that area. .. We'll take some Xsray pictures now .• We're going to put a little needle in your back. • Will you lie on the bed a minute? • Would you like to get onto the couch and lie on your back, please? .. Would a glass of water help? • Would you like a glass of water? .. Would you like to lie down? .. Would you like to lie flat on the couch for a moment? .. Would you like to step into the next room and slip off your top things, please?· Would you open your mouth wide? • Would you remove your shirt? • Would you roll onto your left side and bend your knees up? .. Would you
the front of your left leg.·. Tell. me whether
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strip to the waist, please? ~ You must gerX-tays of your shoulder taken. • You must have your teeth tested yearly .• Your gums are very sore. • Your health is good. • Your resistance is down.· .

Mental examination by doctor
Pick up each word group and utter it ALOuD ~ several times. Practice uttering the word groups until you can utter each of them with a ready flow. After that, come back to the word groups once a week (at least for 3 or 4 weeks at a .stretch) and repeat uttering them several times ~ ALOUD.
• Are you nervous or anxious about anything? ..•.Ate you self-conscious? • Are you sometimes; over-emotional? • Are you fidgety?- Are you jittery? • Do people think of you as a happy-go-lucky person or perhaps rather gloomy and unhappy? • Doyou dislike being told what to do? • Do you always follow a set routine?' Do you tend to rely on other people a great deal? • Do you think people like you generally? .. Do you trust peopler » Do you ever tend to check things more than once or twice? • Do you always feel agitated or only some of the time? -" Doyou feel controlled from outside likea puppet or a robot? • Do you find it difficult to cope with the demands of everyday life? Do you remember what day of the weekit is? • Do you sometime feel like hurting people? • Do you prefer things to be neat and tidy?· Do you sometimes feel picked upon?

Diagnosis/treatment
Pick up each word group and utter it ALOUD - several times. Practise uttering the word groups until you can utter each of them with a ready flow. After that, come back to the word groups once a week (at least for 3 or 4 weeks at a stretch) and repeat uttering them several times - ALOUD.
• Are you allergic to any medicationsj' > Are you allergic to penicillin? Are you taking any medicine at the moment? • Be careful about eating. • Cover yourself with a blanket. .
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• Do not drink alcohol. - Do not drive after taking this medication. ~.Do not eat for half an hour before or aftertaking this medicine .• Do not operate heavy machinery while taking this medicatlfJn .• Do these exercises preferably on anempty stomach. • Don't sit l1P to eat." Don't take this medicine more man four times within a 24-hourperiod. • Don't worry. It's only a small bruise. • Drinking some coffee will help it.
o

Drop in and see me

again in about a month's time.
for

• Have an X-ray of your shoulder and back. • Here is a prescription some tablets. • I can't find anything seriously wrong with you. e I think we'll ask someone at the Medica] College to have a look at you .• I think you

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don't get enough exercise .• I think you suffer from a minor heart condition." I'll give something to calm you down .• I'll let you know the results as soon as I get them .• I'm going to give (you) something to relieve the pain .• I'm going to give 'you a prescription. s I'm going to give you something for it.· tm going to give you something tor the pain.' I'm going to refer you to someone else.' I'm going to write you a prescription. • It all points to TH.• It'll be some weeks kind of active work. • It'll get better of its sometime will help it. • One tablet three daily: • One teaspoon three times daily. • Stay in bed for a day: before you can go back to your own accord .• Lying down for times daily. " One teaspoon Resting a while will help it. "

• Take after eating. "Take as needed .• Take before eating.' Take before going to bed. • Take four times daily. • Take in the morning. • Taketwoaspirin, and call.me in the morning, • Take two of the pills each morning for two weeks. • The main cause of it is smoking. • The tooth must beextracted.· This isn't a frightening condition or anything .• This isn't a serious injury .• This medication should be taken with food. This medication should be taken with meals; o This medicine should dear up the trouble ... This needs an incision to let out the pus .• This will clear up on its own.
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• Try to bend your knees and keep your back straight. e Try to roll over and then get up from your side .• Try to take them after food/meals, in case they cause you indigestion .• Two capsules three times daily> Want Some aspirin? • We must dress your wounds. • We'll getthe physiotherapist to organize some exercises to. strengthen those muscles .• We'll give something to calm you down. • We'll give you some tabletrs) to ease the pain in your muscles. • We'll have to do an X-ray.• We'll have to take an Xc ray. • We;ll have to change the bandage on the wound everyday • We'll send these samples off to be tested. • Well, I can't see anything wrong here. ~ Well, I don't think there's anything to worry about .• Well, try these tablets for two weeks and see how you get on .• Would you like some aspirin? • You're in excellent health .• You're physically fit.> You are to takethe tablets every six hours .• You can take the tablets if you are awake with pain. • You can take them during night. • You have to cut the cigarettes down .• You must rest, and allow this swelling to go down .• You must take the pills every three hours. • You need to go on a diet, • You need to relax .• You should also. try to have your meals lying down .• You should avoid lifting weights. • You should be careful while getting out of bed .• You should do these exercises daily .• You should lie on a hard surface .• You should try and avoid bending forward. • You should try to avoid jerking your body. • You should try to do them as slowly and smoothly as possible .• You should walk briskly for half an hour every day to keep fit .• You'll have to get in shape and stay that Way. • Your leg has to be kept in plaster.

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Language patients use
General illness
Here's a collection of word groups that people who areill use when they're speaking to doctors and others, Pickup each word group and utter it ALOUD - several times. Practise uttering the word groups until you can utter each of them with a ready flow, Afterthat, come back to the word groups once a week (at least for 3 or 4 weeks at a stretch) and repeat uttering them several times ALOUD. - After a short rest, the pain went oii.> All my father's relatives have this disease .• All the food stays up in the chest .• Can it be cured? • Can you come and have a look at my grandfather? • Can.you do something about it? • Can you tell me what's wrong? • Dairy products seem to make me break out ina rash, • Do I need stitches? • Do I need surgery?' Doyon have anything good for my cold? • Do you think the baby's small? • Doctor, I keep having nosebleeds .• Doctor, I'm losing my hair .• Doctor, I've got buzzing/ humming in my ears.> Doctor, my.ears are blockedup/clogged .• Doctor, my eyes sting/itch .• Doctor, -my head throbs. • Doctor, my lips feel dry/chapped.· Doctor, my nails keep breaking easily. • Doctor, my nose is congested. • Doctor, my scalp's 'itchy • Doctor, my scalp's lumpy/ bumpy .• Doctor, my tooth throbs. - Doctor, what do you think is giving me these headaches? • Doctor, I'm seeing double .• Does he have . anything serious? • Everything goes round .• Everything's fuzzy/blurred round the edges. • Food .rnakes it worse .• Food seems to stick in my throat. ~ Give me some tablets to ease the pain . • Have 'they' figured out what's wrong? • How is it, doctor? • How serious is it? • I am allergic to penicillm.> I am short-sighted .• I am too tired to do anything. • I blacked out/fainted. • I break out when I eat chocolate .• I can hardly bear the pain. • I can hardly breathe." 1 can hardly hold this book properly • I can hardly speak. • I can't bear to look at food, • I can't bend my legs .• I can't bend over. • I can't breathe .• I can't digest milk .• I can't drink rnilk.> I can't eat grapes. • I can't get up .• I can't go (to the toilet) .• I can't have chocolate. I can't have dairy products. • I can't hear as well as I used to. • I can't hold food down.> I can't keep anything down. • I can't move. • .I can't pass water .• I can't pee/piss/wee .• I can't put pressure on my foot .• I can't see out? • I can't seem to stay awake. • I can't sleep." I can't step down on my foot. • I can't stop coughing. • I can't straighten up easily " I can't swallow. • I can't touch my throat ~ it is sore,
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• I come over woozy/queer/peculiar when I get up suddenly .• I cough a lot. • J didn't sleep a wink last night. ~.I don't feel quite right. • I don't feel so well. • I don't feel well. • I don't have a good appetite .• I don't

14
have any appetite .• I don't want to catch it. • I feel a bit off colour. • I feel a bit queasy. • I feel a bit under the weather. • I feel a tightness in my chest .• I feel a tightness in my throat .• I feel absolutely rotten. • I feel as if my stomach is going to burst open. • I feel awful. • I feel better today .• I feel dizzy. • I feel downright awful. • I feel drowsy. • I feel faint .• I feel feverish. • I feel funny. .. I feel funny/light-headed when I get up suddenly. • I feel giddy. • I feel I'll collapse now .• I feel ill. • I feel itchy. • I feel like a million bucks .• I feel like a million dollars .• I feel like a newperson. • I feel like hell. e I feel like I'm going to vomit/ throw up/be sick. • I feel1ike throwing up .• I feel lousy ... I feel nauseous .• I feel pins and needles in lUY foot .• I feel quite sick. • I feel rather dizzy. • I feel rather feverish .• I feel rotten. • I feel sick. • I feel sick to my stomach .• I feel terrible .• I feel the room spinning .• I feel very hot .. • I feel weak. • [fell down the stairs. • I fell off a ladder. • Ifelt tired all day long .• I find it difficult to breathe .• I get a burning sensation when urinating. • I get cramp in my leg ... I get cramps in my toes .• I get dizzy spells. • I get nauseated. • I get out of breath easily • I get pain in my shins. • I get pain in the back of my leg .• I get pins and needles in my regs. • I get the chills. • I got a bad pain in my chest when I was walking. • 1got hit with a ball. • I got hit with a bat.
• I had a hernia. • I had an appendicitis when I was a boy. • I have a backache. • I have a bad stomach. • I have a bad throat. • I have a burning sensation in the soles of my feet.. • I have a crick in my neck. • I have a dreadful/terrible headache .• 1 have a hacking/raking cough. • I have a headache. • I have a heart condition. • I have a lump here. • I have a lump under my arm. • I have a migraine. • I have a pacemaker .• I have a pain in my back. • I have a rash. • I have a swelling in the groin. • I have a terrible pain in the stomach .. • I have a terrible stomach-ache. • I have a very bad ear-ache, • I have an abscess .• I have an aching back. • I have an acne problem .• I have an environmental illness .• I have an excruciating headache .• I have an upset tummy. .• 1 have arthritis. • I have asthma. • I have bad breath. • I have blackheads/whiteheads/open pores. • I have buck teeth. • I have chilblains. • I have cramps in my stomach. • I have got a pain in the chest. • I have hay fever .• I have insomnia .• I have lost weight, about 10 kilos. • I have nits/lice/vermin. • I have pains in my chest only if.I take a deep breath .• I have to get up two or three times at night to pass water. • I have varicose Veins .• r have warts on my fingers. • I have waxy ears. • I have white patches on my nails.

• I just don't seem to have any energy. • I keep feeling exhausted/tired. • I keep gasping for breath. • I keep getting (having) nosebleeds. • I keep getting a roaring in my ears. • I keep getting cramp in my calves/ thigh .• I keep getting giddiness .• I keep getting pins and needles in my feet. • I keep retching/barfing. • ] keep scratching. • I keep sneezing .• I keep sneezing and coughing. • I keep wanting to go to pass water. • I keep wetting myself.

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• lIie awake all night long. • I lost my appetite four days ago. • I notice the pain when I wake up. • I pulled a muscle. • I pulled my back. • I see double when I bend down .• I see flashing lights. ;. I see stars when I get up suddenly. • I seem to be getting a bit deaf. • I seem to have lost some .. weight. • I should have the results back in a week. • I smell under the armpits .• J ,sometimes bring upa lot of phlegm. • I sometimes leak! have the occasional accident, • I sprained my' wrist .• I strained a muscle .• I strained my groin, • I strained my neck. • I think I'm catching a cold. • I think I'm dying.> I think I'm going deaf .• I think I'm going to be sick (= to vomit). ti I think I'm going to throw up (= to vomit) .• I think I'm going to vomit. • I think I'm pregnant. • 1 think I've. broken my toes. • I think I've ticked my neck. • I think I've slipped a disc .• I think I've snapped a tendon in my leg .• I think-my heart keeps skipping/jumping a beat .• I think my sinuses are blocked .• I think my skin's greasy/clammy. • I think my urine is strawcoloured . .. I threw my back out. • I twisted my ankle. ~ I wanted to have a check up .• I was in a fight. • I was in an accident. • I was laid up for three months. • I was so weak that I began to go limp .• I was so weak that my legs gave way. • .I went over on my ankle . • I'm croaky. • I'm a bit stiff .• I'm a bit stuffed tip. • J'ma little under the weather. ; I'm all better.· I'm allergic to bee stings. ~ I'm allergic to bees. • I'm allergic to cats. • I'm allergic to chocolate. • I'm allergic to dogs .• I'm allergic to dust. • I'm allergic to penicillin. • I'm allergic to pollen. • I'm allergic to shrimp. • I'm allergic to strawberries. • I'm always drowsy. • I'm as good as new. • I'm asthmatic .• I'm better than I was .• I'm bleeding, • I'm blind as a bat .• I'm blue round the eyes. • I'm bouncing back. • l'mbreaking out. • I'm breaking out in hives. e I'm bringing up mucus/phlegm/blood .• I'm completely over it.
o I'm constipated. • I'm coughing my guts up. • I'm coughing up bloody! frothy stuff. • I'm diabetic. • I'm dizzy. • I'm exhausted. • I'm expecting a baby/going to have a baby. • I'm feeling a bit woozy at the moment ... I'm feeling a little down in the mouth. • I'm feeling under the weather. • I'm feeling unwell/lousy .• I'm fighting for breath. • I'm getting a bald 'patch .• I'm getting back on my feet. .. I'm getting back on my legs. • I'm getting back to normal. • I'm getting better> I'm getting over it. • I'm going bald .• I'm having a bit of trouble sleeping .

• I'm hoarse .• I'm improving, • I'm in therapy .• I'm incontinent, • I'm long-sighted/far-sighted .• I'm much better .• I'm not able to control my bladder and bowels .• I'm not feeling myself. • I'm not sleeping well. I'm off my food .• I'm on medication .• I'm on the road to recovery .• I'm out of the woods.· I'm pregnant. • I'm seeing spots (in front of my eyes) .• I'm short-sighted. • I'm sick. • I'm sick to my stomach, • I'm so dizzy I can't stand up. ,. I'm so dizzy I have to sit down. • I'm sorry to hear that. • I'm still seeing a doctor .• I'm still under a doctor's care .• I'm suffering from nits/lice/vermin. • I'm up every night .• I'm well now.
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• I've actually been very fit up till now .• I've been feeling a bit tired and

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weak. • I've been feeling a little down.· I've been having problems getting started while passing water. • I've been having these headaches for about a year now .• I've been in an accident .• I've been off food .• I've. been on a diet recently .• I've been sick for a day. '. I've been sick for two weeks. • I've been sweating a lot. - I've been taking aspirins, but the pain keeps coming back again. • I've been throwing up •• I've been troubled with bronchitis ever since I was born. • I've broken out in a rash .• I've bruised rny leg.·o I've bruised my shoulder, • I've come out in. a rash .• I've cricked my neck> I've done my back in. • I've gone off my food. • I've got a bad back. • I've got a bad chest .• I've got a bad dose of flu. • I've got a bad head .. • I've got a bad/terrible cough ... I've got a bit of a head-ache. • I've got a blister. • I've got a cartilage problem. • I've got a feeling of discomfort in my chest. • I've got a gassy stomach. • I've got a headache. • I've got a lot of wind. • I've got a migraine. • I've got a mole, and it's getting bigger in size ... I've got a nosebleed .• I've got a pain in my elbow .• I've got a pain in my heel. • I've got a pain in my left/right eye. • I've got a pain in my stomach ... I've got a pain under my ribs. " I've got a poor appetite. • I've got a rash ... I've got a runny nose. • I've got a sore throat. • I've got a splitting headache. • I've got a splitting/terrible/bad headache .• I've got a stiff neck. • I'vegot a stinging sensation. I've got a stye .• I've got a tickle in my throat. • I've got a tingling sensation in my fingers .• I've got a weak bladder. • I've got a wheezy chest .• I've got acne/spots/pimples ... I've got an overgrown toenail. .. I've got badly sunburned. • I'vegot blisters .• I've got blotches all over my skin. • I've got body odour .• I've got catarrh .• I've got chilblains in my toes ... I've got constipation. • I've got cramp in my thigh. • I've got dandruff. .. I've got diarrhoea. .. I've got earache .• Tve got eyestrain. • I've got frostbite. • I've got heartburn. • I've got indigestion ... I've got itchy eyes .• I've got morning sickness ... I've got mouth ulcers, • I've got piles. • I've got red eye .• I've got ringing! banging in my ears •• I've got sensitive skin .• I've got something in my eye .• I've got spots on my nails .• I've got stabbing pains in my stomach. • I've got stiff shoulders. it I've got stomach upset/tummyache .• I've got stomach-cramps .• I've got sweaty palms. • I've got swelling of the ankles. • I've got swollen ankles. • I've got swollen glands .• I've got swollen gums .• I've got terrible constipation. • I've got the runs. • I've got these bumps on my skin. • I've got this terrible pain for more than a week now .• I've got to get some relief.· I've got warts on my hands. e I've got wax in my ears. • I've got wind .
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• I've had a temperature all day. • I've had this before. • I've injured my knee. • I've lost my voice. • I've never had chicken pox. • I've noticed blood in my urine .• I've pulled a hamstring muscle .• I've pulled a muscle in my leg .• I've pulled/twisted a muscle in my back. • I've pulled/twisted a muscle in my shoulder •• I've really been off food this last week .• I've snapped a tendon in my thigh .• I've sprained/turned my ankle. • I've strained my elbow. • I've strained/wrenched my ann badly. • I've tom a ligament. • I've twisted/strained my wrist. • I've

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twisted my ankle. • I've wrenched/strained my back.

