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Selected Chapters

September 6, 2011 Version

Contents

Preface 1 Rational Expressions 1.1 Basic Deﬁnitions and Principles of Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Equivalent Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Basic Principle of Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.3 Signs of a fraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.4 Simplifying Rational Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.5 The opposite of a quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.6 Homework: Simplifying Rational Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Multiplication of Rational Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2 Division of Rational Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.3 Homework: Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions 1.3 Addition of Rational Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.1 Addition and subtraction with like denominators . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 Addition and subtraction with unlike denominators . . . . . . . . 1.3.3 The least common denominator (LCD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.4 Homework: Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions . . . . 1.4 Complex Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.1 Complex Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4.2 Homework: Complex Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Rational Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 Ratio and Proportion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Homework: Rational Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 Review Rational Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Radicals and Exponents 2.1 Integer Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Product Rule for Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Division Rule for Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Power Rule for Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4 Power Rule for Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.5 Power Rule for Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.6 Zero Exponent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.7 Negative exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.8 Homework: Integer Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Roots and Radicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Square Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Cube Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 nth Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Properties of radicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Radical Simpliﬁcations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.6 Homework: Roots and Radicals . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Addition and Subtraction of Radicals . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Homework: Addition and Subtraction of Radicals 2.4 Multiplication of Radicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4.1 Homework: Multiplication of Radicals . . . . . . . 2.5 Division of Radicals and Rationalization . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3 2.5.1 Rationalizing Denominators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.5.2 Homework: Division of Radicals and Rationalization 2.6 Equations involving radicals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6.1 Method of solving equations with radicals . . . . . . 2.6.2 Homework: Equations in Radicals . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Rational Exponents and Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7.1 Homework: Rational Exponents and Radicals . . . . 2.8 Scientiﬁc Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8.1 Homework: Scientiﬁc Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.10 Review Radicals and Exponents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Quadratic Equations and Inequalities 3.1 Complex Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Fundamental Operations with Complex Numbers 3.1.2 Homework: Complex Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Solving equations by factoring . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 The square root property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Homework: Factoring and Square Root Method . 3.3 Completing the square method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Homework: Completing the Square Method . . . 3.4 The Quadratic Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Homework: Quadratic Formula . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Equations in Quadratic Form and the Discriminant . . 3.5.1 The Discriminant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.2 Homework: Equations in Quadratic Form . . . . 3.6 Quadratic and Rational Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.1 Quadratic Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.2 Rational Inequality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.3 Homework: Quadratic and Rational Inequalities 3.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Review Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The Distance Formula and Circles 4.1 The Distance Formula and Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 The Distance Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 The Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Homework: The Distance Formula and Circles 5 Functions 5.1 Introduction to Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 Basic deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 Representations of a Function . . . . . . 5.1.3 Evaluation and equality of Functions . 5.1.4 Domain of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.5 Graphical Representation of Functions 5.1.6 Homework: Introduction to Functions 5.2 Quadratic Functions: Parabolas . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Graphs of f (x) = ax 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Graphs of f (x) = ax 2 + k . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3 Graphs of f (x) = a(x − h)2 . . . . . . . . . 5.2.4 Graphs of f (x) = a(x − h)2 + k . . . . . . . 5.2.5 Homework: Quadratic Functions . . . . 5.3 Quadratic Functions: General form . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Finding the x- and y- intercepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 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4 5.3.2 Homework: Quadratic Functions: General Form . . Function Transformations and their Graphs . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Graphs of basic functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Transformations of Functions and their Graphs . . 5.4.3 Homework: Function Transformations . . . . . . . . 5.5 The Algebra of Functions and Composition . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.1 The Algebra of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.2 Difference Quotients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.3 Composition of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5.4 Homework: Algebra of Functions and Compositions 5.6 Inverse Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.1 One-to-one Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.2 Inverse Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6.3 Homework: Inverse Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System of Linear Equations 6.1 The Graphing method . . 6.2 The Substitution Method 6.3 The Addition Method . . . 6.3.1 Homework: System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . of Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 166 166 167 173 174 174 175 176 181 182 182 183 187 188 190 190 194 195 198

5.4

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A Answers and Hints 199 Answers and Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Fung for teaching the notes and ﬁnding many typos and errors. These were my lecture notes for teaching Math 1000 at Kean University since 2008. linear equations and inequalities and their graphs. Finally. The prerequisite to this course is a basic algebra course which covers properties of real numbers. I would also like to thank my students for spotting typos. I would like to acknowledge T.Preface This text is a one semester course in college algebra. suggestions. and corrections which can be addressed to the email below. M. I would appreciate any comments.edu 5 . Affouf maffouf@kean. and polynomials.

2. How long is the trail? Explain.1 Example Answer the following three problems from California public school standards [2006]: 1. 6 . we introduce the fundamental operations on fractional expressions. 2 is closest to the sum 8 14 8 14 + since + ≃ 1+1 9 15 9 15 2. In this chapter. the rules of simplifying fractions and methods of solving equations with fractional terms. The following problems from elementary school curriculum illustrate the challenging aspect of understanding fractions. 1. Draw a picture that illustrates each of the following problems and its solution. 5 4 5 3. Explain how your drawings illustrate the problems and the solutions. Assume the length of trail is L . The ﬁrst section is devoted to reviewing the basic rules of operations on fractions. Draw a picture that illustrates each of the following problems and its solution. 3 5 of a mile. he found that he was only of the way 4 8 3. Get ready! Basic Deﬁnitions and Principles of Fractions OBJECTIVES • Deﬁnitions of Fractions and Rational Expressions • Basic Principles of Fractions • Simplifying Rational Expressions • The sign of Fractions Fractions are introduced early in school. Mark was on a hiking trail and after walking 8 14 + ? and why? 9 15 to the end of the trail. Which of the numbers 0.1 Rational Expressions Fractions occur frequently in algebra as a ratio of two algebraic expressions.1 or 2 is closest to the sum 2. 3 1 × 4 2 3 1 (b) + 4 2 3 (c) 2 × 4 (a) Solution: 1. 1.1 Fractions and their manipulations are the most challenging hurdle for algebra learners. we translate the information to an algebraic equation: 5 3 L= 8 4 solve this equation for L = 8 3 6 × = = 1.

the result is a fraction equal to the original. x x 3a 1 3.1 Equivalent Fractions a c and are equal or (equivalent) b d a c = if and only if ad = bc b d 3 2 Deﬁnition We say two fractions For example. b kb k =0 2 That is. 7 . is called a fraction with numerator a and denominator b . Note that b × = 1. also we have the trivial case b b a a a = ·1 = 1· = a 1 1 1 1. the fractions and are equivalent (equal). Divide vertically the rectangle into 4 2 2 1 1 four equal rectangles each with base and height . where b = 0. thus a a ·b = b · = a b b This means that the product of a fraction by its denominator is equal to the numerator. that is we have two copies of 1 Deﬁnition The symbol 6 3 which is 4 4 3 4 a . 3. 1 7 : The unit fraction is . It b represents the quotient of a and b . if the numerator and denominator of a fraction are multiplied ( or divided) by the same non-zero expression. divide 4 2 second square into four equal squares and shade two of them add the shaded areas in the following way: 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 + = + + + + = 4 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 (c) 2× : Draw two unit square and shade three quarters of each of them. 2. 4 2 8 3 1 (b) + Divide a unit square into four equal squares and shade three of them. 7 9 5 x 3a 2b Solution: 1. there are 7 of them. there are 3a of them. there are 5 of them. Shade the ﬁrst three rectangles. 2b 2b 1. since 2·6 = 4·3 = 12. The fraction 1 1 is called a unit fraction. 9 9 1 5 2. : The unit fraction is .Chapter 1 (a) 1 3 1 × : Take a rectangle with base one and height . : The unit fraction is .2 Example Identify the unit fraction and how many of them are in each fraction? 1. The following two fractions 4 6 are equivalent a ka = . 4 2 3 3 1 Its area is given by × which is equal to .1.

7 Example Use cancellation law to reduce the following fractions.3 3(x 2 + 1) = = = = 4 −8 4x 0. 3. Reducing fractions (Divide out common factors): Often.3 Example Check that the following fractions are equivalent. b b k b ·k a ·k a = . 1.2 Basic Principle of Fractions a a k a ·k = · = . b ·k b (ak) ÷ k a = . 2.1.Basic Deﬁnitions and Principles of Fractions 1. perform the same with numerator to get 1. 3 −6 3x 0. (bk) ÷ k b 1.5 Example Build up the fraction so both sides are equal Solution: 3x − 1 ? = x 2 − 1 (x + 1)(x − 1)2 (x + 1)(x − 1)2 so the multiplier is (x − 1).4 4(x 2 + 1) 1. a −2 a −4 1. Building fractions: This process allows us to multiply both numerator and denominator by the same factor: k =0 2. 1. this rule is called cancellation law k =0 This cancellation law can be expressed in terms of division: k =0 ? 3 = 2ab 2 c 6a 2 b 2 c 4 1.6 Example Build up the fractions.4 Example Build up the fraction so both sides are equal Solution: 9ac 3 3 = 2c 2ab 6a 2 b 2 c 4 Observe that the denominator is multiplied by 3ac 3 . ? 3 = y −1 1− y s ? = t t2 ? a +2 = 2 a −2 a −4 Solution: 3 −3 = y −1 1− y s st 2. Thus we have Compare the denominators: the ﬁrst is x 2 − 1 = (x + 1)(x − 1) and the second is 3x − 1 (3x − 1)(x − 1) = x 2 − 1 (x + 1)(x − 1)2 1. 5x 5t s2t 4 st 5 8 . 2. = 2 t t a + 2 (a + 2)2 = 2 3. 1.

8 Example Reduce the fractions to the lowest terms. Simplify a fraction. 5. 2. 3 3 36x 2 × 2 × 3 × 3 × x × x × x 4x 36x 9x × 4x 4x 28x 3 y 2 z 28x 3 y 2 z ÷ (14x 3 y z) 2y 3. 18a 20a 3a + 6ab 3a x2 − 1 x −1 Solution: 1. 1. 2. reduced form or in the lowest terms if its numerator and denominator have no common factor except ∓1.Chapter 1 3. 4. = = 14x 4 y z 2 14x 4 y z 2 ÷ (14x 3 y z) xz 1. 12 21 27x 2 36x 3 1. 4. 3. 5x x = 5t t s 2 t 4 s 2 t 4 ÷ st 4 s = = t st 5 st 5 ÷ st 4 18a 18a ÷ 2a 9 = = 20a 20a ÷ 2a 10 3a + 6ab 3a(1 + 2b) = = 1 + 2b 3a 3a x 2 − 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) = = x +1 x −1 x −1 3 Deﬁnition A fraction is said to be simple. 5(x − 1)2 10(x − 1)(x + 1) x2 − 9 (x − 3)2 9 . 1. or = 2. 3. 28x 3 y 2 z 14x 4 y z 2 4x 2 − 4x 16(x − 1) Solution: 12 3 × 4 4 = = 21 3 × 7 7 3×3×3×x ×x 9x 2 × 3 3 27x 2 3 27x 2 = = 2 = . 4x(x − 1) x 4x 2 − 4x = = 16(x − 1) 16(x − 1) 4 1. reduce a fraction. and cancel out common factors in a fraction have the same meaning. 5.9 Example Simplify the fractions. 2. 4. 4.

−3 3 3 =− =− 10 10 −10 x +3 x +3 −(x + 3) −x − 3 x +3 =− =− =− =− 2. 3. 2−x Solution: 1.Basic Deﬁnitions and Principles of Fractions Solution: 1. however. 2−x −(2 − x) x −2 2−x 2−x 1. then the sign before the fraction must be changed. If. 2 − x −2 + x x −2 x −2 b − 4 −b + 4 4 − b 3. = = b − 5 −b + 5 5 − b b −4 b −5 1. then the sign before the fraction does not change. = = (x − 3)2 (x − 3)(x − 3) x − 3 3x + 5 3x = 2y + 5 2y Common Error Note that only same factors can be divided out. the sign of only the numerator or denominator is changed. Solution: 3 −3 = 10 −10 x +3 x + 3 −x − 3 −x − 3 = = =− 2.11 Example Change both signs of the numerator and denominator. 5(x − 1)2 x −1 = 10(x − 1)(x + 1) 2(x + 1) x2 − 9 (x + 3)(x − 3) x + 3 2. 1. 3 10 x +3 2. 10 . 1. To see the mistake compare the two fractions: 7+5 7 = =7 1+5 1 7×5 7 = =7 1×5 1 the correct answer is 2.1. 2−x 1. so the fraction stays the same. so the fraction stays the same. 3 10 x +3 2. but 1.10 Example Change the sign of only numerator or denominator.3 Signs of a fraction a −a = b −b a a −a = − = b b −b −a a a = −(− ) = − b b b The following fractions are equivalent: If the signs of the numerator and denominator in a fraction are changed.

Factor numerator and denominator if possible. 4. 2. Completely factor the numerator and the denominator. 3b3 7a a x 2 − 7x + 12 (x − 3)(x − 4) 4. Rational expressions are meaningful. 3.4 Simplifying Rational Expressions 4 Deﬁnition Rational expressions are the quotient (or ratio) of two polynomials. 6y 4 z 3 3x . 2. For example. x −x x2 + x x2 + 1 are not rational expressions. Thus the rational expressions makes sense for all real numbers except x = 7. In general.12 Example Simplify the rational expressions. 1. why?. 9x 3 + 18x 2 + 3x 3x 6x 2 − 6z 2 6 28ab 3 7a 3 b 3 x 2 − 7x + 12 x −4 Solution: 1. there is a question about simplifying the rational expressions. x −6 3x 3 − 5 x2 + 1 are rational expressions. Divide out common factors from both the numerator and the denominator. 3x x −7 In many algebra problems. −8y 3 z 5 . what one considers simple is a matter of personal preference. then cancel common factors 9x 3 + 18x 2 + 3x 3x(3x 2 + 6x + 1) = = 3x 2 + 6x + 1 3x 3x 6x 2 − 6z 2 6(x 2 − z 2 ) 2. That is to apply the famous cancellation law: a ·k a = . = = x −3 x −4 x −4 1. 20x y 15x y 2 27u 3 9u 4 − 15u 2 11 .Chapter 1 1. Although. this means to cancel common factors. if denominator is not zero. 1.13 Example Simplify the rational expressions. = = x2 − z 2 6 6 4 28ab 3 = 2 3. However. 1. the fractions x +7 . provided the divisor is not identical to zero. 2.1. b ·k b k =0 Simplifying rational expressions involves two technical steps: 1.

The opposite of 6 is −6 2. 6. = 2 −4 (x − 2)(x + 2) x + 2 x 2x 3 2x 3 − 10x 2 = 2x 3 2x 2 (x − 5) = 27u 3 9u 27u 3 = = 4 − 15u 2 2 (3u 2 − 5) 9u 3u 3u 2 − 5 x − 2y x − 2y 1 = 3. The opposite of x + 2 is −(x + 2) = −x − 2 5.1.14 Example Simplify the rational expressions. = −1. The opposite of x − 5 is −(x − 5) = −x + 5 = 5 − x (Positive ﬁrst!) The division of any nonzero quantity by its opposite equals to −1.Basic Deﬁnitions and Principles of Fractions 3. 4. The opposite of 3x is −3x 4. x − 2y x 2 − 4y 2 18a 2 b 5 12a 4 b 3 (x − 2)2 x2 − 4 2x 3 2x 3 − 10x 2 Solution: 1. that is −a a = = −1 −a a For example. 18a 2 b 5 3b 2 = 12a 4 b 3 2a 2 (x − 2)2 (x − 2)2 x −2 = 5. For example. 2.5 The opposite of a quantity 5 Deﬁnition The negative of a quantity is called the opposite of a quantity. 2+x x +2 2−x x −2 (x 2 + 2x)(x 2 + 2x − 3) (x 2 + x − 2)(x 2 + 3x) 2x − x 2 x 2 − 5x + 6 12 . 1. 5. 4. 2 = x − 4y 2 (x − 2y)(x + 2y) x + 2y 6. The opposite of −25 is −(−25) = 25 3. 3. Factor and cancel the common factors 20x y 4 5x y(4) = = 15x y 2 5x y(3y) 3y 4. = −1. 2. x x −5 1. −7 x +8 x −5 x − 4y = −1. 1. and = −1 7 −(x + 8) 5−x 4y − x 1.

a 3 − b 3 (a − b)(a 2 + ab + b 2 ) a 2 + ab + b 2 = = a2 − b2 (a − b)(a + b) a +b −1 (2x − y)(2x 2 − x y − y 2 ) (2x − y)(x − y)(2x + y) = = (4x 2 − y 2 )(3y 2 − 2x y − x 2 ) (2x − y)(2x + y)(y − x)(3y + x) 3y + x x 3 + x 2 + x + 1 (x + 1)(x 2 + 1) x + 1 = = x x3 + x x(x 2 + 1) 13 . 3. Factor and identify the opposite quantities and cancel the common factors 2+x =1 x +2 2−x 2−x 2.15 Example Simplify the rational expressions. a3 − b3 a2 − b2 (2x − y)(2x 2 − x y − y 2 ) (4x 2 − y 2 )(3y 2 − 2x y − x 2 ) x3 + x2 + x + 1 x3 + x Solution: 1. 3. = = −1 x − 2 −(2 − x) 3. 6. 2. 4.Chapter 1 9x 2 − 16 5. 9x 2 + 24x + 16 6x − 3y + 9z −12x + 6y − 18z Solution: 1. (3x + 4)(3x − 4) 3x − 4 9x 2 − 16 = = 2 + 24x + 16 9x (3x + 4)(3x + 4) 3x + 4 3(2x − y + 3z) −1 6x − 3y + 9z = = 6. 2. −12x + 6y − 18z −6(2x − y + 3z) 2 (x 2 + 2x)(x 2 + 2x − 3) x(x + 2)(x + 3)(x − 1) = =1 (x 2 + x − 2)(x 2 + 3x) (x + 2)(x − 1)x(x + 3) x x(2 − x) 2x − x 2 =− = 2 − 5x + 6 (x − 2)(x − 3) x −3 x 1. 1. 5.

1.13 1. −52x 2 y 3 39x y 5 1.1.7 x 2 + 3x x2 + x y 1.18 1.4 1.1.1.1.1.1.2 −60 1.1.1.9 12x − 8 8x − 4 1.1.17 x 3 − 27 (x − 4)x − 5 (x − 5) x −3 (3x − 8)x − 3 5x 5 − 1 1.19 1.16 1.3 4 ? = 3a 18a 3 a − b a 2 − b2 = a +b ? 3a − 4 4 − 3a Reduce the following fractions to lowest terms.14 (x 2 − 1)(x 2 + 1) 4x 2 − 3x − 1 8x + 2 x3 − y 3 Simplify the rational expressions.1 −35 −42 1.1. 1. 1.6 64s 2 t 5 8s 2 t x2 − 9 x2 − y 2 x2 − 9 1.11 5n 2 − 3n − 2 3n 2 − n − 2 36 1.1.1. x4 − 1 1.8 x2 − y 2 1.1.1.10 20x 4 − 10x 2 5x 3 + 5x 2 1.1.1.1.20 2 − 10x 5 14 .1.Basic Deﬁnitions and Principles of Fractions 1.6 Homework: Simplifying Rational Expressions Reduce the rational numbers.1.5 1.15 1.12 n 2 − 5n − 24 18 + 3n − n 2 Supply the missing term so the two fractions are equal.1.

4. 3. 2 · 2 = 1 y x 1.2 Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions OBJECTIVES • Multiplying and dividing rational expressions • Mixed Operations 1. · = 6 7 6·7 x2 y2 4.2. 3 5 · 4 7 It is advisable to apply cancellation law of all common factors before multiplying fractions. · = 4 2(x + 1) 8(x + 1) 7 6 7·6 =1 3. 2.17 Example Perform the multiplications.Chapter 1 1. 1. 1. the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. 3. 4. 1. 3 4 · 8 5 3 5 · 5 6 6x 2 y 2z 2 · 4z 3 9x 2 y 2 2x 2 y x y 3 · 3 z 4z Solution: 15 .16 Example Perform the multiplications. provided denominators are not 0.1 Multiplication of Rational Expressions 6 Deﬁnition The product of two fractions a c and is deﬁned by b d ac a c · = b d bd That is. 1. 2. x x · 4 2(x + 1) 7 6 · 6 7 x2 y2 · y2 x2 Solution: 3 5 3 · 5 15 · = = 4 7 4 · 7 28 x x x2 2.

Divide out common factors. x x +3 (x 2 + 6x + 9)(x 2 ) x 2 + 6x + 9 x 2 · = x x +3 x(x + 3) = 3a 4a 2 − 1 · 9a 2 2ab − b (x + 3)(x + 3)xx = x(x + 3) x(x + 3) 1. x(x − 2) − 3 x(x − 1) − 2 · x −2 x(x + 2) + 1 x 2 − x − 6 x 2 + x − 6 (x − 3)(x + 2) (x + 3)(x − 2) · =1 · = (x − 2)(x + 2) (x + 3)(x − 3) x2 − 4 x2 − 9 Solution: 1. (2x − x 2 ) · 2 x − 5x + 6 1. 2. Factor numerators and denominators. 3 3x2 y2 4z 9x y 36z 3y z 1. 2x 2 y x y 3 x 3 y 4 · 3 = z 4z 2z 4 Steps in reducing product of fractions 1. 4. x2 − x − 6 x2 + x − 6 · x2 − 4 x2 − 9 x 2. 3.Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions 3 3 4 3 · 4 12 · = = = 8 5 8 · 5 40 10 3 5 3·5 1 2.20 Example Multiply and simplify. 1.21 Example Find the reciprocals of the following terms −3. (2x − x 2 ) · 3. x 2 + 3. 3.18 Example Find the product of x2 x 2 + 6x + 9 and . 2. (x − 3)(x + 1) (x − 2)(x + 1) x(x − 2) − 3 x(x − 1) − 2 x 2 − 2x − 3 x 2 − x − 2 = x −3 · = · 2 = · x −2 x(x + 2) + 1 x −2 x + 2x + 1 x −2 (x + 1)2 a b 1 and the reciprocal of is because x b a x(2 − x) x x x2 = · =− 1 (x − 3)(x − 2) x −3 x 2 − 5x + 6 7 Deﬁnition Reciprocal: The reciprocal of a number x = 0 is a b × =1 b a 1. · = = 5 6 5·6 2 12x 2 y z 2 1 6x 2 y 2z 2 · 2 2= = 3.19 Example Multiply Solution: 4a 2 − 1 (2a − 1)(2a + 1) · (3a) 2a + 1 3a = · = 2ab − b 3ab 9a 2 9a 2 · b(2a − 1) 1. Multiply remaining fractions into one fraction using the product rule. 3 x 16 .

c.b. 2 5 2 7 14 ÷ = · = 3 7 3 5 15 4p 2 6p 2 4p 2 q 3 2q 2. 1. ÷ 3 = 2 · = q2 q q 6p 2 3 2z x y x 2 y 2 x y 6z 2 ÷ · = = 2 3z 3z x 2 y 2 x y 6z 3.24 Example Perform the operations. 1. 1. 4.Chapter 1 The reciprocals are 1 . where b.2. 3. ÷ = · 2 15z 3z 15z x y 15z · x y 2 5 1.2 Division of Rational Expressions a c by is to multiply the ﬁrst fraction by the reciprocal of the b d a d ad a c ÷ = · = b d b c bc 8 Deﬁnition The division of two fractions second fraction (divisor) that is For any real numbers a. 2.c. 2.22 Example Solve the linear equation for x : Solution: Multiply both sides by b a a bx b 2 b a · x= · a b a 3 2b x= 3a 1. 2 5 ÷ 3 7 4p 2 6p 2 ÷ 3 q2 q x y x2 y2 ÷ 3z 6z 2 Solution: 1.d = 0. 2x 1 ÷ 5 5 x y3 x y2 ÷ 15z 3z 1 a +b ÷ 3 (a − b) (a − b)4 2a ÷ (−2b) b Solution: 2x 1 2x 5 2x · 5 ÷ = · = = 2x 5 5 5 1 5 x y 3 · 3z y x y 3 x y 2 x y 3 3z = = 2. 1. −3 1 x2 + 3 x 3 = 2 3 Solution: .23 Example Perform the divisions.d . 17 . 3. 1.

(4x 2 − 9) ÷ 2. 1. 3.25 Example Perform the divisions. 2 = · · = · 2 ÷ a − 1 (a + 3)(a + 2) (a − 2)(a + 1) a + 3 a + 1 a + 5a + 6 a + a − 2 4t 2 + t − 5 8t 4 + 10t 3 (4t + 5)(t − 1) 2t 3 (4t + 5) = 2t · = · 3 − t2 2 + 40t + 25 2 (t − 1) (4t + 5)(4t + 5) t 16t t 18 . (4x 2 − 9) ÷ 2. 3. 4.Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions 1 a +b 1 (a − b)4 a − b = ÷ = · 3 4 3 a +b a +b (a − b) (a − b) (a − b) 2a 1 −a 2a ÷ (−2b) = · = 4. 1. 2. 1. 3. 3 2 3 7 21 ÷ = · = 5 7 5 2 10 x + 2 x 2 + 4x + 4 x + 2 2(x + 1)(x − 1) 2(x − 1) ÷ · = 2. (2x 2 + 5x + 3) ÷ (2x − 3) x +2 8t 4 + 10t 3 4t 2 + t − 5 · t3 − t2 16t 2 + 40t + 25 m 2 − 3m − 10 ÷ (m − 5) m +2 a 2 + 5a + 6 a2 − 4 · a 2 + 6a + 9 a + 3 ÷ a −1 a2 + a − 2 Solution: Follow the order of operations: (2x − 3)(2x + 3) x +2 1 x +2 (2x 2 + 5x + 3) ÷ (2x − 3) = · · = x +2 1 (2x + 3)(x + 1) (2x − 3) x + 1 1. b b (−2b) b 2 3.26 Example Simplify. Mixed Operations 1. m 2 − 3m − 10 (m − 5)(m + 2) 1 ÷ (m − 5) = · =1 m +2 m +2 m −5 a2 − 4 a 2 + 6a + 9 a + 3 (a + 2)(a − 2) (a + 3)(a + 3) a − 1 a − 1 4. = x +1 x + 1 (x + 2)(x + 2) x +2 2x 2 − 2 b(b − 2) 1 b b 2 − 2b ÷ (b − 2) = · = b −1 b −1 (b − 2) b − 1 3. 3 2 ÷ 5 7 x + 2 x 2 + 4x + 4 ÷ x +1 2x 2 − 2 b 2 − 2b ÷ (b − 2) b −1 Solution: 1.

20 u2 + u − 2 u2 × 19 .10 1.2.2.3 Homework: Multiplication and Division of Rational Expressions Perform the operations and reduce to lowest terms.2 −4 25 · 10 −6 15a 3 16 · 8 30a 4 12 ÷ 21 14 x +4 x2 − 4 · 2 x + 2 x + 8x + 16 b 2 + 3b ÷ b +3 b +6 1.Chapter 1 1.7 1.2.18 2t 2 + 5t + 3 2t 2 + 9t + 9 ÷ 2 9t − 54 3t − 15t − 18 x 2 + 3x + 2 x2 − 1 (x + 3)2 x +3 × 2 ÷ x + 3x + 2 x + 1 u 5 + 3u 4 u2 − 4 ÷ u(u + 3) 2 (u − 2) 1.3 b 2 − 36 1.2.2.1 −4 50 · 25 16 1.2.2.2.2.2.17 9y ÷ 2 x + 3x 1.2.5 7 5 1.11 3a(a + 2b)2 5b 2 × b(a − 2b) 12a 2 20ab × 2 a − 4b 2 1. 1.4 x2 − 4 ÷ (3x − 6) x +3 6a 5 18a 4 ÷ a − 5 4a − 20 6n 2 + 7n − 3 · 3n 2 − 2n − 1 5x 7x ÷ 1.6 2a 3a 4a ÷ ÷ 3 4 5 7x y 12x 3 y · 21 6y 2 3x 3 y ÷ 8x y 3 4x y 2 3x 3 y 2ab 4 4ac 2 ÷ 5c 15bc 3 x 2 + 4x + 4 x + 4 · x +2 x 2 − 16 1.2.8 1.2.2.2.2.2.15 1.16 6n 2 + 11n + 3 6y 2 x 2 + 6x + 9 3n 2 − 4n + 1 1.14 1.2.2.9 1.13 1.12 1.2.19 1.2.

1.27 Example Perform the operations.3 Addition of Rational Expressions OBJECTIVES • Adding and subtracting rational expressions with like denominators • Finding the least common denominator • Adding and subtracting rational expressions with unlike denominators 1.1 Addition and subtraction with like denominators Expressions with like denominator can be added and subtracted using distributive property: a c 1 1 1 a +c + = a( ) + c( ) = (a + c)( ) = b b b b b b a −c a c − = b b b 9 Deﬁnition The sum and the difference of two fractions with the same denominator are deﬁned as follows a c a +c a c a −c + = and − = b b b b b b To add (or subtract) fractions with like denominators. 3 9 + 4 4 2 6 13 − + 5 5 5 5 3 − 8 8 7 4 − 3x 3x a2 a − 2 2 −1 a a −1 Solution: 1. − = = = 3x 3x 3x 3x x 5. 1.3. 2. − = 8 8 8 8 4 4 7 4 − 7 −3 −1 4. we simply add or subtract numerators and divide the result by their common denominator. 4. 3. − + 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 5−3 2 1 = = 3. a a2 − a a(a − 1) a a2 − 2 = 2 = = 2 −1 a a − 1 a − 1 (a − 1)(a + 1) a + 1 20 .Addition of Rational Expressions 1. 5. 3 9 3 + 9 12 + = = =3 4 4 4 4 2 6 13 2 − 6 + 13 9 = = 2.

2x 1 2x 2 1 5 4x + 5 + = · + · = 5 2 5 2 2 5 10 1 3 3z + 1 1 z 9z + 3 − z 8z + 3 3 = · − · = = 2 2. 2. − + = − + =0 3 2 6 3·2 2·3 6 1. 21 .2 Addition and subtraction with unlike denominators We have the basic rule of building fractions: For any real numbers a. 10 Deﬁnition Two fractions with different denominators can be added (or subtracted) by rebuilding both fractions to equivalent fractions with same denominators as follows a c a d c b ad bc ad + bc + = · + · = + = b d b d d b bd bd bd 1.29 Example Combine each expressions. but it may not be the best expressions to work with. − = · − · = 8 6 8 3 6 4 24 24 24 24 2 3 5 2·2 3·3 5 3. 1. 3. − z 3z + 1 z 3z + 1 3z + 1 z z(3z + 1) 3z + z a 3 a a 3 3 a2 + 9 + = · + · = 3 a 3 a a 3 3a 2 x 2 5x 2 − 2 4. 3 7 + 4 10 7 5 − 8 6 2 3 5 − + 3 2 6 Solution: 7 3 5 7 2 15 14 29 3 + = · + · = + = 4 10 4 5 10 2 20 20 20 1 7 5 7 3 5 4 21 20 21 − 20 − = = 2.3. As a general rule. 1.k and b = 0 and k = 0 we have the following identity a a ·k = b b ·k This rule is essential to add fractions with different denominators. 1. 3. 2. 5x − Solution: 1.Chapter 1 1. 5x − = 5x · − = x x x x 3.28 Example Combine into a single fraction and simplify. The product of all denominators is always a common denominator. 2x 1 + 5 2 1 3 − z 3z + 1 a 3 + 3 a 2 x 4.b.

but the second method is simpler to implement. Method 2: Find the least common denominator that is 12x 3 and build up all fractions to this denominator: 1 6x 2 2 4x 3 3 6x 2 − 8x + 9 − 2 + 3 = 2 2x 6x 3x 4x 4x 3 12x 3 Both approaches lead to the same fraction. Factor each denominator completely. Method 1: Find a common denominator such as the product of all denominators: 2x · 3x 2 · 4x 3 = 24x 6 and build up all fractions to this denominator: 12x 5 − 16x 4 + 18x 3 2x 3 (6x 2 − 8x + 9) 6x 2 − 8x + 9 = = 24x 6 24x 6 12x 3 1 12x 5 2 8x 4 3 6x 3 − 2 4+ 3 3= 2x 12x 5 3x 8x 4x 6x 2. 4.32 Example Combine the rational expressions: Solution: 1.31 Example Combine into a single fraction and simplify. 1. 3 − 5. 1. 2. 5. 3. 2x 2x − x +2 x −2 Solution: 1.3 The least common denominator (LCD) The simplest common denominator is called the least common denominator (LCD).3. Here are the deﬁnite steps to construct it. 5 3 + x 2x 1 2x − 2x − 1 1 − 2x x2 2x 2 + 2x 2 − 4 3 7 x −2 4.30 Example Combine y x + x −y y −x Solution: Note that the denominators are opposite of each other so we factor −1 from the second ( change of sign) and obtain: x y x y x−y + = − = =1 x −y y −x x −y x −y x −y 1. 3. List all different factors of each denominator with their highest exponent. 22 .Addition of Rational Expressions 1. 3 5 3·2 5 6 + 5 11 + = + = = x 2x x · 2 2x 2x 2x 1 2x 1 2x + 1 2x − = + = 2x − 1 1 − 2x 2x − 1 2x − 1 2x − 1 x2 2x 2 x 2 · 3 2x 2 · 12 2x 2 · 4 (3 + 24 − 8)x 2 19x 2 + 2x 2 − = + − = = 4 3 4·3 12 3·4 12 12 3(x − 2) 7 3x − 13 7 = − = 3− x −2 (x − 2) x −2 x −2 2x 2x 2x(x − 2) 2x(x + 2) −8x − = − = x + 2 x − 2 (x + 2)(x − 2) (x − 2)(x + 2) (x + 2)(x − 2) 2 3 1 − + 2x 3x 2 4x 3 1. 2. 1. 2.

