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Ryan S.

Elder and Aradhna Krishna The Effects of Advertising Copy on Sensory Thoughts and Perceived Taste Ryan S. Elder and Aradhna Krishna Journal of Consumer Research Vol. 36, No. 5 (February 2010), pp. 748-756 We propose that advertisement (ad) content for food products can affect taste perception by affecting sensory cognitions. Specifically, we show that multisensory ads result in higher taste perceptions than ads focusing on taste alone, with this result being mediated by the excess of positive over negative sensory thoughts. Since the ad effect is thoughts driven or cognitive, restricting cognitive resources (imposing cognitive load) attenuates the enhancing effect of the multiplesense ad. Our results are exhibited across three experiments and have many implications for cognition and sensory perception research within consumer behavior, as well as several practical implications Ovulation, Female Competition, and Product Choice: Hormonal Influences on Consumer Behavior Kristina M. Durante, Vladas Griskevicius, Sarah E. Hill, Carin Perilloux and Norman P. Li Journal of Consumer Research Vol. 37, No. 6 (April 2011), pp. 921-934 Recent research shows that women experience nonconscious shifts across different phases of the monthly ovulatory cycle. For example, women at peak fertility (near ovulation) are attracted to different kinds of men and show increased desire to attend social gatherings. Building on the evolutionary logic behind such effects, we examined how, why, and when hormonal fluctuations associated with ovulation influenced women's product choices. In three experiments, we show that at peak fertility women nonconsciously choose products that enhance appearance (e.g., choosing sexy rather than more conservative clothing). This hormonally regulated effect appears to be driven by a desire to outdo attractive rival women. Consequently, minimizing the salience of attractive women who are potential rivals suppresses the ovulatory effect on product choice. This research provides some of the first evidence of how, why, and when consumer behavior is influenced by hormonal factors.

Both tangible nad intangible attributes of a product are equally important inchoosing a product or brand (Myers, 2003). There is no evidence that certain attributesare more related to customer loyalty than others (Romariuk & Sharp, 2003). It was, foundthough, that the more attributes (non-negative) associated with a brand, the more loyalthe customer (Romariuk & Sharp,2003).Romariuk and Sharp (2003) suggested thatmarketers should focus more on how many attributes the brand should be associated withand not what attributes. However, this study did not specify what sort of attributesmarketers should associate the brand with; i.e. whether they

should be relevant or irrelevant attributes, tangible or intangible etc.This is because it is important thatconsumer accurately lean about product attribute performances since it would influencetheir interpretations of product performance by causing memory encode and retrieval bias.Unfounded product attribute relationship beliefs can mislead them into expectingsomething that is not there.(Mason & Bequette, 1998). Hence if products fall short of customer expectataions,then dissactisfaction would result.Nevertheless, it was found thatthrough irrelevant, some attributes may still be important in influencing consumer choice.Persistent preferences for product attribute soccurs when there is low ambiguity inthe initial potential choice for salient attributes coupled with experience,although thoseattributes maybe irrelevant (i.e. an attributes usually not associated with favourable brandoutcomes (Muthukrishnan & Kardes, 2001). Consequently, Mason and Bequette (1998)also said that perceptions on product performance based on salient attributes are moreimportant in influencing the consumer purchase behaviour than actual product attribute performances. Similarly, Myers (2003) concluded that brand equity may be moreinfluenced by attribute knowledge more than consumer preference.For low-involvement products, consumers have more objective view of the natureof the attrinutes (eg. food, cosmetics) because they are constantly being advertised and promoted.Similarly Rioo, Vasquez and Iglesias (2001) sugggeated that consumer evaluation of a product can be broken down into evaluation related to product (tangible or physical attributes) and brand name (intangible attributes, or images added to the productdue to its brand names). In his study on the relationship between human values andconsumer purchases, Allen (2001) found there was a significant association betweenhuman values (eg. hedonistic, achievement, self-direction, conformity, security etc.), product preference and tangible attribute importance with how consumers perceive the product (i.e tangible attributes) and how they evaluate the product (i.e symbolicmeaning,tangible/intangible attribute importance). Human values influence theimportance of the products tangible attribute importances that are already important toconsumers.However perception of product performance on the salient attributes are moreimportant than actual performance (Mason & Bequette, 1998).Mowen and Minor (1998)suggested that marketing managers should know the attributes that consumers expect in a product and how positively or negatively they rate these attributes to help develop and promote a successful product.Retailers need to be knowledgeable of the product attributes perceived as the most important by each individual consumer group in order to build andmaintain market share (Warrington & Shim, 2000). It is the consumer who determineswhich attributes matter to them. Different consumer groups place different importance on different attributes (Warrington & Shim,2000).It was found that consumers categoriez asLP/SB (low product involvement/strong brand commitment) placed greater importanceon product attributes and product orientataions than LP/WB (weak brand commitment)consumers, which placed the most importance on price.Markerters should consider using advertisement, which may play a role in makingattributee important to consumers that might not have been considered before (Gwin &Gwin, 2003),Romariuk & Sharp (2003) suggested two objectives of short-term and long-term brand building. In the short term, managers need to identify a specific attributes to be communicated to the market,based on which message gave the best execution.The keyaim is to develop likeable advertisement.In the long-run,managers need to build up abank of consumer perception about the brand to make it the one most often thought of and make it

difficult for competitors to have access to the minds of consumers (Romariuk & Sharp, 2003).The brand name of the product itself is an important attribute. Brands have bothfunctional (product-related) and symbolic dimensions (del Rio,Vasquez & Iglesiaz,2001), On the product related benefit side, consumer evaluate product performance basedon its capabilities, usage effectiveness, value for money and reliability. The purchase andconsumption of products is increasing regarded by consumers as an indirect way of communication to improve their self image and deliver certain impressions to other people in their environment (del Rio,Vasquez & Iglesiaz, 2001), Therefore the brandname benefits perceived by consumers is highly interrelated to the product-based benefits. Big brand means a better image and a better product (del Rio,Vasquez &Iglesiaz, 2001), Howevwer, as mention earlier, Mason and Bequette (1998) suggested that perceived product performance is more important than actual attribute performance.Similarly Myers (2003) concluded that brand equity might be influenced by attributeknowledge more than consumer preference. This may be due to consumer biasness and prejudice, Consumers product evaluations are influenced by memory. The biasness can be reduced by having current information, experience and knowledge (Mason andBequette ,1998). Therefore, its not surprising that brands that consumers believe offer superior value are most preferred brands chosen often (Myers, 2003). Brands with higher equity resulted in greater preferences and high market shares.Price is another form of attribute used by consumers to evaluate a product.Price cansometimes be an indicator of quality; with a higher price indicating higher quality(Mowen & Minor, 1998; Siu & Wong, 2002). Consumers perceive that a higher price can be attributed to the higher cost of quality control (Siu & Wong, 2002). Some consumersare highly price sensitive (elastic demand),whereby a high prices may shift consumers tocompetitive brands (Mowen & Minor, 1998). Therefore price can have a positive or negative influence on customers.