• If I eat, it gets better. • If I lie down for a: while, the. pain seems togo away: • 'If I stop for a bit, 'the pain goes away: • If I take a deep breath or cough, it's really sore .• Is it cancer? • Is it catching? • Is it curable?· Is it malignant? • Is it serious? • Is it treatable? • Is there any real cure for head-aches? • Is there anything broken?
o It burns when I go to the bathroom .• It gets worse and worse, and then it goes away. • It hurts after I eat." It hurts'here.· It hurts when I breathe .• It hurts when I do this. • It hurts when I move about. • It hurts when I run. • It is nothing serious .• It keeps bleeding. • It stings. • It will get better of its own accord .• It won't stop bleeding. • It's a dull sort of ache. • It's a dull, throbbing pain. o It's a gnawing kind of pain. • It's a sharp stabbing pain .• It's red and puffy. • It's been going around .• It's like a heavy weight pressing on my chest .• It's like a knife .• It's like it never happened.

all

• My allergies are acting up .• My ankles have been swelling. • My ankle gave. • My ankle is swollen .• My ankle is swollen and painful. • My ankles are swollen .• My ann hurts when I move it like this. • My back aches/throbs .• My back hurts. • My back is painful/throbbing .• My back is sore. • My back's bad .• My back's giving me a bit of trouble. • My back's killing me .• My chest feels raw inside. • My chest's bad. • My ear aches .•. My ear'sdischarging/running .• My ears feel bunged up.> My ears hurt when it's noisy> My eye teeth are agony: • My eyelid flickers. • My eyes are itchy. • My eyes are puffy. • My eyes are red; cloudy. • My eyes are sore. • My eyes are bloodshot .• My eyes are swollen .• My eyes are watering a lot. • My eyes hurt in bright light ... My eyes hurt/ache .• My eyes itch .• My face is blotchy/spotty .• My fingers are numb .• My fingers tremble a lot. • My foot keeps going to sleep .• My glands are swollen .• My gums are bleeding .• My gums are swollen. • My gums bleed at times .• My hair's falling out/dropping out/coming out .• My hair's greasy/dry/brittle. • Myhair's infested (with lice). • My hands are hot/cold .• My hands are sweaty. • My hands feel cold .• Myhands have started shaking. • My head aches .• My head hurts. • My head is killing me. My head is pounding .• My head is throbbing .• My head's aching. My heart keeps missing a beat. • My heart/stomach keeps fluttering .• My knee hurts. • My knees are stiff. • My left arm has gone numb .• My leg is sore. • My lips are bruised/cracked/flaky. -My lips feel sore/swollen/numb .• My lungs are clogged up. • My motions are hard. • My motions are loose and constipated ..• My mouth feels dry • My nails break off/chip easily. • My neck aches. • My nose is blocked/bunged up .• My nose is dogged. • My nose is congested .• My nose is itchy. • My nose is red/sore .• My nose is swollen .• My nose is stuffed up .• My nose is stuffy .• My nose keeps running .• My palms are sweaty. • My scalp itches. • My scalp's flaky. • My shoulder hurts a bit. • My shoulders ache. • My shoulders are sore/stiff. • My sinuses ache. • My sinuses are acting up: • My . sinuses are bothering me .• My sinuses are congested .• My skin is breaking out .• My skin itches. • My skin itches whenever I eat shrimp.
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• My skin's cracking and weeping. • My skin's flaky/dry, • My skin's , peeling/flaking.· My skin's turned yellow. • My stomach is funny. • My stomach rumbles .• My stool is well formed. • My stool/excreta is runny/loose/watery. • My throat aches. • My throat is inflamed .• My throat is painful when I swallow. • My throat's a bit dry. • My throat's sore .• My tongue is furry/numb .• My tongue's black/white/yellow. • My tongue's furry/coated .•• My tooth aches. • My tooth's giving me hell. • My urine is yellowish/reddish .• ' My vision's. blurred.· My voice is croaky. • My voice is hoarse (and rough) ". My weight has fallen .• My weight has picked up again .• My wisdom tooth's erupting/impacted. • Please give me a thorough examination. • Sometimes I get a bit of indigestion .• The cut is healed .• The flu has been bothering me for two or three days. • The headache seems to come on suddenly. • The headaches started about three months ago.> The indigestion comes on only if I have a hot curry. • The medicine was no good .• The pain comes on slowly • The pain comes on suddenly .• The pain goes down my right leg. • The pain has eased off a bit. • The pain is getting worse and worse .• The pain was so bad I couldn't breath .• The pain's keeping me awake at night .• The results should be back in a week. • The room spins when I get up suddenly. ·'The room's spinning. • The swelling has disappeared .• The swelling is getting larger. • The teeth at the back of mymouth are giving me trouble. • 'the tooth's playing up a bit. • There is a numbness in my arm .• There's a cramp in my heck. • There's a crick (= a muscle spasm) in my back. • There's a hammering inside my head. • Things are looking up .• This cold is causing me great discomfort .• This problem runs in the family· This started a week ago. • This tooth hurts me.
o What are the chances of a full recovery? • What are the fees for a visit? • What are you going to do about it? • What can you do about insomnia? • What could be wrong? • What do you recommend for my cold? • What is the most effective remedy for this? • What's the cause of my problem? • What's theprognosisv > When I cough, it hurts the most. • When I move, I stagger .• When I wake up at night, I'm drenched in sweat .• When I wake up at night, my whole body shakes. • Which way round is the baby lying? • Will this illness last very long? • Will my insurance cover this?

Patients speaking about their mental state
Pick up each word group and utter it ALOUD
-

several times. Practise

uttering the word groups until you can utter each of them with a ready flow. After that, come back to the word groups once a week (at least for 3 or 4 weeks at a stretch) and repeat uttering them several times ~ ALOUD.
• I'm depressed/edgy/fed upset/unhappy/weepy the end of my tether/out
>

up/irritable/listless/moody/miserable/nervy/ I feel down in the dumps/under the weather/at of sorts. • I can't cope. • I can't go on. • I've

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had enougn.> I always have an uneasy feeling,' Everything seems to irritate me ... I get easily irritated. • I feel hateful about everything. • I've become very short-tempered .• I'm in no mood to do anything .• I'm afraid to go out. • I don't feel myself. • I'm always brooding .• My memory is going ... Nothing seems worth bothering about any more ... I h,ave difficulty in remembering things, • I have no confidence in myself. • I've been hearing voices. Ii I've been timid since I was a child .• I'm always on edge .• I worry about little things. • My nerves are bad. • I feel hopeless .• I'm in .a constant state of anxiety. • I can't get to sleep .• I suffer from insomnia. • I can't wake up in the mornings .• AlII want to do is sleep. ~ I have nightmares, • I keep having bad dreams .• I snore. • I talk in my sleep .• I walk in my sleep.

General
Here are some word groups of general nature about health and ill~ ness. I felt it better to group them separately

Pick up each word group and utter jt

ALOUD - several times. Practise uttering the word groups until you can utter each of them with a ready flow. After that, come back to the word groups once a week (at least for 30t 4 weeks at a stretch) and repeat uttering them several times - ALOUD.

• AIe you all right? • Are you feeling OK? • AIe you OK? • AIe you ill? • Do you feel all right? • Do you know a good dentist? • How's your doctor.? • Is she getting better? • Is the food as bad as they say? • Should I call a doctor? • Should I call for the nurse? • When are you being released? • When are you going home? • When do you get to go home? • When is your baby due? • Will she survive the operation? • Call the doctor if the temperature goes up .• Don't give it to me .• Have you seen a doctor? • He doesn't look very well. • He feels run down, but he is not in any pain .• He fell off a ladder. • He has a severe back-ache. • He has been stung by a swarm of bees. • He has difficulty in passing his motions. • He has got a little heavier .• He is long-sighted .• He looks great. • He looks much better .• He looks very healthy .• He looks very pale .• He must be taken to hospital. • He twisted his ankle .• He was in a fight and got his head hurt .• He was struggling for breath .• He's at the top of his form .• He's in top form. • He's looking good. • He's the picture of health .• His doctor gave him a dean bill of health .• His ears discharge frequently. • His illness got worse. • His tummy is swollen. • I brought you some candy.' I brought you some flowers.- I came as soon as I heard. • I got here as soon as I could. • I still have to go back to the doctor for a follow-up .• Is there anything I can do? • Let's hope you soon get over it. • Nobody believed that he would recover. • She has got a pain in the shoulder. • She has hurt her wrist .• She tripped over on the pavement and twisted the ankle, • She'll be OX • You've to

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come into the .hospital for a few days .• It is.ably a sprain-nothing serious. • It'll be gane by tornorrow> It'll go away soon .. .~ You don't look so good (informal) ... You don't look too good (infermal). YOl,1 don't look (very) well. You have nothing to fear .• You looka little peaked.· You look a sight. ~..You look dreadful. • You look fit as a fiddle. • You look flushed. • You lank good.· You look green around the gills .... You look like death .• (informal) You look like hell. • You look like you need some sleep .• You look pale .• You look terrible. • YQu 10Dktired. You would be back to normal in a few days. • You'll get over itsoon .• You1rea sight.> You're looking really-good .• You're looking well. • You're. white as aghast. ;,You've been running around too much, • You've lost.some weight. • Your colour is good.
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Speech initia·tors in educ~ted circles
Imagine that you're talking in your mother tongue to a lO-year.old boy whose mother tongue is the.same as yours. Or imagine speaking in your mother tongue to an adult foreigner whose knowledge ofyour mother tongue is only that of a junior level learner; (but who is as intelligent and educated as you are), Notice the standard of.language you use - the vocabulary items you use, the structures you use, the way you organize a series of idea units into a text. Now imagine that you're talking to a person who has very good knowledge of your mother tongue. Notice the standard of language you use - the vocabulary items you use, the structures you use,the way you organize a series of idea units into a text. You see, isn't the standard of language you use when you speak to the native-speaker boyar the adult foreigner (of mere junior level proficiency) quite different from the standard of language you use when you speak to the person who knows your language very well? When you speak toa person who has an advanced level proficiency in your language, don't you use vocabulary 'items, structures and organizational techniques that show a higher level of knowledge of the language than when you speak to the native-speaker boy or the adult foreigner of mere junior level proficiency? (Of course, when you're speaking to the adult foreigner, the content of what you say will have more depth and will show more knowledge of the world than when you're speaking to the boy, because the foreigner you're speaking to is an adult and as intelligent as you are).

How do people judge you?
You have to understand one thing here. Children don't

usually judge

21 you by the standard of the language you use when you speak. But others do. Others always take into consideration the standard of the language you use and form an opinion about you. They use the standard of language you use as a measure to decide about your worth, calibre.etarus, level of education, culture and things of that kind. So you see, you must take care to see that your language has all the marks of education and culture in it. At the same time, it must have all the simplicity, .plainness and straight-forwardness of the kind of language you use when you speak to an adult foreigner of a junior or intermediate level proficiency in the language you're using. Otherwise, what you say wouldn't sound natural, but pompous, pedantic and bookish. And people would then judge you as someone who doesn't know "howto speak", That's why it's important that you must take care to master only the right kind of word groups and the right way of putting them together. You know, the word groups you get in the various Lessons in this course have all been hand-picked with these things in mind. And the patterns, structures and organizational techniques you've been taught through this course are those that are best suited to make what you say sound natural, simple and direct. And so you can continue practising them with an easy mind.

The way to sound educated and cultured
Intensive research studies into scores and scores of natural, educated talks have revealed one thing: There are a few word groups that are generally found as skeletons of educated speech. These word groups give your language an aura of education and culture - without making it sound pompous or pedantic. Let's now look at some of the commonest of these word groups and do some intensive practice With them. First, I'll give the word groups by taking them out of their contexts. Practise them in isolation by saying them ALOUD again and again. Repeat saying them ALOUD till you can say each of them as you'd say a single word - without faltering. After finishing that stage of practice, go through those word groups in their contexts. You'll find them used in their contexts later in this Lesson.

Image-building word groups
Here are the word groups you should practise now:
• It seems so absurd." • I suppose you ate ... • It always makes me uncomfortable ...• I thought you might like to know ... • It's no good ...

22
• I'm delighted you could ... • It's extraordinary how • I only hope that when ...• I never find that .... • It's nice of you to • What is so awful is the way, ..• It has helped to make ... • It ruins one's ... • It sounds absurd to hear you • It's hateful to." • I am only astonished that ... • I'in sick of hearing • I've been so looking forward to ... • I suppose it's difficult for ... ' We'llbe delighted ... 'I Can assure you ... • If you'll be kind enough to ... • I was wondering if.., • I can't understand why .... It's simply maddening .... I think it's very lucky that. ... It's really great of you to .... I really am delighted to .... I hate the thought that. I can't think where I can't-imagine what.. .• The worst ofit is that It's cruel of you I don't feel like ... • Have you ever thought • Itwouldn't be very nice if... ' It wasn't your fault iL. • r shouldn't be surprised if. ..• I'm.not so silly as to think thar..; • What makes it so unfair is .. , • 1 only feel sorry that ..... I've often seen ... • It'd be a comfort to her to ... • I've always wanted to .... It didn't seem as if.. .• It makes me so happy that.. .• I should be a perfect fool if.I didn't know that .... I am determined that. ... It is wonderful being ...• I am awfully sorry not to.,. • 1don't think it would ...• It has been such a-comfort to ...• It doesn't sound as if... • It is a real pleasure for me to ... • It looks as if... • I was delighted at the thought of... • You've no idea how .... I came round to ask if ... • What always interests me is the way ... • I was quite certain that ... • 1thought it was splendid ... • It distressed me to ... • It makes me proud to think that. .. • It is terribly unkind of you ...• It seems to me the best thing would be ...• I'm growing tired of ...• It strikes me that ... • It's very wonderful how .... It's a pity that." • I don't think much of... • He behaved as if..; • It's always a pleasure for me to ... • It really was nice of you to ...• I'm always happy when ...• - How right you are to ... • You can't think what a comfort it'd be for me to .... It has been a comfort to... • I quite agree that..; ' It is too bad of you tc.,; • I've often thought that., .• You are lucky I am not ... • I've every right to ... • I can't tell you what a pleasure it is ... • You must think me a ...• 1. see you are quite determined to ... I It'll be so much easier if ... • It must be awful having to ... " You needn't have the smallest fear that. ..• It is such a bore ...• I can't believe that ....• I hate to think that. .. • It must be very tiresome to .... I thought it was a pity to .... Sometimes I wonder if .... It must be interesting ... • It wouldn't have been nice to ... • 1can see that ...• I would have given almost anything not to ... • It looks as if.... It is certainly nice to ... • I'm glad you'll. ..• It's comfoning to see ...• I really don't know what has .... It isn't as if...• It would be very sad if... • I can't tell you how distressed I was ... • I hadn't the smallest intention of. ..• They looked as if.. , • I really don't know what has ... ' What a relief that ...• It's no good ... • It's good to ... • I bet they all ..~ • It gives me a little thrill when I think that .... I've always envied .... We felt so mean having to ... • I never thought I'd actually ... • I'm sure it is ... • It is absurd that.i, I I think it was very funny ... • There's no reason why you shouldn't ...• I wonder if you realize what it was to .... It seems very difficult to .... •

23
We;vebeenhaving ... • I felt sure you.,.' It's funny ..... It's lovely to ..•, e I thought it might amuse you to .... ·I gather there.has been some ... e I feel that ... • You really can't expect ...• I am glad to see .. , • It seems so unfair that ... '0' I think ...• Iris a mercy ... • It seems to me so pathetic that ... • em so sorry you couldn't. .. • I don't think it'd .. , • I think it'd be awfully unfair if ... • Youdon't know how sick I'm of ... • Perhaps the truth is that I never knew you had .... The trouble is...• He had an awful time Itis rather bitter to-find.. .• I think it was.absurd of me to." .. It sounds rather funny to hear you.. ," It is no good pretending ... " I thought it rather a relief ... • I can't bear to think that ..... It is idiotic to .... You don't know what it is to .... It's not just because ..... I wonder if.it wouldn't be better.,. • Lreally must ... =You've been used to.... I didn't dare .... It'll be fun .... I do think it is hateful the way ...

Image-building word

grQUPS

in use

Have you practised the word groups the way I suggested? Are you now able to say those word groups smoothly and easily without faltering? Have.yourorgans of speech become very familiar With those word groups? If 'yes', let's go ahead, If nat, go back and do some more practice, and then we'll gci ahead. Go through the material you'll find below, and you'll know how the word groups we've seen just now are used in everyday conversations. You won't find the word groups in the same serial order as above. The serial order has been changed purposely. You must take each word group from thy list above, and locate it in the material below. In this way; you must locate, and. underline, the word groups in the materials given below. Also, tty and find out if any of the word groups have been left out. Locating the word groups in this way - that is very important. It goes a long way in getting the word groups to become part of your active vocabulary. So spend as much time as you need in locating-the word groups.

an

I want to point out an important thing: As I've already told you in earlier Lessons, many people have great difficulty starting a new topic or sub-topic. This is because wordgroups that can act as openings don't readily occur to them. All the initiator word groups you've seen just now would be of great help here. You see, they have all been carefully selected to give you the best possible training in opening a new sub-topic. And they're all productive wordgroups.iand can help generate .0. large number of idea units.You can see that they would be of great help to you in beginning to express' several common ideas. Get to know them very well, and you'll find that they can see you through a number of situationssafely So restassured that the time you spend practising these word .groups would be time Wisely spent.