Chapter 1 3. the LCD is the product of different factors with their highest exponent. 1.33 Example Find the LCD of the rational expressions. 1. 2.

11a 5a + 24b 5 18b 4 1 3−x + x 2 − 12x + 36 x 2 − 6x

Solution:

11a 5a + . Factor the denominators: 24b 5 = 23 · 3 · b 5 and 18b 4 = 2 · 32 · b 4 so the LCD is 5 24b 18b 4 23 · 32 · b 5 = 72b 5 1 3−x 2. 2 + . Factor the denominators: x 2 − 12x + 36 = (x − 6)2 and x 2 − 6x = x(x − 6) x − 12x + 36 x 2 − 6x so the LCD is x(x − 6)2

1.

**1.34 Example Find the LCD and combine. 1. 2. 3.
**

5a 11a + 5 24b 18b 4 3 x3 y2 z + 2 x y3z2

2 1 − x2 − y2 x − y

Solution:

5a 3 11a 4b 15a + 44ab + = 24b 5 3 18b 4 4b 72b 5 2 3 yz 3y z + 2x 2 2 x 2. The LCD is x 3 y 3 z 2 . Thus 3 2 = + 3 z 2 x2 x y z yz xy x3 y3z 2 2 1 x+y 2−x − y 3. The LCD is (x − y)(x + y). Thus − = (x − y)(x + y) x − y x + y (x − y)(x + y)

1. The LCD is 72b 5 . Thus

1.35 Example Find the LCD and subtract

x x 2 − 2x + 1

−

4 x2 − 1

Solution: Factor both denominators: x 2 − 2x + 1 = (x − 1)2 and x 2 − 1 = (x − 1)(x + 1). The LCD is the product of all different factors with highest power, that is LC D = (x − 1)2 (x + 1). Build up the fractions to have the LCD:

x x 2 − 2x + 1 − 4 x2 − 1 = x(x + 1) 4(x − 1) x 2 + x − 4x + 4 x 2 − 3x + 4 − = = 2 (x + 1) 2 (x + 1) (x − 1) (x − 1)(x + 1)(x − 1) (x − 1) (x − 1)2 (x + 1)

**1.36 Example Simplify into a single rational expression. 1. 2.
**

3 2 x +3 − + x + 1 x − 1 x2 − 1

7 4 5 − + 9x y 3 3x 2y 2 5y 2 − 4 y +3

3. 5y − 3 − 4. 4 + 5.

2 3 − 2 x x

5 5y + x2 − y2 x + y

23

**Addition of Rational Expressions Solution: 1.
**

2 x +3 2(x + 1) x +3 2(x − 1) 3(x − 1) 3x − 3 − 2x − 2 + x + 3 3 − + − + = = = = x + 1 x − 1 x 2 − 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) (x − 1)(x + 1) x 2 − 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) (x + 1)(x − 1) 2 x +1 4 7·2 5 · 9x y 5 4 · 6y 3 −24y 3 + 45x y + 14 7 − + 2 + 2= − = 2. 9x y 3 3x 2y 9x y 3 · 2 3x · 6y 3 2y · 9x y 18x y 3 5y 2 − 4 (5y − 3)(y + 3) 5y 2 − 4 5y 2 + 15y − 3y − 9 − 5y 2 + 4 12y − 5 = − = = y +3 y +3 y +3 y +3 y +3

3. 5y − 3 − 4. 4 +

4x 2 + 3x − 2 2 3 − 2= x x x2 5y 5 5y 5(x − y) 5x 5. 2 + = + = 2 x −y x + y (x + y)(x − y) (x + y)(x − y) (x + y)(x − y)

**1.37 Example Combine the following fractions into a single fraction. 1. 2. 3.
**

3 2 12y 2 + 2x y − + x x − 2y x(x − 2y)(x + 2y) 1 1 − a 2 − 4a + 3 a 2 − 5a + 4

m + 4 m − 5 2m 2 − 7m + 5 + − m −4 m +5 m 2 + m − 20

**Solution: 1. The LCD is x(x − 2y)(x + 2y)
**

3 (x − 2y)(x + 2y) 2 x(x + 2y) 12y 2 + 2x y 3x 2 − 12y 2 − 2x 2 − 4x y + 12y 2 + 2x y · − · + = x (x − 2y)(x + 2y) x − 2y x(x + 2y) x(x − 2y)(x + 2y) x(x − 2y)(x + 2y) x(x − 2y) = x(x − 2y)(x + 2y) 1 = x + 2y

2. The LCD is (a − 1)(a − 3)(a − 4)

1 a 2 − 4a + 3 − 1 a 2 − 5a + 4 1 1 − (a − 1)(a − 3) (a − 1)(a − 4) (a − 4) − (a − 3) = (a − 1)(a − 3)(a − 4) −1 = (a − 1)(a − 3)(a − 4) =

3.

m + 4 m − 5 2m 2 − 7m + 5 m + 4 m − 5 2m 2 − 7m + 5 + − = + − m −4 m +5 m 2 + m − 20 m − 4 m + 5 (m − 4)(m + 5) (m + 4)(m + 5) (m − 5)(m − 4) 2m 2 − 7m + 5 = + − (m − 4)(m + 5) (m + 5)(m − 4) (m − 4)(m + 5) m 2 + 7m + 10 + m 2 − 9m + 20 − 2m 2 + 7m − 5 = (m − 4)(m + 5) 5(m + 5) 5m + 25 = = (m − 4)(m + 5) (m − 4)(m + 5) 5 = m −4

24

Chapter 1

**1.3.4 Homework: Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions
**

Combine and simplify. 1.3.1

1 3 − 8 8 x 2−x + 4 4 5s 2s + 7t 7t a2 + 6 5 − 2 a +1 1−x − 2 x −4

1.3.16

2 3 − 3−x x 7x −1 1 + 7x b 3b − 2 − b 4 − b2 x x 2 − 2x y + y 2 x y2 −xy − x x−y

1.3.17

1.3.2

1.3.18

1.3.3

1.3.19

1.3.4

a2 + 1 3 x2 − 4

1.3.20

y + 2 x −xy

1.3.5

1.3.21

1.3.6

4z 1 + 4z − 1 1 − 4z u2 + 1 + 2u 1 − u2

1 5 3 − + x 2x − 3 x(2x − 3) 3 2x 2 + 5x 2n n 2 − 16 5 x2 + 1 1 x2 − 1 − 1 x

1.3.22

1.3.7

u2 − 1

1.3.23

−

1.3.8

−4 3 − 5 10

3 5n − 20 5

1.3.24 1.3.9

3 1 + 6 −10 4 5 1 − + 3 6 4 x −3 x +4 + 4 3

−

(x 2 + 1)(x + 1)

1.3.25

1.3.10

1 + 2 x + 2x + 1

1.3.26

1.3.11

x −1 x −2 3 − + x − 2 x − 3 x 2 − 5x + 6 5x 2 − 5 − 3x + 1 +3 5x − 1

2x − 3 3x − 2 − 1.3.12 2 5 7 9 1.3.13 − 10x 8x

1.3.27

5x 2 + 4x − 1 3x x2 − 1 −

1.3.28

x −1 2x 2 + 1 + x(x + 1) x3 − x x2 + x − 2 − 2 x −x −2

1.3.14

3 10x 2 1 2n 2

+

4 15x

1.3.29

x2 + x − 2

x2 − x − 2

1.3.15

−

2 5 + 9n 6

1.3.30

b c a + + bc ca ab

25

Complex Fractions

1.4

1.4.1

Complex Fractions

Complex Fractions

11 Deﬁnition A complex fraction is a fraction in which a fraction occurs in the numerator or denominator or both. For example

1 2, 3 7 2 3, 6 3x 2 x +2 , x x −3 1 +x 2 , 1 −3 x 1 1 + x y x+y

**1.38 Example Simplify the complex fractions.
**

2 3 1. 4 5 12 2. 11 24 55

Solution:

Use the deﬁnition of fractional division

2 2 4 2 5 5 1. 3 = ÷ = · = 4 3 5 3 4 6 5 12 12 24 12 55 5 2. 11 = ÷ = · = 24 11 55 11 24 2 55 3x 2 1.39 Example Simplify x + 2 x x −3

Solution:

3x 2 2 2 x + 2 = 3x ÷ x = 3x · x − 3 = 3x(x − 3) x x +2 x −3 x +2 x x +2 x −3

Strategies to simplify complex fractions There are two methods to reduce complex fractions to single fractions: First Method 1. Simplify the numerator and the denominator separately to simple fractions. 2. Apply the division of two simple fractions. 1.40 Example Simplify the complex fractions.

2a 2 1. b 4a b

26

Chapter 1

1 x 2. 1 1− x 1+

Solution:

2a 2 b 2a 4a 2a b = 2· = 1. b = 2 ÷ 4a b b b 4a 2 b 1 x +1 1+ x = x = x +1 · x = x +1 2. x −1 1 x x −1 x −1 1− x x

**1.41 Example Simplify the complex fractions.
**

3x 2y 2 5x 2 4y

1.

1 3 + 2. x 2x 2 1+ x 4 x −3 3. 8 x −1− x −3 x−

Solution:

3x 2y 2 5x 4y

2

1.

=

6 3x 4y · = 2 5x 2 2y 5x y

3 1 1 3·2 7 + + 7 x 2x = x · 2 2x = 2x = 7 · x = 2. x 2 x + 2 2x x + 2 2(x + 2) 2 1+ + x x x x x(x − 3) − 4 4 x− x 2 − 3x − 4 (x − 4)(x + 1) x − 4 x −3 x −3 = = 3. = 2 = 8 (x − 1)(x − 3) − 8 x − 4x − 5 (x − 5)(x + 1) x − 5 x −1− x −3 x −3

Second Method 1. Find the LCD of every denominator in the complex fraction. 2. Multiply both the numerator and denominator by this LCD. 3. Distribute to each term. All denominators should be cancelled. 4. Simplify ﬁnal fraction if possible. 1.42 Example Simplify using the LCD method. 27

Complex Fractions

1 3 + 1. x 2x 2 1+ x 1 x 2. 1 1− 2 x 1+

Solution:

2x 3 1 + 7 6+1 x 2x = = 2 2x + 4 2x + 4 2x 1 + x 1 x(x + 1) x x2 + x x = = = 2 1 x − 1 (x + 1)(x − 1) x − 1 1− 2 x

1.

2.

x2 1 + x2

1 1 + 1.43 Example Simplify 3 2x using the LCD method. 2 1+ x

**Solution: The denominators are: 3,1,2x, x . Thus the LCD is 6x . Multiply the numerator and denominator by 6x :
**

1 1 ) 6x( + 3 2x = 2x + 3 2 6x + 12 6x(1 + ) x 1 1 + x y 1.44 Example Simplify x + y using the LCD method. xy

Solution:

Multiply the numerator and denominator by the LCD x y :

1 1 x y( + ) y +x x y x+y = x+y =1 ) x y( xy 1 x 1.45 Example Simplify 1 1− 2 x x−

Solution:

Multiply the numerator and denominator by x 2 :

1 x 2 (x − ) 3 2 x = x − x = x(x − 1) = x 2 −1 2 −1 1 x x x 2 (1 − 2 ) x

1.46 Example Simplify

3a −1 1 2− a

28

Chapter 1 Solution: Simplify the ﬁrst part and then subtract −1:

3a 3a 2 3a 2 − 2a + 1 1 −1 = −1 = 2a − 1 2a − 1 2a − 1 a 2 1 − a a2 1.47 Example Simplify 3 2 1+ + 2 a a 1+

Solution:

Multiply the numerator and denominator by a 2 :

2 1 a 2 (1 + − 2 ) (a + 2)(a − 1) a − 1 a2 + a − 2 a a = = = 2 3 2 a + 3a + 2 (a + 2)(a + 1) a + 1 a 2 (1 + + 2 ) a a 2 1 − x −1 x 1.48 Example Simplify 2 1 − x − 1 x(x − 1)

Solution:

Multiply and divide by x(x − 1): 1 2 x(x − 1)( − ) x − 2(x − 1) −x + 2 x −1 x = = = −1 2 1 x −2 x −2 − ) x(x − 1)( x − 1 x(x − 1)

1 1 − x h 1.49 Example Simplify x −h

Solution:

Change the numerator to a simple fraction:

1 1 h−x − x h = hx = h − x · 1 = −1 x −h x −h hx x − h hx 1

29

4.3 m m 1 m2 − 1 10x 2 1.4.19 2 3 1+ − 2 x x 1− x −1 x +1 2 x− x +1 1.22 1 a + 8 4 4+ 30 .4.4.4.10 1 2 − a b 1 n −2 1.4.4.4.4 x 2 − 25 25x x 2 + 10x + 25 x2 − 4 1 1 − 1.4.4.4.18 2 3 − x 2x + 1 3 2 − x x2 1.1 4 x3 8 28ab 3 5 1 − x +2 y 1.8 1.6 1 3− 7 4− 2− 2 a y 3 1− 2 3y 4 1 a x2 − y 2 1.4.4.16 t h t −h 1 2 − 2 x −4 1 1 − 1.13 1 1 + x y 1 1 − x x +1 1.2 Homework: Complex Fractions Simplify the complex fractions.7 1.17 1 x−y 5 3 − x 2x + 1 1.2 5c 3 7a 2 b 2 10c 2 m2 2− 1.4.5 4 2 5 3 − 8 4 2 5 1.4.11 3 5− n −2 3− 6 a 1.21 6 6− a 6+ 2 a 1. x4 1.15 x 1.4.4.4.9 1− 2 x 2 1− x 1.20 x −1+ 2 3 − ab a 2 1.Complex Fractions 1.4.4.12 3 5 − y y (x + 2) 1 1 − x y 1.14 2 1− 2 x +x 1 x +2 1.4.4.4.

1. 31 . The LCD is 6. x 5 5x 3 5 + = 1. such as 1 2 1 − = − 2. Again. Do not combine fractions into a single fraction. 12 Deﬁnition Equations containing rational expressions are called rational equations. but we are removing denominators.5 Rational Equations OBJECTIVES • Solving rational equations. Extraneous solutions must be discarded. Exclude numbers that make denominators zero. 1. we are not adding fractions. This happens when multiplying both sides by expression that can be zero. Multiply both sides (every term) by the LCD provided the LCD = 0. 4 x +2 x +3 2 = 2 x −3 x −4 Compare these equations with linear equations in fractional form 2x 5 x + 1 − = −5 3 2 6 Method of solving rational equations Solving fractional equations is based on the process of clearing the equation of fractions. 3.50 Example Solve the fractional equation Solution: 2x 5 x + 1 − = −5 3 2 6 This is a linear equation in fractional form.Chapter 1 1. 2. x +1 2x 5 − ) = 6( − 5) 3 2 6 2x 5 x +1 6· −6· = 6· −6·5 3 2 6 4x − 15 = x + 1 − 30 6( 4x − x = −29 + 15 x= −14 3 1.51 Example Solve the fractional equation 3 9 1 2 − = − x 5x 20 4x Solution: Multiplying every member of the equation by the LCD = 20x . Factor all denominators and ﬁnd the LCD. Clear out all denominators by dividing common factors. • Extraneous solutions. 4. where x = 0 because denominators can not be zero: 20x · 2 3 9 1 − 20x · = 20x · − 20x · x 5x 20 4x 40 − 12 = 9x − 5 x= 33 11 = 9 3 Extraneous solution. solve and check the obtained solutions. The approach in solving fractional equations is to clear out fractions. The resulting equation does not have any fraction.

3.52 Example Solve Solution: 2 2x = 5+ x −1 x −1 Multiplying by the LCD (x − 1) provided x = 1.54 Example Solve Solution: Since x 2 −5x +6 = (x −2)(x −3). we multiply both sides by the LCD and we factor −1 from the second denominator as follows: 7 40 4 − = 2 x − 2 3 − x x − 5x + 6 7 4 40 + (x − 2)(x − 3) = (x − 2)(x − 3) x −2 x −3 (x − 2)(x − 3) 4 7 (x − 2)(x − 3) · + (x − 2)(x − 3) · = 40 x −2 x −3 4(x − 3) + 7(x − 2) = 40 4x − 12 + 7x − 14 = 40 11x − 26 = 40 x =6 7 40 4 − = x − 2 3 − x x 2 − 5x + 6 11x = 66 1. yields 5(x + 2) · 3 7 + 5(x + 2) · = 5(x + 2) · 2 5 x +2 3(x + 2) + 35 = 10(x + 2) 3x + 6 + 35 = 10x + 20 x =3 −7x = 20 − 41 = −21 7 3 + =2 5 x +2 32 .53 Example Solve Solution: x 2x + 3 + =3 x x −1 Multiplying by the LCD = x(x − 1). yields x(x − 1) · x 2x + 3 + x(x − 1) · = x(x − 1) · 3 x x −1 (2x + 3)(x − 1) + x 2 = 3x(x − 1) 2x 2 + x − 3 + x 2 = 3x 2 − 3x 4x − 3 = 0 x= 3 4 1.where x = 2.Rational Equations 1. yields (x − 1) · 2x 2 = (x − 1) · 5 + (x − 1) · x −1 x −1 2x = 5(x − 1) + 2 −3x = −3 x =1 2x = 5x − 5 + 2 This solution is excluded since denominator can not be zero. the LCD = (x −2)(x −3). We refer to such solution as extraneous (false) solution.55 Example Solve Solution: Multiplying by the LCD 5(x + 2) provided x = −2. where x = 0.1. 1.

58 Example Solve the fractional equation and check the solutions Solution: Multiplying by the LCD x(2x − 1) provided x = 0.5 x 2 + x − 10x + 20 = 0 (x − 5)(x − 4) = 0 1. 2 4 6 3 − = x 2 − 25 x 2 + 4x − 5 x 2 − 6x + 5 1. true solution.59 Example Solve the fractional equation and check the solutions Solution: Factor the denominators 3.Chapter 1 −x 2 + 10 2x 3x = . x(2x − 1) · [ 3 6 12x + = 2x − 1 x 2x − 1 1 2 x= 12x 3 6 + ] = x(2x − 1) · 2x − 1 x 2x − 1 12x 2 + 3(2x − 1) = 6x 12x 2 − 3 = 0 4x 2 − 1 = 0 x= (2x − 1)(2x + 1) = 0 1 2 or x =− 1 2 The solution x = 1 is an extraneous since this number is excluded initially.−1. Multiply every member by the LCD provided x = 1. x 2 − 25 = (x − 5)(x + 5) . so there is only one 2 1 true solution x = − . x 2 − 6x + 5 = (x − 5)(x − 1) 2. yields 5x · 4 x +1 − 5x · 2 = −5x · 5 x x(x + 1) − 10x = −20 x 2 − 9x + 20 = 0 x = 4. + x −1 x +1 x2 − 1 1. 1.57 Example Solve Solution: x +1 4 −2 = − 5 x Multiplying by the LCD 5x provided x = 0.56 Example Solve Solution: The LCD is (x − 1)(x + 1). (x − 1)(x + 1) · 3x 2x −x 2 + 10 + (x − 1)(x + 1) · = (x − 1)(x + 1) · (x − 1)(x + 1) x −1 x +1 −x 2 + 10 + (x + 1) · 3x = (x − 1) · 2x −x 2 + 10 + 3x 2 + 3x = 2x 2 − 2x 5x = −10 x = −2. x 2 + 4x − 5 = (x + 5)(x − 1) 33 1.

1 (x − 5)(x + 5)(x − 1) · [ 4 6 3 − ] = (x − 5)(x + 5)(x − 1) · (x − 5)(x + 5) (x + 5)(x − 1) (x − 5)(x − 1) 3(x − 1) − 4(x − 5) = 6(x + 5) 3x − 3 − 4x + 20 = 6x + 30 x =− 13 7 is a true solution 1.63 Example Solve Solution: Multiply by the LCD = 3(x + 2) provided x = −2 3(x + 2) · 3x − 2 5 + 3(x + 2) · = 0 x +2 3 3(3x − 2) + 5(x + 2) = 0 14x + 4 = 0 3x − 2 5 + =0 x +2 3 9x − 6 + 5x + 10 = 0 x = −2/7 34 . so this equation does not have any solution.Rational Equations Multiply by the LCD (x − 5)(x + 5)(x − 1) provided x = 5.62 Example Solve Solution: 2(x + 1) x + 7 = x −5 x −5 Multiply by the LCD = x − 5 provided x = 5 2(x + 1) x +7 = (x − 5) · x −5 x −5 2(x + 1) = x + 7 2x + 2 = x + 7 x =5 2x = x + 5 (x − 5) · A false solution.−5 are true solutions 1.−5.61 Example Solve Solution: 10 7 + +1 = 0 x2 x Multiply by the LCD = x 2 provided x = 0 x2 · 10 7 + x2 · + x2 · 1 = x2 · 0 2 x x 10 + 7x + x 2 = 0 (x + 2)(x + 5) = 0 x = −2.60 Example Solve Solution: Multiply by the LCD = (x − 3) provided x = 3 (x − 3) · x −2 x −4 + (x − 3) · = (x − 3) · (x − 3) x −3 x −3 x − 4 + x − 3 = x 2 − 6x + 9 x 2 − 8x + 15 = 0 x =5 2x − 7 = x 2 − 6x + 9 x −4 x −2 + = x −3 x −3 x −3 (x − 3)(x − 5) = 0 x =3 is a true solution is a false solution 1. 1.

2.65 Example Solve Solution: Multiply by the LCD = x(3x + 1) provided x = 0. 1. 2x + 5 2x − 4 = 5x + 2 5x − 2 4 8 = 13 x 4x = 8 · 13 x = 26 35 .−1/3 x(3x + 1) · 1 3 9x − x(3x + 1) · = −x(3x + 1) · 3x + 1 x 3x + 1 9x 2 − (3x + 1) = −3x 9x 2 − 3x − 1 = −3x 9x 2 − 1 = 0 9x 1 3 − =− 3x + 1 x 3x + 1 (3x − 1)(3x + 1) = 0 x = −1/3 x = 1/3 A false solution. For example.66 Example Use the cross-multiplication to solve. 1. 8 2 a .Chapter 1 1. 8 4 = 13 x 5 2 = x + 3 2x − 1 Solution: 1. the ratio of females to males is 14 Deﬁnition The Proportion of two ratios is deﬁned as the equality between them: a c = b d The proportion has the cross-multiplication property: ad = bc 1. 3.64 Example Solve Solution: 7 1 3 = + x +1 x −1 x +1 (x + 1)(x − 1) · Multiply by the LCD = (x + 1)(x − 1) provided x = +1.−1 3 7 1 = (x + 1)(x − 1) · + (x + 1)(x − 1) · x +1 x −1 x +1 3(x − 1) = 7(x + 1) + (x − 1) 3x − 3 = 8x + 6 −5x = 9 x = −9/5 3x − 3 = 7x + 7 + x − 1 1.1 Ratio and Proportion 12 3 = . in a classroom with 8 b 13 Deﬁnition The Ratio of two numbers a and b is deﬁned as males and 12 females.5.

we can use it: 3 x +2−x = x +2 x +4 2 3 = x +2 x +4 2(x + 4) = 3(x + 2) 2x + 8 = 3x + 6 x =2 3 x = x +2 x +4 1. How much does each person receive? Solution: x 3 = . However. 1. then the second gets 63 − x . Use the cross multiplication property to get 5x = 2(63 − x). Find the number. after combining left side into one fraction.70 Example The sum of a number and its reciprocal is Separation of fractions In many problems.Rational Equations 2.71 Example Solve the equation x +2 x +3 x +4 x +5 − = − x +1 x +2 x +3 x +4 36 . 2x + 5 2x − 4 = 5x + 2 5x − 2 (2x + 5)(5x − 2) = (2x − 4)(5x + 2) 21x − 10 = −16x − 8 x= 2 37 10x 2 − 4x + 25x − 10 = 10x 2 + 4x − 20x − 8 1. x = 750 1750 − x 4 53 . The division must be 2 x 2 in ratio .68 Example How to divide 63 dollars between two students in the ratio Solution: 2 5 If one student gets x dollars. 14 1. the solution is x = 18 and 63 − x = 45.67 Example Solve the equation 1 − Solution: Note that we can not use the cross-multiplication to this equation. That is = .⇒ 5x = 5 63 − x 5 126 − 2x .69 Example A sum of $ 1750 is to be divided between two people in the ratio of 3 to 4. it is advantages to break a fraction into several fractions using the property a +b a b = + c c c 1. 2 5 = x + 3 2x − 1 2(2x − 1) = 5(x + 3) 4x − 2 = 5x + 15 x = −17 3.

Chapter 1 Solution: First we use the separation property to simplify the fractions then we add both sides separately then we cross multiply the ratios: x +1+1 x +2+1 − x +1 x +2 1 1 −1− 1+ x +1 x +2 (x + 2) − (x + 1) (x + 2)(x + 1) 1 (x + 2)(x + 1) x +3+1 x +4+1 − x +3 x +4 1 1 = 1+ −1− x +3 x +4 (x + 4) − (x + 3) = (x + 4)(x + 3) 1 = (x + 4)(x + 3) = x 2 + 7x + 12 = x 2 + 3x + 2 4x = −10 x =− 5 2 1.72 Example Solve the equation x +4 x +5 x +6 x +7 − = − x +3 x +4 x +5 x +6 37 .

5.7 1.5.4 1. 34 .19 1 x −1 = x −1 (x + 4)(x − 1) x 4 + =1 x +2 x +6 1 3 = 1 + 3x 4 1.5.18 1.5.5.5.14 1.15 1.10 1.2 1.5.11 2 5 + +2 = 0 1.5.2 Homework: Rational Equations Solve the rational equations and check your answers. 38 .5 1. If the larger is divided by the smaller.5.9 1. Set up an equation and solve it to ﬁnd their share. 15 1.5.5.12 x x2 1.1 x −3 x −4 − =1 2 5 5 3x + 2 x − 3 − =x− 6 4 3 7 2 5 + = n 3 n 3 5 3 − = 7x 4 2x 5 2 = 3x − 1 2x + 1 3 2 6 + = x + 1 x + 5 x 2 + 6x + 5 2x 5x − 9 +2 = x −3 x −3 1 1 3 + = x − 2 x + 2 x2 − 4 4 x = −3 x − 8 2 x −1 = x +4 x −3 n 1 6 − = n −1 2 n +3 1. 1.5.13 3 3 − =4 x +2 x −2 3 2 − =0 3 − 5x 2 − 3x x +1 x2 3 − 2 = x −1 x −1 x +1 x + 30 =x x 2x 3 − =0 x x −3 1 x 2 + 3x + 2 − 2 1 − =0 x +2 2 1. Find the numbers.5.5.5.6 1.5.16 1.20 1. 1. the quotient is 3 and the remainder is 8.5.Rational Equations 1.5.23 The sum of a number and its reciprocal is Find the number.21 1.5.8 1.3 1.5.5.5.5.5.24 The sum of two numbers is 60.17 1.22 A sum of $350 is to be divided between two students in the ratio of 3 to 4.5.

6 Exercises 19. 5a ÷ 2 3 30. 31. 8. 16. 21. 29. 3. 12. 11. 39 . 2a 2 − 6ab x2 − y 2 9x 2 − 16 5. 3y + 6 · (2x 2 + 8x + 8) 4x + 8 m + n u2 − v 2 · u − v m3 + n3 36. (p 2 − q 2 ) · 35. 22. · 34. 28. 17. − 4.Chapter 1 1. 6. 24. 32. 27. Change the following fractions into equivalent fraction in which the letters occur in alphabetical order. 18. (x − 2y )(y − x) (h − 2g )(m + 2n) (u − v )(v − 2u) (x + 5y )(x − 2y ) (b − 2a)(c − 2d ) (r + s)(u + 3v ) 2 · 18 3 7 ÷3 8 4x 7y 2 14y 2 20x 3 2p q 4p − 4q 10. 9. 6cd −4c 7 15 · 5 4 2x y 14 · 7 6y 2b 3 ÷ 5a 3 2x x · 3y 2y z 2 4 3 · · 3 5 7 a 2x 3b · · b y dx 30 ÷6 5a 3a 4 2 3 2 3 23. 13. 25. 15. 26. 1. 6a − 4b 6b − 9a 2x − 5y 10y − 4x 3x 2 12x 5 18a 2 b 4 12a 5 b 2 2a 2 + 4ab x−y Reduce the following fractions to lowest terms. 33. 70 98 81 108 −4 −28 20. (− ) · (− ) · (− ) 12 7 14 3h 5 15h 6 3a − 3b 6a − 6b 4a + 5b 20a + 25b ax − a y 5x − 5y Perform the indicated operations and simplify. 14. 9x 2 − 24x + 16 am − an − 2bm + 2bn 2cm − 2cn − d m + d n 6x + 3y + 9z 12x − 6y + 9z 7. 2.

x 2 − 4y 2 5 45. ÷ 57. 2 − 48. 68. + 43. 3 − 4x − 52. y 2 + 7y + 6 ÷ 3 2 1 + − x y z 5 x2 − x − 2 7x 2x 2 − x − 6 1 4 − x2 2x 2x 2 + 7x + 6 41. a a − 3b − 2 a −b 39. 70. 56. (c 2 − 9d 2 ) ÷ 40. 42. + 62. 65. 47. 2− 3x 2x − y 2y 4+ 2x − y 3+ 1 x 1 53. 4y 2 − 1 a 2 − ab 2a + b 60. ÷ 3a 4 c + 3d c − 2d 4y 2 − 4y + 1 y2 −1 58. 4 + 59. 3 +1 8 2 −5 a 5 +4 a 49. 3 5 − 12t 2t 2 2 2x − 3 − 3x 6x + 6 1 n +4 − 3n − 3 n 2 + 3n − 4 2x − 4 3 + 4x 67. 51. 54. 66. 5x y 5y 2 − 4 y +3 + x−y y − 3x + 6y 2x − 4y + 3 16 − 4x 2 − 2 2x 2 − x − 3 44. 63. 71. 2x 2 + x − 6 2 1 − 3 6 5 1 + 6 2 3− 3 4 46. 50.Exercises 3x 5 2y 3 4a 2 b3 9x 2 16y 37. 5x x2 − y 2 + 3 x+y 38. u +v 2u + v − u −v v − 2u 3 1 4 + − 4 2 5 69. 5 3 + x+y x−y 3 x2 + 5 2x 4− 2 x 1 −1 2x 4x 2 − 1 55. a 2 − 6a + 9 a2 − 9 ÷ 3x − 3y y 2 − x2 x + y 2x + y · ÷ (4x + 2y ) x − y 2x + 2y 4 +6 11 13 5 − 16 8 5a d − 2 5 3a − b 4b + 9 3 4x − y 3 61. 7 − 3 6 + y y2 40 . 5y − 3 − 64.

7 Review Rational Expressions A rational expression is the ratio of two polynomials: 3−x P(x) . (3x − a/c) 77. ( − 5/x) Solve the equation and check the solution. Simplifying Rational Expressions: Use the property PK P = QK Q For example. Multiplying Rational Expressions: Use the property 4 x2 − 1 · x −1 4(x − 1) 4 = = x + 1 (x − 1)(x + 1)(x + 1) (x + 1)2 PV P U ÷ = Q V QU 4. 74.Chapter 1 1 2 + a a2 2 3 1+ + 2 a a 1− 2 5 − x+y x−y 3 1 + x+y x−y 2 + 2 − b2 a −b a 3 b − a + b a 2 − b2 2 3 5 7 4a 72. 75. 5x + 7 =0 2x − 2 2 5 = x + 2 2x + 2 1 5 + =0 2x + 3 x − 6 7 1 − 2x − =4 2x x 3x 5 = 3+ x +2 x 3 7 2 = + x +1 x −1 x +1 ar n − a for a r −1 73. 2 − 80. 85. Solve S = 86. Dividing Rational Expressions: Use the property 4 x −1 4(x + 1) 4 ÷ = = x 2 − 1 x + 1 (x − 1)(x + 1)(x − 1) (x − 1)2 41 . (x − 3)(x + 3) x + 3 x2 − 9 = = 2 − 5x + 6 (x − 3)(x − 2) x − 2 x P U PU · = Q V QV 3. Find the reciprocal of the number. 81. 79. Solve 2 4 = x 2 1. Basic Deﬁnitions: x 2 − 5x + 6 2. 82. Solve 1 1 1 − = for y x y z x 4 87. 5 3 1 − =− 4x 2x 2 2 3 84. Such as Q(x) 1. 83. ( + ) 76. 78.

Equations with fractions: Multiply both sides by the LCD. Basic Rules for Simplifying Rational Expressions: a ·b = a b a c (b) = if and only if ad = bc b d a a = a and = 1 (c) 1 a (a) (d) Divide out common factors (e) − a −a a = = b b −b −a a a = (f) −(− ) = − b b b ak a = bk b 6. 1 4 − 3x −2 = x x 4 − 3x 1 ) x( − 2) = x( x x 1 − 2x = 4 − 3x x =3 42 . 3 5 3x 5(x − 2) −2x + 10 − = − = x − 2 x x(x − 2) x(x − 2) x(x − 2) 7.Review Rational Expressions 5. Addition of Rational Expressions: For like denominators: Use the property P U P +U + = Q Q Q 4 x2 − 1 + x x2 − 1 = 4+x x2 − 1 For unlike denominators: Find the LCD and write each fraction with the LCD.

3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 = 37 43 . 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 × 3 2.1 Example Write the expressions using exponential notation 1. n is called the exponent or power. In this notation.. we solve equations involving radicals and their applications.2 Radicals and Exponents In the following sections. a · a n here. Finally. So the above products are written as follows: 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 210 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 = 511 3x × 3x × 3x × 3x × 3x = (3x)5 Thus. we have the notation 21 = 2 22 = 2 · 2 23 = 2 · 2 · 2 and so on! 24 = 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 1 Deﬁnition For any real number a and any natural number n . 2. Mathematicians have invented a very powerful notation to represent this type of products. 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 5 × 5 × 5 Solution: 1. and develop their laws and rules. a n is called exponential number. a is called the base. the repeated factor (multiplier) is called the base. we shall introduce the integer exponents notation which include whole positive exponents and extend their interpretation to zero and negative whole powers. we use the exponential notation a n to denote the product of n factors . and we read it as: a to the n -th power or a to exponent n . and the number of factors (multipliers) is called the exponent.1 Integer Exponents 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 1024 For problems where a number is multiplied by itself repeatedly. Next. such as the products: 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 × 5 = 48828125 3x × 3x × 3x × 3x × 3x = 243 × x × x × x × x × x. each equal to a . It is called exponential notation. 2. that is n a = a · a · a .. we deﬁne the radical notation and its connection to rational powers and introduce the rules of operating on radicals.

3. the exponent is 2. (−1)90 11. (−10)9 Solution: 1. (−3)2 = (−3)(−3) = 9 5. 4. even power. 5x 3 4. −32 == −3 × 3 = −9 7. the exponent is 3. −(−10)3 = −(−1000) = 1000 11. the exponent is 2. −32 7. 2. −(−10)3 13. (−2)3 − (−3)2 = −8 − 9 = −17 12. odd power. 3. (−5)2 + (−5)3 = 25 − 125 = 100 13. 24 × 52 5. 53 2.000 3.000 2. Note the different bases. 9.Integer Exponents 2. (−2)2 × (−3)2 = 36 72 = 49 6. 24 × 52 = 16 × 25 = 400 10. (−10)4 = (−10) · (−10) · (−10) · (−10) = 10. As a result of the exponential deﬁnition.000 2. 2. (−2)3 − (−3)2 14. −52 9. 107 3. (−1)8 + (−1)9 Solution: 1. −a 2 3. 2. (5x)3 : The base is 5x . (−10)9 = −1. 5x 3 : The base is x . (−5)2 8. (−a)2 2. 44 .000. 53 = 125 2. (−a)2 : The base is −a . (−1)8 + (−1)9 = 1 − 1 = 0 14. −1235 12. (5x)3 Solution: 1. 8.3 Example Compute the following the values 1. we are going to introduce the main rules of exponential numbers. (−3)2 4.4 Example Identify the base and the exponent of the following exponential numbers 1.2 Example Compute 1. 4 × 4 × 4 × 4 × 5 × 5 × 5 = 44 × 53 . −(−5)2 = −25 15. −(−5)2 10.000. (−10)4 2.000. −a 2 : The base is a . −1235 = −1. 72 3. −52 = −25 (−5)2 = 25 4. 107 = 10 · 10 · 10 · 10 · 10 · 10 · 10 = 10. (−2)2 × (−3)2 6. the exponent is 3. (−5)2 + (−5)3 15. (−1)90 = 1.

−8x 4 x 3 x 4. (t + 1)5 (t + 1)4 (t + 1) Solution: 1. (x + 2)5 (x + 2)3 = (x + 2)8 2.1 Product Rule for Exponents Based on the deﬁnition of the exponential numbers we have x1 = x x2 = x · x x3 = x · x · x It follows x 2 · x 3 = x · x · x · x · x = x 5 x4 = x · x · x · x x2 · x4 = x · x · x · x · x · x = x6 The last two equalities justify the product rule for any real number a and any natural numbers n.1. Keep the base and add the powers. (t + 1)5 (t + 1)4 (t + 1) = (t + 1)5+4+1 = (t + 1)10 45 . a 3 a 4 = a 3+4 = a 7 . x 11 x 5 = x 11+5 = x 16 3. 65 67 = 612 3. x 11 x 5 2. a 2 b 3 a 3 b 2 3. −8x 4 x 3 x = −8x 4+3+1 = −8x 8 2. 65 67 2. (7x)3 (7x)2 = (7x)5 2. a 2 b 3 a 3 b 2 = a 2+3 + b 3+2 = a 5 b 5 4. x 5 x −2 3.Chapter 2 2.6 Example Simplify 1. For example. and x y x 2 y 2 x 3 y 5 = x 1+2+3 y 1+2+5 = x 6 y 8 .5 Example Simplify 1. x 5 x −2 = x 3 4.m : a m · a n = a m+n The product of exponential numbers with same base is an exponential number with same base and exponent equals to the sum of their exponents. The product rule is not applicable to the product a 4 b 3 because the bases are different! 2. (7x)3 (7x)2 4. (x + 2)5 (x + 2)3 Solution: 1.

For example.1. Usually. then x6 am = a m−n . If m < n . 4(x + 2)5 = 4(x + 2)5−3 = 4(x + 2)2 (x + 2)3 2. x4 x3 t4 t7 x3 y7 y5 The division of exponential numbers with same base is an exponential number with same base and exponent equals to the difference of their powers. 2. then 2. 3. 4. 3. = x 3 y 7−5 = x 3 y 2 y5 1.2 Division Rule for Exponents 25 = 22 . we subtract the small power.8 Example Simplify 1. 4. For example. 23 and 25 = 23 22 The product 23 · 22 = 25 . 38 36 2x 5 x 11 −6a 3 b 6 c 2 −2ab 4 c 2 46 . point to the general quotient rule of exponential numbers with same bases a and for any natural numbers m.n : 1. 9 = 9−7 = 2 n a a y y y 1. 2. 2 = x 6−2 = x 4 an x 1 y7 1 1 am = n−m .Integer Exponents 2.7 Example Simplify 4(x + 2)5 (x + 2)3 Solution: x4 = x 4−3 = x x3 t4 1 1 2. If m > n . 2. implies We also can use the deﬁnition of exponential notation and cancellation principle of fractions to divide exponential numbers with same base as in the examples: 57 5 · 5 · 5 · 5 · 5 · 5 · 5 = 5 · 5 · 5 · 5 · 1 · 1 · 1 = 54 = 5·5·5 53 63 1 1 6·6·6 = = = 65 6 · 6 · 6 · 6 · 6 1 · 1 · 1 · 6 · 6 62 From these examples. 7 = 7−4 = 3 t t t x3 y7 3.

Thus raising a power to a power.1. y x y4 y 1. 11 = 11−5 = 6 x x x −6a 3 b 6 c 2 3. (x 2 x 3 )6 3. (x 2 )4 (x 3 )2 = x 8 x 6 = x 14 4.3 Power Rule for Exponents (32 )3 = (32 ) × (32 ) × (32 ) = 32+2+2 = 36 To evaluate (32 )3 we proceed according to the deﬁnition as follows Note that 6 = 3 × 2. (x 2 )4 (x 3 )2 4. (32 )3 2. we have n (a ) = (a ) · (a ) · (a m ) . (a m ) n m n m m = a mn = am + m + m + · + m For example. 2 Deﬁnition For any real number a and any natural numbers m. = 3a 3−1 b 6−4 = 3a 2 b 2 . note c 2 /c 2 = 1 −2ab 4 c 2 x 2 y 3 x 2−1 x = 4−3 = 4. (x 2 x 3 )6 = (x 2+3 )6 = (x 5 )6 = x 30 3. Solution: 38 = 38−6 = 32 = 9 36 2x 5 2 2 2. (32 )3 = 32·3 = 36 2.. multiply the powers. (x 3 )4 = x 3·4 = x 12 (x 4 x 3 )2 = (x 4+3 )2 = x 7·2 = x 14 (y 2 )4 = y 2·4 = y 8 2. (x k )3 = x k·3 = x 3k 5.Chapter 2 x2 y3 x y4 4.n . x(x 2 )4 Solution: 1. (x k )3 5. 2.9 Example Simplify 1.. x(x 2 )4 = x(x 8 ) = x 9 47 .

. (x k y 2 )k = x k·k y 2·k = x k y 2k 5. b Similarly. a b · b · b . (−2x 2 )3 2.10 Example Simplify 1.b and any natural number n . (x + 3)2 = (x + 3)(x + 3) = x 2 + 3x + 3x + 33 = x 2 + 6x + 9 48 2 .. (x y k )2 = x 2 y 2k 4. (5x 3 y)4 = 54 x 12 y 4 3. (abc)n = a n b n c n Note that it is not true that (a + b)n = a n + b n .. (x y k )2 4. For example. (−2x 2 )3 = (−2)3 x 2·3 = −8x 6 2.1.. we have n n (ab) = (ab) · (ab) · (ab) . (x k y 2 )k 5. (5x 3 y)4 3... (ab) n n = an bn = a · a · a . (uv )2 = u 2 v 4 (−4x)3 = (−4)3 x 3 = −64x 3 (2x y)4 = 24 x 4 y 4 = 16x 4 y 4 (2 · 5)3 = 23 · 53 = 8 × 125 = 1000 2. (x + 3)2 Solution: 1.Integer Exponents 2.4 Power Rule for Products To evaluate the products (5x)4 and (−2x y 2 z 3 )3 we proceed according to the deﬁnition of exponentials as follows: (5x)4 = (5x) · (5x) · (5x) · (5x) = 54 x 4 (−2x y 2 z 3 )3 = (−2x y 2 z 3 ) · (−2x y 2 z 3 ) · (−2x y 2 z 3 ) = (−2)3 x 3 y 2×3 z 3×3 = −8x 3 y 6 z 9 (24 x 3 )2 = 24·2 x 3·2 = 28 x 6 = 256x 6 3 Deﬁnition For any real numbers a.

( 2x 10x 2 2 x 5. For example.5 Power Rule for Fractions Exponentiation of fractions is accomplished according to the deﬁnition. 3 3 3 3 33 ( )3 = ( ) · ( ) · ( ) = 3 5 5 5 5 5 4 Deﬁnition For any real numbers a. ( −3a 2 ) b2 18a 3 b 2 ) 9a 2 b 2 5x k ) 10x 2 5x 8 ) x+y 2 5 Solution: 1. ( )3 2. ( 3. 2 3 x y x 2 +1 x 3 = 4 8 23 = 3 3 27 x4 y4 x3 (x 2 + 1)3 = 3 = 2. ( 4.Chapter 2 2. ( 3. ( )3 = 2.11 Example Simplify 1. ( 58 x 8 5x 8 ) = x+y (x + y)8 49 . The correct answer is ( ) = . we have a ( )n = b a n ( ) = bc an bn an bn c n Note it is not true that ( a n an a n an ) = n . ( 5.1. b +c b + cn b +c (b + c)n For example. ( 2 5 23 8 = 53 125 −3a 2 9a 2 ) = 4 b2 b 18a 3 b 2 2a 2 4a 2 ) = 2 ) =( 2b2 b 9a b 1 k 1 5x k ) =( ) = k k 4.b = 0 and any natural number n .

Similarly. How to ﬁnd the value of this number? We start with the equality 52 = 1 multiply both sides by 5−2 and switch the sides 52 5−2 · 1 = 5−2 · 1 52 5−2+2 50 = = 2= 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 50 . 5x y 0 Solution: 1.12 Example Find the values of the following expressions provided all variables are none zero. undeﬁned value. −5x 0 y = −5y 10. we can give this a consistent explanation as follows: It is known that for any a = 0. 10 years? Solution: In 5 years we have 10 periods of doubling so we compute the product: 6 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 · 2 = 6 · 210 = 6144 In general.6 Zero Exponent The exponential number 35 means 3 · 3 · 3 · 3 · 3. (5x)0 8. (70 − 80 )0 4.Integer Exponents 2.7 Negative exponents How to interpret exponential numbers with negative exponents? What does 5−2 mean? Assume that 5−2 stands for a certain number. a0 = 1 zero is undeﬁned. 6. using this fact and the division rule of exponential numbers to simplify 1 = 5 = 35−5 = 30 . we can derive a formula for the population growth p = 6·2t where t is the time period. So after one period t = 1. 3x 0 2x 0 6. 00 3. 1. 50 = 1.13 Example Derive a population model so the number of rabbits are doubling each six months. Note that a can not be zero because the division by 6 2. (70 − 80 )0 = (1 − 1)0 = 00 . −32 50 2. 3x 0 3 = 2x 0 2 3. the farm starts with three pairs. For example. In this example the number of rabbits at starting time can be written as p = 6t 0 = 6 2. 2. 5x 0 9. 00 . 5x 0 = 5 9. This a 3 implies that both sides of the equation are equal so we deﬁne 30 to be 1. p = 621 = 12. we deﬁne a 35 = 1. x 0 = 1 In the following example.1. 5. −32 50 = −9 · 1 = −9 2. undeﬁned value. x 0 5. −5x 0 y 10. the plausibility of power zero is illustrated by a population growth variable. (23x 4 + x 2 + 1)0 7. but 30 is meaningless in terms of product of repeated factors. (5x)0 = 1 8. for any base a = 0. 5x y 0 = 5x 4. However. How many rabbits will be there in 5 years.1. (3x 2 + 1)0 = 1 and ( 23 0 ) = 1. (23x 4 + x 2 + 1)0 = 1 7.

3. 2−3 × 3−2 = 2. 6a −3 b 3 5. we can interpret the division of exponential numbers am 1 = a m−n = n−m n a a 1 a −m 1 −m−(−n) =a = a −m+n = −n−(−m) = −n+m a −n a a 1 a −n = n a 1 = am a −m 2. −2x −5 y −3 z −1 = In the following illustration. 6a −3 b 3 = 5. 3. 3−8 3−5 1 1 1 1 1 × = × = 23 32 8 9 72 1 1 1 = −5−(−8) = 3 = 27 3 3 2 8x 4 y −2 2y −2−(−2) = = 3 7 y −2 7−4 4x x x 6b 3 a3 −2 x5 y3 Z 4.14 Example Rewrite without negative exponents and simplify 1. −2x −5 y −3 z −1 Solution: 1. 3−8 3−5 8x 4 y −2 4x 7 y −2 4. we justify the deﬁnition of negative exponents by following a pattern formation of exponential numbers: 32 25 16 24 8 23 4 22 2 21 1 20 1 2 2−1 1 4 2−2 1 8 2−3 1 16 2−4 51 . we deﬁne 2−3 = 1 1 = . 2−3 × 3−2 2. 23 8 5 Deﬁnition We deﬁne the negative exponent of any none zero number a : a −n = 1 an Based on this deﬁnition.Chapter 2 This means 5−2 = 1 1 = 2 25 5 Similarly.

1 2−3 3. x5 5−3 = Similarly we deﬁne the reciprocal of negative exponents as 1 a −n = an 1 = (−2)3 = −8 (−2)−3 For example 1 x −2 = x2. Apply the exponent rules: = 2−2 (x 2 )−2 32 (y 3 )2 9y 6 = = 3−2 (y 3 )−2 22 (x 2 )2 4x 4 2x 2 3y 3 −2 2. the negative exponent is deﬁned as follows: a −n = 1 an 1 1 = 53 125 For example. 21 = 2. we ﬂip the fraction and change to positive power. Apply the negative exponent of fractions rule: = 3y 3 2x 2 2 = 9y 6 4x 4 2. 1 . and the pattern in the second row is to subtract 1 from the power left to right. x −5 = 1 . For example. 2 23 = 8. 2 2 4 2−3 = So we conclude that for any nonzero number a . 22 = 4.15 Example Simplify Solution: 2x 2 3y 3 We can simplify in two ways (they are really equivalent) 2x 2 3y 3 −2 1. (2−3 − 3−2 )2 4. 3−2 The negative exponent of a fraction has an interesting short cut: a −n bn b a ( )−n = −n = n = ( )n b b a a This means that instead of distributing the negative power. The two rows are equal so we have 25 = 32. 1 1 = 3 2 8 20 = 1 and similarly 2−1 = 2−2 = 1 1 = .16 Example Change to positive exponents and simplify 1. −3a −2 b −3 2. 24 = 16. 1 = 32 = 9. ( −2 23 −2 52 25 5 ) = ( 3 )2 = 6 = 5 32 2 2 2.Integer Exponents The pattern in the ﬁrst row is dividing by 2 left to right. −3a −2 b −3 = 2. a −2 a2 Solution: 1. 1 = 23 = 8 2−3 −3 a2b3 52 .

( 3.18 Example Simplify 1. x n = 2. 1 x −n 1 xn Solution: 1. (3x 3 )2 − (2x 2 )3 = 9x 6 − 8x 6 = −2x 6 2.19 Example Which expressions are the same? 1. (a m )n = a mn 53 a b n = an bn . (3x 3 )2 − (2x 2 )3 Solution: a 4 −2 a −8 1 ) = 6 = 8 6 b −3 b a b 2. (2a + 5)(2a + 5)3 4. (2a + 5)(2a + 5)3 = (2a + 5)4 4. x n 2. −x n 4. a m a n = a m+n 2. a 3 b −2 a −2 b −4 5. the following basic laws of exponential numbers 1. a −2 a2 1 1 8 9 1 1 = 2 2= 4 a a a 1 2 ) 72 2.Chapter 2 3. 3x · 312 3. and 3. x −n 3. (ab)n = a n b n . a 3 b −2 = a 3−(−2)b −2−(−4) = a 5 b 2 a −2 b −4 5.17 Example Why (a −2 + b −2 ) = Solution: Because 1 ? a2 + b2 a −2 + b −2 = 1 1 a2 + b2 + 2= 2 a b a 2b2 2. ( a 4 −2 ) b −3 2. (−x)n 5. 6. 3x · 312 = 3x+12 1. x −n 1 x −n 1 = n x Summary of Basic Rules of Exponents For any real numbers a and b and any integers numbers m and n . (2−3 − 3−2 )2 = ( − )2 = ( 4.

Integer Exponents am = a m−n . then 5. Zero exponent: If a = 0. 54 . Negative exponent of fraction: ( )−n = ( )n for nonzero bases. a = 0 an am = a m−n an am 1 (b) If m < n . an a a b b a 7. Negative Exponent: a −n = 1 1 and −n = a n . 6. then n = n−m a a 4. (a) If m > n . then a 0 = 1.

8 Homework: Integer Exponents Perform the indicated operations Perform the indicated operations 2.2 (−2)3 (−3)2 552 56 77 75 3 2 2.1.4 ( )4 2.1.14 (3−1 )2 (9−1 )−2 2.7 2.3 2.8 ( 2.1.1.1.1.10 20−2 · 20−2 2.1.1 2.22 2.1.6 2.15 a 4 · a −3 · a 3 2.12 24 2−2 + 2.1.1.1.1.24 x −2 + 2x −3 55 .1.18 2.19 ( 2.16 ( x −4 −1 ) y −2 2.1.21 x y −1 x −1 y −1 Find the value of the expressions 2.17 90x −4 y −5 6x −2 y a −4 a4 a −2 −2 ) b5 5 a 2.1.1.Chapter 2 2.5 (2x y 3 )5 a 4b6 c a 3b3 c 24a 5 b 2 c 3 33a 5 bc 2 12x 4 y 3 3 ) 4x 2 y 2 2.11 (2−3 · 32 )−1 2.1.1.1.13 ( )−1 − ( )−1 2 3 1 3 Simplify the expressions without negative exponents 2.1.1.1.1.9 −11−2 y + −1 x y x 2.1.1.20 5a −1 − 2.23 ( a −3 b 2 c −3 −4 ) a 0 b −2 c−3 2.

we introduce the deﬁnition of roots of numbers as opposed to raising a number to integer powers. It is standard to omit square root index. 64 = 4.4 4 4 9 9 16 16 1. For example.744 16 16 81 81 256 256 3. 3. computing the side of a square and the side of a cube from the area and the volume are the same as ﬁnding the square root and the cube root. and an index n specifying the power of the root: n a .1 Square Roots Every positive real number p has two square roots: + p and − p . − 49 = −7.Roots and Radicals 2. In general we have the deﬁnition: 6 Deﬁnition A number b is called the nth root of a if bn = a Roots of a number a are denoted by radical notation: A radical sign . 36 = 6 and − 36 = −6. −9 is not real number because the square of any real number 2. Geometrically. The positive square root is the principal square root. 32 = 2. These numbers are +4 and −4. 1. Thus.8416 Raising a number to an integer power is a multiplication process. 2. 2. For example. this number is not x but it is |x|.20 Example Evaluate the square roots: 56 . Similarly.2.96 8 -8 27 -27 64 -64 2. The reverse process is to ﬁnd numbers whose square is 16. For example. 49 = 7 and x 2 is a positive number whose square is x 2 . 3 5 9 = 3. a . For example. computing the area of a square and the volume of a cube given the side are the same as raising to power 2 and 3. We call these numbers square roots of 16. is the product of 4 × 4. p is the positive principal square root. For any real positive number p . For example. this absolute value insures that the answer is positive. −p is not real number. is a positive number. The following table shows the familiar process of raising to powers: b A = b2 V = b3 W = b4 2 -2 3 -3 4 -4 1. 3 is the cube root of 27 because 33 = 27. However. the number 16 in 42 = 16.2 Roots and Radicals In this section. a radicand a . − p is the negative square root.

25. 0.900. − 64u 2 Solution: 1. 169. 5. but only few numbers are perfect squares.64.144. A = 144 2.784. 4 2 = 25 5 4. 6.441. 0. unless you are asked to do that explicitly. 4. 6. In the following list. 9y 4 = 3y 2 a 2 + 2a + 1 = x 2 − 10x + 25 = (a + 1)2 = |a + 1| (x − 5)2 = |x − 5| 2. For example. 25x 2 x 2 =| x |.841.961 Square roots of expressions Deﬁnition 1 For any real number x : root is positive number. s = 9a 2 b 2 = 3ab . provided x > 0 57 . s = 144 = 12 2. Absolute value is needed to insure that the selected 2 3. in all your algebra work. −16 Solution: 1.289. − 121 3.256. Thus. − =− 81 9 100 = 10 7.225. A = 9a 2 b 2 3.Chapter 2 1.81. 4 25 8. but we can approximate it 5 ≈ 02.121.576.196. x4 = x2 2.324. − 64u 2 = −8|u| 3.0 = 0 −16. 8. you should never substitute a radical number with its approximation.04 = 0. 3. 5. 5 is a number that it impossible to express it in decimal or fractional form. 5. we identify all perfect square numbers less than 1000: 1. 0. not real number. − 121 = −11 3.0 2.9. x4 9y 4 5. A = 100x 2 Solution: 1.676. a 2 + 2a + 1 x 2 − 10x + 25 2. In the following.625.4. where s is the length of its side.16.36.21 Example Simplify the square roots: 1. 36 4. 484.49.729. − 100 0.361. 2.04 1 81 7. provided a and b are positive. Every number a ≥ 0 has a real square root.400.529. that is irrational.22 Example The area of a square given by the formula A = s 2 . ﬁnd the side of a square whose area is 1.100. 25x 2 = 5|x| 4.236. 6.2 1 1 6. 36 = 6 2. s = 100x 2 = 10x .

ﬁnd the side of a cube whose volume is 1. 7 1 128 81x 4 −32x 5 (2x − 1)6 4 5 6 58 . s = 3 3. 2. 7 Deﬁnition The cube root of a number a is denoted by 3 a = b so that b 3 = a .2. the nth root of a number a .23 Example Simplify the cube roots: 1.Roots and Radicals 2. − 3 −27 3 Solution: 1. 5. 6. 3 64 −64 4. V = 1000 2. 3 3 −y 3 = −y 8a 3 b 3 c 3 = 2abc −125(x − y )3 = −5(x − y ) 3 3. 5th. In general. 5. 8. 6th. 7. roots: 4 .25 Example Simplify the radical expressions: 1. 3 −y 3 8a 3 b 3 c 3 −125(x − y )3 3 3 3. 2. 4. s = 3 1000 = 10 2. 2. In the following.. 5.2 Cube Roots We say 2 is a cube root of 8 because 23 = 8 and -3 is a cube root of -27 because (−3)3 = −27. s = 8a 3 = 2a 3 64x 3 y 3 = 4x y 2.24 Example The volume of a cube is given by the formula V = s 3 . denoted by n a is a number b : n a=b if bn = a With restrictions on even indices: The radicand must be positive and the positive principal root must be assigned. V = 64x 3 y 3 3. 3. 9. 3 64 = 4 −64 = −4 4. 6 .3 nth Roots 8 Deﬁnition Similarly..2. for any real number a 2. This deﬁnition implies the identity 3 a 3 = a. the 4th. 5 .. 2. 3 4 5 4 4 8 16 −32 −16 6. where s is the side of the cube. V = 8a 3 Solution: 1.. we can deﬁne roots of any index such as. − 3 −27 = 3 3 2. 6.

5. Radicals with same index can be multiplied. The even roots of negative numbers are not real numbers. 2. For example. 3. 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) 3 4 5 6 (3. 7 1 1 = 128 2 81x 4 = 3|x| 4 5 6 −32x 5 = −2x (2x − 1)6 = |2x − 1| 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) 3 4 3 4·5 = 8 · 27 = 81x 8 y 3 4· 5 = 2 5 3 8· 4 3 27 = 2 · 3 = 6 4 = 81 · 3 x8 · 4 y = 3x 2 3 4 y 9x · 3x 2 = 9x · 3x 2 = 27x 3 = 3x 59 . n a2 = a an = a a +b = a+ b 5x 2x + 3x = 8=2 2 The answers to these questions will be clear by the end of this section. 5. The odd roots are deﬁned for positive and negative numbers. The even roots are deﬁned for positive numbers only. 7.Chapter 2 Solution: 1.4 Properties of radicals True or false? 1. 3. a n ab provided the roots are real numbers. 8. 2. and the even roots are always positive. 6. Fundamental Rules of Radicals 1.5x)2 = 3. 3.2. Product Rule of Radicals: ab = b= n n a n b Radicals are distributed to each factor in the radicand. Perfect nth power Rule: n n an = a a n = |a| if n is odd if n is even For example.5|x| (6x + y)3 = 6x + y (−5)4 = | − 5| = 5 (22a)5 = 22a (3y)6 = 3|y| n n 2. 9. 4. 4. 3 4 5 4 4=2 8=2 16 = 2 −32 = −2 −16 is not a real number. 2.

n a n = a or = |a|? In general n a mn = a m or n a mn = |a|m depending on odd or even index. For example. 4 + 9 = 4 + 9.Roots and Radicals n This rule is valid for products only. Division Rule of Radicals: a = b a b = n n a b a b Radicals are distributed to numerator and denominator in the the radicand. It is not true to distribute radicals if an addition or a subtraction is in the radicand. This property is used very often for complete extraction of perfect roots! 2. n extraction) 2. For example. 3.27 Example Simplify the radical expressions using the product rule of radicals: ab = n a n b This property is applied to factor terms from under the radical signs! ( Partial 60 .26 Example Simplify the radical expressions using the perfect nth power rule: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 3 3 3 7 5 8 −8 y3 (1 − 2x)7 (−13)5 25 y2 (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) 4 4 6 (1 − 2x)4 (−15)4 (−15)6 y4 y6 3 y6 Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) 3 3 3 7 5 8= 3 −8 = 3 23 = 2 (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) 4 4 6 y3 = y (−2)3 = −2 (1 − 2x)4 = |1 − 2x| (−15)4 = 15 (−15)6 = 15 y4 = y6 = (y 2 )2 = |y |2 = y 2 (y 3 )2 = |y |3 3 (1 − 2x)7 = 1 − 2x (−13)5 = −13 25 = 52 = 5 y 2 = |y | 3 y6 = (y 2 )3 = y 2 2. (a) (b) (c) 3 5 = 36 5 36 = 3 3 5 6 x3 = x 5y 2 16y 4 = 4y 2 x3 = 125y 6 48x y 4 3x = 125y 6 48x y 4 = 3x More Examples of Radical Rules 1. Radicals with same index can be divided. n n n provided the roots are real numbers and b = 0.

8·2· y3 = 25 3 8y 3 · 3 2 (f) 25x 4 y 10 = x4 y 10 = 5x 2 y 5 3. explain why? Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) 3 48 = 16 · 3 = 16 · 3 = 4 3 8 = 4·2 = 4· 2 = 2 2 16y 3 = 3 (e) 2 = 2y 3 y 2 (1 − y ) = |y | 1 − y (−4)(−4) = 16 = 4 = −4 · −4. This is important to avoid repeated distinction between odd and even indices and selecting the principal roots.28 Example Simplify the radical expressions using the division rule of radicals: (a) (b) 25 36 4x 8 9y 4 (c) (d) 3 16x 4 27 −27 x3 3 Solution: (a) (b) 25 = 36 4x 8 9y 4 = 25 36 = 5 6 = 2x 8 3y 2 (c) 3 16x 4 = 27 −27 x3 =− 3 8 · 2x 3 · x 3 27 = 2x 3 2x 3 4x 8 9y 4 (d) 3 3 x We mention the following important rule for completeness. because the even roots are deﬁned for positive radicands only. 3.29 Example Simplify 1. For example. 61 . provided the roots are real numbers. 2. 5 3 5 5 8x 3 Solution: 1. 1. Radical of a Radical Rule: n m multiply the indices. 2. 3. This property is similar to the product property! 2. 3. n a = b n n a b . 3 5 3 5= 2·2 2·3 5= 5= 4 6 5 5 15 8x = 5·3 5= 8x = 8x We will assume that all variables are positive in the following sections. 2. x= a= 7= 3 4 x a 7 9 6 2. 3 3 a= mn a.Chapter 2 (a) (b) (c) 3 48 8 16y 3 (d) (e) (f) 25x 4 y 10 y 2 (1 − y ) (−4)(−4) = 16 = 4 = −4 · −4.

but 4. The radicand does not have any fractions. 2x 3 x .625. 5. 3.25. Rewrite the coefﬁcient as product of two numbers one of them is a perfect number and rewrite the exponential number as product of two exponentials one of them is raised to a multiple power of the radical index. · · · • Perfect cube numbers are: 1. a 4 . 7.256. but it can 3. if possible: 18x 5 = 9 · 2 · x4 x1 2. For example. 3 4x 4 y . a 12 . 2.5 Radical Simpliﬁcations A radical is in a simple form if the radical satisﬁes the following conditions: 1. but they can be simpliﬁed to 2x 2 y . · · · • Perfect fourth order exponentials have multiple of four powers: a 4 . a 8 . The power of each factor in the radicand is less than the index of the radical. Perfect nth powers • Perfect square numbers are: 1. That is. 6.16.27.36.30 Example Simplify the following radicals using the fundamental rules of radicals 1.2. factor out all perfect multiples outside the radical sign as follows: 18x 5 = 9 · 2 · x 4 x 1 = 3x 2 2x 3. For example it can be simpliﬁed to − 3 5 3 −5 is not a simple radical.64. 2. For example but it can be simpliﬁed to 5 x .Roots and Radicals 2. a 6 . The radicand does not have any negative factors.· · · • Perfect cube exponentials have multiple of three powers: a 3 .4. For example be simpliﬁed to 3x 2 is not a simple radical.8. No radical appears in the denominator of a fraction.· · · • Perfect fourth orders numbers are: 1. Strategy to Simplify Radicals How to simplify 18x 5 ? 1. 2a 2 3x 4 5 x 4a 4 is not a simple radical. Apply the product rule of radicals. a 6 . 4.125. 8x 4 are not simple fractions. 3 4 3 32x 3 y z 2 −16x 2 y 5 50x · 2x 400x 6 8 4x 4 5000x 4 y 2 · 32x 3 27 3 x2 y2 3 62 .· · · 2.16.· · · • Perfect square exponentials have multiple of two powers: a 2 . Rationalize denominators: This will be discussed after addition and multiplication sections.9. a 9 .81.