24

Here are the word groups in use:
• It's ten years now since we quarrelled. It seems so absurd to bear grudge after all that time. • After ali, he is your husband. It sounds so absurd to hear you can him "uncle" .• I like him very much. It's no use pretending that 1 don't.> I suppose you are still under training. • It must be awful having to live in such a congested house as this. • It's extraordinary how film-actors keep young .• It doesn't sound as if he enjoys our company at all. Is that the way he behaves always? • I've often seen your photographs in the papers. But I never thought I'd actually be meeting you .• When I play cards. I keep talking. I never find that conversation interferes with my game. • I'm sure it'll be all right when the doctor comes. You mustn't upset yourself. • It wouldn't have been nice to go without saying good-bye to the host . • It wouldn't be very nice if we didn't give him a cup of tea .• It ruins one's health when one doesn't take any rest at all. • I can see that you are leading a happy life. You needn't tell me that .• It's certainly nice to get out of your surroundings once in a while for a change .• I think it's very lucky that tomorrow is a holiday. • I am determined that something must be done to put a stop to the whole thing at once .• It really was nice of you to find time to come. • I thought it was splendid to move about with-these high officials. • You can't think what a comfort it would be for me to know that he is well. • It strikes me that he is planning to make off without paying us. • .I gather there has been some little difficulty. May I help you? • It didn't seem as if I could reach here at all. The car was breaking down every now and then. • I was delighted at the thought of seeing you again after such a long time. • I am delighted you could come. I've been so looking forward to meeting you. - I wonder what plans they have made to receive him. • r am not so silly as to think that just because a man and a woman are seen together, it is necessary to believe the worst about them. • Sometimes I wonder if he is not cheating us. • It's a mercy I didn't start earlier. If I had, I'd have got drenched in the rain. • I quite agree that I was a little shocked at first. But I recovered soon enough. • I never knew he had such a fine sense of humour .• I don't feel like eating. I have an indigestion .• I can't bear to think that I'll have to live without you. • I hate to think thad made you unhappy, • I should be a perfect fool if r didn't know that he, was making fun ofme, • I think it is terribly unkind of you to say such bad things about me. • It's no good going over aU that again. I heard you the first time. • I have made up my mind to go away. You can't persuade me to stay on .• I hate the thought that you might be unhappy • It always makes me uncomfortable when people thank me .• You don't know how sick I am of all these luxuries. I don't want luxury I was quite certain that he was not going to come. I think it would be awfully unfair if I didn't do this small help to you. • It's such a bore there are no newspapers to read. • I brought this album, because 1 thought it might amuse you to see our old photographs. • I am so sony you couldn't have a second chance. -It is
A

25
always interesting moving from place to place, isn't it? • I bet they all

will be jealous of you .• I don't remember that I ever told you about all
these things .• I don't like to grow old. It's hateful to grow old, isn't it? • I hope we haven't forgotten anything. • I only feel sorry that he should have gone without saying a word to me .• I really am delighted to make your acquaintance .• You are lucky I am not in a bad temper. Otherwise I'd have smashed your head .• It seems to me the best thing would be for him to resign .•. But lcan't understand why he didn't come to me before .• I only hope that he won't fail in the exams. I don't hope for more. • I think you've made a mistake. • There's no reason why you shouldn't enjoy as much as you want, • I don't think much of these politicians who run after rich people for money. • It's really great of you to take me to' all these places ... It'd be very sad ifyou just followed your impulses like this. Use your head, instead .• The partners are not on talking terms. I shouldn't be surprised if they broke up the partnership one day. ~ It will be fun taking them to all the important places here. • If anything happens, she has me to turn to. It would be a comfort to her to know that .• How right you are to realize that he is not trustworthy. w I am always happy when somebody gives mea present .• We felt so mean having to refuse her request .• You needn't have the smallest fear that I'll make a nuisance of myself, I want to stay here only for a few days. • I am glad to see that everything worked out the way we had planned. the smallest intention of saying anything to wound you. I'm dreadfully sorry for what I said .• You make me feel an awful swine. The worst of it is that what you say is entirely true.'> What always interests me is the way you get out of scrape after scrape. • It is comforting to see that everything went so smoothly. • .1 thought it was a pity to get out of bed, because it was such a lovely day. • I really must go and receive him ~ or he'll never forgive me. • I don't think it would do to ask him horne when we are having visitors. • I can't think where I left my pen. I looked for it everywhere .• It's a real pleasure to me to know a nice girl like you .• We'll be delighted if you'll lunch with us .• I can assure you that r am a good enough driver to drive this car .• It's lucky you didn't get in that bus. It broke down on the way. • She looked as if she would burst into tears on the smallest provocation .• I am sure it's nothing to worry about. Nothing good comes out of worrying too much. • The great thing is not to let emotions dictate you .• I see you are quite determined to marry that girl. When is the marriage going to be?
• I hadn't

'it

• It's very wonderful how he has made his way up to this position. He had nothing very much to help him. • I always wanted to live in the countryside .• I was wondering if I could stay here tonight .• I am growing tired of him telling me about his illness. His illness is the only subject he speaks about. • I wonder if it wouldn't be better that she never did find out the truth. She would get a shock if she did .• It isn't as if those thieves needed money. They stole the money just for some excitement. • I feel that it's not right to go there without an appointment. • It has been a comfort to me to talk things over with you. I hope

26
there's no misunderstanding. • I am glad you will be coming here on leave soon .• It'snice of you to praise me like this .• It is wonderful being admired by others, isn't it? • It's lovely to see you all again. • It has been nice of you to give us your advice. It has helped to make things easy. • r think it was very funny, his going without saying good-bye to anyone .• r can't believe that I've got back home. • I've always envied people who could write novels. • I suppose it was absurd of me to take his consent for granted. • I really-don't know what has happened to him. He hasn't come back yet .• He hasn't seen you since he was born. You really can't expect him to recognize you. • It'll be so much easier for me to face any problem if you are with me.
e You've been used to a certain amount of luxury, and 1 don't know what you'd do without.moneynow .• You've no idea how eagerly we've been waiting for you. • It's too bad of you to sneak away without telling anybody like this." It seems very difficult to get a few minutes alone with you. You're so busy. • It's nice to see you after such a long time.' ~ It's good to be in one's own house. One doesn't feel like a fish Out of water at least there. • It seems so unfair that this misfortune should happen to me .• What a reliefthat all the work is overt > It looks as ifhe is going to get that job. His interview went off very well .• It's idiotic to sacrifice your.life for a slushy sentiment .• We've beenhaving a good time at the party until just now .• It seems to me so pathetic that she and her sister wouldn't recognize each other.> He behaved as if he was far superior to us .• It was a stupid risk to take. Yet he managed to slip a note into the prisoner's pocket. • It gives me a little thrill when I think that she sacrificed her life for him. It makes me proud to think that I have such an important person as you as my friend .• It's not just because you are awfully pretty that r love you. It's also because I like the way you behave.

• I do think it is hateful the way you discuss my private affairs with others .• I felt sure you were going to strike him .• I've often thought that he was a gocd-fcr-ncthing fellow; 1 have no hesitation in confessing it .• It's cruel of you not to give me a chance to talk with him. • If you are kind enough to wait a moment, I'll call him .• It's tiresome to have to talk about the same thing day after day .• I can't tell you what a pleasure it is that you could come. • I didn't dare make a scene, because my husband would never have forgiven me .• I can't tell you how distressed I was at the terrible scene she made before others. • I came round to ask if you could lend me some money • You don't know what it is to live on a very measre income. • It distressed me to see those people living in poverty. • I have every right to stay in this place .• He hasn't been selected to the post. What makes it so unfair is that a man with lesser qualifications has been selected .• He is such a fool. I can't imagine what you see in him .• You can't imagine the troubles he has gone through to raise his children .• It's simply maddening when you want to sit alone and people won't leave you alone. • It's a pity that you can't think of a way to get around this problem. • It's always difficult when you live some distance away from your office, isn't it? • You had

27
an awful time finding a new place to.stay, hadn't you? • Please stop talking about the sacrifices you have made. I am sick of hearing them, • It makes me so happy that you are getting on well, • I never thought I would actually get to know you in person .• It is funny we should feel so exhausted. After all, we have only been out fora walk. o It sounds rather funny to hear you blame her like this, You have been doing the same thing, and you are not blaming yourself .• I wonder if you realize what it was to work under the shadow of a scandaL· It's rather bitter to find your closest friends ignoring you. • I suppose it's difficult for the young to realize that they would get old, too .• It wasn't your fault if you didn't care for me. I know L wasn't a good sort. • I am dreadfully sorry I sent such a nasty letter. Once I posted it, I became awfully uneasy. I would have given almost anything not to have posted it. • I thought it rather a relief when the interview was over. But they again called me for another test.> You must think mea perfect swine if you think I am going to smash up their marriage. e I am awfully sorry not to remember you, but 1 am delighted to meet you. • It must be interesting living in the town, I suppose? • What is so awful is the way he ignores us .• I thought you might like to know that the prisoners have escaped. • I am not astonished that these things didn't happen before. Read each word group ALOUD several times. Read them ALOUD till you cart say them with a flow and without any hesitation. But there's no need to learn them QY heart. The important thing is to get to know the word groups so Wen that they stop looking and sounding strange to you.

Adjective + noun
This is the last (fourth) instalment of the collection of "adjective noun" combinations. You've already done practice with 3 other instalments - the Ist instalment in Book 6, the 2nd instalment Book 10 and the 3rd instalment in Book 11.

+
in

Pick up each word group and utter it several times each word group as though you're uttering

ALOUD. Utter 'a single word.

T
• a tactful answer. • a tactful reminder. • a tactless thing (to say) .• a talented dancer .• talented musician .• a tall boy .• a tall person. • a tall tree. • a tame lion .• a tame pigeon .• a tanned face. • a tape measure . • a tasty meaL • tattered wallpaper. • tatty clothes. • a tatty old bag .• the teaching profession .• the team trainer . > a technical term .• a temporary break. • a temporary building. • a tempting cake. • a tenacious interviewer. • tender feelings. • a tender spot (on her shoulder) .• a tense moment. • a tense person. • tepid lemonade. • a

28
terrible hurricane. • a terrible racket. • a terrible row .• a terrible headache. • terrible traffic. a terrible tragedy. • terrible weather. • terrible winds. • a terrible clamour .• a terrific idea .• terrific news .• a terrific singer ... a terrifying experience .• a tetanus injection. • textile design .• thick material. • a thick sweater. • a thick blanket. • a thick frost. • a thick paste. • a thick person. • thick smoke. • thick soup. • thin string. • a thin face .• a thin woman. • a thin drizzle .• a thoughtful answer. • a thoughtful boy. • a thoughtful description. a thoughtful present. • a thoughtless act. • thoughtless comments. • a thoughtless remark· a thoughtless thing {to say) .• a thoughtlesswoman, °a thoughtless action .• three-dimensional object. • thrilling rides. • a thriving business, • a throbbing tooth. • a tidy classroom, • ,a tidy cupboard. • a tidy room. • a tight collar. • tight jeans. • a tiled roof • a timid smile .• a timid boy. • a tin shack .• a tiny hut. 0 a tiny mark .• a tiny child. • tiny shoes. • a.tinywoman. °a tiny dot. • a tiny baby. • a tiring walk. • a toothpaste advertisement. °a top actor .• a top athlete. • top quality. the top scorer. • (at) top speed.v topical issues .• the total amount .• total darkness .• total destruction .• total nonsense. • total irresponsibility .• a total transformation .• a total write-off, a tough guy. • a tough kid. • tough leather .• tough meat. • a tough problem .• a tough teacher .• a tough test .• the tourist trade. • a towering mountain.a towering peak. • the town library. • toxic waste . • a toy car. • a toy dog. • the train terminus. • a trained seal. • a tranquil scene .• transparent plastic. • a trash can .• a travel permit. • a treasure chest .• a tree trunk. • a tremendous performance. • tremendous skill, • a tremendous triumph .• trendy boots. °a trial drive (of the new car). • the tribal headman .• the triumphant team .• trivial conversations .• a tropical rainforest .• a troubled sleep .• a true scholar. • a true report. • a true story. • a trustworthy friend. • a trustworthy person. e a trustworthy salesman. °a truthful statement. • a truthful story. e a tubby teddy bear. • a TVpersonality.· twin towns .• a typical day (at work). • a typical day (in my life) .• a typical day. • a typical Sunday.
0 0,

a

0

0

u
• an ugly mug.· an ugly fate. an unattractive man, • an unbelievable price .• an unbelievable result. • an unbiased referee. • an unbroken pony. • an unclear sign. • (in) an uncomfortable position ... uncomplicated advice. • an uncomplicated toy. • uncontrolled behaviour. • . uncooked meat. uncultivated moorland. • undercooked potatoes. • undercooked meat. • an undercover agent. • an underground passage .• an. undersized dog. • an understanding friend .• an uneasy silence. • uneducated children, • an unethical thing (to do), • an uneven football pitch .• an uneven number .• an unexpected storm. • an unexpected visitor .• an unexpected Win. • an unfashionable coat. • unfenced moorland. • an unfinished drawing. • an unforgiving boss .• an unfortunate day. "an unhappy boy • unhappy children .• an unhealthy climate. • an unheated classroom. • unheated rooms. • an unhurried
Q

0

29
look (round the place), • unimportant details.· an uninhabited island. • an unintelligent boy·an uninteresting book. • an uninteresting lesson. • a unique opportunity. • an unjust punishment. • unkind tteatment.· an unkind boy. • unkind men..> an unkind thing (to say) •• unkind treatment .• an unlucky number .• unmatched socks. " unmistakable orders. • unnecessary work .• an unpleasant person .• an unpleasant smell, • unpreserved meat. ~ an unreal experience, • unreliable brakes. • unreliable data. • an unruly child. • unruly children. • an unsafe building .• an unselfish friend .• an unselfish girl. • tinspolit countryside: • unsuitable shoes for walking. "an unsympathetic teacher: • an untamed cat. " unthinking cruelty. • an untidy page. • an untidy room. o an untrue statementvan untrustworthy neighbour. "an untrustworthysalesman, • an untrustworthy statement, • an unused pencil. "an unusual phrase ... an unusual boat.· an unusual car. ~ an unusual ending.· an unusual taste. • an unusual breed (of dog). Ii uphill work, • the upper branches; .. an upset stomach. ~ art up-to-date .dictionary, " an up-to-date map .• an urban area .• an. urgent message .• an urgent phone call.> a used car.• a useful hint. • a useful tip .• a useful gadget, • useful.information. • 3 useful lesson. • a useful penknife, • a useful tool. Ii a useless journey. a useless ornament. " useless presents. ,. the usual moans,· the usual bus. - my usual desk. • the usual tIme .• my usual way horne.> the usual way (to do it). • utter chaos ... utter confusion .• utter despair.> an utter fool. • utter nonsense.
Ii

v
• a valid passport." a valuable old chest. • valuable help. " a valuable necklace .• a valuable ring .• a vegetable market .• avicious animal. • a vicious attack .• a vicious dog .• a vicious tiger. • the victorious pair, • vigorous exercise. • a vigorous old lady. • a violent.battle. • a violent criminal, • aviolent storm. 'a'visiting funfair, • vital fact. ~ a vital piece of information ..

w
·i:he wanted man .• the war years. ~ a warm afternoon. "3 warm bath,· • a warm bed. - warm firelight. .e a warm blanket.· a warm-hearted aunt .• a warm-hearted woman .• a warning sign .• a. warning signal. • a washed-out shirt. • waste ground, e a wastepaperbasket ... a waterless desert .• a waterlogged field .• waterproofja'cket. ~ watery eyes. • Weak arms. ·a weak cry» a weak position.> weak eyes. ·a wealthy Iawyer> wedding presents. • a wedding ceremony > a weird theory. a weirddream .• a weird experience.• a weird feeling. °a weird film. a weird plant. ;, a weird song ... a weird story .• a weird ,thing. '. a weird woman,· a welcoming smile.> a. well-behaved class. ~ well-behaved person .. • a well-built house .• a well-educated boy • awell-groomed man. • a well-known tune, • a well-known make. • a well-known TV presenter. • a well-known Writer .• awell-liked boy. .. a well-mannered boy. • a well-off family • a well-organized desk. • a well-organized kitchen. • well-paid work. • a well-trained team. • a wet region .• a wet
,8 8

30
morning; wet socks. • a wet area, awhile ago .• white stripes .o'a wicked sorcerer .• ' a wide pavernent.: .. a wide rivet. .. a wild shoreline. ;, a wild landscape. ~,'a, wild night. • a wild party; • a wild rat, a wild coastline. • endangering wild animals." his wild appearance ... awild beast. °a willing helper. - a wind shield. • a windy day. • winning marks (for the team). • a winning team. a wise old woman, • a witty remark. e a wob bly brick. • wobbly legs. '" ,.8. wonderfuloccasion. •a wonderful sight .• a wonderful new band, -a wonderful day.• a wonderful film. °a wonderful movie. °a wonderful party > a wonderful show.• a wonderful time. ,. a wonderful view .• a wooden hut. ·,a wooden seat. • a wooden fence. • woollen cloth. • a woolly jumper. • a world-class cricketer. -a worn-out coat. • (in) a worried state of mind. • a worried man .• a worthless 'report.:« a worthwhile. career. • a worthwhile point, • wrinkled hands. e. wrong information ..• the wrong
0 ,& 4 0

sort (of clothes).

'

y
• a bright yellow 'l-shirt, a yellow band. looks ... yummy ice cream.
0 '0

a young ,girl.· youthful

Phrasal verbs
By now you know how important it's to master phrasal verbs if you want to be able to speak English with a high degree of fluency, And

you've already done practice with a large collection of them. You know, you got the collection in 3 instalments: The 1st instalment in Book 6, the 2nd instalment in Book 10 and the3rd instalment in Book 11.
I'm now going to give you an additional collection -a collection of some more phrasal verbs. Follow the instructions I gave you in Book 6, and try and master these phrasal verbs too, Do drills with them exactly as you've done drills with the phrasal verbs in Books 6, 10

and 11. Db
• She refused to back down, though everybody took exception to what
she said (= to withdraw charges, accusations, claims, remarks, Soon the enemy forces started backing down. (= withdrawing). etc.). •

• All his efforts ended in failure. But he' soon bounce.d back (= recovered quickly).