3. 8. 9. 5. 5.Chapter 2 Solution: 1. 6. 6. 10. 7. 3 5 3 3 3 12 = 54 = 3 3 4·3 = 2 3 27 · 2 = 3 2 3 3 3 24ab 4 c 3 = 3x 9x 2 = 8x 3 2x = 5 3x · 9x 2 = 8 · 3ab 3 b 1 c 3 = 2bc 3ab 3 3 27x 3 = 3x 8x 3 = 2x 15 4x 2 = 2x 5 a 9b5 = 15 = 49x 2 45x y 2 5x 3 a 5 a 4 b 5 = ab a 4 49x 2 = 15 7x = 45x y 2 = 5x 3 9y 2 = 3y 3 32 + 42 = 100x 10x = 1000x 2 = 10 x 2 25 = 5 2. 4. 7. 3. 2.31 Example Simplify the following radicals using the fundamental rules of radicals 1. 3 5 3 12 54 24ab 4 c 3 3x 9x 2 8x 3 2x a 9b5 15 49x 2 45x y 2 5x 100x 10x 32 + 42 3 3 3 3 Solution: 1. 9. 4. 5. 3 4 3 32x 3 y z 2 = −16x 2 y 5 = 50x · 2x = 400x 6 8 2x 4 = 4 3 16 · 2x 2 x y z 2 = 4xz −8 · 2x 2 y 3 · y 2 = −2y 50x · 2x = 4 2x y 3 2x 2 y 2 = 8 = 2x 4 3 16 · 25 · x 4 x 2 2 4 = x4 x2 3 = 2x 25x 2 = 2x 5x 100x 2 = 10x 5000x 4 y 2 · 32x 3 = 27 3 3 x2 y2 = = 5000x 4 y 2 x 2 y 2 = 3 3 1000 · 5 · x 6 y 3 y 1 = 10x 2 y 3 5y 3 8 · 4x 3 27 2x 4 3 2. 2.32 Example Simplify the radicals 63 . 10. 6. 2. 7. 4. 3. 8.

4. 4 Solution: 1. 2. 3 4x 3 + 12x 4 40x 5 y 4 + 80x 6 y 6 40x 5 y 4 + 80x 6 y 6 27 40x 8 y 7 + 80x 9 y 9 40 + 80x y 2 4. 3 4x 3 + 12x 4 = sqr t4x 2 (x + 3x 2 ) = 2x 40x 5 y 4 + 80x 6 y 6 = 40x 5 y 4 + 80x 6 y 6 = 27 40x 8 y 7 + 80x 9 y 9 = 40 + 80x y 2 40x 5 y 4 (1 + 2x 2 y 2 ) = x + 3x 2 ) 4 · 10 · x 4 x 1 y 4 (1 + 2x y 2 ) = 2x 2 y 2 10x(1 + 2x y 2 ) 3 3 40x 5 y 4 (1 + 2x 2 y 2 ) = 27 40x 8 y 7 (1 + 2x 2 y 2 ) = 40(1 + 2x y 2 ) 3 8 · 5 · x 3 x 2 y 3 y 1 (1 + 2x 2 y 2 ) 2x y = 27 3 x8 y7 = 4 5x 2 y(1 + 2x y 2 ) 4 4 4 x8 y4 y3 = x2 y 4 y3 64 . 2. 3. 3.Roots and Radicals 1.

6 3 4 3 x3 y 5z 8 2.2.2.14 2.2.2.2.24 2.2.2.2.2.2.2.16 3 75 108x 4 28a 8 b 12 814 2.5 22 16 2.13 2.2.2.7 15 5 4 48x 2 y 4 z 6 2.2.18 2.19 2.21 2.23 2.2. Assume all variables are positive.1 − 81 2.20 2.2.15 2.12 3 3ab 3 15ab 3 4x 2 2x 3 9x 4 y 6 3 100x 2 20x 2 8a 6 b 3 25x 8 16y 4 z 0 2.2 − 4 81 2.2.2.10 10 32 Simplify the radical expressions.2.17 3 2.2.2.28 28x y 2 65 .27 3 18x 2 y 3 3 12x y 4 2.2.2.26 3 6a 24a 2.2.4 50 5 −16x 3 y 6 x3 y 5z 2.25 2.3 4 2.11 2.2.2.9 −6 20 4 45 5x 20x 2.6 Homework: Roots and Radicals Evaluate the expressions 2.8 14 21 7 5x 5 9y 4 2.2.2.Chapter 2 2. 2.22 2.2.

9 2a + 2a − 5 2a + 10 a 4. For example 1. 2. The radicals 3x 2x y and 8x 2y x are similar. 3 2x + 5 2x = 8 2x 6. 4.34 Example True or False? 1. but not 3 x y and 8x 2x y .33 Example Combine the following 1. 3 3 x + 2 x − 6 3 x − 3 x Solution: 1. but not 3x and 7 2x . 2 5 + 7 5 3. The radicals 2 6 and 5 6 are similar. 2. False: 2· 8 = x x=x x y= x+ xy x+y 2·8 = 16 = 4 20 4 + 16 = 4 + 16. 3.Addition and Subtraction of Radicals 2. The radicals 3x and 7 3x are similar. 3 3 x + 2 x − 6 3 x − 3 x = −3 3 x − x 2. False: 3. Like radicals can be added and subtracted by combining their coefﬁcients using the distribution law ba + c a = (b + c)a 2. 9 2a + 2a − 5 2a + 10 a = 5 2a + 10 a 2. but not 2 6 and 5 3 6 . 3x + 2y − 5x 2 + y 2 + 7x − 2y + 6x 2 = 10x + x 2 + y 2 4. 2 5 + 7 5 = 9 5 5.3 Addition and Subtraction of Radicals The addition and subtraction of radicals are possible for similar radicals. 2· 8 = 4 4 + 16 = x x=x x y = xy 4 + 16 3. 3x 2 x + y x = (3x 2 + y) x Solution: 1. x+ y= x+y 7. 6 = 5. False: 6. 3. True: 2. True: 4. 9 Deﬁnition Radical expressions are called like or similar if they have the same index and the same radicand. True: 3 2x + 5 2x = (3 + 5) 2x = 8 2x 2 7. 3x + 2y − 5x 2 + y 2 + 7x − 2y + 6x 2 2. True: 3x x + y x = (3x 2 + y) x y= 66 .

**Chapter 2 2.35 Example Simplify and ﬁnd the sum of the radicals 1.
**

27 − 12

2. 2 3 − 5 48 + 8 75 3. 8 3 2 − 5 3 2 − 3 3 2 4. 4x y + 5.

3

x 2 y − 2x y

3

16x 4 +

3

54x 4 −

3

−128x 4

6. x 32x + 50x 3 7. x 3 3x − 3x 4 8. 9.

5

a +6 5

a 32

4x + 8 + 16x + 32

**10. 5y 2 3x 5 y 6 − 4x 12x 3 y 10 Solution: 1.
**

27 − 12 = 9·3− 4·3 = 3 3−2 3 = 3

4. 4x y + 5.

3

3. 8 3 2 − 5 3 2 − 3 3 2 = 0

3 3

2. 2 3 − 5 48 + 8 75 = 2 3 − 5 16 · 3 + 8 25 · 3 = 2 3 − 20 3 + 40 3 = 22 3

x 2 y − 2x y = 4x y + x y − 2x y = 3x y

3 3

6. x 32x + 50x 3 = x 16 · 2x + 25 · 2x 2 x 1 = 4x 2x + 5x 2x = 9x 2x 7. x 3 3x − 3x 4 = x 3 3x − 3x 3 x = x 3 3x − x 3 3x = 0 8. 9.

5 3 3

16x 4 + 54x 4 − −128x 4 =

8 · 2x 3 x 1 + 27 · 2x 3 x 1 − −64 · 2x 3 x 1 = 2x 2x+3x 2x+4x 2x9x 2x

3

3

3

3

3

a +6 5

2

a = 32

5

a+

6 2

5

a =4 5 a 4(x + 2) + 16(x + 2) = 2 x + 2 + 4 x + 2 = 6 x + 2 = 5y 2 3x 4 x y 6 −4x 4 · 3x 2 x y 10 = 5y 2 x 2 y 3 3x−4x·2x y 5 3x = 5x 2 y 5 3x−

10. 5y

4x + 8 + 16x + 32 =

2 5

4x y

3x 5 y 6 −4x

12x 3 y 10 3x

3x = x y

2 5

67

Addition and Subtraction of Radicals

**2.3.1 Homework: Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
**

Simplify the Radical Expressions. Assume all variables are positive. 2.3.1 5 27 − 2 48 2.3.2 −5 24 + 3 54 − 6 2.3.3 −5 3 16 + 2 3 2 − 3 54 2.3.4 −10 3 81 + 20 3 3 − 4 3 24 2.3.5 2.3.6

54a 5 b 8

2.3.10

**24x 3 − 2x 54x 12x 3 y + 10x 2 54x 3 y + 5y
**

3

2.3.11 3 18x 5 y 3 − 2x y 2.3.12

3

3x y 3

16x 5 y 3 − 2x y

3

3

2x 5

2.3.13 5

8x 3 − 2x

3

16x 3

**2.3.14 3 40x 3 − 2x 3 40x + 2 10x 3 + 4x 3 5x 2.3.15
**

8x 3 + 12x 4 20x 5

80x y 7

**2.3.16 5 40x 5 − 2 90x 5 + 3 10x 5 + 2.3.17 6
**

3

2.3.7

5 − 4

3

5 16

24x 3 − 2x

3

75 − 4

3

81x 3

**2.3.18 4 20a − 5 45a + 5a 2.3.19 5 3 a − 3x 3 −27a
**

ab 2 − 25a 2 b

2.3.8

32x 2

2.3.9 5 9ab 2 − 2 16a 2 b −

2.3.20

6a + 3 24a − 4 54a

68

Chapter 2

2.4

Multiplication of Radicals

n

**Multiplication of radicals is based on the law
**

a·

n

b=

n

ab

**That is, radicals with same index can be multiplied into a single radical. For example,
**

5· 3 = 5·3 = 15

In general, to perform the multiplication of radicals expressions: 1. Multiply their coefﬁcients 2. Multiply the radicands under the radical sign with same index 3. Simplify the result 2.36 Example Multiply the following radicals: 1. (−5 3) 2 6 2.

20 · 10

3 3

3. 3 2 · 4 6 4.

2·2 4

**5. (2 5)2 6. 3 2 4 2 − 2 7. 3 2 4 8 − 3 3 8. 3 2 + 5 Solution: 1. (−5 3) 2 6 = (−5 · 2)( 3 · 6) = −10 2 · 9 = −30 2 2. 3. 3 2 · 4 6 = 12 2 · 6 = 12 12 = 12 3 · 4 = 24 3 4.
**

3

2− 5

20 · 10 =

3

200 = 10 2

6. 3 2 4 2 − 2 = 12 2 · 2 − 6 2 = 24 − 6 2 8. Distribute: 3 2 + 5

5. (2 5)2 = 4 5 · 5 = 20

2·2 4 = 2 8 = 4

3

7. Distribute: 3 2 4 8 − 3 3 = 12 16 − 9 6 = 48 − 9 6

2 − 5 = 3 4 − 3 10 + 10 − 25 = 6 − 2 10 − 5 = 1 − 2 10

**2.37 Example Multiply the radicals and simplify 1.
**

5a · 5a

2. (2 5)2 3. (3 8)(2 2) 4. ( 7 − 2)( 7 − 3 2) 5. ( x + 5)( x − 3) 6. (2 − x)2 7. ( 3 + 2)( 3 − 2) 69

**Multiplication of Radicals 8. ( a − b)( a + b) 9. ( 5 − 2)2 10. (3 + 9 − x 2 )2 Solution: 1. 2. (2 5)2 = 4 · 5 = 20
**

5a · 5a = 5a

7. ( 3 + 2)( 3 − 2) = 3 − 4 = −1 9. ( 5 − 2)2 = ( 5)2 − 2 5 2 + ( 2)2 = 5 − 2 10 + 2 = 7 − 2 10 8. ( a − b)( a + b) = a − b

6. (2 − x)2 = 4 − 4 x + x

5. ( x + 5)( x − 3) = x − 3 x + 5 x − 15 = x + 2 x − 15

4. ( 7 − 2)( 7 − 3 2) = 7( 7 − 3 2) − 2( 7 − 3 2) = 7 − 3 14 − 14 + 3 · 2 = 13 − 4 14

3. (3 8)(2 2) = 6 16 = 24

10. (3 + 9 − x 2 )2 = 9 + 6 9 − x 2 + 9 − x 2 = 18 − x 2 + 6 9 − x 2

70

4.20 ( 5x − 2.4.21 (1 + 7)2 2.4.14 ( 3x + 2)( 3x − 3) 2.4.4.Chapter 2 2. 2.18 a( 2a − a) 2.4.4.4.9 (5 3 3)(2 3 9 + 3 18) 2.16 ( 3a + 3b)( 3a − 3b) 2.6 (2 6 − 5 5)(2 6 + 5) 2.1 (5 6)(−2 3) 2.4.17 ( x − 1)( x + 1) 2.7 ( 6 − 3)( 6 + 3) 2.4.11 5a( 5a − 5b) 2ab( 5bc )(− 10ac ) 71 .4.4.4.19 ( 3x + 3)2 2.4.4.4 3( 2 + 7) 3(4 6 − 12) 2.22 ( 4 − x − x)2 5y )2 2.4.3 2.4.4.2 (4 5)(3 5) 2.5 5 2(2 12 − 4 27) 2.4.1 Homework: Multiplication of Radicals Multiply and simplify the radical expressions.10 2.4.13 ( x − 5)2 2.4.15 ( x + 2y )( x − 2y ) 2.12 (1 + 6x )(1 − 6x ) 2.4.8 ( 3x − 7y)( 3x + 7y ) 2.4.

The product of conjugate binomials with square root radicals is an expression without any radical.5 Division of Radicals and Rationalization n n Division of radicals and simplifying radical denominators are based on the following facts: 1. (b) ( 5 − 1)( 5 + 1) = 5 − 1 = 4 (c) ( x + 1)( x − 1) = x − 1 (a) (2 − 3)(2 + 3) = 22 − ( 3)2 = 4 − 3 = 1 (d) ( 14 + 6)( 14 − 6) = 14 − 6 = 8 (e) (3 2 + 5)(3 2 − 5) = 18 − 5 = 13 In the the following subsection. The law of radical division is a b n = a b 3a 2 a 3 = 2 b4 b n For example. 27a 7 b 5 9a 5 b 9 = 27a 7 b 5 = 9a 5 b 9 2.Division of Radicals and Rationalization 2. we will simplify fractions containing radicals in the denominators. Their product is a· 3 a2 · a2 = a 7 a5 = a 3. For example. The binomials a − b and a + b are called conjugate binomials. For example. The complement of the radical root n a m where m < n is the radical the radical root and its complement is given by n a n−m . we simplify the above radical fractions as follows (a) (b) (c) 2 5 3 2x 1 3 = = = 2 5 · 3 2x 5 5 · = 2 5 25 = 3 = 2 5 5 2x 2x 3 6x 2x 3 1 3 25 25 · 5 5 3 = 5 3 125 = 5 5 2. They have the interesting property (a − b)(a + b) = a 2 − b 2 For example (2x − 3)(2x + 3) = 4x 2 − 9. Denominators consisting of radical monomials such as 2 5 . 3 2x . 2. 1 3 25 are simpliﬁed by multiplying and dividing the fraction by the complement of the radical. Their product is a2.38 Example Rationalize the following radical expressions and simplify (a) 2 2 72 . 7 Their product is a 5 . The multiplication of a n−m · n am = a a· a =a 3 7 • The complement of • The complement of • The complement of 3 7 a is a is a 2 is 3 a .5.1 Rationalizing Denominators 1.

39 Example Rationalize the following radical expressions and simplify 1. For example. Denominators consisting of binomial with square root radicals such as 3 2− 2 . we simplify the above radical fractions as follows (a) (b) (c) (d) 3 2− 2 2 5−1 1 = = = 3 2+ 2 6+3 2 6+3 2 6+3 2 = · = = 4−2 2 2 − 2 2 + 2 (2)2 − ( 2)2 2 5−1 1 · 5+1 5+1 · 3x 3x − 2x = 2( 5 + 1) = 5−1 = 5+1 2 5x + 5 3x 5x + 5 = 5x − 5 5x − 5 · 5x − 5 5x − 25 = 3x − 2x 3x + 2x 3x + 2x 3x + 6x 2 3x + x 6 = = 3+ 6 3x − 2x x 2.40 Example Rationalize and simplify the radicals 73 . 3. 1 2−1 = 1 2−1 · 2+1 2+1 = 2+1 = 2−1 2+1 1 1 = 5+ 3 5+ 3 1−x 1− 1−x = 3. 1 2−1 1 5+ 3 1+ x 1−x Solution: 1. 1+ x 1+ x 1− 5− 3 5− 3 5− 3 = = 5−3 2 5− 3 x (1 − x)(1 − x) = 1− x = 1−x x 2.Chapter 2 (b) (c) (d) 1 x 1 x −5 a b Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 2 1 2 2 = 2 2 x · = x x x 1 x −5 x −5 · = x −5 x −5 x −5 a a b ab = · = b b b b · 2 x = 2 2. 1 5x + 5 . 2 5−1 . 2. 3x 3x − 2x are simpliﬁed by multiplying and dividing the fraction by the conjugate of the denominator. 2.

5. 4.41 Example Rationalize and simplify the radicals 1. 2. 6. 70 3 = · = 2. 8. 7. 3 3 xy + 3 4x 11 20a 5 3 3 xy xy 9x a −1+ 1 a −1 70 3 6 3 3 3 3 210 3 6 3 · 3 3 = 5 3− 6 3 = 5 3−2 3 = 3 3 3 Solution: 1. 4. 8. 4. 1 2+1 x+ 2 x− 2 12 6−2 3+ 6 3− 6 m− n m+ n − 6 6 74 . 7. 5 3 − 3. 3 = 5 3− 3 3 3 = 3 = = 3 3 3 3 xy xy xy + = xy + xy xy 3 4x = 3 2 x · x x = 3x 2x 5a 5a 3 xy xy = xy + xy xy xy = 2 xy 11 11 = · 20a 5 2a 2 5a 3 3 = 55a 10a 3 3 9x = 3 3 3 9x · 3x 2 3x 2 = 3 = 3 3x 2 3 a −1+ 1 a −1 27x 3 a −1 a −1 · + 1 a −1 = 3x 2 x 1 a −1 = a −1+1 a −1 = a a −1 · a −1 a −1 = a a −1 a −1 2.Division of Radicals and Rationalization 70 3 6 3 1. 6. 5. 5 3 − 3. 5. 3. 2.

= · = 9−6 3 3− 6 3− 6 3+ 6 3+ 6 6−2 = 6−2 5. m− n m+ n = m− n m+ n · m− n m− n = m − 2 mn + n m −n 2. 3.42 Example Simplify ( x − 2)2 − ( x − 2)2 Solution: ( x − 2)2 − ( x − 2)2 = x − 2 x + 4 − (x − 2) = 6 − 2 x 75 .Chapter 2 Solution: 1. 1 2+1 = = 6 6 1 2+1 · 2−1 2−1 · · = 2−1 = 2−1 = − 2−1 x+ 2 x− 2 12 − x+ 2 x− 2 12 x+ 2 x+ 2 6+2 6+2 x + 2 2x + 2 x −2 6 6 · 6 6 = 12( 6 + 2) 6 6 − = 6( 6 + 2) − 6 = 5 6 + 12 6−4 6 3 + 6 3 + 6 9 + 6 6 + 6 3(5 + 2 6) = = 5+2 6 4. 2.

5.15 2.17 25 3 100x 2 2.12 x+ x−y y 2.13 2.14 2.11 2( 15 + 3) 5− 3 2.5.5.10 2.5 3 a +4 1 1+ 2 1 3−2 1 5−2 1 3+ 2 2− 3 2+ 3 a +4 − a +4 1 3 4 1 2.5.7 2.5.5.5.5.5.Division of Radicals and Rationalization 2.5.9 2.5.4 x+y 2 x+y 2.5.3 2x 6x 2a − 1 2a − 1 5 2x − 5 2.2 2.5.5.5.5.2 Homework: Division of Radicals and Rationalization Rationalize the denominator and simplify 2.8 2.5.19 10 + 3 1 x −2 − 1 x +2 2.6 25t 3 2.5.5.18 x −4 x −4 10 2.1 1 2 3 3 2.5.5.16 3 2.20 76 .

The ﬁrst solution x = 5 satisﬁes the original equation.44 Example Solve the equation Solution: 4x − 3 = 5 ( 4x − 3)2 = 52 Square both sides of the equation 4x − 3 = 25 x =7 4x = 28 Check 4(7) − 3 = 28 − 3 = 5 2. 2. Repeat ﬁrst step if needed. ( 3x)2 = 3. 2. the converse is not true. Square both sides. Check the solution in the original equation 2. then a n = b n This means that if two expressions are equal.1 Method of solving equations with radicals 1. Solve the resulting equation 5. Isolate one of the radicals on one side of the equation. 2. However.43 Example Find the power of the radicals 1. but the second solution x = −5 does not satisfy the original equation and it is called extraneous solution. squaring the trivial equation x = 5 is the equation x 2 = 25 which can be solved by factoring x 2 −25 = (x −5)(x +5) = 0 which has two solutions x = 5 and x = −5. ( 3 x + 7)3 = In this section. ( 5)2 = 2. cubes. then their squares. 3. we will restrict ourselves to equations with square radicals. For example. 4.6 Equations involving radicals 15 − 2x = x.Chapter 2 2. ( x + 7)2 = 4. and nth power are equal.45 Example Solve the equation Solution: 2x + 3 = 1 ( 2x + 3)2 = 12 2x + 3 = 1 x = −1 1=1 Square both sides of the equation Check 2(−1) + 3 = 77 . such as x2 + 2 = x + 2 Finding the solutions of equations with radicals is based on the power rule of equality If a = b.6. 3 10 Deﬁnition Equations involving at least one radical expression are referred as equations with radicals. 2x − 1 − 3x − 2 = 4. 4x − x + 3 = 0.

48 Example Solve the equation Solution: 4a + 5 − 2a + 13 = 0 Isolate one of the radicals and square both sides 4a + 5 − 2a + 13 = 0 4a + 5 = 4a + 5 = 2a + 13 a=4 2a = +8 2a + 13 2.50 Example Solve the equation 5x 2 − 1 = 2x 78 . x(x − 4) = 0 x =4 x 2 − 4x = 0 Both are true solutions 2. x = −5 Check Check x = −5 : x =3: −5 = 3= 15 − 6 = 3 15 + 10 = 5 Extraneous solution. 2.49 Example Solve the equation Solution: 2x + 1 − x = 1 Isolate one of the radicals and square both sides 2x + 1 = 1 + x ( 2x + 1)2 = (1 + x)2 2x + 1 = 1 + x + 2 x x 2 = 4x x =2 x x = 0.47 Example Solve the equation x = 15 − 2x Solution: 2(8) + 3 = 16 + 3 = 7 (x)2 = ( 15 − 2x)2 x 2 + 2x − 15 = 0 x 2 = 15 − 2x (x + 5)(x − 3) = 0 x = 3.46 Example Solve the equation Solution: 2x + 3 = 7 Subtract 3 and square both sides of the equation ( 2x)2 = 42 x =8 2x = 16 Check 2.Equations involving radicals 2.

5x − 10 = x +2 a = 14 : 28 − 3 − 4 = 1 ( 2a − 3)2 = (5)2 4x = 12 x =3 5x − 10 = x + 2 Check x =3: 15 − 10 = 3+2 79 . 2a − 3 − 4 = 1 Isolate the radical and square both sides ( 2a − 3)2 = (5)2 2a − 3 = 25 2a = 28 a = 14 Check 2. 5.Chapter 2 Solution: ( 5x 2 − 1)2 = (2x)2 5x 2 − 1 = 4x 2 x2 − 1 = 0 (x + 1)(x − 1) = 0 x = 1. 2a − 3 − 4 = 1 5x − 10 = x +2 4x − x + 3 = 0 3x + 1 = 3 + x x + x +3 = 3 Solution: 1. 2. x = −1 Check Check x = −1 : x =1: 5−1 = 2 5 − 1 = 2 = −2 Extraneous solution.51 Example Solve the equation 2x − 1 = x + 7 Solution: 4x 2 − 4x + 1 = x + 7 (4x + 3)(x − 2) = 0 4x 2 − 5x − 6 = 0 (2x − 1)2 = ( x + 7)2 x = 2. 2. 4 2. 3. x = −3/4 Check Check x = −3/4 : x =2: −2 · 4−1 = 3 −1 = 4 2+7 = 3 3 − + 7 Left side is negative. 4.52 Example Solve the following equations 1. Extraneous solution.

Equations involving radicals 3. 4x − x + 3 = 0 ( 4x)2 = (x − 3)2 x 2 − 10x + 9 = 0 4x = x 2 − 6x + 9 (x − 1)(x − 9) = 0 x = 1. 3x + 1 = 3 + x x =1: x =9: 4−1+3 = 0 36 − 9 + 3 = 0 ( 3x + 1)2 = (3 + x)2 3x + 1 = 9 + 6 x + x (x − 4)2 = (3 x)2 2x − 8 = 6 x (x − 1)(x − 16) = 0 x 2 − 17x + 16 = 0 x 2 − 8x + 16 = 9x x = 1. x + x +3 = 3 x =1: 3 + 1 = 3 + 1 Extraneous solution 48 + 1 = 3 + 16 = 7 x = 16 : ( x + 3)2 = (3 − x)2 x +3 = 9−6 x +x 6 x =6 x =1 x =1 Check x =1: 1+ 1+3 = 3 80 . x = 16 Check Check 5. x =9 Check Check 4.

13 4 n = n − 5 2.6.19 2.6.6.10 2n − 5 − 6 = −5 5x + 7 = 4x + 6 3a + 1 − 2 x − 27 x + 3 − 2x − 1 = −1 4x + 9 + x + 1 = 5x + 10 4x − 2 − 2x − 4 = 0 2.8 2.21 2 = x − 4 − x 81 .2 Homework: Equations in Radicals Solve the following equations in radicals and check your solution 2.4 2.14 3y + 4 = 4 x + 9 − 2x + 1 = 0 3x + 1 + 2x − 1 = 0 3y + 4 = 4 2.6.Chapter 2 2.6.6.6.6.6.11 2.6.16 2.6.18 2.6.6.17 2.6.6.6.20 3 10 − x − x = 2 2a − 7 = 3x − 9 = 3 2.6.6.15 x + 6 = x + 6 2.6.7 4 n − 6 = 0 2.9 2.6.12 x 2 + 5x + 10 = 2 x 2 + 4x + 16 = 2x + 15 2.6 3 x + 2 = 18 2.2 2.6.5 x +7 = 3x + 6 = 4x + 1 4x + 1 2.6.1 2.3 2.

0. say for 6.011/2 641/3 6. 2 Inspired by the power rule of the nth root ( n a)n = a and its corresponding exponential representation (a x )n = a x·n = a 1 The last equality is possible. we can deﬁne that any radical of order n for any positive real number a . 3. we need to ﬁnd is the actual value of x that satisﬁes this equation. 641/3 = 5. (25x 2 )1/2 9. To answer this question. 161/2 = 16 = 4 2. 93/2 8. and simplify to get 6 = 62x . can be expressed in exponential form an = a m n 1 n a. can we ﬁnd an exponential representation of radicals since the rules of exponential expressions are familiar and they are easier to remember?. 322/5 7. the powers of 6 must be equal that is. Now. Thus. Square both sides ( 6)2 = (6x )2 .Rational Exponents and Roots 2.01 = 0. then we have n (a n )n = a n = a 1 n Thus we have the exponential representations of the nth roots of 3: 32 = 3 = 3 = 3 = 3 = 1 n 1 5 1 4 1 3 3 4 1 3 3 3 3 3 5 n In general. −( )1/2 16 Solution: 1. if x = 1 .1 641/2 = 64 = 8 4. a)m = n =( n am 2. (27x 3 )1/3 10. 161/2 2. −( 3 64 = 4 3 9 =− 16 4 9 1/2 ) =− 16 82 . 641/2 0. (−8x 3 y 6 )1/3 9 5.011/2 = 0.53 Example Convert each exponential number to a radical and simplify 1. 2x = 1 and hence x = 1 . let us assume that the square root 6 can be expressed exponentially say 6x that is 6 = 6x . 3. 4.7 Rational Exponents and Roots It is known that simplifying radical expressions require many rules and tricks.

322/5 = ( 5 32)2 = 22 = 4 7. 3. the fractional power a n = (a n )m m 1 indicates that the denominator is the index( order) of the root and numerator is its power. 16−3/2 = 1 251/2 1 163/2 = 1 5 1 1 = 3= 64 4 1 (−27a 3 )2/3 = 1 (−3a)2 = 1 9a 2 8. 2. (−27a 3 )−2/3 = 2. (−27a 3 )−2/3 4. 32 5 = (32 5 )4 = 24 = 16 2. 93/2 = ( 9)3 = 33 = 27 8. (25x 2 )1/2 = 25x 2 = 5x 9. for example. (27x 3 )1/3 = 3 27x 3 = 3x 3 10. 3 92 −3 25 2 1 = (9 2 4 1 )3 = 33 = 27 1 1 1 1 = = = 3= 3. (−8x 3 y 6 )1/3 = −8x 3 y 6 = −2x y 2 2.55 Example Evaluate the following 1. ( 1 8x 3 )4/3 6. 3 6 7x y = (7x y)1/3 4a 2 b = (4a 2 b)1/6 Rational Exponents For a real number a 1/n . 32 5 2. 2. 3 7x y 4a 2 b 6 Solution: 1. (27)2/3 = (271/3 )2 = 32 = 9 1 1 1 1 5. 16−3/2 8.54 Example Change the radical notation of the expressions to exponential notation 1. 3 92 −3 25 2 4 5. 43/2 = (41/2 )3 = ( 4)3 = 23 = 8 Negative rational exponents The negative fractional exponents are deﬁned as follows: a −m/n = 1 a m/n 1 ( 3 For example 64 −2 3 = 1 64 2 3 = 64)2 = 1 1 = 2 4 16 2. 25−1/2 7. 25−1/2 = 7. ( 3 )4/3 = (( 3 )1/3 )4 = ( )4 = 2x 8x 8x 16x 4 1/2 6. 3 1 125 5 3 25 2 (25 2 ) 4.56 Example Simplify (16)1/2 Solution: Use the power to power rule: (16)1/2 1/2 = (24 )1/2 1/2 = 24· 2 · 2 = 2 1 1 83 .Chapter 2 6. (27)2/3 Solution: 1.

Rational Exponents and Roots 2. 2. 4. (7a 2 b 2 a 2 b −3 )0 = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1. 2.59 Example Simplify the following fractional expressions 1. (x 2 + y 2 )(x 2 − y 2 ) Solution: 2.57 Example Use rational exponents to simplify 1.58 Example Use rational exponents to express as a single radical 1. 3. a 2 · a 5 = a 2 + 5 = a 1 3 1 2 1 2 5+4 10 = a 10 9 3. 6 4 (25x)3 = ((25x) 6 )3 = (25x)3/6 = (25x)1/2 = 16a 4 y 2 = (16a y ) 4 2 1/4 1 = 16 1/4 (a ) 4 1/4 (y ) 2 1/4 = 2a y 1/2 = 2a y 25x = 5 x 2. a 2 · a 5 2. 3 4 3 4· 4 4 2 5 a 3 a Solution: 1. 4. 3. 3 3 4· 4 4 2 = (21/2 )1/2 = 21/4 = 5 = (5 = a a 1 2 1 3 4 = 43 ·44 = 4 1/4 1/3 1 1 4+3 12 = 4 12 = 4 7 12 47 2 15 ) =5 1 1/15 1 = 5 a 3 a = a 2−3 = a 6 = 1 6 a 2. (x 2 + y 2 )(x 2 − y 2 ) = x − y 84 . 2. 6 (25x)3 16a 4 y 2 4 Solution: 1. (7a 2 b 2 a 2 b −3 )0 3. 2.

7.7. Assume all variables are positive.7.7.22 (2x 3 )(x 2 ) 1 1 85 .8 (− ) 3 27 1 32−1/5 2.7.7.7.1 (−27) 3 −1 2.16 (−27x 6 )1/3 1 2.7.7 (−1000) 3 −4 8 2.10 (3x) 4 2.17 (36x 4 y 6 )1/2 2.9 Express in radical form 1 2.7.Chapter 2 2.19 6−2/3 6−1/3 2.2 (49) 2 2 2.3 (64) 3 2.7.1 Homework: Rational Exponents and Radicals Evaluate the following expressions 1 2 2. 2.20 44/3 41/3 42/3 2.7.7.7.4 −(25) 2 3 −3 2.21 (31/2 − 51/2 )(31/2 + 51/2 ) 2.7.7.18 [(x + 64)4 ]1/4 2.5 −9 2 3 Simplify the expressions without negative exponents.14 a 2 − b2 6 2.13 −4 3 x 2 + y 2 2.7.7.6 (256) 4 2.7.7.7.7.12 (x 2 + y 2 )1/2 Express in exponential form 2.11 (4a + 5b) 3 2.7.7.15 6x 2 y 3 2.

00309 = 3. The national public debt as of February 28.000.61 Example Express the mass of the proton in scientiﬁc notation Solution: 0. 1991 2. 47. If the decimal point was moved to the right (q < 1) then n is negative and q = a × 10−n .0003 3.000 = 9. 106 Million.000. that is the point should be after the ﬁst signiﬁcant digit from left. The mass of the proton is about ≈ 0. for example q = 0. 2.021.Scientiﬁc Notation 2.672 × 10−27 2. 0. 0.09 × 10−3 Powers of 10: 1.09 × 102 4. 3.0 and as of January 10. 1012 Trillion 2. 103 Thousand.000000000000000000000000000001672 = 1. 2007 was about 8. where 1 ≤ a < 10 and n is an integer How to Write a number q in scientiﬁc notation? 1. 109 Billion. 10−1 Tenth 2.60 Example Express the distance from earth to sun in scientiﬁc notation Solution: 93.0 dollars.000 miles.000. If the decimal point was moved to the left (q > 1) then n is positive and q = a × 10n .000000000000000000000000000001672 kg (26 zeros).010099100 4. Scientiﬁc notation Every decimal number q can be written in scientiﬁc notation as follows q = a × 10n .000. the distance from earth to sun is about ≈ 93.3 × 107 2. For example. for example q = 309 = 3. 2011 was about 14.776.62 Example Write in scientiﬁc notation 1. Move the decimal point to a place so it will be of the form 1 ≤ a < 10.000. 200900.063 × 10−2 Solution: 86 .000.000. 10−2 Hundredth.6 × 103 5.000. 10−3 Thousandth. n is the number of decimal places that the point was moved.8 Scientiﬁc Notation Scientiﬁc notation are used by scientists to express very large numbers and very small numbers in a compact form.

8.66 Example A megabyte is 220 bites.8.6 × 103 = 4.10 2.64 Example Change to scientiﬁc notation and simplify (1.8.12 (125000) 3 87 .000.706 × 105 2.8. 0.8 3.063 × 10−2 = 6. Express your answer in scientiﬁc notation.8.00 2.8. 0.000048 0.1 35.00601 × 10−4 2.0011 2.5 2.63 Example Convert to standard form: 1.009000003 × 105 2.9 0.00) 27000 2 2.11 3 2.000009) .65 Example Simplify 2.000.3 0.6 5.0012 (60.8 × 103 )(8 × 10−2 ) . (A gegabyte has 230 bites). 200900.3 × 10−4 2. (3 × 10−5 )(4 × 102 ) (220. How many bites in one megabyte and one gegabyte?.2 7803.1 Homework: Scientiﬁc Notation Write in scientiﬁc notation 2.991 × 103 5.09 × 10−1 2.0)(0. 47.8. 1991 = 1.00035 2.76 × 105 3.000.3 × 10−2 × 10−2 = 6.000)(0.8.00033 4.036)(2. 8.8.1 × 10−3 Solution: (a) 8.8.8.700 × 1000 Write in standard decimal notation 2. 0.0012) (0.8.4 53.8.00991 × 10−2 2.0003 = 2.7 3.706 × 105 = 870600 (b) 1.021 2.1 × 10−3 = 0. 1.010099100 = 1.77 × 107 Use scientiﬁc notation and simplify 2.67 × 103 2.76 × 102 × 103 = 4.Chapter 2 1. 2.

26. (−3a 3 )2 + (−2a 2 )3 21. (x 3 )6 23. x2 x2 + . 64 . (4−3 x 6 ) 3 25. 3 27. Simplify 7 8a 2 b − Advanced Exercises Simplify 2 3 41. 4x 2 + x 3 = 0 38. x 0 x 4 x 4 20. 2x − 2 − 4x + 5 = 3 8 = 3x + 1 −216 a 12 b 3 56 3 6 35. 25x 4 z 2 28. 12. 4 2x 2 3 −4x 2 18. 3 2 6−2 8 88 . 15. 6 − y = y 37. 2x − 1 = 2x 2 + 1 33. 3. 2 6+ 7 11.Exercises 2. 3 − Simplify 1 3 16a 2 b − 5 36a 2 b − 10 2a 2 b 19. 2x − 1 = − 2x 2 + 1 34. 6.x >0 16 9 3 17. 2+ 5 9. 7 67)7 −32x 5 a 4b8 16k 12 8a 6 27b 3 5 36. 4. 8. Solve the equation 32.008x 7 16 − 3 6 x y 5 10 2ac 4c 5. 3 . ( 16. Multiply and simplify 39. 4x 10 y 6 100a 2 9z 6 9 x2 121a 4 c 2 z 8 100x 4 3 29. 14. (5a −3 b −2 c 3 )−3 2 24. Simplify −3x y 2 y −2 x −3 40. 3 5− 2 7− 6 10. (−1)3 + 12 42. 13. (2 2 + 3)(3 2 − 4 3) 30.49 (−9)2 1 36 9u 2 16v 4 Exercises 2 Find the roots 22. 7. 31. 2.9 1.

2) and (1. ( 45. n 3 a 1/n = d Also we have a m/n = 84/3 = ( 8)4 = 24 = 16 a m = ( n a)m If n is even. 1530 4515 810 + 410 84 + 411 44. ( ) 4 1 1 − ) 9 27 1 − 4 50.m) lie on a line with slope m 55. the radicand must be positive or zero. nth root are denoted by a = b. 55 + 55 + 55 + 55 + 55 2. (4−1 − 3−1 )−1 46. cube. a 1/3 = c. Find m > 0: the points (m.Chapter 2 1 43. Properties of Radicals: n a· n n b= a = b n ab 400 = 20 a b 10 40 = n n 3 3 t2 t2 = 125 5 3. 53. 44 · 94 · 49 · 99 54.10 Review Radicals and Exponents 1. 66 + 66 + 66 + 66 + 66 + 66 51. n a=d These radical numbers are the same as the rational exponents a 1/2 = b. x x x 52. 2. Rationalize the denominator: Use the property a· a=a to eliminate radical from the denominator 4 3 = 4 3 · 3 3 = 4 3 3 4. 3 a = c. Basic Deﬁnitions: A square. Solve x+ x2 − 1 + 1 x− x2 − 1 = 20 48. (3−1 − 2−1 )−1 47. 2 2 2 2 49. Like Radicals: Have the same index and the same radicand 4 ab and − 7 ab but not 4 x and −7 3 x 89 .

Conjugate and rationalizing the denominator: Conjugate pairs by changing + to − and vice versa: x +3 and x − 3 3 − 5 and 3 + 5 Multiply and divide by the conjugate of denominator 1 x +3 = 1 x +3 · x −3 x −3 = x −3 x −9 8. x(2 − 9x) = 0 x = 2/9 2x − 9x 2 = 0 2x = 9x 2 90 . Multiplying radicals: Use distributive property ( x − 1)( x + 5) = x + 4 x − 5 7.Review Radicals and Exponents 5. Adding and subtracting radicals: Combine like radicals 2 10 − 40 = 2 10 − 4 · 10 = 0 6. Equations in radicals: Apply the power rule to transform the equation to an equivalent equation without radicals 2x = 3x x = 0.

2. − −8 3. Bombelli (1526-1572) on negative and complex numbers. i = −1 and i 2 = −1 −1 = i and Using this deﬁnition.3 Quadratic Equations and Inequalities 3. the equation x 2 = 1 has two solutions x = +1. 1. − Solution: 1. That is. − −8 = −i 8 = −2 2 i 3. The introduction of these numbers has long historical development starting with the works of Cardano (1501-1576) on cubic equations. and computer science. 98 7 2 = i 16 4 91 . −81 = − −1 · 81 = i 9 = 9i 2. but the equation x 2 = −1 has no real solution because the square of any real number is positive number. electronics. −16 = −1 · 16 = −1 · 16 = i · 4 = 4i −18 = i 18 = i 3 2 = 3 2 i −7 = 7i 4. the works of Euler (1707-1783) and Gauss (1777-1855) had established the rules of complex numbers and their interpretations. To resolve this dilemma.1 Complex Numbers OBJECTIVES • Imaginary numbers • Arithmetic of complex numbers • Powers of imaginary unit Complex numbers are introduced in connection with solving quadratic equations. we will express the square root of any negative number in terms of this new notation: −a = −1 · a = −1 · a = i · a = ai For example. For example. Mathematicians invented a new notation just to handle the −1 in this type of equation. −81 98 16 2. x = −1. 3. and Descartes (1596-1650) who coined the name imaginary. They called it imaginary numbers. Finally. 1 Deﬁnition The square root of negative one is denoted by the letter i (imaginary unit): i 2 = ( −1)2 = −1.1 Example Expression the following radicals in terms of i : 1. Currently. − −100 = −10i 3. complex numbers and analysis are applied to model phenomena in physics.

−6 − 5i 3. we deﬁne a new type of numbers called complex numbers. 3. the real part of the complex number 3 + 2i 5 is 2 and the imaginary part is 2 5. −5 · 6 −3 · −6 −72 −2 −20 −5 Solution: 1. Im(3 + 4i ) = 4 3.3 Example Multiply or divide the radicals and simplify 1. Re(−7) = −7. i 2 Solution: 1. −5 · 6 = i 5 · 6 = i 30 −3 · −6 = i 3 · i 6 = i 18 = 3i 2 −72 −20 5 −2 = = i 72 i 2 i 20 5 = =i 72 = 2 36 = 6 20 = i 4 = 2i 5 92 . 2. For example. such as 3i . 3. The number a is called the real part. For example. Re(i 2) = 0. Re(−6 − 5i ) = −6. and b is called the imaginary part of the complex number a + bi . Re(3 + 4i ) = 3. In fact any real number x can be considered a complex number x + 0i and a complex number in the form bi is called pure imaginary. 4. 3. Im(i 2) = 2 The product rule of square radicals is valid for positive numbers only. 2 Deﬁnition A complex number is a number of the form a + bi . −7 4.2 Example Identify the real and imaginary part of the complex numbers: 1.Complex Numbers With the introduction of numbers involving the imaginary unit i . where a and b are real numbers and i = −1 is the imaginary unit. 3 + 4i 2. 2. 6 · 10 = 6 · 10 = 60 = 4 · 15 = 2 15 9=3 but it is not true that −3 · −3 = (−3) · (−3) = The previous multiplication is false. Im(−7) = 0 2. The correct multiplication is −3 · −3 = i 3 · i 3 = i 2 · 9 = −3 3. 4. Im(−6 − 5i ) = −5 4.

5. 3. (3 − 5x) − (9 − 8x) = 3 − 5x − 9 + 8x = −6 + 3x The sum and difference of complex numbers is performed by combining like terms: 3. 4.Chapter 3 3 Deﬁnition Two complex numbers a + bi and c + d i are equal if and only if a = c and b = d . this leads to x − 2 = 8 hence x = 10 −5 2 3.4 Example Find the values x and y so the complex numbers (x − 2) + 2yi and 8 − 5i are equal. (2 + 7x) + (5 − 4x) 2. For example (3 − 2) + i 9 is equal to 3i + 1 To solve linear equations involving complex numbers: Equate real and imaginary parts: 3.5 Example Solve 3y + 2 − 21i = 8 + 7xi Solution: Real and imaginary parts are equal. (2 + 7i ) + (5 − 4i ) = 2 + 7i + 5 − 4i = 7 + 3i 2. (2 + 7i ) + (5 − 4i ) 2. 2. (2 + 7x) + (5 − 4x) = 2 + 7x + 5 − 4x = 7 + 3x 2. 5 + 3i 8 3i + 5 8 3i 5 + 8 8 5 3i + 8 8 5 3 + i 8 8 3.1 Fundamental Operations with Complex Numbers Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers 3.6 Example Simplify the expressions 1. The last form is the standard form: 1. (3 − 5i ) − (9 − 8i ) = 3 − 5i − 9 + 8i = −6 + 3i 93 . the following complex numbers are the same number. Solution: and 2y = −5 hence y = Apply the equality deﬁnition: (x − 2) + 2yi = 8 − 5i . that is: 3y + 2 = 8. x = −3 4 Deﬁnition The form a + bi is called in the standard form of a complex number. For example. (3 − 5i ) − (9 − 8i ) Solution: Combine like terms 1.7 Example Simplify the expressions 1. (3 − 5x) − (9 − 8x) Solution: Combine like terms 1.1. y = 2 and 7x = −21.

(−6 + i ) − (3 + 2i ) Solution: 1. (−4 + i ) − 2(6 − 2i ) = −4 + i − 12 + 4i = −16 + 5i 3. (3i )(2 + 7i ) = 6i + 21i 2 = 6i + 21(−1) = −21 + 6i 1. Substituting i 2 = −1 3. (−4 + i ) − 2(6 − 2i ) 3.d . 5(3 − 2i ) 2.9 Example Evaluate 1. (2 + i )(5 + 6i ) 2. (2 + 3i )(4 + 5i ) Solution: 2. (2 + 3i )(4 + 5i ) = 2(4 + 5i ) + 3i (4 + 5i ) = 8 + 10i + 12i + 15i 2 = 8 + 22i − 15 = −7 + 22i 3. (3i )(2 + 7i ) 3. Distributive property 2. Combining like terms 3. (−4i )(1 − 7i ) = −4i + 28i 2 = −4i + 28(−1) = −28 − 4i .b. (3 + 5i )2 Solution: 94 3. (−4i )(1 − 7i ) 4. 3. 5(3 − 2i ) = 5 · 3 − 5 · 2i = 15 − 10i 4. (8 + 4i ) + (12 + 8i ) = 8 + 12 + (4 + 8)i = 20 + 12i 4.Complex Numbers 5 Deﬁnition The addition and subtraction of complex numbers is deﬁned by combining real parts and imaginary parts.8 Example Find the sum or the difference: 1.c. (2 + 3i )(3 − 2i ) 3. (5 + 3i ) + (3 + i ) 2. as follows: (a + bi ) + (c + d i ) = (a + c) + (b + d )i (a + bi ) − (c + d i ) = (a − c) + (b − d )i For any real numbers: a. (−6 + i ) − (3 + 2i ) = (−6 − 3) + (1 − 2)i = −9 − i Multiplication of Complex Numbers The product of two complex numbers involves the application of three rules: 1. (5 + 3i ) + (3 + i ) = 5 + 3 + 3i + i = 8 + 4i 2.10 Example Multiply the complex numbers 1. (8 + 4i ) + (12 + 8i ) 4.

(1 − i )(1 + i ) 3.12 Example Evaluate 1. (3 + 5i )2 = 32 + 2(3)(5i ) + (5i )2 = 9 + 30i − 25 = 16 + 30i 2. (2 + 3i )(3 − 2i ) = 2(3 − 2i ) + 3i (3 − 2i ) = 6 − 4i + 9i − 6i 2 = 6 − 5i + 6 = 12 − 5i 6 Deﬁnition The multiplication of two complex numbers is deﬁned as follows (a + bi )(c + d i ) = (ac − bd ) + (ad + bc)i For any real numbers: a. 2. (3 + i )(3 − i ) = 3(3 − i ) + i (3 − i ) = 9 − 3i + 3i − i 2 = 9 + 1 = 10 2. 5 + 7i are complex conjugates. (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) = 32 + 52 = 9 + 25 = 34 Division of Complex Numbers The division of complex numbers is accomplished by multiplying the numerator and denominator by the complex conjugate of the denominator.d . that is a + bi c − d i (ac + bd ) + (bc − ad )i (ac + bd ) (bc − ad ) a + bi = · = = 2 + 2 i c +di c +di c −di c2 + d 2 c +d2 c +d2 3.b. 3 + 5i 8 7 5i 95 .c.Chapter 3 1. 3 − 4i and 5 − 7i . The product of complex conjugates is always positive real number: (a + bi )(a − bi ) = a 2 − (bi )2 = a2 + b2 = a 2 − b 2 (−1) For example (2 − 3i )(2 + 3i ) = (2)2 − (3i )2 = 4 − 9i 2 = 4 − 9(−1) = 4 + 9 = 13 3. (1 − i )(1 + i ) = 12 + 12 = 2 3.11 Example Multiply (−4 + 2i )(2 + i ) 2i (−4+2i )(2+i ) = (−8i +4i 2)(2+i ) = (−4−8i )(2+i ) = −4(2+i )−8i (2+i ) = −8−4i −16i −8i 2 = −8 − 20i + 8 = −20i Solution: Complex Conjugate 7 Deﬁnition The complex numbers a + bi and a − bi are called complex conjugates.the pairs 3 + 4i . (3 + 5i )(3 − 5i ) Solution: 1.13 Example Evaluate and write the answer in standard form 1. For example. then simplify and express the result in standard form. (3 + i )(3 − i ) 2. 3. (2 + i )(5 + 6i ) = 2(5 + 6i ) + i (5 + 6i ) = 10 + 12i + 5i + 6i 2 = 10 + 17i − 6 = 4 + 17i 3.

4. 3. 5. 3. 2 − 3i 1 − 2i 1 3+i 7 2i 3−i 2+i 2.Complex Numbers 3. 2 − 6i 3i 3i 1 − 3i 2 − 3i 5 + 4i 4. 3 + 5i 3 5 = + i 8 8 8 7 7 i 7i 7 = · = =− i 5i 5i i 5i 2 5 2 − 6i 2 − 6i i 2i − 6i 2 2i + 6 2 = = · = = −2 + i 3i 3i i −3 3 3i 2 3i 1 + 3i 3i + 9i 2 3i − 9 9 3 3i = · = = =− + i 1 − 3i 1 − 3i 1 + 3i 1+9 10 10 10 2 − 3i 2 − 3i 5 − 4i 10 − 8i − 15i + 12i 2 10 − 23i − 12 −2 − 23i −2 23 = · = = = − i = 5 + 4i 5 + 4i 5 − 4i 25 + 16 41 41 41 52 + 42 3. 4. 4.14 Example Evaluate and write the answer in standard form 1. Solution: 1. Solution: 1. 3. 2. 2 − 3i 2 − 3i 1 + 2i (2 − 3i )(1 + 2i ) 2 − 4i − 3i − 6i 2 −2 − 7i + 6 4 − 7i 4 7 = = = = = = − i 1 − 2i 1 − 2i 1 + 2i 12 − (2i )2 1 − 4i 2 1+4 5 5 5 1 1 3−i 3−i 3 1 = · = = − i 3 + i 3 + i 3 − i 9 + 1 10 10 7 i 7i 7 7 = · = =− i 2i 2i i −2 2 3 − i 3 − i 2 − i 6 − 3i − 2i + i 2 5 − 5i = · = = = 1−i 2+i 2+i 2−i 4+1 5 Powers of i 96 . 5. 2.

= · = = = − i 3+4 7 7 7 3 − 2i 3 − 2i 3 + 2i 4. 2. i 102 4. (1 − i + i 2 + i 3 )2 = (1 − i − 1 − i )2 = (−2i )2 = (−2)2 i 2 = 4(−1) = −4 97 . ( 2. 3. 2 5 + −2 1+i )2 = (1 + i )2 1 + 2i + i 2 = =i 2 2 5 + i 2 1 + i 2 5 + 5 2i + 2i − 2 3 + 6 2i = = 1 + 2 2i · = 1+2 3 1 − −2 1 − i 2 1 + i 2 3 − 6i 3 − 6i 3 + 2i 3 + 2 3i − 6 3i − 12i 2 15 − 4 3i 15 4 3 3.15 Example Simplify 1. 4. 1+i 2 )2 5 + −2 1 − −2 3 − 6i 3 − 2i 4. i 2010 Solution: 1. ( 2. i 55 3. 3. (1 − i + i 2 + i 3 )2 Solution: 1.Chapter 3 The powers of i have the following pattern i1 = i i 2 = −1 i 4 = i 2 · i 2 = −1 · (−1) = 1 i 6 = i 4 · i 2 = 1 · (−1) = −1 i8 = i4 ·i4 = 1·1 = 1 i 7 = i 4 · i 3 = 1 · (−i ) = −i i5 = i4 ·i = i i 3 = i 2 · i = −i i 4k+1 = i i 4k = 1 i 4k+2 = −1 i 4k+3 = −i 3. i i 44 55 Express the powers as a multiple of 4 and a remainder: 4(11) 4(13)+3 =i i 102 = i 4(25)+2 = −1 =i =1 = −i i 2010 = i 4(502)+2 = −1 3. (1 + i + i 2 )3 = (1 + i − 1)3 = i 3 = −i = 5. i 44 2.16 Example Simplify 1. (1 + i + i 2 )3 5.

16 5 i −3 2i 2+i 3i 10 1 − 2i −20i 3 + 4i 7 3 + 2i −3i −3 − 5i 3.11 (4 + 3i )(5 − 7i ) 3.5 3.15 (2 − 3i )2 3.12 (−6i )(−3 + 2i ) 3.3 − −1000 3.1.1.1.2 −48 −20 3.18 Perform the operations and write in standard form a + bi 3.1.10 (3 + 5i ) + (−5 − 7i ) − (3 + 2i ) 3.1.8 (−5 + 4i ) − (3 − 2i ) 3.1.23 i 20 3.4 3.1.1.1.1.22 3.1.1.1.1.6 −64 −22 −6 −16 3.1.1.24 i 33 98 .7 (2 + 3i ) + (7 + 5i ) 3.1.1.1.17 3.1.13 (2 − i )(2 + i ) 3.1.1.1.1.20 3.Complex Numbers 3.2 Homework: Complex Numbers Simplify the radical expressions 3.21 3.19 3.9 (12 − 22i ) − (−5 − 6i ) 3.1.14 (3 + 4i )(3 − 4i ) 3.1 3.

2. 3. we will introduce various techniques to solve quadratic equations in one variable. The factored equation: (x +3)(x −4) = 0 is satisﬁed for x +3 = 0. Factor the expression into linear factors. if the product of factors is zero. For example if 3(x − 5) = 0.19 Example Solve the equation x 2 + 3x − 18 = 0 Solution: x 2 + 3x − 18 = 0 x + 6 = 0.2 Quadratic Equations OBJECTIVES • Factoring method to solve quadratic equations • The square root method In this chapter. x =3 The solutions are x = −1 and x = 3. Factor x − 3 = 0. Get zero on one side and all terms on one the other side of the equation. then one factor is zero: x −5 = 0. 3. Set each factor to zero x = −1.17 Example Solve the quadratic equation x 2 − 2x = 3 Solution: x 2 − 2x − 3 = 3 − 3 x − 2x − 3 = 0 x + 1 = 0. x =3 (x + 6)(x − 3) = 0 x = −6.b. then at least one of them is zero. x = −3 and x − 4 = 0. 3. 99 . 8 Deﬁnition A quadratic equation is an equation of the form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 where a = 0. 2 Subtract 3 from both sides Factor (x + 1)(x − 3) = 0.Chapter 3 3. 3.18 Example Solve the equation x 2 − 4 = 0 Solution: x2 − 4 = 0 Factor x −2 = 0 x =2 (x + 2)(x − 2) = 0 x + 2 = 0.1 Solving equations by factoring The basic principle for solving factored equations is the zero-factor property: If a · b = 0. 2. we apply the following procedure: 1. x − 3 = 0. Such as 3x 2 − 12 = 0 and x 2 − 5x + 6 = 0. 3. Set each factor to zero and solve the simpler equations. then a=0 or b=0 That is. x = 5. x = −2.c are real numbers. To solve equations by factoring. x = 4.

4(x − 5)(2x − 7) = 0 4(x − 5)(2x − 7) = 0. x = −1/2. 4(x − 5)(2x − 7) = 0 2. x = −1/3 3. x − 5 = 0. 5x(x − 2)(x + 2) = 0 x − 2 = 0. x = 7/2 2. 6x 2 − 7x = 3 6x 2 − 7x − 3 = 3 − 3 (2x − 3)(3x + 1) = 0 2x − 3 = 0. 2x 2 + 5x + 2 = 0 x + 2 = 0. x 2 + 12 = 7x 3. 6x 2 − 7x = 3 Solution: 1.22 Example Solve the cubic equation 5x 3 − 20x = 0 Solution: Factor the expression and use the zero factor property: 5x 3 − 20x = 0 5x = 0. 6x 2 − 7x − 3 = 0 3x + 1 = 0. Set each factor to zero 2x − 7 = 0. x 2 + 12 = 7x x 2 + 12 − 7x = 7x − 7x (x − 4)(x − 3) = 0 x − 4 = 0. x = 3/2. x = −2 x + 2 = 0. x = 5.20 Example Solve the quadratic equations by factoring 1. 5x(x 2 − 4) = 0 x = 0. x = −2 3.21 Example Solve the quadratic equation (2x + 3)(x + 1) = 1 Solution: Distribute left side and combined with 1: (2x + 3)(x + 1) = 1 2x + 2x + 3x + 3 = 1 2 2x 2 + 5x + 3 − 1 = 1 − 1 (2x + 1)(x + 2) = 0 2x + 1 = 0. x = 2. x 2 − 7x + 12 = 0 x − 3 = 0. x = 4. x =3 3. 100 .Quadratic Equations 3.

c . (x + 3)2 = 16. |x| = + c. y = ∓9 Take the the square root Solve for x Separate the solutions x + 3 = ∓4.24 Example Solve the quadratic equations by the square root method 101 . then x = + c. There is a standard notation to combine these two solutions: x = + c. y 2 = 81 3.2. 2x = −3 ∓ 7. (2x + 3)2 = 49 (2x + 3)2 = 49. Take the the square root Solve for x Separate the solutions 2x = −3 + 7. x 2 = 25 2. 2x + 3 = ∓7. Solve the absolute value equation Two solutions x= x = − c. x = 2. x2 = c. 2x = −3 − 7 x = −5 3. x = ∓5 3. x = ∓ −16 = ∓4i 4. x = −3 + 4. x = −7 x = −3 − 4 5. For any real numbers a. x 2 = −16. x = −3 ∓ 4.2 The square root property Many quadratic equations cannot be factored over integer coefﬁcients such as the equation 2x 2 +4x+1 = 0 and x 2 − 10 = 0. x 2 + 16 = 0 4. x = 1. To resolve such difﬁculty. if (x − a)2 = c. 2.23 Example Solve the quadratic equations by the square root method 1. we introduce a new method of solving quadratic equations based on the square root property: if x 2 = c. (2x + 3)2 = 49 Solution: 1. (x + 3)2 = 16 5. or x =− c : x =∓ c =± c 3.Chapter 3 3. c. or or x =− c x=a− c Take the square root of both sides Apply the deﬁnition of the square root Both sides are positive. x 2 = c. then x = a + c. The square root of any number is positive (we called it the principal root) so why we have two of them? Let me show why there is no inconsistency here. You may ask.

x 2 + 8 = 0 4. 2y 2 = 36 3. x2 + 8 = 0 x 2 = −8 x = ∓ −8 x = ∓2 2i 4. 9(x − 4)2 − 11 = 0 (x − 4)2 = 11 9 x −4 = ∓ 11 3 11 x = 4∓ 3 102 .Quadratic Equations 1. 9(x − 4)2 − 11 = 0 Solution: 1. 3(x + 2)2 = 18 5. x 2 = 15 2. 3(x + 2)2 = 18 (x + 2)2 = 6 x +2 = ∓ 6 x = −2 ∓ 6 5. (2x + 6)2 + 4 = 0 6. 2y 2 = 36 y 2 = 18 y = ∓ 18 y = ∓3 2 3. x = ∓ 15 2. (2x + 6)2 + 4 = 0 (2x + 6)2 = −4 2x + 6 = ∓ −4 x = −3 ∓ i 2x = −6 ∓ 2i 6.

2.2.2.2.2. ﬁnd the side a if the hypotenuse c = 10 and b = 4 Solve the following equations by the Square Root Method 3.2.1 x 2 + x − 20 = 0 3. ﬁnd the hypotenuse c if b = 8 3.9 x 3 − 4x 2 + 3x = 0 3.5 2x 2 − 3x = 9 3.2.Chapter 3 3.2.2.6 10x 2 − 7x + 1 = 0 3.4 x 2 − 25x = 0 3.3 x 2 + 4kx = 0 3.2.3 Homework: Factoring and Square Root Method Solve the following equations by factoring 3.2.2.2.2.2.8 2x 3 − 50x = 0 3.20 18x 2 − 3 = 0 3.15 5(2x + 1)2 − 25 = 0 3.16 4x 2 − 8 = 0 3.12 12x 2 = 20 3.2.19 4(x + 3)2 + 4 = 0 3.2.21 In isosceles right triangle (a = b ).2.18 5(x − 1)2 = 45 3.2.10 x 2 = 36 103 .2 12x 2 + 16x − 3 = 0 3.22 In a right triangle .13 (2 − 3x)2 = −16 3.17 x 2 + 12 = 0 3.2.2.14 5x 2 + 20 = 0 3.11 x 2 = 44 3.7 20 − x = 12x 2 3.2.2.

so the resulting trinomial is a perfect square: 104 . one half of it be 1 b= 2 −12 2 b b2 1 b . its square (− 1 )2 = 2 4 3 9 its square ( 10 )2 = 100 · = 3. x 2 − 1 x = 10: b = − 2 . its square ( 2 )2 = 3 10 .Completing the square method 3. 2 4 For the previous examples. x 2 − 1 x = 10 2 4. x 2 + 3 x = 2: b = 5 . 5 1 2 1 2 3 5 = −6. 2 . 1 · −1 = − 4 . its half. its half.3 Completing the square method x 2 + 2ax + a 2 = (x + a)2 x 2 − 2ax + a 2 = (x − a)2 Perfect quadratic trinomials can be written as squared quantity. x 2 + 3 x = 2 5 Solution: Let b be the coefﬁcient of x .26 Example Add a third term to the binomial. its square (−6)2 = 36 49 4 1 16 7 7 2. 1 3. x 2 − 12x + 8 = 0: b = −12. x 2 + 7x + 12 = 0 3. Thus.25 Example Identify the coefﬁcient of x and ﬁnd half of the coefﬁcient of x and calculate its square: 1. 1 36 6 =9 9 = ( )2 = 62 = 2 4 4 −6 2 9=( ) 2 10 25 = ( )2 2 1 1 2 =( ) 4 2 −14 2 49 = ( ) 2 3. its half. its square be ( )2 = 2 2 4 1. x 2 + 7x + 12 = 0: b = 7. if the perfect trinomial is x 2 + p x + q = 0 then q =( p 2 1 2 ) = P . x 2 + 6x + 9 = (x + 3)2 1 1 = (x + )2 4 2 x 2 − 14x + 49 = (x − 7)2 x2 + x + x 2 + 10x + 25 = (x + 5)2 x 2 − 6x + 9 = (x − 3)2 The last term in the trinomial is a positive number and it is equal to the square of half the coefﬁcient of x . 2 3 4. These trinomials are recognizable from the two special products: For example. x 2 − 12x + 8 = 0 2. its half.