• He was born of Christian parents but brOugn.t up (as) a Hindu .• Children must be brou.ght u.p to respect authority/the law. • Last night'S wind has brought that tall tree down .. (= made it to fall). • The footballer brought down his opponent with a foul. • Don't put those

31
things on the roof. The weight will bring down the ceiling. • The of position parties finally succeeded in bringing down the government. (= removing the government from power). • They've brought the party forward to Friday. Now we are free on Sunday (= advance) .• They couldn't bring forward any proof in support of the charges. (= produce). • The Government is planning to bring in a new law to prevent activities like these. (= introduce) .• His business brings in a huge profit every year. (= produces) .• They're planning to bring an expert/a specialist in on that job.

Cc
• I'm a little busy right now, Can you call ba~k later? (= telephone me again). • When he phoned, I wasn't at home, and I called him back as soon as I got back. (= returned the telephone call) .• thad forgotten my charge, and the sales assistant called me back .• At last, the rescuers decided to call off the. search. (= stop ... J. • The storm/sea has calmed down. (= become calm). • She went On in from and he caught up with her later C = reached where she was}, • Old age has caught up on him C= changed his OUtlook, way of life, etc.) .• Read this magazine -that'll help you catch up on the latest fashions (= get up-to-date with). • I can't come nowI have to catch up on/with some filing work/my studies/my reading/my homework. • I can't come hOW- I have to catch up on some filing work (= make extra efforts to complete this work). • We paid the bill and checked out (of the hotel) at 8 in the morning. (= left) .• Can you check out the prices? (= find out information about) .• Have you locked the door? Go back and check (up), will you? • The police have been checking up on him ("" investigating his background) .• I wanted to check up on how trustworthy he is (= investigate and find out). • How many candidates have you checked on so far? (= verified the background of). • Can you check on the score, please? (::: verify or confirm it) .• What he told us doesn't check up with certain things I know .• Your story doesn't check with the facts. • He cheered up when he saw her coming (= became happier) .• This news will cheer up everybody, I'm sure. (= make everybody happier and hopeful). • Doctor, is he coming along well? (= making progress). • Ask him to come down to me at once. There's something here I want to show him .• Her hair comes down to her waist. • Nobody liked what he said, and he came in/or a lot of criticism/blame. (= became the object of) .• It seems there was an earthquake this morning. News is just coming in. • This is a good plan, of course - but where do I come in? (= what role do I take on). • The way he handled the crisis came in for a lot of admiration/ criticism. • This question/matter may come up at the meeting tomorrow. (= may come to be considered) .• We werediscussing how to do it, and then his name came up. (= came to be mentioned) .• If an opportunity comes up,

32
I'll speak to him. (= occurs). • I can't take on any more staff now. Let some vacancies come up ( = arise). • The court case comes up tomorrow. (= will be dealt with in the court). • Be came up and shook hands with me. (= tame neat), • They started out before the sun came up. -We've come up against some new problems/difficulties. (= are faced with, .. ). • He/His name has come up forelection/re-election to the governing board. • The labour policy comes up for review this month .• Hecame up from the ranks and become a colonel. • Her daughter comes up to her chin/shoulder/hip/chest .• This yew's fair didn't come up to (my) expectations l= didn't reach the level expected]. • Her report hasn't come up to the mark (= hasn't reached an acceptable standard) .• He always comes up with one excuse or other (= produce's),

en

• I think she has cooled off towards him (= become less. excited towards) .• Cool off, will you? (= don't be so excited, be calm). • .After a few months, her love/passion for him began to cool off, (= become weaker). • Cross out these names/mistakes/items, will you? (:= delete them) . to reduce) .• This year, .. They've decided to cut back (on) productionf= we'll have' tocur our expensesdown(= reduce).

Dd
.. He became very depressed when he lost his job, and he even tried to do away with himself, (= kill ... ) ,. We must do away with all these restrictions (=::get rid of), • I'm looking for somebody to do up our house C= to modernize and restore it to good condition), • She did her room up with posters of film stars. (= made it attractive) .• She gave him a package done up in brown paper. (= wrapped ... ). • She put on make-up and a new dress, and did herself up for the party. (= made herselfattractive). • Be helped his wife do up her buttons at the back (= fasten). • His speech dragged on for hours. • Drink up. Let's go. (= finish drinking), • You haven't touched your milk? Drink it up, will you? (= finish that milk; drink all of it).

Ff
• We were responsible for this loss. Let's face up to this truth (= be honest and courageous and accept it). • What inspiration they had slowly faded (away/out), became weaker and disappeared),
(= gradually

.. The mud walls fell apart in the rain (= broke into pieces) .• Their partnership has faHen apart, I hear.

Gg
~ I can't get around like I used to - it's this arthritis .• I've been meaning to do it for some time now, but I could only get around to it

33
now ('--:.find the time for). • I was meaning to phone him, but I'never got around to it. ( "" didit). • At last, Igd.t: around to writinghima letter; 0; I've never got around to much travelling. • Fm thinking of getting away and spending a week or two by the seaside. • I can't get away from work now. I'll meet you in the evening. • The strain ofhis job has been too much for him ..He should get away from it all Let him spend a week or two at theseaside. • It W;lS a-serious offence, but luckily for him, he got away with a fine. (= managed to escape severe punishment). • If you steal money from the firm, you· won't get away with it. (= escape punishment) .• Somebody broke into his house and got.awaywith everything he had. (= stole and escaped With) .. • He got back only by evening. (==. returned). • He got down into the well to get the bucket back. ,; The boss was trying to get back at me, because I had picked an argument with him. (== punish me to have revenge for what I did).· Tcan'tgive you a reply over the phone. I'll get back to you after a few days, (= speak/write toyou in reply); • Excuse me, could.I get by? '(= pass; get past), • They only have their father's pension; But theyget by. (= manage/survive ... ). • She isn't-very beautiful, I.know But she has brains. And she'll get by. (= survive ... ; be successful in life ... ) .. e I wonder how they get by on so little.money, ~ We can't ge: by on just Rs.s,OOQ a month. This is a difficult jOb. But let's not put it off. I'll be: glad to get it Qver (= meet socially; meet for a discussion) .• They got together and decided to oppose the proposal (= 'mer.,..},
o

(with). (= finish doing it). • Let's get together sometime

• Who gave away the prizes? ("" distributed). • She told the police where we were hiding and gave us away. (= betrayed us) .• The burglar had disguised himself as a policeman, but someone in the bank recognized him and gave him. away. (= told others who he actually was). • He'll give away their secrets, I'm sure. (= tell the secrets to others). • We gave away all our old clothes. (= gave or distributed free of charge to others). . • That was Dr: John. He gave me back my eyesight. (= made it possible for me to regain ... ) .• Can anybody give her back her dead husband? (= make it possible for her to have him again), • Give me my pen back. (= return it to me). • How can you go back on your promise? (= fail to keep it). • He's gone down/round to the canteen for a cup of coffee. • I go in for reading! stamp collecting. (= reading/stamp collecting is my favourite pastime), • He really goes .in.for football. (= football is his favourite sport). • He has gone in for the law. (= chosen it as his career) . • The fire is going out. Bring some more firewood. • When did the light go out? (= stop shining) .• The fire has gone out (;= stopped burning), • Have those letters gone out to them yet? (= been sent). • I think long skirts have gone out. (= stopped to be fashionable) .• Most people used to like that style once. But it has gone out. • The fire has gone out .• The

34
candle flame flickered and went out. (= died) .• He hit her and she went out like a light (= became unconscious) .• When he saw the gun in her hand, all the fight went out oJ him. (= he no longer had any fight in him). • What's the use of going out of your way to get into trouble? • He's gone out on a business matter. (= left to attend to ... ).· She's been going out with him for about a year now. (= having a romantic and even sexual relationship with him) .

Hh
• You know how these newspaper reporters are. You can't hold them off for ever. Better meet them now. (= prevent them from meeting you and seeking information fromyou). • The border police held off the enemy till the regular army came (= prevented the enemy from defeating them), • Our soldiers. succeeded in hoMing the enemy forces/the attack off for a day. (= resisting, .. ) .• The meeting is to start at 3 o'clock. But he can hold it off for 10 or 15 minutes .• The rain held off for a few days. (= was delayed, it did not rain, did not occur). • The rebels held off for over a month. (= delayed their attack, did not attack).- Don't reject the offer outright. Can't you hold off (making) the decision for a week? C~ delay it).

Jj
• This is the second time he's jacking up her salary this year. (= raising). • Oh, I like this game. Can I join in? (= take part in it).

Kk
• He was ill and he kept away from work for a week (== did not go to work) .• Ask the children to keep away from the guests/the fire. (= not to go near);'> Keep away/back - those are dangerous rocks .• Keep him away-from there, will you? (= don't let him go there). • Keep him away from the guests .• This is poison. Keep it away from children. (:= keep it where children can't reach it) .• That roll of film - keep it away from the fire. • It's been ages since they came here. What's keeping them away? (= what's preventing them from coming here) .• The police found it difficult to keep the crowd away from the film stars/the scene of the accident. (= stop them from going near. .. ) . .; If only the rain kept off for a few more days! (= did not begin). • The doctor has advised him to keep away from alcohol/cigarettes/drink/fatty foods. (= not to drink. .. , eat.i ., smoke ... , etc.) .• Let's keep off (the subject of) politics - let's talk about something else .• His doctor has asked him to keep off solid foods and to drink plenty of fluids. - We've planted seeds in some parts of the fields, and we'll have to keep birds off those parts. • Don't keep the wet clothes wearing).
011 ~

you may catch a cold!

t=

continue

• His raincoat has a hood, and it keeps out wind and rain. • Keep out of the rain. (= avoid). • I don't know how to keep these boys out oj

35
mischief. (= ensure that they avoid). • Look, you must keep his name out of all this .
. 0'

You'!! have toknock: the powder out (of the tin) and then clean the 'tin. remove the powder from the tin and empty it by knocking it against something). • She had a bad experience last month, and it has knocked all the laziness out of her. (= caused her to lose it).

e=

u
• She's my sister -layoff her, I'm warning you. (=stop annoying, troubling or molesting her). • layoff bullying, can't you? (= stop) .• She has left out a few important words while copying the passage .• They left him out of the team. (= didn't include him In ... ). • Leave me out of your quarrels. (= don't include or mention me in). • Let's leave politics out of this discussion. • They levelled (off/out) the old house and built a new multi-storey building there. (= knocked it down). • The builders have just started levelling (off/out) the ground. (= making it flat). A few minutes after it took off, the plane levelled off/our. (= reached a horizontal level and started travelling at that level). " Cement prices have been going up steadily for some time now, and they still show no sign of levelling off.
0

• But towards the last pan of his career, he gave in to temptations and failed to live up to his high principles. (= reach the standard he had set for himself or is.expected of him) .• Be a man, and l.ive up to your responsibilities. • When is this year's annual meeting? I'm looking forward to it (;;; think about it or anticipate it with pleasure) .• Look out! There's a car coming. • He looked out across the paddy fields. • He was looking out fot his father. (= searching carefully for). • The train is a bit early today, isn't it? I have to look out for my grandfather. ("== watch Or search carefully for) .• He looked our of the window; • He stood there looking (Jut of the door for some time .• Our hotel looks out on the sea/the river.

Mn1
• Are you .going to get it typed by him? He'll mishandle it).

mess

it up. (= doh badly

00
• Be opted out of the committee. Pp
.. She waved at me and then passed on. (= walked forward without stopping). • He passed over the topic with.just a few words. (= avoided it or avoided to deal with it) .• Your hunch paid off. That wasn't his real name. • He got out of the taxi and paid off the driver. • That was a very good idea, and it paid off. (= succeeded, worked, produced the desired
(= chose not to take part in ... ).

36
effect). • I wasn't satisfied with his work, and I paid him off.· (= paid him his wages in full and terminated his service). • They've paid off their debts, (== repaid in full the money they owed, settled the debts) .• I had to take on extra work to payoff the bank loan.
o He didn't say what his opinion is. J tried hard, but I couldn't pin him down on it. (= get him to define his position) .• I have a feeling that we can't trust him. lcan't pin down why. (= define exactly).

• Plug in the kettle, will you? Let's make some tea. (= connect it with the electricity supply using a plug). • There were a few mistakes, and he pointed them out. (= directed a person's attention to them) .• Don't get me. wrong. I'm just pointing out things. . • The train pulled out at 2.3001' so. (== leave) .• Our bus pulls out from Secunderabad at 4 0' clock. • He has decided to pull out of active politics. (= withdraw from, retire from). " The accident happeried a few minutes after the train/bus had pulled out oJ the station .• She came running as the train was pulling out of the station. (= leaving) .• They .pulled her out of the water and rescued her. • He/The car pulled out to overtake. • Let's pull together and fight for human tights. (= combine our efforts and work together - using all our abilities). • Many people pushed by him. They were trying to crush into the front seats. (=moved past him by pushing him out of the way or by pressing against him). • Government servants are going to get an increase in their pay. And this will push up the price of everything. (=0. force the price of everything to increase at a steady rate), • He has been a mental patient for some time now. Last month, he turned violent and they had to put him away. (= keep him shut up in a mental home) .• He's got a tidy sum put away in the bank. (= saved), • He has already put away three plates of roast chicken, and he's asking for more, (=eaten). • He put away two bottles of beer and half a bottle of whisky. drank),

c-

• He put the book/glass down .• She saw him there, but she didn't know he was a Judge. She put him down as a clerk or something. C = took him to ber.> He was willing to use any dirty trick to put his critics <lown. (== silence) .• The conductor stopped the bus and put me down at the comer. (= allowed me to get off the bus). • I found her grandfather's behaviour a bit strange. But I put it down to his age. (= regarded it as being due to Or caused by). • (At a shop where you have an account): How much has the bill come to? Put it down to my account, will you? I> enter the amount in an account that you keep in my name]. • He put his success largely down to hard work • The meeting has been puijorward to this month. [= moved to this month (from a later month) - that Is.moved to an earlier month]. • Put in the money before dialling ..• They're putting in new plumbing in their house. (= installing). • I put ina few days reading up on the subject. (= spent) ... You've all the qualifications, don't you? Why don't

37
you put in an application (for this job)? (""submit or make).

• She spoke to him very rudely; and he was very put out by it. (= upset, annoyed) ... They arrived quite unexpectedly; and it put us out a bit. (= inconvenienced us; spoil our arrangements or make them difficult). • The anaesthetist put her out in a few seconds. (;=: made her unconscious). • Put out the light, will you? (= switch them off; make them stop working) .• After cooking the meal, we put the fire out. (== made the fire stop burning) .• Put that cigarette/fire/candle/light out. • Last week,he fell somewhere and put his knee out. t= dislocated) .• The police have put out a detailed description of the chief suspect. They've also offered a reward for information about him. (= issued the description to the general public) . . • He put together an essay, in half an hour. • He taught them to take the radio to pieces and to put it together, again. C= assemble, fit the parts together into a whole).

Rr
• He lets his emotion' run away with him. (= gain complete control e This new project runs away with a lot of money. (= uses up, consumes).

00.

• His car ran over a cat and killed it.• I'll meet you in half an hour. I want to run over my speech. (= read it or say it quickly - aloud or in my mind),

Ss
• He's saving (up) for a motor bike .• The only way to raise our profit is to scale our expenses down at least by 10%. (= reduce it by this proportion).. • Don't trust him. He won't hesitate to sellout to the competition. (= betray us; secretly sell important information to). • His daughter's wedding set him back more than Rs. 5 lakhs. (= cost him) .• The dinner party set him back quite a list .• Summer seems to have set in. (= begun and is likely to Continue). • Long skirts seem to have set in once again. (= they seem to be in fashion, and this fashion is likely to continue). • He then set out to revise for his exam. (= began working with the intention of completing the revision). • 'Our company has se.tupa private pension scheme. (::: instituted, started). • Once boundary stones are set up, they're regarded as sacred .• This school was set up in 1980. (= established, started). • Have you set up the flag? (== put it in an upright position). • After our dinner, we went to the Irving room and settled down to watch the Tv. (= made ourselves comfortable; sat down comfortably) .• Don't make so much noise. Be quiet, will you? Settle down and read something. ("'" become calm and quiet). • How long are you planning to remain unmarried like this?, Don't you want to settle down? (= marry and begin a responsible and stable married life). • After our dinner, we settled down to sleep in the tent. • He wanted to settle down in a job in his

38
home-town. (= establish himself permanently in). • He picked up a novel and.serried down in an armchair. (= sat down comfortably in)." He has settled down to his new job. (= become established in). " There's so much noise going on, I can't settle down to my work (= give my attention to). • We're planning to give a house-warming
(= moved into our new house and made ourselves comfortable

party when we've settled in. there) .