2.28 Example Solve the quadratic equation x 2 − 6x + 4 = 0 by completing the square Solution: x 2 − 6x + 4 = 0 x 2 − 6x = −4. x 2 + x Solution: The third term must be the square of one-half the coefﬁcient of b : 1 2 1 2 1. 3. x 2 + 30x 2 3. x 2 − 12x + 2. The process of solving quadratic equations by completing the square consists of the following steps: The method of completing the square Any quadratic equations of the form can be solved by the method of completing the square.Chapter 3 1. Write the perfect trinomial (left side) as a squared quantity. Completing the square: Add to both sides the square of one-half the coefﬁcient of x . Apply the square root method and solve for x . 3. divide both sides by a . x 2 + 30x + 4. and write the right side as one number if possible. 2 x 2 + 8x = −7. 3.27 Example Solve x 2 + 8x + 7 = 0 by completing the square method Solution: x 2 + 8x + (8/2)2 = −7 + (8/2)2 . x + 4 = −3 x = −7 3. x 2 − 2 x + 3 · (−12) · (30) 2 2 = x 2 − 12x + 36 = (x − 6)2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 · (− 3 ) = x − 3 x + 9 = (x − 3 ) 1 x 2 + x + ( 2 )2 = x 2 + x + 1 = (x + 1 )2 4 2 = x 2 + 30x + 225 = (x + 15)2 Quadratic equations that are not perfect squares can be made perfect by adding a suitable positive number to both sides of the equation. x 2 − 6x + 9 = 9 − 4 (x − 3)2 = 5 x −3 = ± 5 x = 3± 5 -6. Terms involving the variable (x ) should be on one side (left side) and the constant on the other side (right). 4. Add 9 105 . -3. Prepare the equation Add the missing constant Apply the square root method x = −1. (x + 4)2 = 9. The coefﬁcient of x 2 should be 1. ax 2 + bx + c = 0 1. x 2 − 3 x 4. (−3)2 = 9. x 2 − 12x 2. 5. x + 8x + 16 = −7 + 16 x + 4 = 3.

Divide by 4 3 x 2 − 2x = .30 Example Solve the quadratic equation 2x 2 + 4x + 1 = 0 by completing the square Solution: 2x 2 + 4x = −1 x 2 + 2x = 1 1 2 1 2 2 x + 2x + (1) = − + (1)2 2 1 2 x + 2x + 1 = − + 1 2 1 2 (x + 1) = 2 1 x +1 = ± 2 1 2 x = −1 ± = −1 ± 2 2 3. 4 3 x 2 − 2x + 1 = + 1 4 7 2 (x − 1) = . x −1 = − x −1 = 2 2 7 7 . Prepare the equation 4 3 Add the missing constant x 2 − 2x + (−1)2 = + (−1)2 .31 Example Solve the quadratic equation x 2 + 18x = 19 by completing the square Solution: x 2 + 18x = 19 x 2 + 18x + (9)2 = 19 + (9)2 x 2 + 18x + 81 = 19 + 81 x + 9 = 10. x + 9 = −10 x = −19 3. x = 1− x = 1+ 2 2 3.Completing the square method 3. (x + 9)2 = 100 x = 1. Apply the square root method 4 7 7 .29 Example Solve 4x 2 − 8x − 3 = 0 by completing the square Solution: 4x 2 − 8x = +3.32 Example Solve 6x 2 + 5x − 6 = 0 106 .

x =− 3 2 3. 2u 2 + 9u + 9 = 0 3.Chapter 3 Solution: 6x 2 + 5x = 6 5 x2 + x = 1 6 5 1 5 2 1 5 2 x + x + ( · ) = 1 + ( · )2 6 2 6 2 6 5 2 144 + 25 169 ) = = (x + 12 144 144 13 5 =∓ x+ 12 12 2 3 x = . 2u 2 + 9u + 9 = 0 2u 2 + 9u = −9 9 9 u2 + u = − 2 2 9 81 9 81 2 u + u+ =− + 2 16 2 16 9 9 2 (u + ) = 4 16 9 9 u+ =∓ 4 4 9 u = − . x 2 − x = 1 2.33 Example Solve the quadratic equations by completing the square 1. u = −3 2 107 . x 2 − x = 1 x2 − x = 1 x2 − x + 1 1 = 1+ 4 4 1 2 5 (x − ) = 2 4 1 5 x− =∓ 2 2 1 5 x= ∓ 2 2 2. 2y 2 − 7y + 8 = 0 Solution: 1.

Completing the square method 3. 2y 2 − 7y + 8 = 0 7 y = −4 2 49 49 7 = −4 + y2 − y + 2 16 16 −15 7 (y − )2 = 4 16 7 15 y− =∓ i 4 4 7 15 y= ∓ i 4 4 y2 − 2y 2 − 7y = −8 108 .

11 (3x − 2)(2x + 9) = 0 3.7 y 2 − 8y = −17 3.3.3.15 4x 2 + 4x = 1 3.3.3.3.3.3.1 Homework: Completing the Square Method Solve the equations by completing the square 3.8 n 2 + 2n + 12 = 0 3.18 x 2 − 5x − 5 = 0 3.3.Chapter 3 3.13 2n 2 + 4n − 3 = 0 3.3.14 x 2 − 7 = 2x 3.3.3.3.2 3n 2 − 14n − 5 = 0 3.3.3.3.5 x 2 − 4 = −x 3.12 (x + 5)2 = 18 3.3.9 x 2 − 7x − 1 = 0 109 .1 x 2 − 3x − 18 = 0 3.16 x 2 + 8x + 10 = 0 3.17 3x 2 + 6x + 2 = 0 3.3.3 x 2 − 4x − 1 = 0 3.10 x 2 + 6x − 7 = 0 3.6 3x 2 − 9x = −6 3.3.3.4 x 2 − 8x = 8 3.

so the coefﬁcients are a = 1.c = −1. Divide both sides by a 2. Separate the variables from constants 3. give the coefﬁcients of a quadratic equation in standard form. x2 + +( 2 ) = Common denominator is 4a 2 a 4a 4a 2 a b 2 b 2 − 4ac .34 Example Solve the quadratic equation x 2 + x − 1 = 0 by use of the quadratic formula Solution: The equation is in standard form. substitute in the quadratic formula x= x= −1 ∓ (1)2 − 4(1)(−1) 2(1) −1 ∓ 1 + 4 2 −1 ∓ 5 x= 2 3. Divide by a a a a bx c x2 + =− . 3. x= 2a x =− Combine as one fraction The quadratic formula The most famous quadratic formula is x= −b ∓ b 2 − 4ac 2a it says. 2a 2a −b ∓ b 2 − 4ac . Add the missing constant to both sides x2 + a 2a 2a a b2 c bx b2 − .4 The Quadratic Formula The quadratic formula is the short cut for completing the square method of a general quadratic equation.b = 1. Apply the square root ) = (x + 2a 4a 2 b 2 − 4ac b x+ =∓ 2a 4a 2 x2 + b 2 − 4ac b ∓ . The derivation of quadratic formula for solving quadratic equation in standard form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 is parallel to solving by completing the square: 1.35 Example Solve the quadratic equation x 2 − 2x − 3 = 0 by using the quadratic formula 110 . Complete the square Identify rule that has bee applied to the equation in each step: bx c 0 + = . and I give you the solution by just an arithmetic operations.The Quadratic Formula 3. Constant on right side a a b 2 b 2 c bx +( ) =( ) − .

c = −3.b = 1.c = −10.38 Example Solve the quadratic equation x 2 + 30 = 11x by use of the quadratic formula Solution: Write the equation in standard form that is x 2 − 11x + 30 = 0. so the coefﬁcients are a = 3. substitute in the quadratic formula x= x= −(−2) ∓ (−2)2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) 2 ∓ 4 + 12 2 2 ∓ 16 x= 2 2∓4 x= 2 2+4 2−4 x= . substitute in the quadratic formula x= x= −1 ∓ (1)2 − 4(3)(−10) 2(3) x= −1 + 11 . x = −1 3.b = −2. 3 −1 ∓ 1 + 120 6 −1 ∓ 121 x= 6 −1 ∓ 11 x= 6 −1 − 11 = 6 x = −2 3. so the coefﬁcients are a = 1.b = −12. substitute in the quadratic formula x= x= −(−12) ∓ (−12)2 − 4(1)(36) 2(1) 12 ∓ 144 − 144 2 12 ∓ 0 x= 2 12 ∓ 0 x= 2 x =6 3.c = 36. 6 5 x= .Chapter 3 Solution: The equation is in standard form. the coefﬁcients are 111 .37 Example Solve the quadratic equation 3x 2 + x − 10 = 0 by use of the quadratic formula Solution: The equation is in standard form. = 2 2 x = 3.36 Example Solve the quadratic equation x 2 − 12x + 36 = 0 by using the quadratic formula Solution: The equation is in standard form. so the coefﬁcients are a = 1.

c = −5.b = −1. substitute in the quadratic formula x= x= −(−1) ∓ (−1)2 − 4(6)(−5) 2(12) x= 1 + 11 .b = −11. 24 1 x= . substitute in the quadratic formula x= x= −2 ∓ (2)2 − 4(1)(9) 2(1) −2 ∓ 4 − 36 2 −2 ∓ −32 x= 2 −2 ∓ 4 2i x= 2 −2 4 2i x= ∓ 2 2 x = −1 ∓ 2 2i 3. substitute in the quadratic formula x= x= 11 ∓ (11)2 − 4(1)(30) 2(1) x= 11 + 1 . 2 x = 6.b = 2.c = 9. 11 ∓ 121 − 120 2 11 ∓ 1 x= 2 11 ∓ 1 x= 2 11 − 1 = 2 x =5 3. then substitute in the quadratic formula 112 .c = 30. 2 +1 ∓ 1 + 120 24 1 ∓ 121 x= 24 1 ∓ 11 x= 24 1 − 11 = 24 5 x =− 12 3.41 Example Solve x 2 − 5 11 =− x 3 6 Solution: It is easy to rewrite the equation without fractions by multiplying both sides by 6.40 Example Solve 6x 2 − x − 5 = 0 by using quadratic formula Solution: We have a = 6.The Quadratic Formula a = 1.39 Example Solve x 2 + 2x + 9 = 0 by use of the quadratic formula Solution: We have a = 1.

43 Example Use quadratic equations to solve 1.c = 1. the solution is x = 113 . 5x 2 − 9x + 3 = 0. The coefﬁcients a=6.42 Example Solve 2x 2 = −4x − 1 by using quadratic formula Solution: Rewrite in standard form 2x 2 + 4x + 1 = 0. the solution is x = 3. c=-10 x2 − x= x= −(11) ∓ (11)2 − 4(6)(−10) 2(6) x= −11 + 19 . 3y 2 + 7y − 6 = 0 3. Multiply by −1 to get 2x 2 − 4x + 3 = 0. the solution is x = 2. 11s 2 − 7s + 1 = 0. the solution is x = 4 ∓ 16 − 24 2i = 1∓ 4 2 −7 ∓ 49 + 72 −7 + ∓ 121 = . −2x 2 + 4x − 3 = 0. x = −3. Rewrite in standard form 3 6 11 5 x2 + x − = 0.Chapter 3 11 5 = − x. 5x 2 − 9x + 3 = 0 4. 3y 2 + 7y − 6 = 0. x = 2/3 6 6 9 ∓ 81 − 60 9 + ∓ 21 = 10 10 7 ∓ 49 − 44 7 + ∓ 5 = 22 22 4. Multiply both sides by 6 6 3 6x 2 + 11x − 10 = 0. 12 2 x= . 11s 2 − 7s + 1 = 0 Solution: 1. substitute in the quadratic formula x= x= −(4) ∓ (4)2 − 4(2)(1) 2(2) −4 ∓ 16 − 8 4 −4 ∓ 8 x= 4 −4 ∓ 2 2 x= 4 −2 ∓ 2 x= 2 3. so that a = 2.b = 4. −2x 2 + 4x − 3 = 0 2. 3 −11 ∓ 121 + 240 12 −11 ∓ 361 x= 12 −11 ∓ 19 x= 12 −11 − 19 = 12 5 x =− 2 3. b=11.

114 . Put in standard form x 2 + x − 240 = 0. 3. 12 1 25 = .The Quadratic Formula 3. These two numbers satisfy the equation x(x + 1) = 240. The pair of solutions are: 15. Find the number. solve by factoring (x − 16)(x + 15) = 0. it satisﬁes the equation x+ is equivalent to 12x 2 − 25x + 12 = 0. Solution: Assume the ﬁrst number is x .44 Example Find two consecutive positive integers whose product is 240.16. so the next number must be x + 1. this fractional equation x 12 Assume the number is x .45 Example The sum of a number and its reciprocal is Solution: 25 . by quadratic formula x = 3/4.

4.19 3x 2 − 3x + 5 = x 2 − 2x + 1 3.9 −x 2 + 5x − 3 = 0 3.10 3x 2 − 4x − 3 = 0 3.8 5x 2 = −3 3.4.12 x 2 + 2 = 8x 3.4.2 3x 2 = −4x + 2 3.4.4.4.4.16 x 2 + x + 1 = 0 3.4.4.5 2x 2 − x − 4 = 0 3.4.4.4.4.4.4.3 a 2 − 6a = 3 3.c . Identify the coefﬁcients a.11 7x 2 − 4x − 20 = 0 3.4.7 4x 2 − x = 4 3.13 x 2 = 4 − 12x 3.4.b.4.15 13x 2 − 4x = 4 3.4.21 x 2 + 4x + 4 = 2x 2 + 1 115 . 3.1 Homework: Quadratic Formula Solve the equations by the quadratic formula.18 x 2 − 5x + 4 = 5x + 4 3.20 1 2 2 x − 3x − 5 = 0 3.Chapter 3 3.4.17 x 2 + 4 = x + 2 3.4 x 2 − 16x + 60 = 0 3.4.4.1 4x 2 − 4x + 1 = 0 3.14 2x 2 = 4x − 1 3.6 −5n 2 + 3n − 5 = 0 3.

48 Example Solve x 2/3 − 5x 1/3 + 6 = 0 Solution: x 2/3 − 5x 1/3 + 6 = 0 x 1/3 u =2 =2 (u − 2)(u + 3) = 0. This happens because the power of the middle term is half of the ﬁrst term.47 Example Solve x 4 + x 2 − 20 = 0 Solution: x 4 + x 2 − 20 = 0 x =4 2 u=4 (u − 4)(u + 5) = 0. but it is easy to rewrite them in quadratic form with the help of a substitution. x 4 − 5x 2 + 6 = 0 2.Equations in Quadratic Form and the Discriminant 3. Substitute u = x 2 Solve for u by factoring Solve for x or or x = ∓2 x 2 = −5. u =9 x = ∓3 3.5 Equations in Quadratic Form and the Discriminant Equations of the form 1. (x 2 − 9)2 − 3(x 2 − 9) − 10 = 0 are not quadratic equations. u 2 − 10u + 9 = 0. 2x 6 + x 3 − 8 = 0 3. x 4 − 5x 2 + 6 = 0 becomes u 2 − 5u + 6 = 0 with substitution u = x 2 2. x = ∓i 5 u = −5 3. (x 2 − 9)2 − 3(x 2 − 9) − 10 = 0 becomes u 2 − 3u + 6 = 0 with substitution u = x 2 − 9 3. x 2/3 − 4x 1/3 + 4 = 0 becomes u 2 − 4u + 4 = 0 with substitution u = x 1/3 4. u 2 − 5u + 6 = 0. u 2 + u − 10 = 0. Substitute u = x 1/3 Solve for u by factoring Solve for x or or x =8 x 1/3 u = −3 x = −27 = −3.46 Example Solve x 4 − 10x 2 + 9 = 0 Solution: x 4 − 10x 2 + 9 = 0 x =1 2 u=1 (u − 1)(u − 9) = 0. Substitute u = x 2 Solve for u by factoring Solve for x or or x = ∓1 x 2 = 9. x 2/3 − 4x 1/3 + 4 = 0 4. 2x 6 + x 3 − 8 = 0 becomes 2u 2 + u − 8 = 0 with substitution u = x 3 3. Thus 1. 116 .

Chapter 3 3.49 Example Solve (2x + 3)2 − 6(2x + 3) − 7 = 0 Solution: (2x + 3)2 − 6(2x + 3) − 7 = 0 2x + 3 = −1 u = −1 (u + 1)(u − 7) = 0.53 Example Compute the discriminant of the following quadratic equations 1.1 The Discriminant 9 Deﬁnition The expression b 2 − 4ac from the quadratic formula is called the discriminant and it is denoted by d = b 2 − 4ac . x = −3. x 2 + 10x + 25 = 0 3. x = ∓i 3 x(x − 9)(x + 9) = 0 2 x(x 4 − 81) = 0. Factor Solve for x 3.5. x = ∓1. x = ∓1. x2 − 4 = 0 x = ∓2 3. 3. x =2 u =7 3. x = 0.52 Example Solve the fourth order equations x 4 − 8x 2 + 7 = 0 Solution: We factor the equation in terms of x 2 : x 4 − 8x 2 + 7 = 0 (x 2 − 1)(x 2 − 7) = 0 x 2 − 1 = 0. u 2 − 6u − 7 = 0. x = 3. x 2 + x + 1 = 0 Solution: 117 . x2 − 7 = 0 x =∓ 7 3.51 Example Solve x 4 − 5x 2 + 4 = 0 Solution: We factor the equation in terms of x 2 : x 4 − 5x 2 + 4 = 0 (x 2 − 1)(x 2 − 4) = 0 x 2 − 1 = 0.50 Example Solve x 5 − 81x = 0 Solution: x 5 − 81x = 0 2 x(x − 3)(x + 3)(x 2 + 9) = 0. Substitute u = 2x + 3 Solve for u by factoring Solve for x or or x = −2 2x + 3 = 7. x 2 − 7x + 12 = 0 2.

3.5.5 (4x + 5)2 − (4x + 5) − 2 = 0 3.5. The equation has two complex solutions.5. x 2 − 8x + 16 = 0 Solution: 1. d = 12 − 4(1)(1) = 1 − 4 = −3 2.Equations in Quadratic Form and the Discriminant 1. x 2 + x + 1 = 0.5. x 2 + 7x + 1 = 0 2.5.10 10x 2 − 30x − 1 = 0 118 .5.9 x 2 − 20x + 200 = 0 3.1 x 4 − x 2 − 12 = 0 3.54 Example Compute the discriminant and identify the nature of solutions of the following quadratic equations 1.5. d = 142 − 4(12)(5) = 196 − 480 < 0.5. d = 102 − 4(1)(25) = 100 − 100 = 0 The discriminant gives information about the number of solutions and the nature of the solutions Discriminant d = b 2 − 4ac > 0 d = b 2 − 4ac = 0 d = b 2 − 4ac < 0 Nature of solutions Two real solutions One real solution Two complex solutions 3. x 2 − 7x + 12 = 0.2 Homework: Equations in Quadratic Form Solve the following equations 3.7 x 4 + x 2 − 90 = 0 Find the number of distinct real roots of the equation without solving it.3 x 4 − 6x 3 = 0 3. The equation has two real solutions.8 x 2 − 50x − 250 = 0 3. x 2 − 8x + 16 = 0.2 x 4 − 10x 2 + 25 = 0 3.4 x 2/3 − x 1/3 − 6 = 0 3. d = (−8)2 − 4(1)(16) = 64 − 64 = 0. x 2 + 7x + 1 = 0. 3. d = (7)2 − 4(1)(1) = 49 − 4 = 45 > 0.5. x 2 + 10x + 25 = 0.5. d = (−7)2 − 4(1)(12) = 49 − 48 = 1 3. 12x 2 + 14x + 5 = 0. 2. 3.6 2x 4 − 32 = 0 3.5. 12x 2 + 14x + 5 = 0 3. The equation has one real solution.

True 7. it is equivalent to the interval [−5. 1. The inequality −x 2 + 7 ≥ 0 is equivalent to x 2 − 7 ≥ 0 Solution: 1. The solution of the inequality −10 ≤ 2x ≤ 4 is the interval [2. The inequality 0 > 2x 2 − 5x + 3 is equivalent to 2x 2 − 5x + 3 < 0 9. 6. x < 3 3.Chapter 3 3. 2x − 6 ≤0 x +4 In this section we will study quadratic inequalities and linear rational inequalities of the form The process of solving these inequalities involve several ideas and it is accomplished by following a step by step procedure. x 2 − 7 ≤ 0 3. We will review some of the inequalities basics by true or false examples.−5] 6.∞) 5. False. True 2. The solution of the equation 4x + 5 = 17 is x = 3 2. 4x < 12.∞) 119 . The solution of the inequality 4x 2 −5x +15 > 0 is the set of all real numbers that make the expression 4x 2 − 5x + 15 positive upon substitution. 3.2]. False. the correct answer is 5x − 10 < 0 8.55 Example True or false? Explain 1. True 4. The inequality 10 > 5x is equivalent to 5x − 10 > 0 8. 2. The procedures of solving inequalities can be applied and generalized to any polynomial and any rational inequality. The solution of the inequality −x < 2 is the interval (2. False. such as sign chart and graphical method. 3. The solution of the inequality x 2 + 1 > 0 is the interval (−∞. There is an order to the interval notation.6 Quadratic and Rational Inequalities x 2 − 4x + 3 > 0. True 9. The inequality x 2 − 3x ≤ 4 is equivalent to x 2 − 3x − 4 ≤ 0 7. The solution of the inequality −x 2 + 3x < −8 is the set of all real numbers that make the expression −x 2 + 3x + 8 negative upon substitution. True 5. False.56 Example True or false? Explain 1. The solution of the inequality 4x + 5 < 17 is x < 12 3. The solution of the inequality 4x + 5 ≥ 17 is x ≥ 3 4. 2. There are many variations of performing the procedure of solving quadratic and rational inequalities.

Factor the quadratic polynomial (if possible) and ﬁnd its zeros that is solve the equation: x2 − x − 6 = 0 x + 2 = 0. False.57 Example Solve the quadratic inequality x 2 − x < 6 Solution: 1.Quadratic and Rational Inequalities 4. Get zero on one side of the inequality (It does not matter left or right side). This is accomplished by moving all terms to one side of the inequality. we conclude that the solution is the two intervals (−∞. Select the intervals that satisfy the inequality. True 4. Graph the zeros (solution points) on a number line (schematically). (a) Test point x = −3. as long as these points are not the zeros (dividers). The sign is positive + 4. x2 − x − 6 < 0 2. substitute in the expression (x + 2)(x − 3) : (−3 + 2)(−3 − 3) = (−1)(−6) > 0. −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 3. 120 . The solution is the interval (−2. 3 divide number line into three intervals. 3. x =3 The solutions −2.3). Note that these two intervals are separated and they cannot be written as double inequality. True 3. To ﬁnd out the signs of the polynomial (quadratic expression). it is sufﬁcient to pick a single point from each interval and substitute in the expression. The solution of the inequality x 2 + 4 < 0 is the interval (−∞. and substitute in the expression.−2) and (3. that is for −2 < x < 3 and in interval notation (−2. The boundaries are not included.3).1. The sign is positive + (b) Test point x = 0: (0 + 2)(0 − 3) = (2)(−3) < 0. because the inequality is strictly less <. The sign is negative − (c) Test point x = 4: (4 + 2)(4 − 3) = (6)(1) > 0.∞) Solution: 1. Note that the expression x 2 − x − 6 is a quadratic polynomial. as in the Figure 5. The square of any real number plus 4 is a positive number. states that the sign of a polynomial is positive or negative in each interval that is bounded by its zeros.1 Quadratic Inequality We will illustrate the steps of solving quadratic inequality by example with detailed explanations. The inequality is satisﬁed for negative signs only.58 Example Solve the quadratic inequality x 2 − x − 6 > 0 Solution: Using the previous procedure. x − 3 = 0.6. Pick a test point in each interval ( it does not matter which point so select easy numbers. then record the signs only. There is a theorem in algebra. True 2.∞). 3. 3. The zeros of this polynomial are the solutions of the equation: x 2 − x − 6 = 0 (x + 2)(x − 3) = 0 x = −2.

That is the zeros are acceptable solutions so the solution of this inequality is [−2. Divide both sides by 2 to get x −x −6 ≤ 0. Factor and solve: Factor the quadratic polynomial. substitute these numbers in the inequality. Test Points: Select a number in each interval. and determine its signs (+ or −). 4. set it to zero and solve the equation. 3. 1) x=2 (1)(−2) < 0 −−− 1<x<3 (1. Number line: Mark the solution points on a number line.1: Quadratic Inequalities 3.Chapter 3 −2 3 Test Points Evaluate Signs Ranges Intervals x=−3 (−1)(−6) >0 +++ x<−2 (−∞ . 3. ∞) Figure A: Solution Diagram of x −x−6 < 0 1 3 Test Points Evaluate Signs Ranges Intervals x=0 (−1)(−3) >0 +++ x<1 (−∞ .3] Method of solving quadratic inequalities 1.59 Example Solve the quadratic inequality 2x 2 − 12 ≤ 2x Solution: 2 Note this inequality is equivalent to 2x 2 − 2x − 12 ≤ 0. 3 ) 2 x=4 (4+2)(4−3) >0 +++ x>3 (3. 2. −2) x=0 (0+2)(0−3) < 0 −−− −2 < x < 3 ( −2 . ∞) Figure B: Solution Diagram of x2 −4x+3 > 0 Figure 3. This is the same inequality as the previous detailed example. 6. Graph the solution on a number line if requested. 3) x=4 (3)(1) >0 +++ x>3 (3. Zero: x 2 − 4x + 3 > −3 + 3. Zero: Move all terms to one side of the inequality and zero to the other side.60 Example Solve the quadratic inequality x 2 − 4x > −3 Solution: 1. x 2 − 4x + 3 > 0 121 . with allowed equality at the end point. Select the solution interval based on the sign diagram. 5.

4) −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 3. Test Points: 3. Factor and solve: x 2 − 4x + 3 = 0 x − 1 = 0. x =3 (x − 1)(x − 3) = 0 x = 1.Quadratic and Rational Inequalities 2. The solution is: (−∞. 4. Factor and solve: (x + 3)(x − 4) = 0 x = −3. (4 − 1)(4 − 3) > 0 + ++ 5. 4. − − −. − − −. the solution interval is [1. x = 0. note the boundary points x = 1 and x = 3 are included in the solution because they satisfy the inequality. (5 + 3)(5 − 4) > 0 + ++ 5. The solution is the interval (−3.∞) −1 0 1 2 3 4 3. 3. Zero: x 2 − x − 12 < 0 x 2 − x − 12 = 0 x + 3 = 0. Number line: Mark x = 1 and x = 3 on a number line. x − 4 = 0. + ++.61 Example Solve the quadratic inequality x 2 − 4x + 3 ≤ 0 Solution: From the previous diagram. x =5 (−5 + 3)(−5 − 4) > 0. Number line: Mark x = −3 and x = 4 on a number line. x − 3 = 0. x = −5. x = 0.62 Example Solve the quadratic inequality x 2 − x − 12 < 0 Solution: 1. x =4 2.3]. Test Points: 3.63 Example Solve the quadratic inequality x 3 − 2x 2 − 8x > 0 Solution: 122 . x = 2. (0 + 3)(0 − 4) < 0. x =4 (0 − 1)(0 − 3) > 0. + ++. (2 − 1)(2 − 3) < 0.1) and (3.

(0 + 3)(0 − 3) < 0. (0 + 4)(0 − 4) < 0. −3. Rewrite as x 2 − 9 ≤ 0 2. 4. −4. 4. x = −1. Zero: x 3 − 2x 2 − 8x > 0 2. x(x 2 − 2x − 8) = 0 x = 0. x = −2. Factor and solve: x 3 − 2x 2 − 8x = 0 x = 0. − −−. The solution set is the intervals (−∞. 0 and x = 4 on a number line. x = 1.∞) −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 3. + + ++. 5(5 + 2)(5 − 4) = 35 > 0 +++ 5. Test points: x = −5.Chapter 3 1.3 on a number line. Factor and solve (x + 3)(x − 3) = 0. (−5 + 4)(−5 − 4) > 0.64 Example Solve the inequality x 2 ≤ 9 Solution: 1. x =5 − 3(−3 + 2)(−3 − 4) = −21 < 0. x = −4 and x = 4 3. −1(−1 + 2)(−1 − 4) = 5 > 0. Test Points: x = −3.−4) and (4. 4. that is the solution is (−∞.∞) 3.66 Example Solve x 2 > 16 Solution: 1.65 Example Solve x 2 + 16 ≥ 0 Solution: The polynomial x 2 + 16 does not have any real zero and it is positive for any real number. (4 + 3)(4 − 3) > 0. (5 + 4)(5 − 4) > 0. 3. x = 5. Number line: Mark x = −2.4 on a number line.67 Example Solve 2x 2 < 9x − 4 Solution: 1. (1 + 2)(1 − 4) = −6 < 0. Zero: 2x 2 − 9x + 4 < 0 123 . Test points: x = −4. Factor and solve (x + 4)(x − 4) = 0. x = 0.∞) 3.3] 3. Mark the points. 5. − − − −.0) or (4. The solution is the interval (−2. Rewrite as x 2 − 16 > 0 2. x = 4. so the inequality is satisﬁes for all real number. Mark the points. x = 0. x = −3 and x = 3 3. 5. The solution is −3 ≤ x ≤ 3 or [−3. x(x + 2)(x − 4) = 0 x + 2 = 0. (−4 + 3)(−4 − 3) > 0. x =4 x − 4 = 0.

3+x 3+x 3x −2 < 0 x −2 is similar to the process of solving quadratic equations. Test Points: 3.5. substitute these numbers in the inequality. − − −.Quadratic and Rational Inequalities 2. Zero: Move all terms to one side of the inequality and zero to the other side. 3.4) 3. x = 1. x =2 4. 4. x =5 (0 − 1)(0 − 4) > 0. 6. Factor and solve: x + 4 = 0. Select the solution interval based on the sign diagram. (10 − 1)(5 − 4) > 0 + ++ 5. 5. 2.68 Example Solve the rational inequality Solution: 1.2 Rational Inequality The process of solving inequalities that involve rational expressions such as 1 x > . (2x − 1)(x − 4) = 0 x = 1/2. 7. Test Points: Select a number in each interval. x = −4. x − 2 = 0. Method of solving rational inequalities 1. x =4 4. −4 < x < 2. Combine: x −2 x −2 x −2 3x >2 x −2 3. 124 . + ++.6. Combine all terms into a single fraction. 3. Determine the numbers that make the numerator and denominator zero. (2 − 1)(1 − 4) < 0. x − 4 = 0. and determine its signs (+ or −). Number line: Mark the numbers from previous step on a number line. Zero: 3x −2 > 0 x −2 3x x −2 x +4 −2 = >0 2. Graph the solution on a number line if requested. Factor and solve: 2x 2 − 9x + 4 = 0 2x − 1 = 0. Number line: Mark x = 1/2 and x = 4 on a number line. x = 0. Number line: Mark x = −4 and x = 2 on a number line to form three regions x < −4. The solution is the interval (0. x > 2.

4] x = 0. The solution set is the regions x < −4.∞) x =8 7−8 <0 8−4 −−− 6. 4. x > 2 or in interval notation (−∞. Factor and solve: x − 4 = 0. Test Points: (−∞. 4 ≤ x ≤ 7.∞) x =5 5+4 >0 5−2 +++ 6. 0−4 − − −. 7 ≤ x .−4) x = −5.∞) −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 3. [7.−4) and (2. x = −3. 7 − x = 0. 0+4 < 0.∞) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3. x =1 x − 1 = 0.69 Example Solve the rational inequality Solution: 1. Zero: 3 −1 ≤ 0 x −4 3−x +4 7−x 2.2) x = 0. x = 4. 7−5 > 0.Chapter 3 5. Factor and solve: 3 + x = 0. −5 − 2 + + +. Test Points: (−∞. −5 + 4 > 0. 0−2 − − −.70 Example Solve the rational inequality Solution: 1. 125 .7] x = 5. (−4.4] and [7. Combine: <0 3+x 1 x < 3+x 3+x 3. Zero: 1 x − <0 3+x 3+x x −1 2. The solution set is (−∞. (2. [4. Number line: Mark x = 4 and x = 7 on a number line to form three regions x ≤ 4. 7−0 < 0. x =7 5. 5−4 + + +. Combine: = ≤0 x −4 x −4 3 ≤1 x −4 3.

0−1 < 0. 0 < x < 8/3.∞) x =2 2−1 >0 3+2 +++ 6. (0. 5. 1 < x .0) x = −2. 1 + + +. Number line: Mark x = −3 and x = 1 on a number line to form three regions x < −3. Number line: Mark x = 0 and x = 8/3 on a number line to form three regions x < 0. The solution set is (0. (1. 8 − 3x = 0. Test Points: (−∞.Quadratic and Rational Inequalities 4.71 Example Solve the rational inequality Solution: 8 −3 > 0 x 8 − 3x 2.8/3) x = 1. Combine: = ≤0 3x − 5 3x − 5 126 . Test Points: (−∞. Combine: >0 x 1. 8/3 < x .8/3) −1 0 1 2 3 3. (8/3. (−3. 3+0 − − −. Factor and solve: x = 0. Zero: 3. x = 8/3 x = 0. The solution set is (−3. 5.1) x = 0.1) 8 >3 x 3. 3−4 + + +. 8+4 < 0. −2 − − −. −3 < x < 1. 8−3 > 0. −4 − 1 > 0. Zero: x + 15 ≤ −3 3x − 5 x + 15 +3 ≤ 0 3x − 5 x + 15 + 9x − 15 10x 2.72 Example Solve Solution: 1.∞) x =5 8 − 15 <0 5 −−− 6. 4.−3) x = −4.

0 < x < 5/3. x = 5/3 5. The solution set is [0. Factor and solve: 10x = 0. [0. 5/3 < x . 127 .∞) x =5 50 >0 15 − 5 +++ 6.73 Example Solve the rational inequality 1 <0 (x + 1)2 Solution: There is no real number that satisﬁes this inequality. The solution does not exist. 10 < 0.5/3] x = 1.Chapter 3 3. 3−5 − − −. x = 0. 4. because left side is always positive. −3 − 5 + + +. Test Points: (−∞.5/3] −1 0 1 2 3 3.0] x = −1. 3x − 5 = 0. −10 > 0. [5/3. Number line: Mark x = 0 and x = 5/3 on a number line to form three regions x < 0.

6.10 x 2 + 6x ≤ 0 3.6.6.6.23 x x2 + 1 <0 3. Express the solution in interval notation and graph the solution on a number line 3.17 3.21 3.6.22 1 − 3.6.6.7 −16(x 2 − 16) ≥ 0 3.6 7(x 2 − 9) < 0 3.6.6.1 (x + 3)(2x − 7) ≥ 0 3.12 (x + 2) <0 (x − 2) x <0 x −2 3.6.6.3 Homework: Quadratic and Rational Inequalities Solve the following inequalities.3 x(x + 5) ≤ 0 3.6.16 3.8 4x 2 + 20x + 25 > 0 3.6.15 3.6.5 x(x − 1) < 30 3.6.14 3 >6 x 4 x + >0 x −2 x −2 (3x + 10) ≥0 (x) (1 − x) ≤0 (x + 6) (x + 3) ≤2 (x + 6) 3y − 5 <3 y +1 3 2 + >0 x −1 x +1 5x (2x + 7)2 6 >0 x ≥0 3.20 3.6.9 2x 2 > x + 10 3.4 x 2 + 2x − 3 < 0 3.19 3.6.24 (x + 3)(x + 1)(x − 3) > 0 128 .Quadratic and Rational Inequalities 3.6.13 3.6.18 3.6.6.6.6.6.2 (x − 2)(x + 4) < 0 3.11 x 2 − 6x + 5 < 0 3.6.

(x + 6)(5x − 1) = 5x − 25 29. Find the length of a side of a square where a diagonal is 4 feet longer than a side. 2x 2 + 3 − 8x = 0 45. 10x 2 − 60x = −80 6. x 2 − 6x = 7 9. 3(x − 4)2 = −36 3. Find two consecutive integers whose product is Solve the following equations by the method of square root or factoring 1. 2x 2 − x = 1 19. 35. Find two numbers whose difference is 5 and the difference of their squares is 45. x(x − 1) = 6x − 10 Solve the following equations by the method of completing the square 7. 4x 2 + 9 = 12x 22. −x 2 + 10x − 25 = 0 18. 36. x 2 − 4x + 6 = 0 15. (x + 2)2 − 1 = 0 2. 34. (2x − 5)2 ≤ 100 43. x 2 + 5x + 1 = 0 21. x 2 + 12 = 8x 10. 2x 2 + 5x − 3 = 0 28. x 2 − 2 3 + 12 = 0 Solve by factoring. x 2 + 2x − 10 = 0 13.Chapter 3 3. 129 . Divide 45 into two parts whose product is 434. x 2 − x − 2 < 0 42. Simplify (i − i −1 )−1 Solve the following inequalities 40. What are the numbers? 33. 25x 2 + 4 = 20x 25. x 2 − 4x − 12 = 0 17. Find two consecutive odd positive integers whose product is 323. x 2 + 8x = 33 8. x(x − 4) ≥ 0 41. x 2 + 5x − 5 = 0 26. Simplify (i + i −1 )−1 39. 38. 3x 2 + 5 = 16x 32. (3x − 4)2 − 45 = 0 30. x 2 + x = 42 31. x 2 + 8 = 6x 4. (x − 3)2 = −10x + 5 20. The sum of two numbers is 16 and the sum of their squares is 200.7 Exercises 24. 2x − 8 <0 x +8 x −1 >1 x +2 23. 4x 2 − 8x = 3 12. 2x 2 − 4 = 3x Solve the following equations using the quadratic formula 16. 16x 2 − 25 = 0 306. 3x 2 − 6x + 5 = 0 11. 37. 3x 2 = 27 4 5. and by the quadratic formula 27. by completing a square. 4x 2 − 12x + 9 = 0 14. x 2 > 2x + 3 44.

2 (b) Square root: Solve 4x 2 − 24 = 0 Solution: x 2 = 6.c = 3 substitute in the formula to get x= 7∓ (−7)2 − 4(2)(3) 2(2) Simplify to obtain x = . (3 + 2i ) − (5 − 6i ) = −2 + 8i 4 4(2 − 3i ) 8 12 = = − i 2 + 3i (2 + 3i )(2 − 3i ) 13 13 (−2 + 3i )(2 + 5i ) = −19 − 6i 3. 2 ≤7 x −6 3. To multiply complex numbers. Quadratic Equations Methods of solving quadratic equations are (a) Factoring: Solve x 2 + 2x − 8 = 0 Solution: (x + 4)(x − 2) = 0. Arithmetic Operations on complex numbers: To add or subtract complex numbers: combine real parts and imaginary parts. x = −2 (d) Quadratic Formula: x= −b ∓ b 2 − 4ac 2a Solve 2x 2 − 7x + 3 = 0 Solution: a = 2. so x = −4. use distribution and the fact that i 2 = −1.b = −7.8 Review Quadratic Equations 1. so x = ∓ 6 (c) Completing the square: Solve 2x 2 − 20x − 48 = 0 2x 2 − 20x = 48 1 1 x 2 − 10x + ( · 10)2 = 24 + ( · 10)2 2 2 x 2 − 10x + 25 = 24 + 25 (x − 5)2 = 49 x − 5 = ∓7 x 2 − 10x = 24 x = 12.Review Quadratic Equations 46. To divide complex numbers. For example. Complex Numbers Imaginary unit is i = −1 and i 2 = −1 and −a = i a if a > 0 Complex numbers have theorem a + bi such as 3 − 4i 2.3 1 2 130 . multiply and divide by the conjugate of the denominator.

1 Coordinate System A rectangular Cartesian system of coordinates on the plane consists of two perpendicular axis identiﬁed as x-axis and y-axis. 4. 4 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 1 2 3 4 Figure 4.2 Example Find the coordinates of the vertices of the given rectangle in the ﬁgure. These coordinates represent the distances with proper sign of the point from both axis.1 Example Draw a system of coordinates and plot the points A(−4. B (0. The axes divide the plane into four quadrants.4 The Distance Formula and Circles 4.2: Vertices of Rectangle 131 .−4) 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 A B C Figure 4.1. Each point P of the plane is deﬁned by a pair of numbers (x. Both are given ﬁxed positive direction and a scale. y) referred as the coordinates of the point.1 The Distance Formula and Circle OBJECTIVES • The distance Formula • The Midpoint Formula • The equation of a circle • Graph circles with center and radius 4.1: Plotting Points 4.5) and C (2.3).1.

The Distance Formula and Circle Solution: The vertices are ((4. x2 = 4 3. x1 = 1. For example. x1 = −2.−1). x1 = 1. For any two points with coordinates x1 and x2 on a number line. x1 = 3. the distance between the points x1 = 1 and x2 = 5 is clearly |5 − 1| = 4 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 4.2). the absolute value is to insure the answer is always positive.(−2. x2 = −5: d = | − 5 − 1| = 6 2. 132 . y 1 ) and P 2 (x2 . x2 = −5 4. x2 = 7: d = |7 − 3| = 4 4.−1). x1 = −3.2 The Distance Formula The distance between two points is a positive number. the distance between the two points is |x2 − x1 |. x1 = −3. x2 = 4: d = |4 − (−2)| = 6 c b a Figure 4.3: a 2 + b 2 = c 2 a2 + b2 = c 2 Applying this formula for the right triangle P 1 P 2 Q : P1Q + P2 Q = P1 P2 2 2 2 or in terms of the coordinated of the points and letting d = P 1 P 2 . x1 = 3. y 2 ) is based on the Pythagorean Theorem for the right triangle with hypotenuse c and sides a and b and it has the familiar form 3. we have (x2 − x1 )2 + (y 2 − y 1 )2 = d 2 . x2 = 7 2.(4. x2 = −8: d = | − 8 − (−3)| = | − 5| = 5 The distance formula between any two points P 1 (x1 . x2 = −8 Solution: 1.3 Example Plot the two points on a number line and ﬁnd the distance between them.2). 4.(−2.1. 1. x1 = −2.

Then d= = = (−3 + 6)2 + (0 − 3)2 (3)2 + (−3)2 9+9 =3 2 |y 2 − y 1 | 133 .(−2. y 2 ) = (−3. d= (1 − 3)2 + (8 − (−2))2 = (−2)2 + (10)2 = 4 + 100 = 104 = 2 26 4.5 Example Find the distance between the points (−2.6 Example Find the distance between the points (0.5). y 2 ) = (1. Then d= = = = (−3 − 0)2 + (−3 − 5)2 (−3)2 + (−8)2 9 + 64 73 4.−2) and (1. Let (x1 . Then d= = = = (4 − (−2))2 + (5 − 3)2 (4 + 2)2 + (2)2 36 + 4 40 =2 5 4.3) and (x2 . y 1 ) = (3.8). y 2 ) = (−2. making sure the order of coordinates and their signs are correct.3) and (x2 .4: Distance between two points 4.Chapter 4 This leads to the distance formula d= (x2 − x1 )2 + (y 2 − y 1 )2 P2 P1 |x2 − x1 | Q Figure 4.5) Solution: Let (x1 . y 1 ) = (−6.8) Solution: Substitute carefully in the formula.−3).−3) Solution: Let (x1 .4 Example Find the distance between the points (3.0) Solution: Let (x1 .3) and (4.0). y 1 ) = (0.5) and (x2 . y 1 ) = (−2.7 Example Graph and ﬁnd the distance between (−6. y 2 ) = (4.−2) and (x2 .5) and (−3. It does not matter which point is called ﬁrst.3).

x1 = 3. with distance 2 to A and B . the midpoint between them is given by x = 4. 2 1. the coordinates of the midpoint are given by the formula M( x1 + x2 y 1 + y 2 .−4).1) 2 2 134 .(−8.5). for any two points on a number line x1 . x1 = −3. x1 = 3. ) = (2.7) Solution: Use the midpoint formula to get ( 6 − 8 −4 + 7 3 . x2 = 4: x = =1 2 1−5 3. y 1 ) and P 2 (x2 . x2 . y 2 ) is a point on the segment line P 1 P 2 which is equidistant from its endpoints. 1.(4. x1 = −3. For example the midpoint between the points A(1) and B (5) on a number line below is the point M(3). ) 2 2 2 4. x2 = 4 3.10 Example Find the midpoint of the pair (0. x1 = 1.The Distance Formula and Circle Another useful formula is the midpoint formula between two points. x1 = −2. ) = (−1. x2 = 7 2. In fact. x2 = −5: x = = −2 2 −3 − 8 = −11/2 4.9 Example Find the midpoint of the pair (6. x1 = 1. x2 = 7: x = 1 Deﬁnition The midpoint M of the segment line joining two points P 1 (x1 . x2 = −5 4. x2 = −8 Solution: 3+7 =5 2 −2 + 4 2. ) 2 2 4.8 Example Find the midpoint of the given two points. x2 = −8: x = 2 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x1 + x2 .−3) Solution: Use the midpoint formula to get ( 0+4 5−3 . x1 = −2.

11 Example Find the equation of the circle with 1. x 2 + y 2 = 1 2. The circle (x − 4)2 + y 2 = 8 has center (4.0) and radius r = 2 2 1. The circle x 2 + y 2 = 1 has center (0.2) and radius 5 2.0) and radius 3. then the equation is x 2 + y 2 = r 2 .0) and radius 3.k) and radius r . Center (4.Chapter 4 4. Center (0. Center (−1. (x − 4)2 + y 2 = 8 3.0) and radius 10 Solution: 1. Center (−1. The circle (x + 3)2 + (y − 9)2 = 7 has center (−3.0) and radius 10: x 2 + y 2 = 100 6: (x + 1)2 + y 2 = 6 6 4. Note that the distance between the center and any point on the circle (x. If the center is at (0.k) Figure 4.5: A circle with centre (h. Center (0.1.0).9) and radius r = 7 4.3 The Circle 2 Deﬁnition A circle is the set of all points in a plane that are a ﬁxed distance from a point called the center. (h. (x + 3)2 + (y − 9)2 = 7 Solution: 2. y) is = r : r= (x − h)2 + (y − k)2 (x − h)2 + (y − k)2 = r 2 This is the standard form of the general equation of a circle. 135 r . 4.2) and radius 5: (x − 4)2 + (y − 2)2 = 25 2. The ﬁxed distance is called the radius of the circle.k) and radius r To develop the general equation of a circle with center (h. Center (4.13 Example Graph the circle x 2 +y 2 = 25 by identifying the center and ﬁve opposite points on the circle.12 Example Identify the radius and center of the circles 1.0) and radius r = 1 3.

r=5 −10 4.7: center (3.17 Example Find the center.14 Example Find the equation of the circle with radius 5 and center at (3.4) and the radius is r = 4 4. the radius and graph the circle x 2 + y 2 + 10x + 6y = 0 Solution: Write the equation in standard form as follows: x 2 + 10x + y 2 + 6y = 0 Separate the variables and complete the squares (x + 5)2 + (y + 3)2 = 25 + 9 x 2 + 10x + 52 + y 2 + 6y + 32 = 0 + 52 + 32 (x + 5)2 + (y + 3)2 = 34 Thus the center is (−5.6: x 2 + y 2 = 25 −10 Figure 4.The Distance Formula and Circle 4. 8 6 4 2 8 6 4 2 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −2 −4 −6 −8 2 4 6 8 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −2 −4 −6 −8 2 4 6 8 Figure 4.15 Example Find the center and the radius of the circle x 2 + 2x + y 2 = 15 Solution: follows: Write the equation in standard form by using completing the square method as x 2 + 2x + 1 + y 2 = 15 + 1 (x + 1)2 + y 2 = 16 Thus the center is (−1.18 Example Find the center.2).−3) and the radius is r = 34 4. the radius and graph the circle x 2 + y 2 − 4x + 2y = 20 Solution: follows: Write the equation in standard form by using completing the square method as x 2 − 4x + y 2 + 2y = 20 Separate the variables and complete the squares x 2 − 4x + 4 + y 2 + 2y + 1 = 20 + 4 + 1 (x − 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 25 136 .0) and the radius is r = 4 4.16 Example Find the center and the radius of the circle x 2 + y 2 − 8y = 0 Solution: follows: Write the equation in standard form by using completing the square method as x 2 + y 2 − 8y + 16 = 0 + 16 x 2 + (y − 4)2 = 16 Thus the center is (0.2). by identifying the center and ﬁve opposite points on the circle.

Using the standard form. the equation of the circle is (x − 1)2 + (y + 3)2 = 34 4.−3) and passing through the point (4.19 Example Find the center.8: (x − 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 25 4. That is r = (1 − 4)2 + (−3 − 2)2 = 9 + 25 = 34.Chapter 4 Thus the center is (2.9: (x − 1)2 + (y − 2)2 = 4 137 . we need to ﬁnd its radius.2).0) and the radius is r = 3 4.2) Solution: To write the equation of the circle with the given center (1.20 Example Write the equation of the circle with center (1. The radius of this circle is the distance between the center and the point (4.−3). the radius and graph the circle x 2 + y 2 = 20x − 91 Solution: Write the equation in standard form as follows: x 2 − 20x + y 2 = −91 Separate the variables and complete the squares x 2 − 20x + 102 + y 2 = −91 + 102 (x − 10)2 + y 2 = 9 Thus the center is (10.−1) and the radius is r = 5 8 6 4 2 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −2 −4 −6 −8 −10 2 4 6 8 Figure 4.21 Example Sketch the graph of the circle (x − 1)2 + (y − 2)2 = 4 6 4 2 −6 −4 −2 −2 −4 −6 2 4 6 Figure 4.

19 4x 2 + 4y 2 = 100 4.0).1.1.16 x 2 + y 2 − 8x − 14y = −62 4.9 Center (0.1) and (1.1.The Distance Formula and Circle 4.8 Center (5.1.1.17 x 2 + y 2 − 6x + 8y − 55 = 0 4.6) and (3.12 x 2 + y 2 = 49 4.1.−6) 4.7 Center (−2. center is in the second quadrant and r = 6 Write the equations in standard form (x − h)2 + (y − k)2 = r 2 and identify the center and the radius 4.11) and (1. r = 8 4.−4).14 x 2 + 2x + y 2 = 8 4.1.0).1. r = 12 4.−2) 4.1.1.1.−3).9) Find equations of the circles 4.1.6 (2.1 (3.1.2) and (1.11 Write the equation of the circle that satisﬁes: tangent to both axes.2 (−2.4 (−3.1.0) 4.5) and (−8.12) Find the midpoint between the pair of points 4.−3 and (6.1. r = 3 4.1.15 x 2 + y 2 + 6x = 0 4.1. r = 3 2 4.20 2x 2 + 2y 2 − 8x = 0 138 .0) 4.1.1.3 (0.1.13 x 2 = 16 − y 2 4.1.4 Homework: The Distance Formula and Circles Find the distance between the points 4.10 Center (0.5 (−7.18 x 2 + y 2 − 12y = 0 4.

The list of elements are given within braces { }. the symbol x is assumed to be a variable until it is been determined by the equation. if a function exists between two quantities. Such as. the three pairs: (2. such as 5. y) referred as the coordinates of the point. In expression such as 3x 2 − 5x + 2 = 0. book.(5. s} Familiar sets are the sets of natural numbers N . For example. For example. A = {1.1 Introduction to Functions OBJECTIVES • Representing Functions • Function notation • Finding the domain and range of a function • The vertical line test • Graph functions with a calculator Functions are the most fundamental concept in higher mathematics. and real numbers R .5). 139 . there is a humorous joke about Mathematicians that asks: Why old mathematicians never die? and the answer is: because they just lose some of their functions. kidneys) in the body. integer numbers Z . Discovering any relationship between quantities in nature is advanced with understanding and related to the idea of functional relationships.5 Functions 5.(0. 6. y enclosed in parentheses. Both are given ﬁxed positive direction and a scale. A rectangular Cartesian system of coordinates on the plane consists of two perpendicular axis identiﬁed as x-axis and y-axis. t which represents a number that can vary over a set of numbers. 4. Capital letters are used to name the sets. where x is called the ﬁrst coordinate or the ﬁrst component (element) and y is called the second coordinate or the second component (element) of the pair (x. y). Each point P of the plane is deﬁned by a pair of numbers (x. the relationship between the area of a square and its side. A Set is a collection of well deﬁned objects. or part of them. A variable is a symbol such as x. 3.π. For some people.4.7) are different pairs. y. then it implies that any information about one quantity leads to concrete information about the other quantity. An ordered pair (x. The objects are called elements or members of the set.2. the word function is associated with the performance of concrete tasks.3.2).8. 2. rational numbers Q . 2 5. Relevant vocabularies 1. A formula is an equation that relates variables and constants such as the circumference of a circle C = 2πr and the area of a triangle A = hb . A constant is a symbol that represents a number which is ﬁxed for all time. These coordinates represent the distances with proper sign of the point from both axis. In fact. such as the functions of various organs (heart. y) is a pair of real numbers x. For example. box. the room temperature and the stock market index are variables. Roughly speaking.

F. the distance of a free falling object from a high point is determined by the time t : d= g 2 t 2 where g is the earth gravitational constant. distance and roots dependent magnitudes and the radius. temperature. volume. there is a unique element y in Y.1 Basic deﬁnitions There are different approaches to deﬁning functions. the area of a circle is uniquely deﬁned by its radius r : A = πr 2 2. The set of values x is called the domain of the function. These interdependencies were discovered and called formulas or laws of nature. We write y = f (x).K . This equation is read y equals f of x . the function (interdependence) is denoted by y = f (x) which is read as y is a function of x . We list some of these deﬁnitions.G. area. g . the volume of a cube is completely deﬁned by the length of its side s : V = s3 3. the set of values y is called the range of the function. 1 Deﬁnition We say there is a function between a dependent variable y and an independent variable x . volume. Some of these deﬁnitions are Mathematicians deﬁne functions according to their own abstract considerations. the names of functions are denoted by f .1.Introduction to Functions 5. For example.h. and 3. time. side. 2 Deﬁnition A function has three components: 1. the roots (or solutions) of the quadratic equation x 2 +2x +n = 0 are given by the formula x = 1∓ 1 − n. For example. Correspondence approach This approach is purely formal and it has been by many authors. a set Y called the range. Interdependency approach The concept of function started with observations that the magnitude of some natural quantities are uniquely deﬁned by the magnitude of other quantities. 4. H . for every value of x from a well deﬁned set of numbers. a rule denoted by f : X → Y . such that for every element x in X . 140 . The rule is denoted by a letter such as f . Some of these quantities are: length. there corresponds a unique value of y . distance. Usually. time and coefﬁcient n independent magnitudes. f (x) = 3x + 4. 1. 2. pressure and so on. speed.T or any other letter. The interdependency leads to calling the area. A set X called the domain. if there is a rule between them such that.

(2. where it is easy to observe whether a relation is a function or not. Another example. 0 1 2 0 2 4 8 0 1 2 2 4 0 1 2 2 4 Figure 5. which violates the deﬁnition of the function. Note. f : X → F . Input We write y = f (x). For example. and modifying the rule to associate y = g (x) to be the oldest child. where F is the set of all fathers which is a subset in Y . the domain of the function is called the input and the range is called the output.2: Not a function Figure 5. the father and the mother are well deﬁned functions and satisfy the conditions of functions.8)}. Ordered pairs can be graphed in the so called mapping diagram.(2.4) is the same. Clearly the ﬁrst component in the distinct pairs (1. In both examples. Black Box analogy In this approach. m : X → M . However by restriction the set on which g to the set of all humans having children.4: A function A relation is a set of ordered pairs. An example of a rule that is not a function is the relationship child: son or daughter. Thus. with the requirement that the machine gives exactly one output for every valid input. but not every relation is a function. y = g (x) is not a function. we can express the ﬁgure 5.1-5. x → Function f → Output y 141 . it is assumed that the function is a machine. that is y = f (x) is the father of x . where the set of the ﬁrst components is the domain and the set of of its second components is the range.4). that is y = g (x) is a child of x from X . Another variant of the above deﬁnition is expressed in terms of ordered pairs. there is no restriction on the domain as we did in the function deﬁnition. 3 Deﬁnition A function is a set of ordered pairs such that no two different ordered pairs have the same ﬁrst component.2). In such a case. or may have many children.(1.1: Mapping diagram of a function .3: Not a function Figure 5. The function f assigns to each x in X a father (deﬁned in concrete way) y in F . let X .2 as the set of ordered pairs {(0.4). or the youngest child. this modiﬁed g is a well deﬁned function. as shown in ﬁgures (5.Y be the sets of all humans. where y = m(x) mother of x and M is the set of all mothers. rule range total set domain Figure 5. we use . Because x may not have a child. Let us call the relationship child g .2). every function is a relation.Chapter 5 For example.(1.0).

2. then the output is 3 × 5 = 15.3).5). For example.(2.(3.7.6. 4. We will give examples illustrating these possibilities.(3. algebraic.8)}. The graph of the function F = {(−4. 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5. The function is identiﬁed by the set {(3. For example y = 3x and y = x 2 . For example.4).9} and the range is the set {3. The rule can be expressed verbally (words). Solution: 1. Algebraic format: The function is identiﬁed by a formula.27} as in the following table x y 1 3 3 9 5 15 7 21 9 27 3. 1.(2. numerically (tables).2 Representations of a Function The function is a rule between two sets. Table representation: x 0 1 2 3 F(x) 1 3 5 7 142 . Table format: The data are given in a table format in which the domain is the set {1. and abstractly (formulas).(−3.−1).5).1.3.7)}.5.1 Example The function F is described by the following set of ordered pairs: F = {(0.(0.5: The graph of function F 5.1).5).21. Thus if the input is 5. visually (Graphs).Introduction to Functions 5.(1. Express the function F in table. verbal and graphical representations.−2).−3)} is shown below. Relation format: The set of all ordered pairs are given explicitly. Graphical format: In this representation the ordered pairs are plotted on a system of coordinates.(−3. Verbal format: the function f is "Triple the input".15. 5.

Range: {0. In the deﬁnition of the function. H is a function. the output is increased by two. F = {(2. 3.7.9: h Solution: 143 . Algebraic (Symbolic) representation: We observe that as we change the input by one.8}.1). F represents a function.3 Example Give the domain and the range and determine whether each relation deﬁnes a function. Thus.0).6}.3}. 1. 3. 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 Figure 5.1}. Each ﬁrst component has a unique second component. The input 2 has two different outputs.(7.0)} Solution: 1.−1}.−1).7: f Figure 5. 5.2 Example Give the domain (the set of all independent ﬁrst component) and the range (the set of all dependent second component) and determine whether each relation deﬁnes a function. Range: {1. Domain: {2.0)} 2.(2.(3.(6.0).0). 4.4.(4. G is not a function. Domain: {2. Domain: {5. G = {(2. Graphical representation: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5. Verbal representation: "Double the input and add one".8: g Figure 5. y = 2x + 1 or F (x) = 2x + 1.−1)} 3.Chapter 5 2. 2.1). Range: {0}. H = {(5. there is no restriction on the output.6: Graph of f = 2x + 1 5.(8. This indicates a linear relationship with slope two and yintercept ﬁve.

f represents a function. Range: {0. f (t) 144 1 2 .7} 5.3}.5.12}.6. 2.1}.4.1.3.3}. y -2 -8 -1 -5 0 -2 1 1 2 4 3 7 Solution: 1. y = −1.1. List the elements of the domain and the range of the function f . h is a function. Domain: {−2.45(10) = 34. Solution: Using the Pythagoras Theorem: d = 2s 5. 5.Introduction to Functions 1.7 Example The price of gasoline in a city is $3. leads to the linear formula y = 3x − 2. g is not a function.6 Example Find the functional relationship between the diagonal d of a square with side s . 1 2 5. Comparing the changes in x and y . This indicates a linear formula with slope 2.8 Example For f (x) = x 2 − 3x . Domain: {−2.8.4 Example Express the numerical data of the function as an equation between x and y . 2.0. 3. when x = 0. f (a) 4. Range: {−1. f (−3) 2. Its domain consists of all positive even integers less than 13. The x-component −2 has two different y-components 0. Domain: {2. 5.3. that is y = 2x + b . f ( ) 3. The difference between consecutive y is 2 as x changes by 1.4.−1}.5 Example The function f is given by the formula f (x) = x +1.6. Solution: 1. So the cost of ten gallons is C = 3. thus y = 2x − 1.45 per gallon. x 1.45x .10.5. Range: {2.3 Evaluation and equality of Functions To evaluate a function f (x) of a value x = a is to replace or to substitute x by a and use the formula or the table or the graph to ﬁnd the value f (a). Range: {2}. Domain: {−2. y -1 1 3 5 7 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 x 2. Express the cost C of a quantity of gasoline as a function of the number x of gallons bought. f (a − 2) 5.3. evaluate the following: 1. 5. Solution: C = 3.1}.

g (2s) = (2s)2 − 2s = 4s 2 − 2s 1. f (−2) = 3(−2)2 − 2(−2) = 12 + 4 = 16 3. Evaluate g (3) and g (1.4).12 Example Are the following pair of functions equal.2).0). f (a − 2) = (a − 2)2 − 3a = a 2 − 4a + 4 − 3a = a 2 − 7a + 4 1 3 1 − 3t − = t2 t t2 5.3). 5. Solution: 1. they produce same output. By looking at the set. 2. g (s) = s 2 − s 3.−1).(4.11 Example Let g (x) = x 2 − x . Take the input 5 and check that f (5) = 3(5) + 1 = 16. f ( ) = 5. g (5) = 3(5) + 1 = 16 5. 2. 2.(5. 1. g (2s) 3.4. g (s) 2. f (3) − f (1) = 3(32 ) − 2(3) − (3(1)2 − 2(1)) = 27 − 6 − 3 + 2 = 20 5. we see that g (1) = 2 and g (2) = 2. f (t) = t 2 − 3t 6. Find 1.(3. g (3) − g (2) Solution: 2.6)}. f (−3) = (−3)2 − 3(−3) = 9 + 9 = 18. f (2) = 3(22 ) − 2(2) = 12 − 4 = 8 2.Chapter 5 6. " f of −3 equals 18. f (−2) and f (3) − f (1). For example.4) = 3. f ( ) = 1 t 4.(2.(1. Find two different values of x such that g (x) = 2. Solution: 1.10 Example For the function f (x) = 3x 2 − 2x evaluate f (2).9 Example For the function g (x) deﬁned by g = {(1.2). f ( ) Solution: 1 1 3 5 − =− 2 4 2 4 3. why? 145 . f (a) = a 2 − 3a 1 t 1. g (3) − g (2) = 32 − 3 − (22 − 2) = 9 − 3 − 4 + 2 = 4 Equality of Functions 4 Deﬁnition Two functions f (x) and g (t) are equal if they have the same domain and for every input. the functions f (x) = 3x + 1 is equal to the function g (t) = 3t + 1 deﬁned on the set of real numbers. g (3) = −1 and g (1.

f (x) = 3x 2 + 4x − 5. The formula deﬁnes real number if x + 4 ≥ 0. that is the domain is (−∞. the domain of g is not speciﬁed. g (x) = x +3 x +6 3. the domain of f (x) = x is x ≥ 0.∞). f (x) = 146 . However. For example. or in interval notation: (−∞. f (x) = 7x 4 − 2x 3 + 5 x .Introduction to Functions 1.−8/3}. x −3 (b) The values that make the radicand of square root ("even roots") a negative number.∞). Both are deﬁned on the set of all real numbers. 3. Explicit domain: The function f (x) = 3x − 5 is deﬁned on [0. h(x) = x + 4 4. The domain is all numbers (−∞.∞). If the function is given as a set of ordered pairs. 2 4. the domain of f (x) = 2x is x = 3. f (t) is not equal to g (t). The domain of any function in algebraic form is all real numbers except: (a) The values that make denominator zero. For example. Here.4 Domain of Functions The domain of a function is the set of all elements where the function is well deﬁned. 5.1. they have the same expression. h(x) = x + 4. f (x) = x 2 − 1 and g (x) = (x + 1)(x − 1). 2. if the function is given as an expression (formula). (x − 2)(3x + 8) 5. 2. They have the same domain and the same expression. then the domain is either given explicitly or implicitly. f (t) = 3t + 3 deﬁned on the set t > 0 and g (t) = 3t + 3 deﬁned on the set t < 0 Solution: 1. For example. They are deﬁned on different domains. The expression is deﬁned for all real number. so we always assume that the domain is all real numbers that is (−∞.−6) and (−6. 2x + 7 . 5. then the domain is the set of all ﬁrst components as seen before. f (x) = 3x 2 + 4x − 5 2. although. 1.13 Example Find the domain of the following functions 1. thus the x +6 domain can be expressed as x = −6.9]. f (x) = 6. f (x) is equal to the function g (x). The domain is all numbers except {2. that is x ≥ −4.∞) except where the function fails to be well deﬁned "real number". Implicit domain: Given a function g (x) = 3x −5. h(x) = 3x − 5 Solution: 1. 2. f (x) = 7x 4 − 2x 3 + 2 x 5 5. g (x) = x +3 . Clearly the domain is the given interval. g (x) = 2x + 7 (x − 2)(3x + 8) x2 − 4 x 2 − 7x + 12 7. 2. The expression makes sense for all real numbers except when x = −6.