.. It took a few moments for the announcement to sink in. (= to be absorbed and fully understood). • I have been trying to smooth the crisis over. (= to make it less serious). • He started flattering her - he wanted to soften her up and sell some of his things to her. Most door-to-door salesmen are like that, I think. (= to weaken her resistance and to make her become kind to him - in order to persuade her) . • There's nothing/to worry about. The situation/problemwill sort itself out soon .• It'll take time for these things to sort themselves out .• After breakfast, he set to work sorting out hissafe/box/drawer, • So they've been telling lies to me. 1 think I'll have to sort them our then. (== deal with them; punish them). • I think he has gor into trouble with the police again. You'll have to go and sort it out. (= deaLwith and find a solution to the problem), • I want sound out my wife about the flat. I'll decide about buying it only after that. (= try and find out her opinion, attitude, intention, etc.) . • His philosophy has been speli out in this book (= made clear). ·Oh, you're the limit! Do I have to spell out everything for you? Can't you use your head? (= explain everything in simple terms - to make them very clear and easy to understand). • I couldn't just stand by and watch. They were hitting my brother, you see. (= remain inactive, watching something happening - without doing anything - when action is needed). • We must have some policemen standing by - we can't rule out the possibility of trouble, you know (= be present and waiting - ready for action if necessary) .• I was in a difficult situation then. But he stood by me. t= supported me; remained loyal to me; did not desert me). • I stand by my promise. I'll never go back on it. (= continue to be true to; to support). • I want this job as badly as you. How can you expect me to stand down? my application ... ) .• He has been in this position for too long. Ask him to stand down in favour of someone else (= resign).
(= withdraw

to

• The shapes were carved in such a way that they stood out from the background .• Why did he go thereat night at all? This is. one circumstance that stands out above everything, in my opinion. (= is more important than other circumstances, and so, obvious). • That black scar on her face stands out dearly, doesn't it? Maybe, that's because she has a fair complexion. (= can be easily seen or noticed). • Dr. Bhasin stands out jrom. all our medical scientists. (,.,..... obviously seen or understood as of outstanding or high quality). • He's ill with flu. He'll have to stay in for a few days. (= remain at

39
home and not go outside). _.I'm trying to get another job. I don't want to stay in advertising/teaching/journalism. • I stayed in (the house) all day yesterday. I didn't go out anywhere .• After his BA, he stayed on at college to do his MA. (= continued to remain at college for an extra length of time - after others had left). • I'm going to want you for a while. Stick around. • Don't go away-Stick around - I'll be back in 10 minutes. (= remain here or near herewaiting for me). • Let'S stick around - the procession is about to start.

Tt
• '10' take.away '2' is '8'. (= when '2' is removed or subtracted from it). • they took her son awayfrom her. (= femovedhim from) .• Take this tablet. It'll take away the pain. (= make'qhe pain disappear). • He's taken the burden/responsibility away from-me, and that's a relief. • If we take '495' away from '1232', how much have we left? • We dismissed him because he took a bribe from one of our customers. There's no question of Our taking him back. (=:: agreeing to have him as our employee once again), • They've split up; you know. I don't think she'll take him back. (= agree to have himas her boyfriend again or as her husband again). • How dare you accuse me like that? Now take it back! (= withdraw) .• Sorry. We don't take back things we've sold. [~. (agree to) accept things that we've sold and that buyers returnj]. .. • The workers took the scaffolding down when they finished whitewashing the building. (=:: separated it into pieces - in order to remove it). • Have you taken down yesterday'S lecture? (= written it down). • Can you take that bottle down from the top shelf, please? (= get it from that high level) . • He has taken on an American accent. (= begun to have). • The bus stopped and took on a few passengers. C~ took them on board). • I think it's high time the management took on the union. (= deal boldly with). • We're short of staff. We're planning to take on a few more of them. t= accept a few more people as employees; employ them). • We'lLhave to take on a 'secretary for our General Manager .• Let's take on few more new students this year. (= enrol). • Let's have a game of chess. Can you take me on, Madhav? (= accept me as an opponent). • You know, this is the year-end. You'll have to take on some extra work. (= agree to do and start; undertake). • You must take out a driving licence. (= pay for and get). • Use this washing powder. It'll t(lke out most stains. (= remove) .• Can you take this dress out a bit at the waist? (= make it wider by sewing). • I want to take my wife out for dinner tonight. (= taken her outside for). • He said he swamacross the river and she took him up on it. (= questioned him; argued with him about it). • They challenged our club to a match and we took them up on it. (= accepted the challenge). • Everyone in his office hates him, because he always talks down to them. e = talks to them as if they were socially or intellectually inferior to him). • Let's talk it over and come to a decision.· He had agreed to do it.

40
Then she came along and talked him out of it .• I wanted to.sell the car, but she talked me our of it. (= persuaded me not to do it by talking to me, arguing with me and discussing with me); • They had a good chance of winning the third game. But they threw it away. (= lost it by foolishness or neglect).

ww
• These tyres have worn down - you must buynew ones. (= gradually become thinner, etc. through continuous pressure, friction, etc.) .• Can you wipe out this basin? (= clean the inside of it with a cloth) .• They haven't wiped out the overdraft yet. ("'" cleared it by repaying it). ,. Prices have gone up - and that has wiped out the rise in wages. (= caused it to have no effect or value; .removed its effects) .• They had a good stock of paper and. cardboard at the warehouse. The fire wiped it out. (= destroyed the stock completely), • Do you think it'll be possible for the government to wipe out corruption? (= put an end to).

Everyday questlons for practice
You rnust be aware of one thing by now: An important part of fluency training is to train your organs of speech with word groups used as everyday questions. Like the oral training with any other kinds of word groups, this sort of training also trains your organs of speech to work in the way English language requires them to work. But what's more important] this sort of training with 'question word groups' gets your organs of speech (and your mind) to stop shying away from composing questions and from delivering them in acceptable interrogative structures. And . here's another point that makes this sort of training very important: It's, very effective in getting a number of core words associated in your mind with a number of other core words that tend to occur with them regularly or usually.

Yes-no questions
• D'you want a cup of coffee before you go? • D'you want a glass of water? • D'you want a spanking? • D'you want a time-out? • D'you want a transfer? • D'you want it back? • D'you want it tapered in the back? • D'you Want me to go (away)? • D'you want me to leave? • D'you want me to repair that tear? • D'you want paper or plastic bags? • D'youwant reservations for any other night? • D'you want starch (in these shirts)? .0 D'you want the milk bagged? • D'you want to carry the detergent separately? • D'you want to go ? • D'you want to go outside? • D'you want to know right away? • D'you want to make a reservation for another night? • D'you want to step outside (and settle this)? •

41
D'you want to turn around and go home right now? • D'you want your receipt in the bag? • D'you weigh as much as 80 Kgs? • D'you wish me to page him? • D'you wish to pay me now? • D'you write novels? ,; D'you really need it? • D'you think it'll be all right? • D'you think it's possible that way? • D'you think there'll be time?· D'you think they'd help me? • D'you think they'd like to come? • D'you think Anil's serious? • D'you think we'll pull it off? • D'you two know each other? • D'you understand? • D'you. mind waiting while your room is being readied? • D'you need a bellboy? • D'you need a carryout? • D'you need a few more minutes (to decide what you want)? • D'you need a pickup? ° D'you need a receiptr> D'you need any help? • D'you think I should fight him? • D'you think I should ring him? • D'you think I was born yesterday? • D'you think it was Rajiv? • D'you know where I could find the railway/train station? • D'youknow who does this song? • D'you know who I ani? • D'you know who you are talking to? • D'you know why I stopped you? • D'you like my new raincoat? • D'you like my new shirt? • D'you like. my SUit? • D'you like prunes? • D'you like these new curtains? • D'you like your jobzsD'you mean you actually liked it? • D'you mean it? • D'you mind if I have the radio on? • D'you mind if I join you? ° D'you mindif I leave the table? • D'you mind if 1 srnoker > D'you mindif I stopby latertoday? • D'you mind waiting a bit longer? • Do I have to stop this car? • Do r have to tell you again to straighten up?· Do I have your ear? - Do I make myself clear? • Do they get any medicine? • Do they know about it yet? • Do we have everything? • Do we have to pay for it? • Do we see eye to eye oh this? • Do We stop for meals? • Did you turn off the TV? • Did you turn off the stove? • Did you unplug the iron? • Did you walk the dog today? • Did you want those delivered? • Did you catch your train? • Did you complain? • Did you enjoy the concert? • Did you enjoy the film? • Did you ever stop to think about anyone else? • Did you finish that job? • Did you finish your homework? - Did you go all the way? • Did you go to the bathroom? • Did you have a good time? • Did you have fun? - Did you have to wait long? • Did you hear me? • Did you hear the news?' Didn't your boss agree to the plan? • Didn't Ravi explain it to you? • Didn't he corne from Delhi? ,; Didn't he give you any? • Didn't he treat you? • Didn't-you play Othello once? • Didn't Rupa and Ravi go? • Didn't they play very well? • Didn't we go to high school together? • Didn't we meet at that party last week? • Didn't you apologize to him? • Didn't you finish it? • Does he still work at Spencer's? ... Does he write often? • Does it hurt when I do this? • Does it matter? • Does his wife know yet? • Does this bank handle foreign exchange? • Does this bus go downtown? • Does this bus go to Nehru Street? • Does this car get good mileage? • Does this (cake) contain nuts? • Does this include a gratuity? • Does this include the tip? • Does your leg still hurt? • Don't you like the radio? • Don't you see? • Are we supposed to be somewhere else right now? • Are we there yet?

42
• Are you a customerhere? • Are you about finished? • Are you all right? • Are you allergic to any medications? • Are you allergic to penicillin? • Are you as heavy as 80 kilos? • Are you being helped? • Are you bringing anything into the country with you? • Are you busy on the 15th? • Are you sure you can afford it? • Are you busy or can I come over? • Are you certain he stole them? • Are you coming lor a swim? • Are you crazy? • Are you doing better today? • Are you doing OK? • Are you enjoying your meal? • Are you expecting (a child)? • Are you feeling better today? • Are you trying to start something? • Are you using the ruler? • Are you waiting for someone? • Are you willing to be chairman again? • Are you willing to negotiate? • Are you with me on this? • Ate your hands clean, Madhu? • Aren't you going to give him another game? • Aren't you proud of yourself? • Is that really yours? • IS that right? • Is that your brother? <Js that your last word? • Is that your little boy? .. Is that your notebook? • Is the answering machine on? • Is the bus on. time? • Is thecurrent strong? • Is the food as bad as they say? • Is there anything on? • Is there anything you need? • Is there meat in that? • Is there somewhere I could wash my hands? • Is there anythingI can help you with? • Is there anything I can help you with today? • Is this a nonsmoking restaurant? • Is this a quiet neighbourhood? • Is this account insured by the .federal governments > Is this all on one bill? • Is this an elevator building?' Is this any good? • Is this clock right? • Is this for pickup or delivery? • Is this refillable? • Is this. seat occupied? • Is this seat taken? • Is this space taken? • Is it direct? • Is it easy? • Is it an emergency? • Is it far from here? • Is it far to the last stop? • Is it going on sale soon? • Is it malignant? • Is it much further? • Is it my tum? • Is it near the train station? • Is it nonstop? • Is it on sale? • Is it part-time or fullrime? • Is it possible? • Is it possible to exchange these for another night? • Isit possible to get a stain like this but? • Is it raining? • Is it broken? ' Is it safe to walk at night? • Is it salaried or hourly? • Is it serious? • Is it that late already? • Is it that time already? • Is it too late to give up smoking? ·is it treatable?· Is Keshav still doing well? • Is she sleeping through the night? • Is smoking allowed? • Is someone waiting on you? • Is that all? • Is that all you've done? • Is that Mario? • Is that dear? • Is that for here or to go? • Is that it? • Is that not so? • Is. that prepared with meat? • Is this stool taken? • Is this the biggest you've got? • Is this the bus to Churchil Avenue? • Is this the right bus for main street? • Is this the road to Dallas? • Is this where I drop off film to be developed? • Is this where I drop off film to be processed? • Is this where I get off? ' Is this where I should-get off? • Is this your copy? • Is Tuesday OK?' Is your father living? • Is your mother living? • Is your name on the account? • Is your new dress red or blue? • Isn't Pedro tiresome? • Isn't it a bit cold in here? • Isn't it nearly my turn? • Ready to go? , Were there any telephone calls? • Were you looking for a new car or a used one? • Have you seen Peter lately? • Have you started saving yet? • Have you

43
taken leave of your senses? • Have you taken over your new house? • Have you rna been introduced? • Have you seen my pen anywhere? • Have you been there? • Have you been waiting long? • Have you completely lost touch with reality? • Have you ever babysat for an infant? • Have you ever been to Dallas? • Have you ever seen a warming pan? • Have you finished? • Have you finished it? • Have you gone crazy? • Have you gone insane? • Have you gone mad? • Have you got all you want? • Have you got any off-white paint? • Have you got any tinned peas? • Haven't I seen you here before? • Haven't we met before? • Haven't you finished that book? • Haven't you got that paper? • Haven't you had about enough? • Haven't you nearly finished it? • Haven't you read that article? • Can you give me a new banking card? • Can you give me his phone number? • Can you have dinner with us? • Can you hear me? • Can you help me? • Can you help me get the keys out of my car? • Can you help me with the dishes? • Can you hold it for me? • Can you jump-start my car? • Can you keep a secret? • Can you leave me the number where you'll be? • Cart you le rid me 500 rupees? • Can you lend us some money? • Can you let me know soon? • Can you let me know when we get to. Pune? ~. Can you make me one? • Can you manage it? • Can you manage it alone? • Can you match this colour?' Can you measure me? • Can you move your arm? • Can you open the window? • Can you play chess? • Can you please tell me where to find the biographies? • Can you provide a description .0J the missing person? • Can you put me through to Delhi? • Can you remove this stain without harming the fabric? • Can you repair a tear in leather? • Can you repair this tear? • Can you see?' can you.see my glove anywhere? • Can you loan me a can to carry the petrol in?" Can you sell me another copy? • Can you send me a brochure? .. Can you send me a catalogue? • Can you send me some information in writing?"> Can you send me some literature? • Can you (baby)sit for three children? • Can you spell that, please? • Can you stay a little longer? • Can you stay and have dinner with us? • Can you stay for dinner? • Can you tell me what grade I'm getting? • Can you tell me what stop to get off at? • Can you ten me what's wrong? .. Can you tell me where I can find chocolate milk? • Can you tell me where to get off? • Can you touch up the gray? • Can you tum up at nine on Mondays? - Can you weigh this? • Can I pay in instalments? • Can I pick up a package? • Can I rent a carpet cleaner? • Can 1 rent a post office boxr > Can I reserve a room? • Can I reserve a seat (in advance)? • Can I see some ID (= identification)? • Can I lend you a hand? - Can I please have a cup of coffee? • Can I have a box of matches? • CanI have a change-of-address-form? • Can I have a friend over? • Can I have an apple? • Can I have. an 'ice-cream? Can I have another apple? • Can I have another toffee? • Can I have change for a twenty? • Can I have it? • Can I have it for a couple of weeks? • Can I have my typewriter back? • Can I have some napkinsr > Can I have telephone change, please? • Can I have ten bottles of beer? - Can I have the afternoon off? • Can I have the ZIP code for W~shington? • Can r
,0

44
have the PIN code for New Delhi? • Can I have this seat? • Can I have your autograph? • Can I help someone? • Can I help with those letters? • Can Lhelp you? • Can I help you find something? • Can I help you with something? • Can Lhelp you with your homework? • Can I hold her? • Can I lend you a copy?· Can I please cash a cheque? • Can I offer you a snack? • Can larder a special meal? • Can't anyone meet the train? • Can't we be friends again? • Can't you be sensibler> Can't you get a better picturer > Can't you get a flat? • Can't you leave well . enough alone? • Can't you work it out for yourself?" • Could you please stop doing that? • Could you please tell me the time?· Could you please tell Mr. Sharma I'm herez > Could you please turn it down? • Could you pour me some more milk? • Could you sell - meanother pineapple? -Co;u,ld you send him another copy?;; Could you show me on the map? • Could you spell that? • Could you start the rolls going around? • Could you take a little more off in back? ~ Could you take a little more off the sides?' Could you take a little more off the top? • Could you tell me where the Menons live? Could you turn off the air-conditioning? • Could you tum the heat up? Could you wrap this, please? • Could you write it down, please? • Could I have. the cheque? • Could r help you? • Could I make an appointment for next month?· Could I manage it, d'you think? • Could I please have (some) coffee? • Could I see a menu, please? Could I see you in my office? Couldn't we borrow a copy? • Couldn't you help a bit? • Couldn't you take the day off? o. Couldn't you try again?
0 0 0 0

• Excuse me, can you help me? • May I shut the window? • May I smoke? 0 May I Suggest this? • May I take this chair? • May I. take this last cake? • May I takethis newspaper? • May I take this paper? • May I take two? • May I take your order, please? • May I turn the radio on? • May I use your phone? • Might I be excused? 0 Might I have a word with you? • ShaJI we have a game of tennis? • Shall we invite Ani! or Jack?· Shall we play another round? ., Shan we play safe and turn back? • Shall we tell her brother? • Shall we tell him about it? • Shall we try the crossword? - will you let me take it for a test drive? • Will you lend me a couple? • Will you make a fourth? .• Will you please hold my mail? .. Will you please put the cat out? .. Will you say you're sorry? .. Will you sell me a couple? - Will you send it to me? • Will you talk to her? • Will you win, d'you think? • Would you like to see the dessert menu? • Would you like to see the menu again? .. Would you like to see the menu again for dessert? 0 Would you like to start with a cocktail? Would you like to step outside? .. Would you like to take off your coat? • Would you like to talk about it? .. Would you like to try? .. Would you like to try one of our desserts? • Would you measure my waist, please? - Would you mind cleaningthe windows? Would you mind helping? .. Would you mind if I stopped by later? • Would you mind lending mea hand? .. Would you mind moving
0 0

45
your things? • W0141dyou mind passing the book? • Would you mind shutting the door? .; Would you mind washing upr > Would you please check under thehood? • Would you prefer a nonsmoking room? Would you like a chocolate? • Would you like a cup of coffee? • Would you like a glass of beer? • Would you like a glass of waterj > Would you like a room with a view of the (swimming) pool? • Would you like a sip? • Would you like a six-month or one-year subscription? • Would you care for some butter? • Would you stop that? • Would you tell me what grade I'm getting? " Wouldn't you like to fetch it for her?

Wh-questions
• What brings you here? • What can go wrong? • What can I do for you? • What can I do to help her at home? - What can I get you? • What can I say? • Whatcan she do? • What are you doing tomorrow evening? • What are you drinking? • What are you getting at? • What are you interested in? • What d'you think of my painting? • What d'you think of my roses? • What d'you think of my suit? • What d'you think of the Cilr? • What d'you think of their houser > What d'you think of these photos? • What d'you think, Sharma? • What d'you think you're doing? • What are the benefits? • What are the hours? • What are the hours for the hank vault? • What are the photos like? 8 What are the rates? • What are the side effects of rhis drug? • What are the specials? • What are the standard features? • What are we having? • What are you asking for it? • What are you doing here? • What are you doing in this part of town? • What are you doing next weekend? • What are you doing out of the office? • What ate you doing this evening? • What are you listening to? • What are you looking for (in an employee)? • What are you saying? • What are you talking about? • What are you thinking? • What are you trying to get at? • What are you trying to say? • What ate you trying to tell me? • What are you up to? • What are you up to this weekend? • Wha,.t are you watching? • \.yhat are your delivery charges? • What are your hours? • What are your qualifications? .. What was that you said? • What book are you reading? • What charge are you taking me in on? • What colour did you want? • What size? • What size do you need? • What size will that be? • What size would you like? • What smells? • What sort of a holiday did you have?"> What stinks? • What stop is next? • What street do I turn on? • What street is your office on? • What street do I turn at? • What suburb is that in? • What texts are required? • What time did they get to bed? • What time do the kids go to bed? • What time do YQU open? • What time do you think we will get there?· What time does the beach close? ,; What time does the curtain go up? .; What time does the train get in? • what time is checkout? • What time is it? • What time should I be there? • What time will you be coming home? • What rime'll you get back? • What upset? • What was his reaction? • What was I saying? • What was your brother'S reaction? • What was that? • What was the meal like? • What was the nature of your trip? • What was the party like? • What was the show like? • What was the weather like? • What was your holiday like? • What was your

46
name again? • What were we talking about? • What were you looking for? • What will it be? • What will it cost to have these resoled? • What will you make the.handle of? • What would be expected of me? • What would you do? • What would you do about this proposal? • What would you do, Ann? • What would you like? • What would you like on that? • What would you like on your hot dog? • What would you like to drink? • What would you like to hear? • What would you recommend? • What would you suggest? • What'll it be? • What'll you have? • What'll you have to drink? • What are you going to do about it?" What are you smiling about? • What's a nice girl like you doing in a place like this? • What's all the fuss about? • What's all the knocking about? • What's first on the agenda? • What's for dessert? • What's for supper? • What's going on? • What's going on here? • What's good today? • What's happened to him? • What's happened to the Sharrnas? • What'S happened to your car? • What's happening to Sandra? • What's he saying? • What's his nationality? • What's in the bag? .. What's in the bottle? • What's it like outside? • What's new? • What's on? • What's on channel foui? • What's on the test? • What's on tonight? • What's on TV? • What's so special about today? • What's standard? • What's that aroma? • What's that bowl for? • What's that fragrance? • What's that odor? • What's that scent?· What's that smell? • What's that stench? • What's that stuff you're drinking? • What's that tray made of? • What's that you say?· What's the arrival time? • What's the asking price? • What's the assignment for tomorrow? • What's the car worth, d'you think? • What's the charge? • What's the crowd Looking at? • What's the current exchange rate? • What's the departure time? • What's the first step? • What's the grading curve? • What's the interest rate? • What's their place like? • What's the matter? • What's the matter, Jane? • What's the matter now? • What's the next move? • What's the point? • What's the quickest way to Subhash Street? e What's the reading assignment for next time? • What's the rent? • What's the salary? • What's the soup of the day? • What's the sticker price? • What's the time, please? • What's the upshot? • What's the weather going to do? • What's to be done? • What's to eat? • What's up? • What's up, Keshav? • What's upsetting you? • What's his opinion? • What's with you? • What's worrying you? • What's wrong, Sharma? • What's your view on their findings? • What's your badge number? • What's your brother'S opinion? • What's your coffee like? • What's your favourite subject in school? • What's your hobby? • What's your job? • What's your opinion of that novel? • What's your problem? • What about my suitcase? • What cap. I do? • What colour were yOU thinking about? • What colour's your car? • What could you have been thinking? • What country are you from? • What d'you advise, doctor? • What d'you attribute your success to? • What d'you do in your spare time? • What d'you do on Saturdays? • What d'you need from the grocer's? • What d'you think of the Prime Minister's announcement? • What d'you think my coat? • What d'you think of my dress? • But what could I do to help? • But what difference does it make? • But what

ot

47
will your uncle say? • Whatever made youpay him? • Whatever made yourecommend prawns? • Whatever made you take such a risk? • Whatever shall I do? • Whatever was he thinking of?· WhateVer were you thinking of? • When did you last see him? .• When did you see him? • When do we eat? When do we g~t there? ...When do we have to be out of here? • When do you close today? • When do you get togo home? • When do you open? • When do you want it back? • When does he get here? .. When does the bus get in? When does the curtain go up? • When will youever learn} • Whep will you learn? • When would be a good time for me to come over? o' Wnenwould you like me to start? • When would you like to go? • Wh,en would you like your next appointment? • When'll he make up his mind? When's a good time fat you? • When's checkout? o When's he arriving? • When'ssupper? e When's the meeting due to take place?· When's the next concert? • When does the fun start?· When does the next bus leave? " When does the next train leave? • When does rhe plane get here? ., When does the show dose? • When does the tide come in? • When does the train g~etin? • When d'you.want me to start?"> When did we.last meet?
6 0 ,,&

• Where is the. shoe department? • Where is the smoking room? •• Where is the TV g-uide? -0 Whereis the TV listing? 6 Where is the 'washroom? • Whereisyouroffice?· Where is your storer > Where on earth does he live? • Whereon earth's she got to? • Where shall I put my boots? • Where shall lput this chair? • Where shall we go for lunch? • Where shall we go this year? • where shall. we meet? " Where shall we meet you? • Where should I stay? • Where was I? • Where were you? " Where can we get a gramophone? • Where can you be reached? • Where can you smoke around here? • Where could. I get a copy? • Where could we sleep? • Where d'you come from? • Where d'you thirik you are going? • Where did he buy them? • Where did he go then? Where did you buy that sweater? • Where did you come from?" Where did you find your gloves? .. Where did you go? • Vfuere did you go to school? • Wh.ere did you meet him? • Where did you see him then? • Where will I find the ketchup? • Where-willwe find a skeleton? • Where will you be.? • Where will you be at eight, then? -Where can I park? • Where can I put my coat? .. Where would I find the rest rOOmS? • Where's children'S clothesr » W'here's he arriving? • Where'sMadhu? • Where's AniI got to? • ·Where's my copy?- Where's my large drink? • - Where's my newspaperr> Where's my penknife? • Where's that book of mine? • When:!'s the money coming from? • Where do I change (trains)? • Where do I get off? • Where do we begin? • Where does he come from? • Where does he :get them.trorn? • Where does he live?' Where've you been .hiding yourself? • Which shall I buy? • Which ships steip at that port?· Which side. of the intersection? • Which way do you want me. to go? • Which way is downtown? • Which way is north? • Which way will you go? • Which would be the better? • Which would you buy? • Which do you think I ought to buy? • Which exit do I get off on? .. Which.firrnpa.inted his

house? • Which flowers are the freshest? • Who invited you? • Who is she named.after? • Who knows? • Who on earth gave you permission? • Who paid for the beer? • Whq mined your plans? • Who's got it wrong? • Who's running the music club this year? • Who's that? • Who's the best person to ask? • Who's there? • Whose book is that? • Whose book is this?· Whose coat is this? • Whose is this box? • Whose is this painting? • 'vVhose pen is this? • Whose responsibility is it? • Whose turn "isit? • Whose tum is it, then? • Why not ask Jack? • Why not ask your brother? • Why not ask the Stewarts? • Why not ask them to help you? • Wily not buy a house? • Why not discuss it with John? • Why nor get them at Andrew's? • Why not go by air? • Why not hang on till Christmas? • Why not take up golf? • Why not this morning? Why not travel overnight? • Why not try varnishing it? • Why not wear this pair? • Why not write and warn him? • Why should you do the donkey work? • Why take a mat? • Why this delightful surprise? • Why won't they make up their minds? • Why wouldn't he buy it? • Why's she giving up? • Why'Ve you moved? • Why've you taken that one? - Why didn't you tell me? ., Why pick on me? • Why didn't you think ofthat before we left? • Whyd.opeople play gamesv > Why do we invite those people?· Why don't ey work in the evenings? • Why didn't you bring the screws? • Why didn t you buy one in this country? • Why didn't you buy the picture? .. Why didn't you call for me?· Why didn't you discuss the matter? • Wny didn't you have a set of tennis? • Why didn't you meet them?
·0

• How could you say such a thing? • How critical s~ou1d 1 be? • How d'you go to the office? • How deep is it by the raft? 0' How did your father react? • How did he come to break it?, How did he do it? • How did he find out? • How did it go? • How did it happen? • How did the game go ? • How did the press reports strike you? • How did this get broken? • How did you come to lose it? • How did yon get my name? • How did you get on? • How did you get on with him? • How did you get on with those people? • How did you manage it? ... How many pages do we. have to read for Friday? • How many pencils do you want? • How many sandwiches shalll makev« How many shall I give him? • HoW many shall we take? • How many shirts have you got? ,. How many students has he got? • How many time did you go there?- How many times do I have to tell.you? • How many times have I told you to stop that? • How many years till you're in school? • How may I help you? • How much? • How much are the tickets?· How much are you asking for it? • How much can I have? • How much carry-on luggage am I allowed? • How much carry-on luggage is permittedvs How much currency are you bringing into the country? • How much d'you think? • How much did Priya know?· How much did he get for it? • How much did you win? • How much doI owe you? • How much do we need? • How much do you want cut off?· How much do you want for it? • How much do you want me to take off? • How much do you want off? • How much does he weigh? it How much does it cost? • How much does the

49
electricity usually cost a month? • How much holiday will you get? .; How much is a road map? • How much is business class? • How much is first class? • How much is it? • How much is the fare? • How much is the rent? • How much is this going to set me back? • How much is this room? • How much longer are you going to be? .• How much luggage card carry on? • How much material does it take? • How much ought they to have? • How much polish have we got? • How much postage dci I need to send this air mail? • How much postage does this need? • How much practice shall I do? • How much should I take? • How much sugar have they sent? • How much to go in? • How much will a new zipper cost? • How much will it be? • How must I do it? • How often d'you play? • How old are you? • How old is she?" How shall we feed them? • How shall we go? • How should I dress? • How should I know? • How should we go about doing this? • How soon d'you want them? • How soon does the curtain go up? • How the hell should I know? • How was it? • How was the -game? • How was your uncle? • How wouldyou like that done? • How would you like that prepared? • How would you like to pay for this? • How would you like to pay for your tickets? • How would you like your steak? • How would you like your steak prepared? : How're they going? • How're things? • How're things going? • How're things with you? .. How're you getting on? • How're you getting on, Ravi? • How'reyou keeping? • How's Anil? • How's business? • How's everything? • How's everything going? • How's Priya getting on? • How's it been? • How's it going? • How's Rohit getting on? • How's that? • How's that spelled? • How's that steak? • How's the family? • How's the food? • How's Rohit behaving? • How's work? • How's your doctor? • How's your family? • How's your steak? • How've you been? • How do you do it? • How did you manage it? • How do I get downtown? • How do I get it to print? • How do I get it to print out? • How do I get my mail forwarded? • How do I get room service? • How do I get there? • How do I get to Bangalore from here? • How do I get to the airport? • How did you spend the morning? • How did your holiday go? • How did your party go off? • How difficult would it be to get a taxi? • How do I change fonts? • How do I change the paper orientation? • How do I get back to the main menu? • How are you feeling today? • How are you getting along? • How are you getting on? • How are you going to dig yourself out of this one? • How are you going to get out of this one? • How are you today? • How are you, Rajesh? • How big did you say it was? • How can I ever make it up to you? • How can I help her with her homework? • How can I help you? • How can I make it up to you? • How can I make it up with Deepa? • How can I serve you? • How can we get hold of a violin? • How can we get to his house? • How can you do that to your own flesh and blood? • How. can you eat such stuff? • How can you ever forgive me? • How can you find anything in here? • How could he let you know? • How could you do something so stupid? • How could you do such a silly thing? • How could you do such a thing?

50

Prompt-response practice
Remember the kind of prompt-response you did in Lesson Ie? Here's some more material for practice along the same lines. You'll find below a collection of carefully selected word groups. They're word groups that can give you training in several techniques all at once. They'll give you training in using common 'reply-expressions' and some of the most important "question word groups". And they'll give you training in flow-production techniques. They're all everyday word groups. And you'll find them useful in several everyday situations. Read each word group several times - ALOUD. Pay particular attention to the replies. Here we go:
• X: He charged me five rupees too much.v--: Y: Serves you right. • X: He telephoned to say that he wasn't well. - Y: I'm sorry to hear that .• X: Is he coming today? - Y: He .didn't say. • X: I got John to straighten my accounts. Y: He must have made ~ mess of them .• X: Let's ask him. - Y: It's no good asking him. • X: Get him On the phone. - Y: But would it be any use? • X: Get me the diary, will you? _. Y: Is this it? • X: Can you come on Wednesday?Y:. Sorry. t can't manage Wednesday: • X: Look where you are going. - Y: Ah, well. ;, X: This has happened, because he is too conceited. - Y: That's just.ir.> X: May I ask him tocome over here? - Y: Oh, that'd be such a bother forhim, • X: How much longer will you take to finish it? '- Y: Over a quarter of an hour. • Xs Let's not go on with this argument. _ Y: Oh, all right .• X: This is our house.r-- Y: Oh, yes. ~ X: I'm very disappointed in your work.v-- Y: I'm sorry you feel like that. • X: She is not as rich as all that. - Y: Really? Well, if you say So. • X; Would you mind to do me a favour? - Y: No trouble at all. • X: May I bring your bags in? - Y: Don't trouble .• X: Suppose he doesn't repay the loan. - Y: There's no fear of thar.> X: Why not join us in a game? Y: Oh, I don't think so - I'll look on .• X; What'll you do without help? ~ Y: Don't bother about rne..J don't matter. But what'll Gopal do? • X: Oh, don't bother about it. - Y It's no bother at all. • X: What did she say to you? - Y:Oh, nothing particular .• X: May I ask her about it? - Y: Just as you like. • X: How do you feel about my plan? - Y: I'm for it.• X: What was he like at school? - Y:Very bright. • X: Did hebring a lot of things with him? - Y: No. Not a thing .• X: It's jolly here, isn't it? - Y: Yes. Ripping. • X: The doctor has asked me to take rest. - Y: Surely the doctor knows best. • X: Do you want any help? - Y: Oh.jio, don't bother. I can manage quite well by myself .• X: What do you think about this dress? - Y: Rather good .• X: I'm determined to refuse the offer. Y: Oh, come now. You must be reasonable. • X: I think I had better push off. - Y: What's the hurry? • X: How much did it cost? _ Y: Oh, don't give it a thought. • X: Why do you look at me like that? - Y: Oh, nothing .• X: Do you think I should report this to the Police? ~ Y: I think

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it's best .• X: Does the noise bother you? - Y: Not. at all. • X: Ours is one of the finest gardens here. - Y: Oh, really?
• X: When do you play foot ball? - Y: At the weekends. • X: Does he have any hope left? ~ Y: Not one bit .• X: What was the question paper like? - Y: Very easy. • X: Shall we. have another game? - Y: Let us. • X: Was he hurt badly? - Y: No. Not a scratch anywhere .• X: There is no escaping the consequences. - Y: I know .• X: I am against cash payments. - Y: Oh, I agree .• X: Did I give you a fright? - Y: Oh, that's all right. • X: There is something I want to tell you. Y: Go ahead .• X: He's sure to scold you. - Y: Ah, well. • X: Life here is too expensive. - Y: Yes. prices are-going up. • X; i think we should find somewhere to sit. ~ Y: I think so, too .• X: I don't think we should invite them. ~ Y: I don't think so, either .• X: Did you have trouble finding this place? ~ Y: No. But it wasn't altogether easy, either. • X: Why did he do it? - Y: I simply can't think. • X: It's much too expensive. ~ Y: Then he won't be able to afford it .. • X: Somebody has beaten him up . ...-.Y: Oh, how terrible! • X: What are they charging? - ¥: Five rupees, I'believe .• X: What was the film like? - Y: Utter rubbish ..• X: Does he think much of you as an artist? Y: Not likely. • X: Go at once. - Y: But what good will that do? • X: Can we smoke here? - Y; No, we can't. It's out of the question.- X: Won't he be at home. now? - Y: Can't say. He is away quite often. • X: Why don't we take the next turning on the right? ,- Y:That'sjust it. We can't. Cars don't go that way. • X:.I'm terribly upset about it. - Y: Oh, cheer up .• X: Can (take this? - Y: If you like.

- X: Is he the chap who has just left our office? - Y: Yes. He's the one. • X: The inspection has been put off. - Y: Just our luck. • X: It's 11 O'clock, and the manager hasn't showed up so far. - Y: How odd! • X: What's his address? - Y: I'll have to find out. • X: What do you feel about the new arrangements? - Y; Oh, I'm very pleased. • X: it's sad about that boy. He has failed again. - Y: It's a pity. • X: Do you know Peter? - Y: No. Never heard of him .• X: Do you always eat as much as that? - Y: Don't be silly. • X: It's nine o'clock. - Y: Is that all? I thought it must be eleven Or so. • X: They've refused point-blank to back us up. - Y: So that's that. • X: I don't think we'll be able to help them. - Y: Hm. That'd be a pity. • X: What do you do? - Y: I'm a carpenter; • X: When do we meet?Y: Whenever it's convenient to you .• X: He has asked us to tea. - Y: It's very nice of him .• X: What do you think about this? - Y: 011.,I really don't know .• X: He hasn't given his word, but said he'd let us know later. - Y: I don't much like the sound of that .• X: There has been an accident on the road. ~ Y: Oh, how frightful! • X: What's his handwriting like? ~ Y: Reasonable. • X: Why not ask him to lunch with us? - Y: Good idea .• X: She has not been promoted. - Y: That's a shame. • X: Make some tea at once, will you? - Y: Oh, bother. • X: There's no telling what he's going to do. - Y: I know .• X: What was the food like? - Y: Grand. • X: Does he like you very much? - Y: No, far from it. He hates me. • X: Where is she living over here? - Y: Does it matter all that much? X: Can I have another go? - Y: Not now. It's my tum next .• X:.This

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packet is too big for the box . .-,.- :Try squeezing it in .• X: It says in the Y paper that he has been elected . .-,.- : I'm glad. • X: Would that be a Y better choice, do you think? - Y:What on earth are you getting at? • X: It is our fault. - Y: Then we must put it right .• X: Let us get going. - Y: Hold on a minute. • X: Would a little later suit you better? .-,.- : I can't Y wait here alI day. • X: Whafshis English like? .-,.- : Reasonable .• X: Y Who do you want to speak to? - Y: Have you got a. Peter working here? • X: What's wrong With the blessed thing? .-,.- : Don't be so impatient- • Y X: I punched him in the nose . .-,.- : Punching will get you nowhere .• X: Y What'l1 they say about it? .-,.- : Howcan I tell? • X: What size are your Y shoes? .-,.- : Size 8. • X: I have a bit of a crisis here. - Y: What's up? • X: Y He has bought the wrong kind,,'-"- Y: How terribly annoying! • X: This would do us no good at all. .-,.- : I don't think so .• X: But have you got Y time? .-,.- : First of all, make up your own mind. Y • X: When does it end? .-,.- : Around four. • X: That film is quite fun . .-,.Y Y: Which theatre is it showing at? • X: He can't afford a car . .-,.- : But this Y one is.too cheap. " X: Is it the one with a long handle? - Y: That's the one. • X: What has he done wrong? - Y: He is an unfeeling monster. • X: Don't most people like it? .-,.- : I don't think so .• X: Tomorrow is Y impossible, - Y: Would day after tomorrow be more convenient? • K: This is argent. Be as quick as you can . .-,.- : I had better not.· X: How Y soon will he be back? - Y: He won't be long. • X: How many more times do you want telling? .-,.- : Are you angry? • X: It's difficult all right. But Y you'll have to manage somehow. - Y: Let us see .• X: Are these any good to you? - Y: No, thanks. Give them to John .• X: He telephoned to say that he is ilL .-,.- : When? • X: He has ruined the car . .-,.- : He'll have to Y Y pay for it .• X: It was John's idea, by the sound of it. - Y: John's? • X: Would she agree to it? - Y: I shouldn't be surprised . • X; I can't think what has happened to him. - Y: Ah, here he is! • X: Do you mind him joining us? - Y: Not In the least. • X: His pa'tit:nc~ is amazing. - Y: ] thought he was a bit dull. • X: I can't keep up with all these latest developments. - Y: You must get into the habit of reading .• X: Can I have a look at the other one? - Y~By all means. • X: He is so much better at handling things like this than her. - Y: I wonder why .• X: You're being very obstinate. - Y: What can I do if it isn't good enough? • X: What has gone wrong? .-,.- : They won't give him permisY sion .• X: Who are you there with? - Y: With my sister .• X: What are they charging? - Y: Now what's the matter? • X: It isn't quite what I have in mind. ~ Y: Will that one do? • X: How's life, Sita? .-,.- : Rotten .• Y X: Is she travelling on her own? ~ Y: She insisted on it. • X: You haven't had your lunch. - Y: Never mind about that .• X: It's all very puzzling . .-,.- : I could hardly believe my eyes .• X: Are you busy? - Y: Oh, I'm Y upto my eyes .. • X: Wouldn't it be better to cut it? - Y: As you like. • X: Will a hundred be enough? ~ Y I forget how much they paid for it. • X: Why don't you discuss it with him? - Y:You know what his views are on that! • X: Look out here. ~ Y: What a magnificent view! • X: Hurry up . .-,.- : Oh, there's plenty of time .• X: Will Friday suit you Y better? .-,.- : Any day you like, other than Friday and Saturday. • X: What Y

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it amounts to istharyou are refusing the offer. - Y: Yes, in a way .• X: Tell him why it is. important. - Y: He won't hear of it.• X: He has bad an accident. - Y: Just our luck! • X: It's no good asking her. - Y: What are we waiting for then? • X: Do you mean that seriously? - Y: Yes. It's an absolute disgrace .• X: What good is that sort of behaviour? ~ Y: I was only trying to be a bit helpful. • X: I can't untie the string. ~ Y: Getting angry won't help matters. • X: The trouble is that I'm very short of time. - Y: Send it to John then .• X: Here's your book. - Y: Did you have a look through it? • X: He can't do any better. - Y: It isn't his fault .• X: Could you give me a light? - Y: Here you are ..• X; He has been ill for months. - Y: It's no concern of ours. • X: Did you check it up? - Y: It's our fault all right. "X: Was he as popular as all that? -V: In some ways, yes . • X: Who else have you told about it? - Y:Is that all that is Worrying you? • X: Will you back me up? - Y: Certainly! • X: May I come too? ..... Y: John is coming as well. • X: I can't eat all of it. - Y: Eat at least some of it. • X: I've been doing it all my life. -Y: Oh, yes. • X: What has made him change his mind? - Y: Being rude won't help matters .• X: I can't understand his behaving like that. - Y: What's so odd about that? • X: You are trying to make a name for yourself, aren't you? - Y: Do you think.so? • X: Is it very valuable? - Y: Hardly at all. • X: He didn't say a word. - Y: But I'm determined to carry on. • X: I think he won't .b€ comingtoday -¥: It looks like it.• X: When's the best time to meet him? .- Y: Try getting him on the phone.· X: Is he happy about the financial side of it? - Y: What has it got to do with you? • X: She is thirty. - Y: She doesn't look a day over twenty .• X: Can nothing be done now? - Y: Not very much, I'm afraid. • X: Carryon as usual, if you can. - Y: What good'll that do? • X: What's that shop opposite us? ~ Y: Which one do you mean? • X: His. shirt looks shoddy. - Y: Oh, no one will notice .• X: 1 would like to have a look at it. - Y; Oh yes. • X: Can you drive on your own? - Y: Does it matter? • X: Oh, what ghastly weather for April! - Y: Now isn't that peculiar! • X: You're crazy not to accept that offer. - Y: I don't agree .• X: You can say what you like. - Y: Moaning isn't going to help matters •• X: He looks quite ill, - Y: Ask him to go and lie down. • x:'who are they for? -'- Y: I thought you knew. • X; They want a Iakh, - Y: That's quite a large sum. • X: Can Ltryit after you? - Y: Why not ask him? • X: You have . put me in a nice mess. - Y: Don't take it that way .• X: Is it so very surprising? ~ Y:You might have warned X: Can we do without them? - Y: But they are off to London tomorrow .• X: I haven't much time. - Y: Don't worry. I won't be long. • X: I can't unlock this door. - Y: Keep trying. • X: Do you think I'll take money from you? - Y: But what's the harm of it? • X: He has sprained his elbow. ~ Y: There's nothing to get upset about. • X; He's away ill. - Y: POor old chap! • X: Whose turn is it to do the cooking? - Y: I wouldn't mind having a try .• X: It doesn't sound like her fault .. - Y; 'Then whose fault is it? • X: Were any of her class-mates there? - YiOnly that tall boy.

me."

e

X: What are you here for? - Y: Don't you know? • X: You should spend

54
more time on that. ~ Y: It's all very well to say that. X; I can't undo this packet. - Y: Cut the string. X: Ask him to take a loan. - Y: Oh, he, wouldn't hear of it. X: Shall I have a try? ~ Y: That's not a bad idea .• X: Let us find somewhere to sit. - Y Oh yes, let us .• X: He will never .get it right. - Y: I've got a feeling he will .• X: Get on to him and find out. - Y: Our phone is out of order. • X: Is it my fault the train is late? Y: What does a bit of delay matter? • X: Why can't you leave things alone? - Y: Oh, it's no good hoping; • X: I don't see what good .it'Ildo to you. - Y: It's not like that at all. • X: What's the good of that? -. Y: I don't want to be unkind. • X: I'll take a chance on it. - Y; The very best of luck to youl • X: What sort of weather do you have there now? - Y: I thought you knew. "' X: It sounds to me like jealousy. - Y: I'm not so sure about that .• X: Was this all you called me for? - Y: I thought we ought to have a talk. .
0 0 0

• X: Axe you certain they'll help? - Y: Now have they ever let me down? • X: Why not go to him straightaway? - Y: It isn't quite the right time .• X: They made rather a mess of it. - Y: I'll give them a good talking to .• X: It's a foot too long. -- Y: What is it for? X: You'll have to complete it by the next month, - Y: Next month would be time enough. • X; I've got great hopes for you. - Y: Well ...
0

• X: you must give him a good talking to. - Y: But would that be wise? • X: Loyal employees are getting harder to find. - Y: True .• X: What makes you think that'll do any good? - Y: Do stop pestering me .• X: Whose side are you on? - Y: That is an interesting question. • X: You'll have to give up this idea .• Y: I can't. I do feel strongly about this, • X: I can't undo the clasp. - Y: Try again .• X: Can I go and meet him? - Y: There's no harm in that .• X: Where is the money coming from for all this? - Y: Can you find out? • X: I've got much worse troubles than that. - Y: Rot! • X: Be has got a bit of a cold. - Y: Let him stay indoors .• X: How did you begin in this company? - Y: I came here as an apprentice. • X: Will blaming them solve the problem? - Y: I'm tired of excuses.

Rhythm drill
Remember the kind of rhythm drill you did in Lesson 97 That's a very important kind of drill. Here's some more material for practice along the same lines.
e-e I Are you I looking for I anything in par 1ticular? ·1 Are you [looking for I something in par I ticular? • j Are you 1 lost? • I Are you 0 I K? • I AI:e you I open after [five? • I Ate you [open on I Saturdays? • I Are you 1open on Iweekends? • IAre you lour of it? • IAre you lout of your [head? • I Are you lout of your 1mind? • I Are you 1paying at[tention? o I Are you psy 1 chotic, or I what? • 1 Are you I pulling my I leg? • I Are you 1 ready to 1 go? • I Are you 1 ready to 'I order? • I Are you I satisfied? • I Are you 1 serious? • I Axe you! sober e 1 nough to 1 drive?' • 1 Are you I spending the I night [there? • I Are you I still I eating that 1chocolate? •

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1 Are you I having 1 dinner this 1 evening? • 1 Are you ! hoping for a I boy or a 1 girl? • I Are you I hurt? • I Are you just 1 going to I sit there? • 1 Are you just I going to 1 stand. there all I day? • 1 Are you 1 listening to me?

• lIs there an interm 1ission? • I Is therean I undercurrent? ., I Is there an Iundertow? • I Is there any 1more of this? • I Is there I anybody who 1 doesn't I like it? • I Is there )anyone 1 else you 1 don't 1 know?" I Is there )anything I else? • I Is there I anything )else I can )get for you? • 1 Is there )anything I else I can I help you I With? • )Is there 1 anything )else I can I interest you in? • 1 Is there I anything lean ·1 do? • I Is there Ianything I can Iget for you? • IIs there. a )laundry a Ivailable? • [Is there a )meal? • I Is there a I parking I garage near I here? • I Is there a Ipenalty for )changing my I plans?
• [D'you I sell) stamps? • )D'you I serve I meals? • )D'you [smell )gas? • J D'you I smell Isomething? • ID'you 1 smoke? • [D'you I speak any )French? • I D'you Ispeak I French? • I D'you I still re Iquire Isix? • I D'you I stock any Ifashionmaga I zirre? I D'you I take [cheques? • ID'you I take I credit? • ID'you I take Icredit Icards? • I D'you I take Ithis (I credit Icard)? • ID'you Ithink he'll Istand in? • ID'you Ithink he's for I gotten? • I D'you Ithink I I care?· [D'you re I quire a de Iposh? • I D'you re I quire a se I curity de Iposit? • ID'you Isee IPaul these I days? • ID'you Isee that I man over Ithere? • ID'you Isee Iwhat I I mean? • [D'you Isen (I postage) [stamps [here? " [D'you [sell [household a I ppliances I here?
u

• I Do you I have any Ifriends in that Iarea? • IDo you I have any Imore of Ithese?' IDo you 1 have any Inames I picked out?- Ibo you Ihave any I questions? • IDo you I have any recommen Idations? • I Do you Ihave any i Ideahow Ifast you were [going> • J Do you I have any i Idea why r Istopped you? • IDo you I have any im Iported I beer? • I Did you Isay Ianything to IJim? • I Did you I score? • IDid you Isee any I lions? • IDid you Isee IArthur? • IDid you Isee that I pretty I girl? • IDid you Isee that Ishow [last Inight? • IDid you Itake any Ipictures? • I Did you I make the Ifire Iup? ~ I Did you I mind my in I viting Ram? • [Didyou [pass your e lxam? • IDid you [save [time?
• IHave you no I conscience? • IHave you no Iqualms? • IHave you no I scruples? • IHave you no )thought for I anyone but your Iself?o I Have you I said Ianything to I Ravi yet?
• [Js there a I penalty for [late 1 checkout? • IIs there a 1 pool? • I Is there a pre Ipayment [penalty? - lIs there a [public I rest-room Ihere? • IIs there a. 1 quiet Ireading room? • I Is there a Irestaurant? • I Is there a se Icurity Isystem? • I Is there a I steep drop I off? • IIs there a Istorage Iarea in the Ibasement? .

• ICan we I smoke during I lectures? • ICan we Italk?- I Can you be [lieve your I eyes? • I Can you Ileave the Ipaper on the Iporch? • ICan you Itake our [orders Inow? • [Can you Ibaby-sit for us [next I Friday Inight? • ICan you Ibreak a Irwenty? .. ICan you Icheck to I see where my [luggage I is?- I Can you just .intro I duce your Iself to the )other Iguests? • I Can you I close the I window? • I Can you I open the

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[window? • ICan you des I cribe the Iperson who atj tacked you? • [Can you des Icribe the I symptoms? • I Can you I do I something a Ibout it? • I Can you Idrive over? ~ I Can you ! ever for I give me? • ICan you I find your Iway I home? • I Can you Ifix: this Izipperi"> ICan you for:Igive me? • ICan you I get as Imany as Ieight in Ithere? • ICan you Iget me a [glass of lwaterj > ICanI [talkto you? 'ICanI I talk to you 'a Ibout my I grade? • I Can '1 I tell IRohit? • ICan I I tell IPriya a] bout it? • ICan I I try these Ion? • ICan I Iwalk Ithere from I here? • I Can it be I cured? • ICan IMario and IRavi Icome to Itea? • ICan she Ispeak IFrenchr > ICan ISandra I have the after Inoon [off? • ICan we a Ifford to Ibuy it? • ICan we con Irinue this [later? • ICan we I go, to the Icircus, IDad? -I Can we larder Inow? • ICan I Itake it for a Itest [drive? • I Can I I take the Icar for a I drive? • [Can 1 [take Ithis one? • I Can I I take your Icoat and I hat? • ICan I I take your larder? you Igive me the Ichange in lID-rupee 1notes? • ICould you me the Itime?' I Could you [help? • [Could you [help me Iplace a Icam· ICould you [keep a Isecret? • [Could you I let me I know when we Iget to IGandhi Street? • ICould you [move your Istuff, I please? • I Could you I pass the [rolls a! round? • 1Could you Iplease Iblow Iup my Ityres? • ICould you [please Imove to the Irear?

• I Could

I give

[come to I dinner this I evening?''' [right? • I you I have a [beer, !Prakasn.?you I help me?

• IWill you

will

IWill YaH get
'WiUyou

[home all [helpr > IWill

• IWould you [Iike I something to I drink I first? • IWould you [like Isomething to Idrink with I that? • [Would you [like isoup or Isalad with Ithat? .; I Would you [like that del livered? • !Would you I care to [join us?, IWould you Ilike the [chicken or the Ibeef(lemree)? • IWould you Ilike' the Isalt and Ipepper? • IWorud you Ilike to I come? • IWould you Ilike to Idance? • IWould you Ilike to [freshen up a Ibit? • I Would you [like to Igo out to I dinner with me? • [WOUld you [like to !go to I dinner? • IWould you Ilike to I go to the Iopera? • IWould you [like to [join us? • IWould you Ilike to [join us in the [living I room? • [Would you Ilike to Ilie Idown? • IWould you Ilike to I make a reser Ivarian for a I nother Inight? • IWould you Ilike to Iorder a Idrink? • IWould you Ilike to I play Idarts? • [Wou[d you Ilike some [rice I pudding? • IWould you I like some I more of I this? • I Would you Ilike some [salt and I pepper? • IWould you [like jsomething to I drink? • IWould you [like me to I bring I coffee? • IWould you I like me to I leave ? • IWould you Ilike me to Irequest this I book from a Inother [library? • IWould you Ilike me to re Iserve this Ibook for you? • IWould you Ilike some I aspirin? IWhat Imade you Ido such a [stupid Ithing? • [What Imade you Itake it? • IWhat Imade you Itry at the Istationer's? • IWhat [major inter Isection is Ithat Inear? • IWhat Imajor Istreets is Ithat be Itween? • [What Imakes you so [specialv > IWhat Imall are you lin?' [What Imethod of I payment will you Iuse? • IWhat [more can I [do? • IWhat Imore d'you ex [pect? • 'IWhat Iname did yot! rei serve the Itickets Iunder? • IWhat on [earth do you Iwant from the I grocer's? • [What
e

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on Iearth were you Ithinking? • IWhat on Iearth's Ihappened to ILucy? . r What Ioptions do I [have for I fabric? • IWhat ought I to, I do? • I What Iports of Icall does the I ship I stop in? • I What po I ssessed him to be I have like I that? • I What po I ssessed you to I do [that? • I What re I action did you Iget? • I What I reason did I he I give for I his be Ihaviour? • IWhat Iright do you Ihave to I say Ithat? • IWhat Isafety Ifeatures does it [haver > [What [salary do you exl pect to Iget?· I What I seems to be the I problem? • I What I seems to be the I problem Ihere?· IWhat shall 1 Ida about his [offerr > I What shall I Ida about that I letter? • IWhat shall I Ido about those Ishares? • 1 What shall I I do I now? • IWhat shall I do Inow, sir? • IWhat shall I_ I do with her [letters? • I What shall I Ido with his 1 rubbish? • 1 What shall I I do with it? • IWhat shall I Ido with my Iboots? • IWhat shall I Ido with the I box? • I What shall I Ido with these I figures? • I What shall I Ido with Ithis? • I What shall I 1 say? • I What shall I 1 say to him? • IWhat shall I Itell her? • IWhat shall II wear? • IWhat shall I Itake? • IWhat shall we I do a 1 bout that I partyz > 1 What shall we 1 do I now? • I What shall we do this. I evening? • I What should I 1 bring? • I What should lido, [Ajith? • 'IWhat should I [wearr « I What interj section is [that [near? • I What is it? • I What is it ]made of? • 1What is the I area code for I Los Angeles? .. IWhat is the 1 book list for the I course? • 1 What is the ex 1 change I rate of 1 Indian I rupees to the I dollar? • 1 What.is the I fare? • 1 What is the Ilowest I possible 1 interest I rate you Ihave? • 1 What is the 1 purpose of your 1 visit? • I What is the 1 special of the I day? • I What is your I best I interest Irate? • I What is your I citizenship? .. IWhat is your de 1 gree in? • 1 What is your I price Irange? • 1 What Ikind of Ibeer do you [have? • IWhat Ikind of [bread do you [have? .. IWhat Ikind of I drinks do you I have? • IWhat Ikinds of Idrinks have you got? • I What I kind of (mess did you Iget yourself I into? • 1 What Ikind of I neighbourhood is it? • IWhat 1 kinds of po I tatoes would you [Iike? • IWhat I kmds of I vases do you [have? • IWhat I kinds of Imarmalade do you [have? • [What I made him so [angry? • IWhat I else can I Ida for you? • IWhat I else could he have [done? • IWhat I else was I there? • IWhat lever shall we I do? • I What ex I cuse shall I [give? • [What I floor is [furniture Ion? • IWhat I floor is it Ion? • I What I floor is your [office Ion? • 1What 1 grade are you I in? ·1 What I happened? • I What Ihappens if I 1 miss 1 taking these I pills? • I What have I Idon'€ 1 nowz> . I What have II done I wrong Inow? • I What have you [been up I to? • IWhat if he I mentions the I matter? • IWhat db you Iwant? • IWhat do you I want me [for? • [What do you I want me to do a [bout it? • IWhat do you I want me to I say? • I What do yoU 1 want to Idrink? • I What does that [mean in IEnglish? • IWhere is the Ifitting I room? • I Where is the 1 freeway/highway? • 1 Where is the [gift-wrap [counter? • I Where is the lice mal chine? • I Where is the [ladies' I roorri?· [Where is the 1 men's 1 room? • IWhere is the I men's I shop? • IWhere is the Inearest I bus station? • ~Where is the I nearest I train station? • I Where is the I pool, I please? • IWhere is the I post officer > I Where is the I public telephone? • 1Where is the

58
'reference

Isection?

• ,Where is the re Imote (control)?

• IWhich one shall I I choose? • [Which 'quality should I Ibuy? • \Which I bat shall I I take? • [which I route d'you su I ggest? • ,Why have you Ibrought that Ifile? • IWhy have you 'come? • [Why I haven't you [mended his I shoes?' 1Why is your I face so I sad? • \Why I DQt ad\ mit you I lost it? • IHow [Iong'Il it \take? • IHow \many? • t How many IRs were there? • [How I many are in your Igroup? • [How Imany ate in your I party? • \How Imany I beds? • I How )many I brothers and I sisters do you I have? I How I many can I I have? • [How many \children does he Ihavev> I How I many ciga Irettes have you I got? • I How I many d'you I need? • \How 'many d'you Iwant? • IHow many Idays in a Iyear? • I How I many did he) want? • I How I many did she I give you, I Bobby? • IHow \many has IAjith I got? • IHow [many in your Iparty? • IHow many I Indian I rupees to the [dollar? • [How many I items of [carry-on jluggage are per I mittedz > \ How Imany more 'stops be [fore we Ireach I Delhi? • \How I many more I times d'you 'want Itelling? • 'How 'many Inights will you be Istaying?
e

Final words
And now, we're at the end of the course. I'm sure you've enjoyed this course very much, The various Lessons and Supplements in this course gave you collection after collection of specially-selected word groups. How have you done the oral drills and exercises with them? Let me ask you. Have you come to a stage where you can say that you can utter all the word groups with a ready and smooth flow? Of course, some of you might not have had time enough to practise the word groups as often as they should have been. But that doesn't matter very much. Only; the progress of those learners would be a bit slow. But you know, slow progress is far better than no progress at all. So the important thing is this: Don't relax your efforts. And don't let up on the oral practice or slow it down. Continue spending at least an hour every day practising the word groups. Just think of the benefits you get. That fact alone should be enough to spur you on to continue doing the oral practice - regularly and with great vigour. And what are those benefits? You can sum up all those benefits in a single word: EFFECTIVENESS. That is, effectiveness in everyday life. Effectiveness in anything you do when you deal with people who speak English. This isn't a course on how to succeed in life, and so I'm

59
not going to elaborate on this point. But this I would say: Your success in dealing with people who matter is directly proportionate to your fluency in spoken English. Pick up fluency in spoken English, and you can get a lot of important things done far more easily and effectively than before. This is no fancy talk, but a fact. Have no doubt about it. If you are someone who has gained pratical knowledge and experience of the world, you would already be convinced about this truth. About your efforts to pick up fluency, let me tell you this: Every combination of words and every combination of sounds that are needed to make fluency grow in you are there in the various Lessons you have gone through. They're the core combinations that are not only needed, but also mat are essential. $0 spend as much time as you can doing oral practice with the word groups in the various Lessons and Supplements. You should aim not at just uttering them a few times, but at gaining mastery over them. You must get your organs of speech to yield .completely to them, so that you can glide over them smoothly, effortlessly. Mostlearners have one problem: They come across several books, newspapers and magazines, and in those books, newspapers and magazines, they come across a large number of new word groups. And all of a sudden, they are thrown into a confusion of thought: "Oh, I haven't done any practice With these word groups. Then how can my fluency skill be complete? These word groups look new to me. Won't I have to do some practice with these word groups too?" Here remember two things: First, to speak fluent English, all those new word groups are not essential. No. What is essential is this: You must have practice with certain fundamental sound-combinations and with certain types of productive word groups. All those sound-cornbinations and word groups are covered by this course. Second, suppose that you have to have practice with every word combination that is possible in the English language.in order to gain fluency. If that is so, do you think that anybody can ever become fluent? The answer is 'no', because the word combinations that are possible are infinite. Therefore, what this course has been getting you to do is this: It has been getting you togain mastery·over a limited number of "productive" word combinations. Yes, productive - because they can help you produce a large number of other (new) word combinations. Yes. These limited number of productive word combinations are the core building blocks of the fluency skill. And when you have mastery over them, they would make you able to produce an unlimited number of idea units - not only the learnt combinations of words, but also any

60 number of new 'COmbinations. This is the great importarice of getting the fluency-nucleus planted within you - as I've already told you in earlier Lessons. Now let me sound a note of warning. It's about the expressions and structures that you may see elsewhere and that might appear "colourful" to you. Mind you, never go after those expressions and structures. Never. Let me ask-you: What is the purpose of speaking a language? Communication, isn't it? Now suppose that you say something, and suppose that your listener does not understand it. Then have you achieved your purpose? No, of course not. So how can we decide whether someone's English is "good" or "bad"? Many people ask: "If my English is to be called good English, should it not contain colourful expressions?" The answer is 'no'. You see, colourful expressions don't make your English good. What sounds colourful or impressive to one person may not seem colourful or impressive to another person. The one and only criterion for deciding whether you speak good English is this: Can the listener understand what you're saying readily, without any effort? If the listener can, your English ~s 'good'. If the listener cannot, your English is 'bad' no matter how many colourful expressions you've used. Any expression that is appropriate to the context and that helps your hearers .understand your meaning readily and without effort is a better expression than any other - no matter how "colourful" these expressions seem to you. The point I'm trying to get across to you is this: Many people have a tendency to use rare and high-sounding words and strange structures, instead of using common words and common structures. They're eager to stuff the things they write or say with literary (and even poetic) words and expressions - and with words and expressions that are unusual in some way. They are eager to write and speak in everyday life in a style that is typical of a work of literature. Many people believe that this kind of English is "colourful", and they think it's "good" English. But understand this: They are wrong. First of all, listeners will have difficulty understanding you if you use rare words and strange structures, and so your purpose in speaking will be defeated. Second, even highly educated native speakers of English don't normally use more than about 2000 words in their day-to-day conversations. And as I've already told you in earlier Lessons, even in serious conversations on a wide variety of topics, they don't normally use more than about 4700 words (plus, of course, a few topic-related "special words"), Nor do they use any strange structures. (What is a strange structure? Any structure that we have not had practice with in this course is a

61
strange structure). Third, rare words and, particularly; strange structures will force your attention away frOID What you're saying and turn it to how you're saying it. This win cause your speech to. break up and to come to a halt. The point I want to drive home to you is this: You would See a lot of colourful expressions and sentences used in newspapers, books, etc. You would also hear colourful expressions and sentences on the radio and on Tv. But don't ever try to copy them or imagine that they're samples of genuine spoken English. Don't. Get this straight: Those expressions and sentences are not samples of genuine spoken English. No. Most of them are carefully thought out in advance) written, up, corrected and edited - along formal or literary written English lines. On the radio and Tv, what you hear on the news is language that is planned, prepared, scripted, rehearsed - and uttered 'in a parrot-like fashion. Sois most of the things you hear on most content-oriented "report-like programmes". Even a number of interviews are based on scripts. When a quiz-master on TV rattles out something at top speed, don't get fooled into believing that his speech is spontaneous or that what he says is a .sample of genuine spontaneous speech, It .isn't, So never take text-book English or newspaper English as your model of spoken English. And never take scripted radio or TV English as your model of spoken Englishyeither, All this doesn't mean that you shouldn't read books or newspapers or listen to the radio or Tv. No, that isn't what I mean. Not at all. In fact, there are a humber of types of books (like novels and plays) that are based mainly on conversational English or hear-conversational English. And the news and report-like programmes or scripted interviews are not the only programmes you get on the radio or TV There are always a large number of interviews and commentaries and other programmes that are full of content generated by people speaking spontaneously. And of course, there are serials .and films, too. And you sliouui read books and newspapers and listen to the radio and Tv. You should. That's an excellent way of keeping in touch with the building-blocks of the English language. Only; don't try assembling those building blocks in the way they're assembled in what you read in the "written English type" presentations in books and newspapers or in the "written English type" presentations on the radio and Tv. In these books and newspapers, and on these radio and lV programmes, they assemble the building blocks of English in ways that suit their objectives and are subject to the limitations of the media. In a real-life speech situation, the objectives of a speaker, and limitations and.possibilities of the spoken medium, are very different.

62
This brings us to a point that is very important - the all-important point. Whenever you open your mouth to speak, remember this: You must speak in "spoken English", and not in "written English". So here's something you should do: Go through the various Lessons. List out all the differences between spoken English and written English. List out all the special characteristics of spoken English ..Learn them thoroughly. Understand them thoroughly. Let these characteristics be your guiding light. In particular, remember these things: You must speak in idea units, and not sentences. There must be pauses. Don't avoid hesitation sounds and hesitation fillers. Use them freely. You're certain to become unsure occasionally of what you're saying and to make mistakes (even after you achieve a high level of fluency) - and you'll have to pause from time to time before saying the words and expressions properly or in a- more appropriate order. Whenever you speak spontaneously, there will always be distractions and interruptions. There will be starting troubles at the beginning of many of the idea units and at the beginning of new topics and subtopics. There will be incomplete and unfinished sentences. You'll often have to start with one structure and end with another-in the same breath. There will be reformulations} corrections and even contradictions - as part of the editing-aloud process. Most of what you say will be vague, and not precise. You'll be using vague words and vague expressions more frequently than precise words and precise expressions. You'll be depending a lot on the context, already-knownfacts and gestures - to get your meaning across. And so you'll be leaving out a lot of things unsaid, unspoken. What you say will not often be in any logical sequence. You'll be saying a lot of irrelevant things and will not be confining yourself to relevant things alone. The relevant things will be mixed up with, or lying embedded in, a mass of surrounding information - mostly, 'collateral' or 'redundant' information - information that is not directly relevant. Almost everything you say will be structurally loose, and almost nothing will be structurally tight. All these features are important - not just one or two of them alone. All. If you try to avoid any of these features, you are in for trouble. Mind you, nobody will be able to speak naturally even for a single minute without taking help from these features. No. If you try to avoid these features, your speech will break up. So let me repeat: You will never become fluent if you try to avoid these features. So don't avoid them. Don't. When can you say that fluency has taken roots in you? You can say

63 .that, when the word groups in the various collections in the various Lessons and Supplements begin to come out of your mouth smoothly and without breaks. Mind you, it is not necessary that you should learn the word groups in a collection by heart or that they should come out of your mouth from memory one after another orin the order in which you get them in the collection. That's not what I mean. What I mean is this: Once you look at a word group, you must be able to say it from start to finish - smoothly and without stumbling over any of the sounds or sequences of saunas. So here's one thing you should pay great attention to: Master uttering the word groups -:- and don't just read them a few times and drop them . . Pay great attention to vocabulary mastery in the way that this course has told you. That is, don't go out on a word-hunting spree. Don't. lnstead, pay all your attention to the core words. Yes, only to them. Your aim should be a complete mastery of the core words. A complete, total mastery. That too, mastery of these words and these words alone. And from out of the core words, separate the verbs for concentrated attention. Yes, verbs - including phrasal verbs. Remember this: Verbs (including phrasal verbs) are the powerhouse of the fluency skill. Learn the ways in which the verbs work with nouns and adverbs. Learn how the various verbs are inter-related. Learn the various patterns that are possible with each verb. The dictionaries I've recommended will all help you in this verb mastery effort. Mind you, there's one obstacle that may delay your progress if you don't watch out for it. It's greed. Yes, greed. Don't look surprised. You see, whenever anyone starts developing their vocabulary; their slogan is "More, more". And they go on hunting for new words. And they don't know where to stop. "More, more", their greed urges them. They fix on a new word, get a superficial idea about its meaning, and about how it's used - and then they move on to another word. And they keep on moving quickly from one word to another. They don't master any of them. They don't learn any of them thoroughly enough. They don't give enough attention to the details of usage. They don't pick up any experience of actually using them in real-life situations. They're in a hurry - to flit from word to word. And the pity is, most of the words they try to learn in this way are words that are not in frequent use in speech or everyday writing. They're generally are words that ate formal, literary, unusual or rare. So you see, as far as fluency building is concerned, "more" is less. What the fluency-building process needs is not an accumulation of 'more' words, but an in-depth study of a limited number of core words. .

64 Remember this: As far as any skill-building process is concerned, you'd get more out of doingrhe same thing ten times than out of doing ten different things once each, Of course, this principle assumes , that the thing you do ten times in this way is a thing that really ne(i!ds done. This principle is the corner-stone of fluency development. Y~'S, the principle of persistence, repetition. Do you know why? Because, our objective is to let the fluency-nucleus take birth in you. And the fluency-nucleus will not take birth in you, if the conditions necessary for its birth are not satisfied. And what are these conditions? These conditions are: (i) Your organs of speech must become used to uttering all the word groups and to producing all the sound combinations in this course. (ii) Your ears must become used to listening to 311the word groups and all the sound combinations in this COU1'se. (ill) YG'IJ. must become used to living with all the word groups andwith all the sound combinations in this course -, just as you are used to living with your family. And it's theprinciple of repetition that will ensure that these conditions are satisfied. Have you heard the story of a man who wanted water and so started digging the earth? This is what he did: He 'chose a spot at random and dug there for some time, but didn't find any water there quickly enough. He moved to another place at random, and started digging, there, There too, he dug for some time, but didn't find any water quickly enough. Then he picked up another spot. He gave up that spot also for another one. In that way, he kept on choosing newer and newer spots and giving them up one after the other. By the end of the day, he still had no water. Next day, his wife came along .. chose a spot carefully after much enquiry and study, and started digging there. At first, she didn't find any water, either. But she kept on digging at the same spot, and didn't leave that spot - because she knew she had chosen the spot wisely and was sure to find water there. And in less than half the time her husband had taken to dig all the pits, she dug, up a deeper pit and got water out of it. To master the fluency skill, be like the wife. Not like the man. You know, persistence pays off. And now, goodbye. *'***

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