The simpler the better.−2). 5 3 x 2 − 7x + 12 .5 the graph of the function F = {(−4. f (x) = 7x 2 + 5 − |3 − 2x|. 5. h(x) = x 2 + 1 Solution: 1. that is x ≥ .(2.8)} 2.Chapter 5 x2 − 4 6. h(x) = 4 + 2x . This visualization is accomplished with the help of the familiar Cartesian coordinate system.−3)} is represented by four points.(3. F = {(−2. The domain is all numbers except where x 2 − 7x + 12 = 0.2} 3. D = (−∞. f (x) = 7x 2 + 5 − |3 − 2x| 3. g (x) = (x − 3)(x − 4) = 0 we solve x = 3.4. h(x) = 3x − 5: The domain is all numbers for which 3x − 5 ≥ 0 or x < 5.∞) 5. D = {x|x = − } 2x + 5 2 2.15 Example Sketch the function f (x) = −2x + 2 on the interval [0.(−3. that is the domain is all numbers except {3. Select several values of x and compute the corresponding y values. F = {(−2.1.−2.3] Solution: General steps to draw graphs by hand: 1.∞).0. f (x) = 1 .14 Example Find the domain of the following functions 1. Rewrite the function in the familiar format y = −2x + 3 2.4). h(x) = x 2 + 1.0. We already saw in Figure 5.4. h(x) = 4 + 2x 6. D = {x|x = 2} x −2 3x − 12 5 4. g (x) = .6). by factoring 5 3 7.(2. g (x) = 1 x −2 3x − 12 2x + 5 5. . or decimals 2 3 4 4 should be sufﬁcient to draw the main features of the graph and this is gained by experimenting with graphing functions.(2.1. 147 .0. The choice of these inputs is up to the user.−1). y) where x varies over the domain D .4.∞) 6.8)}.(0. and the number of these points 1 1 1 3 .4).6).4).0. The values of x usually are whole numbers such as −5. or in interval notation [ . D = {−2.5 Graphical Representation of Functions The graphical representation of a function is to visualize the correspondence between the input values and the output values based on the given rule of the function. D = (−∞. simple fractions such as 0.(0. .0. 5.2.4}. D = {x|x ≥ −2} 5.1. The deﬁnition will be illustrated by the following example. The approach is to plot enough points whose coordinates satisfy the functional relation.6. 5 Deﬁnition The graph of a function y = f (x) deﬁned on a domain D is the set of all points of the form (x. f (x) = 4.

-4) 4.0) 1 -1 (1.-2) (3. Create a table 148 .Introduction to Functions 3. Create a table x 0 1 2 3 y=f(x)=-2x+2 2 0 -2 -4 (x.0) 3 3 (3. Connect the points 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5.2) (1.16 Example Sketch the function f (x) = x 2 − 2x Solution: General steps to draw graphs by hand: 1. Plot the points 6. Rewrite the function in the familiar format y = x 2 − 2x x y (x.0) (2.8) -1 3 (-1.3) 0 0 (0.10: f = −2x + 2 5.3) 4 8 (4.-1) 2 0 (2. Draw a system of coordinates 5.8) Figure 5.y) (0.y) -2 8 (-2.11: f = −2x + 2 2.

5) Plot the points and connect them.17 Example Sketch the function f (x) = |x| on the interval [−5.2) -1 1 (-1.13: The graph of function f(x) 5. Plot the points 5. Connect the points 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure 5. 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5. Draw a system of coordinates 4.y) -5 5 (-2.0) 1 1 (1.12: The graph of points of (x.5) Rewrite as y = |x|. Select several values of x and compute the corresponding y -2 2 (-2.1) 3 3 (3.3) 5 5 (5.5] Solution: values: x y (x.1) 0 0 (0.Chapter 5 3.14: f = |x| Figure 5.15: f = |x| 149 .f(x)) Figure 5.

then the graph can be used to determine the values. the domain and the range of the function.16 Figure 5. ii. (b) To ﬁnd the value of x for which f (x) = −2: 150 .15) and the graph of function g is given in Figure (5. That is no formula or numerical values.Introduction to Functions Interpretations of Graphs If the graph of a function is the only given representation.17 Solution: (a) To ﬁnd the value f (1): i.2). Note the point of intersection on the graph is (1. We also. Finding the values of a function from its graph We illustrate the techniques of estimating the values of the function from its graph by example. Estimate the value f (1) = 2. can determine if a given graph represent a function or just a relation between variables. iv.16). Locate 1 on the x-axis. 5. 1.18 Example The graph of function f is given in Figure (5. Move horizontally to the y-axis. Move vertically until you reach the graph. iii. (a) Find f (1) (b) Find the value of x for which f (x) = −2 (d) Find g (1) (c) Is −1.5 in the domain of f ? (e) Find the value of x for which g (x) = 1 (f) Is −3 in the domain of g ? 7 6 4 5 3 4 3 2 1 1 2 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 1 2 3 4 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure 5.

18) 5 4 3 2 1 5 4 3 2 1 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5. The projection on x-axis covers the entire line. Locate −2 on the y-axis. then the input is in the domain. Similarly. Move vertically to the x-axis.19 Example The graph of function f is given in Figure (5. (c) (d) (e) (f) 2.17) and the graph of function g is given in Figure (5.18). It is possible to estimate the domain by combining all x values such that the vertical line passing through it intersects the graph this approach can be said by considering the projection of the graph on x-axis.5] 5. The graph point is (−3. Finding the domain and range of a function from its graph We note that the domain is assumed to be on x-axis and the range on y-axis. (a) Find the domain and range of the function f (x) from Figure (5. Thus the domain is the set of all real numbers. The range is also the set of all real numbers. The range is the interval [−4. That is x = −1.15) and the graph of function g is given in Figure (5.16) Solution: (a) The graph of the function f (x) is extended in both direction. Estimate the value x = −3.19 151 . iii.3] which represents the domain. because there is no intersection with the vertical line passing through x = −3.20 Example The graph of function f is given in Figure (5.18 Figure 5.Chapter 5 i.5 is in the domain of f . iv.17) (b) Find the domain and range of the function g (x) from Figure (5. (b) The projection of the graph of g (x) can be seen to be the interval [−2. 5.16).25 for which g (x) = 1 The input −3 is not in the domain of g . Move horizontally until you reach the graph. intersects the graph. If the vertical line passing through the input point. ii.−2) To check if the input x = −1.15) (b) Find the domain and range of the function g (x) from Figure (5. (a) Find the domain and range of the function f (x) from Figure (5. the range can be estimated by identifying the projection of the graph on y-axis. We follow the previous procedure to estimate that g (1) = −3 We estimate that x ≈ 2.5 in the domain of f .

20 do not represent a function because they fail the vertical line test.∞) and the range is [−2.21 152 . the graph of Figures 5. Figure 5.3] 3. Does every graph represent a function? Some graphs represent functions and some graphs do not.∞) (b) The domain of g (x) is the interval [−3.19 and 5. we conclude that the domain of f(x) is [−4.20 Figure 5. we have the so called the vertical line test: If a vertical line intersects the graph at more than one point. then the graph does not deﬁne a function. For example. To test for functional relationship.3] and the range is [0.Introduction to Functions Solution: (a) By considering the projection of the graph.

9). 1)} 5.(6.1. (4.1. ﬁnd 1. f (3) 3. f (a) 2.11)} 5.5). (0. 5.2 {(1.1.1).15 f (x) = 2 − 4 − 2x ﬁnd 5.1. ﬁnd 1.4 x 2 + y 2 = 9 5. f (a + 3) 3. f (x) − f (3) 5.16 f (x) = 5.1. h(3) 3. (2.5).1.1).(2.10 f (x) = x 5.1.11 f (x) = 2 3x 5.1)} 5. 5. 4f (x) Determine the domain of the following functions 5.1.12 f (x) = (x − 3)2 5.6 Given f (x) = −3x + 1.1. f (3x) 5.1.6 Homework: Introduction to Functions Determine which of the relations are functions. h(2) 2.10). f (a − 1) 3.(3.1.(4.0).1.1. h( ) 5. −1).1.1).1. h(a) 1 3 2 3 5.9 Given f (x) = x 2 + 5x − 3. · · · } 5. f (a − 3) 4.1.2).(4.Chapter 5 5.1. f (−a) 2.−1). ﬁnd 1. f (x 2 ) f (x) = x 2 − 5x .(3. f (a + h) 5.19 F = {(1.1.3 y = 3x + 1 5.(2.1 {(2.13 f (x) = 4x − 9 5.17 f (x) = 6x 5x + 2 3x (x + 2)(3x − 1) 1 3 4.0).(2.18 F = {(1.7 Given 1. f (a) + 3 4.14 f (x) = x 3 − 5x 2 + 7 5. f (−2 + 5) 3.(3.20 f (x) = 3x x2 + 3 153 .1.1. f (a + h) 5. f (−2) + f (5) 2.1.3). ﬁnd 1.5 Given h(x) = x − .8 Given f (x) = x 2 − 6x + 9. f (a) 2.

b.2 Quadratic Functions: Parabolas OBJECTIVES • Quadratic functions and parabolas • The vertex and axis of symmetry • Finding the zeros 6 Deﬁnition A quadratic function f in one variable x is a second degree polynomial function of the form f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c. and c are real numbers and a = 0.0) 1 1 (1. f (x) = x 2 − 2x − 3 and f (x) = 4x 2 − 1. can be studied by plotting enough points y = x 2 as demonstrated in the two tables and the corresponding ﬁgures: x y (x.4) 3 9 (3.22: 7 points of (x.23: 13 points of (x.Quadratic Functions: Parabolas 5. The simplest quadratic function is f (x) = x 2 .9) and the table with additional points 5 2 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 3 2 9 4 5 2 25 4 x y -3 9 - -2 4 - -1 1 - 0 0 1 1 2 4 3 9 25 4 9 4 1 4 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 Figure 5. where a. y = x 2 ) Figure 5.9 -2 4 (-2.1) 2 4 (2.y) -3 9 (-3. The graph of this function in the x-y plane. For example.4) -1 1 (-1. y = x 2 ) 154 .1) 0 0 (0.

Parabolic mirrors are used in telescope construction. The parabola has a line of symmetry that passes through its vertex.Chapter 5 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 1 2 3 Figure 5.25: Parabolas Every quadratic function in general form f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c can be rewritten in the form of f (x) = a(x − h)2 + k. 155 . 2. Any point on the parabolas is equidistant from a ﬁxed point (focus) and a straight line (directrix).24: The graph of quadratic function f (x) = x 2 The graph of y = x 2 is called parabola. Balls with different initial velocities 8 7 6 5 Height 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 Distance 10 12 14 16 Figure 5. The surface of a liquid in a rotating container is a paraboloid of revolution. It has a U shaped graph. 3. This can be observed by stirring a glass of water with a spoon. The vertex of a vertical parabola is its lowest point or highest point and its axis of symmetry is a vertical line passing through the vertex. 4. A tossed stone travels along a parabola. Parabolas have very interesting properties and can be observed in many applications 1.

y = 3x 2 on the same system of coordinates y= 1 2 x on the same system of coordinates 16 1 2 x . The graphs of y = −x 2 . x y = x2 y = 2x 2 y = 3x 2 0 0 0 0 ∓1 ∓2 ∓3 ∓4 1 2 3 4 8 12 9 18 27 16 32 48 Solution: 1. Thus. 4 y = 2x 2 .27 156 .26 Figure 5.1 Graphs of f (x) = ax 2 1. y= 1 2 x . Graph y = x 2 . the function f (x) = 3x 2 − 6x + 5 can be rewritten as f (x) = 3(x − 1)2 + 2. Discuss the effect of changing a on their graphs.21 Example 2. y = 5. so that h = 1. 5. Compare the table values of y = x 2 . 3. y = −4x 2 . y = −4x 2 .h.k = 2.Quadratic Functions: Parabolas where h and k will be speciﬁed and derived in the following section. Graph y = x 2 . 4 y= 1 2 x on the same system of coordinates 16 y = −x 2 . y = 3x 2 How is the graph of the parabola y = ax 2 changes as a varies? 5. 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3 Figure 5. Graph y = x 2 . y = − x 2 are reﬂected with respect to x-axis with vertical 4 stretching and compression. The output in the table values are multiplied by a factor a as compared to y = f (x). 2. The graphs of y = 2x 2 . The graph y = x 2 . 1 2 y= 1 2 x are vertically compressed by a factor of a 16 1 4. y = 3x 2 are vertically stretched by a factor of a 3. For example.2. the study of the graph of any quadratic function can be reduced to the investigation of the effects of the parameters a. 4. y = 2x 2 .k on the graph of the function.

2.28: y = x 2 . 2. The parabola has a vertex (0. 3.29: y = x 2 .22 Example Graph the parabolas and compare their graphs 1.0). x 2 − 4 157 . y = −4x 2 .Chapter 5 7 Deﬁnition The the vertex of the parabolas y = ax 2 is the origin (0. y = −1/4x 2 5. y = x 2 + 3. y = −x 2 . The parabola opens downward when a < 0 3. y = x 2 . The parabola stretches vertically when |a| > 1 and compresses vertically when |a| < 1 4. x 2 + 3.2 Graphs of f (x) = ax 2 + k What are the effects of adding or subtracting k units to the output of the function f = ax 2 ? 5. The parabola opens upward when a > 0 2. y = x 2 − 4 Figure 5. and the axis of symmetry is the vertical line passing through the vertex: x = 0. Main conclusions The effects of a on the graph of y = ax 2 are 1.0) and axis of symmetry x = 0 5 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 −4 1 2 3 Figure 5.

such that 1. The parabola opens up because a = 2 > 0. If h < 0. The parabola opens up when the parameter a > 0 and opens down when a < 0.3). then the shift is k units upward. Its vertex is (0. The graph of y = a(x − h)2 has vertex (h. 158 . then the shift is h units to the left.2.−4) and the axis of symmetry is x = 3. y = (x − 3)2 3.0) and axis of symmetry x = h . The graph of y = ax 2 + k is a vertical shift. 5. The graph of y = x 2 − 4 is shifted downward compared to the graph of y = x 2 . 2. then the shift is h units to the right. y = x 2 2.3 Graphs of f (x) = a(x − h)2 What are the effects of adding or subtracting h units to the input of the function f = ax 2 ? 5. 2. If k > 0. Its vertex is (0.−4). y = (x − 3)2 The graph of y = (x + 4)2 is a horizontal translation (or horizontal shift) of the graph y = x 2 . Solution: To ﬁnd the vertex we let −h = −3. such that 1. compared to the graph of y = x 2 . Main conclusions Suppose the graph of y = ax 2 is given. 5. y = (x + 4)2 y = x2 Figure 5. 3. The graph of y = a(x − h)2 is a horizontal shift.0). 5.30: y = (x + 4)2 .0). Main conclusions Suppose the graph of y = ax 2 is given.2. Its vertex is (3.4 Graphs of f (x) = a(x − h)2 + k The graph of the quadratic function f (x) = a(x − h)2 + k is a parabola with vertex (h.k) and axis of symmetry x = h . If h > 0.24 Example Graph y = 2(x − 3)2 − 4 by identifying the vertex and axis of symmetry.h = 3 and k = −4 so the vertex is (3. Its vertex is (−4.Quadratic Functions: Parabolas The graph of y = x 2 + 3 is a vertical translation (or vertical shift) of the graph y = x 2 . then the shift is k units downward. y = x 2 .23 Example Graph the parabolas and compare their graphs 1. The graph of y = (x − 3)2 is shifted to the right by 3 units. the shift is to the left by 4 units. If k < 0.

25 Example Determine the vertex. 5. and the parabola opens down (a = −1 < 0). The axis of symmetry is x = −1.Chapter 5 5.3). and the parabola opens up 159 .−4). the axis of symmetry is x = 5.26 Example Determine the vertex and the axis of symmetry of y = 2(x − 5)2 + 3 Solution: (a = 2 > 0). The vertex is (5. the axis of symmetry and the direction of y = −(x + 1)2 − 4 Solution: The vertex is (−1.

2.2.2.6 f (x) = −(x + 5)2 + 6 5.2.Quadratic Functions: Parabolas 5. 5.14 f (x) = 2(x − 3)2 + 9 5.15 f (x) = (x − 5)2 + 5 6 1 4 5.2.2.2.2.2.16 f (x) = −(x + 1)2 + 4 5.9 f (x) = −4x 2 5.18 f (x) = 3(x + 2)2 160 . then graph the following functions by identifying their transformations 5.2.4 f (x) = −x 2 + 2 5.3 f (x) = x 2 + 2 5.2.10 f (x) = − x 2 5.8 f (x) = x 2 1 2 f (x) = x 2 .2.2.2.11 f (x) = 5x 2 − 8 Identify the vertex and line of symmetry 5.2.5 Homework: Quadratic Functions Graph the functions by setting up a table of values for x and y 5.2.2 y = −x 2 + 4x + 4 Graph the reference function f (x) = x 2 .7 f (x) = −(x − 3)2 − 1 Graph the reference function then graph the following functions by identifying their transformations 5.13 f (x) = 5(x + 4)2 − 2 5.2.2.12 f (x) = −3x 2 − 5 5.1 y = 2x 2 − 4 5.17 f (x) = −(x − 6)2 − 7 5.5 f (x) = (x − 3)2 − 4 5.2.

The vertex point 2. The characteristics of a parabola are 1.29 Example Find the vertex and axis of symmetry of the quadratic function f (x) = x 2 − 6x + 5 Solution: We use completing the square method f (x) = x 2 − 6x + 5 = x 2 − 6x + 9 − 9 + 5 = (x − 3)2 − 4 Add a number to complete the square and subtract it Compare with f (x) = a(x −h)2 +k to conclude that a = 1.3 Quadratic Functions: General form It is important to recognize that the graph of ay quadratic function of the form f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c is a vertical parabola. The y-intercept point These values will be easily identiﬁed once we express the general form in standard form that is to write f (x) = a(x − h)2 + k .28 Example Find the vertex and axis of symmetry of the quadratic function f (x) = x 2 − 3x Solution: We use completing the square method f (x) = x 2 − 3x 9 9 − 4 4 3 9 = (x − )2 − 2 4 = x 2 − 3x + Add a number to complete the square and subtract it The vertex is (3/2.−1) and the axis of symmetry is x = −1. The vertex is (3.Chapter 5 5.−4) and the axis of symmetry is x = 3. The axis of symmetry 4. 161 . The direction of its opening: Up or down 3. We will illustrate these properties by the following examples: 5. h = 3. 5. The x-intercept points which are also called zeros or roots of the quadratic function 5. k = −1. k = −4. 5.27 Example Find the vertex and axis of symmetry of the quadratic function f (x) = x 2 + 2x Solution: We use completing the square method f (x) = x 2 + 2x = x 2 + 2x + 1 − 1 2 Add a number to complete the square and subtract it = (x + 1) − 1 Compare with f (x) = a(x − h)2 + k to conclude that a = 1. The vertex is (−1. This will be accomplished by completing the square method. h = −1.−9/4) and the axis of symmetry is x = −3/2.

b = 4.b = −12. y = 2x 2 + 5x Solution: Use the formulas: h = − b b and k = f (h) = f (− ) 2a 2a −12 = −2. h = − 162 . k = y() = 5(− ) + 15(− ) = 10 2 2 2 4 2 4 1. f (x) = 4x 2 − 6x + 7 3. thus the x-coordinate of the vertex is x = − 4 b = − = −1. y = −3x 2 − 12x − 1: a = −3. we have b 4ac − b 2 and k = .c = 7.c = −1.−8) as derived in the previous example. h = − 8 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 3 45 45 45 15 2 − =− 3. the parameters of the parabola f (x) = 2x 2 +4x −6 are a = 2. The value of k is hard to memorize. The general formula for ﬁnding the vertex of the quadratic function f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c is given by (− b b . y = 5x + 15x : a = 2. h = −1.Quadratic Functions: General form 5. easier substitution k = f (h) = f (− ) = 2a 4a h=− 5.−8) and the axis of symmetry is x = −1. By comparison. k = −8.c = −6.c = 0. h = − = − . the y-coordinate is computed as follows: y = f (−1) = 2(−1)2 + 4(−1) − 6 = 2a 4 2 − 4 − 6 = −8. f (x) = 4x 2 − 6x + 7: a = 4.31 Example Find the vertex of the following parabolas: 1. that is the vertex is (−1. f (− )) 2a 2a For example. To see how this formula is obtained we use the complete of square to the general form: f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c = a(x 2 + b x) + c a b2 b2 b − )+c = a(x 2 + x + a 4a 2 4a 2 b 2 b 2 4c a = a(x + ) − + 2a 4a 4a b 2 4ac − b 2 f (x) = a x + + 2a 4a The last equation is the equation of quadratic function in standard form.b = −6.b = 15.30 Example Find the vertex and axis of symmetry of the quadratic function f (x) = 2x 2 + 4x − 6 Solution: We use completing the square method f (x) = 2x 2 + 4x − 6 = 2(x 2 + 2x) − 6 2 Factor the coefﬁcient of x 2 Add a number to complete the square and subtract it = 2(x 2 + 2x + 1 − 1) − 6 = 2(x + 2x + 1) − 2 − 6 f (x) = 2(x + 1)2 − 8 Compare with f (x) = a(x − h)2 + k to conclude that a = 2. y = −3x 2 − 12x − 1 2. instead we use an equivalent but an 2a 4a 4ac − b 2 b . k = y(−2) = −3(−2)2 − 12(−2) − 1 = 11 −6 3 3 3 9 18 4 19 −6 3 = . k = f ( ) = 4( )2 − 6( ) + 7 = − +7 = 2. The vertex is (−1.

) 8 8 8 8 16 8 16 3 ∓ 9 − 80 3 ∓ −71 2.−5. −x 2 + 4x − 5 = 0. the zeros are complex numbers.and y. hence x = 0.8) 1. The y-intercept: y = f (0) = 02 + 5(0) = 0. The parameter a = −1 indicates the parabola opens down.32 Example Find the length and width of a rectangle. y = x 2 + x − 2 2.3. or x 2 − 4x + 5 = 0.Chapter 5 The y-coordinate of the vertex represent the minimum of upward parabola. The x-intercepts: Set x 2 +5x = 0.33 Example Find the intercepts of y = x 2 + 5x Solution: 1. we proceed as follows 1. so the y-intercept is the point (0. y = f (x) = 4( )2 − 3 + 5 = .35 Example Find the zeros of the following quadratic functions 1. so the intercept points are (0.0) and (−5. solve by factoring (x − 4)(x − 2) = 0.4. The y-intercept is easily computed y = f (0) 2.b = −3. The x-intercepts: Set x 2 − 6x + 8 = 0. x 2 + x − 2 = 0. x = − A = −(9)2 + 18(9) = 81 18 = 9 and −2 5.b = 1. 4 ∓ 16 + 25 4 ∓ 41 = 2 2 5. so the y-intercept is the point (0.0) 2. so the intercept points are (2. The vertex: x = − not intersect x-axis. Solution: Let L = x be the length then the width will be W = 18 − x . 163 . set y = 0 and solve the equations for x −1 ∓ 1 + 4 −1 ∓ 5 = 2 2 Use quadratic formula with a = 1.c = 5 and use the vertex formula and the quadratic formula 3 3 53 3 53 −3 3 = .intercepts To ﬁnd the intercepts of f (x) = ax 2 + bx + c .1 Finding the x.0) 5. 4x 2 −3x +5. x = = .0) 5. so the area is a maximum. and its vertex is the maximal value.( .c = −1: x = 2. whose sum is 18. y = −x 2 + 4x − 5 Solution: To ﬁnd the zeros. The x-intercepts or (zeros) are the solution of the equation f (x) = 0 5.34 Example Find the intercepts of y = x 2 − 6x + 8 Solution: 2. solve by factoring x(x+5) = 0.b = −4. hence x = 2.36 Example Find the vertex and the zeros of the parabola y = 4x 2 − 3x + 5 Solution: Identify a = 4. The y-intercept: y = f (0) = 02 − 6(0) + 8 = 0. Use quadratic formula with a = 1. or the maximum of downward parabola.0) and (4. 5. The area is their product and can be considered as a function of x : A = x(18 − x) = −x 2 + 18x .c = 5: x = 1. so the parabola does 8 8 1.

3.2 y = x 2 + 2x 5.11 f (x) = x 2 − 2x + 3 5.3.3.7 f (x) = −3x 2 − 30x − 70 Find the vertex.3.5 f (x) = −x 2 − 5x − 2 5. 5. then sketch the graph.4 y = x 2 + 14x + 50 5.3. and direction of the parabola.3.8 y = x 2 − 4 5.3.15 f (x) = −x 2 + 4x + 1 5.10 y = 9 − x 2 5. axis of symmetry.1 y = x 2 − 4x 5.3.3.13 f (x) = x 2 − 8x + 12 5.14 f (x) = 3x 2 − 6x + 3 5.9 y = −x 2 − 1 5.3 y = x 2 − 6x + 9 5.3.3.16 f (x) = −x 2 − 6 5.3. y-intercept.3. x-intercepts.Quadratic Functions: General form 5.3.3.3.2 Homework: Quadratic Functions: General Form Write each quadratic function in the form y = a(x − h)2 + k and sketch its graph.18 y = (x − 4)2 − 1 164 .12 f (x) = x 2 + 10x + 25 5.3.3. 5.17 f (x) = x 2 + 5x 5.3.6 f (x) = 2x 2 + 8x − 5 5.

where a is a real number. Its graph is a straight line. x 2 .4 Function Transformations and their Graphs 8 Deﬁnition The graph of a function y = f (x) is the set of all points of the form (x. (c) The quadratic function is represented by the function f (x) = x 2 . x 4 . The graph of this function is a horizontal line. In this section. Its graph is a rotated graph of the cube function and its domain is the entire number line. For example. (d) The cubic function is represented by the function f (x) = x 3 . x 3 . y = 3 and y = −4 are two horizontal lines. using graphing calculators is encouraged as an appropriate tool to investigate the properties of functions. x. 4 x. Its graph has two branches extending in opposite direction to ∞ Note that the similarity of graphs of even and odd powers.Chapter 5 5. (b) The linear function is represented by the function f (x) = x . Its graph is a half horizontal parabola and its domain is restricted to positive numbers.32: y = x 3 Figure 5.1 Graphs of basic functions In this section. 3 x. We already studied the parabola and its graph.33: y = x 4 Figure 5. 165 . The root functions are the reference functions for radicals: f (x) = x.· · · (a) The square root function is represented by the function f (x) = x . Figure 5.31: y = x 2 Figure 5. for example. In the following sections.4. 1. (b) The cubic root function is represented by the function f (x) = 3 x . The general form of linear functions is f (x) = mx + b . The properties of linear functions are studied in the chapter on straight lines.34: y = x 5 2. y = 2x + 5 and y = −3x + 1. 5. f (x)) plotted on the plane and x is any value in the domain of the function. we will restrict our examples and illustrations to polynomials of degree three or less. we will list the basic functions that are encountered in algebra and its applications.· · · (a) The constant function has the form f (x) = a . The power functions are the reference (base) functions for polynomials: f (x) = x 0 .

This function is not deﬁned at x Figure 5. f (x).2 Transformations of Functions and their Graphs In this section we will study the following questions: 1. This leads to conclude that the graph of y = f (x) + k is a mere vertical shift of the graph of y = f (x) by k units upward. where h is a real number? 3. transformation. 1. What are the effects of shifting the input on the graph of the function y = f (x)? That is how the graph of y = f (x ∓h) is compared to the graph of y = f (x) . y = |x| 2. we will assume that the function y = f (x) is one of the basic functions and the numbers k and h are real positive numbers. In the following discussion.38 Example Graph the function y = f (x) = x 3 . sketch the graph of the following functions and compare them to the reference function.4. 5.35: y = x Figure 5. where k is a real number? 2.38: y = 1 x 5. Comparing the points (x. where a is a real number? The words: shift. 4. 1 . The coordinates of each point are the pairs of numbers (x. What are the effects of shifting the output by a number on the graph of the function y = f (x)? That is how the graph of y = f (x)∓k is compared to the graph of y = f (x). translation have the same deﬁnition in this text. The rational function is represented by the function f (x) = x = 0 and it has two branches and it is called a hyperbola. What are the effects of scaling the output on the graph of the function y = f (x)? That is how the graph of y = a f (x) is compared to the graph of y = f (x) . f (x) and (x. y = |x| − 4 5. Similarly the graph of y = f (x) − k is a vertical shift of the graph of y = f (x) by k units downward.Function Transformations and their Graphs 3. f (x) + k) shows a vertical shift upward by a k units. The graph of the function y = f (x) + k is also a curve. f (x) + k).37 Example For the function y = |x|.36: y = 3 x Figure 5. The coordinates of each point are the pairs (x. Sketch and write the formula of the graph that it is obtained from y = x 3 by the following transformations: 166 . The absolute value function is represented by the function f (x) = |x|.37: y = |x| Figure 5. Vertical Shifts (Vertical Translations) The graph of a function y = f (x) is a curve in the xy-plane. y = |x| + 2 3. It has a V shaped graph.

y = x − 4. y = |x −2|. y = x − 4.39 Example Plot the function y = x . The shift of f (x +h) is h units to the left. y = x 3 + 2. y = x − 4 167 . y = |x| + 2. 2. y = x + 5.5 y = |x| − 4 y = x3 − 2 Figure 5.40: y = x 3 . the graph of y = f (x − h) is the same as graph y = f (x) but horizontally shifted to the right by h units. y = x 3 − 2 Horizontal Shifts (Horizontal Translations) Comparing the graphs of y = f (x) and y = f (x + h) shows that the graph of y = f (x + h) is the same as the y = f (x) but horizontally shifted to the left by h units. y = x + 5.5.Chapter 5 1. y = |x −2|. 5. y = x − 2 are shifted two units to the right.5 units 2. 1. Shift the graph down by 2 units 3. Similarly. The shift of f (x −h) is h units to the right. the functions y = (x −2)2 . Shift the graph up by 2. For example. y = (x −3)3 . y = (x −3)3 .39: y = |x|. the functions y = (x −2)2 . y= y= x +4 x −5 y= x +5 y= x +5 y= x −4 y= x −4 Figure 5. For example.41: y = x. y = x − 2 are shifted two units to the right. then use the shifting techniques to sketch the graphs of 1. y = x + 5. Shift the graph up by 1 units y = |x| + 2 y = x 3 + 2. y = |x| − 4 Figure 5. y = x 3 + 1. Note that the shift in the input moves in the opposite sign: 2.

y = 2|x| 2. y = 4 x. The graph of y = a f (x) is compressed towards x-axis if a < 1 5.44: The point P and its reﬂections The reﬂections of a function follow the same constructions. y = |x| 5. y) is called the horizontal reﬂection or simply the reﬂection of P across x-axis. The point H (−x. For example The points P(2. y = 1 x 2 Reﬂections The graph of a function y = f (x) can be reﬂected vertically and horizontally. y = 2|x|. y = |x| 1 4 Figure 5.40 Example Graph the function y = |x| and sketch the graph of the scaled functions 1.43: y = x.42: y = |x|. We start with the reﬂection of a point P(x.3) and V (2.−y) is called the vertical reﬂection or simply the reﬂection of P across x-axis. 168 . The point V (x. For example The points P(2. 2. y = 1 x 2 y = 2|x| y =4 x 1 4 y= 1 |x| 4 y= 1 x 2 Figure 5. y): 1. y = 4 x 2.−3) are vertical reﬂections.3) are horizontal reﬂections.3) and H (−2. H P V Figure 5. The graph of y = a f (x) is stretched away from x-axis if a > 1 2.41 Example Graph the function y = f (x) = x and sketch the graphs of the scaled functions 1.Function Transformations and their Graphs Stretching and Compression 9 Deﬁnition For a well deﬁned function y = f (x). we have 1.

Chapter 5 1. The graph of y = − f (x) is the vertical reﬂection (with respect to x-axis) of the graph of y = f (x). 2. The graph of y = f (−x) is the horizontal reﬂection (with respect to y-axis) of the graph of y = f (x). 5.42 Example Graph the function y = f (x) = x and sketch the graphs of the following functions 1. y = − x 2. y = −x

y=

−x

y=

x

y =− x

Figure 5.45: y = x, y = − x, y = −x Combining shifts and reﬂections For a given graph of a function y = f (x), the graph of y = f (x − h) + k is 1. a vertical shift of k units and 2. a horizontal shift of h units of the graph of y = f (x). The graph of y = − f (x − h) + k is a vertical shift of k units, a horizontal shift of h units, and a reﬂection of the graph of y = f (x). 5.43 Example Assume the graph of y = f (x) is given. Identify the translations and reﬂections that can be applied to y = f (x) to graph the following functions: 1. y = f (x) + 4 2. y = f (x − 4) 3. y = f (x) − 6 4. y = f (x + 6) 5. y = − f (x) + 5 6. y = − f (x − 5) − 7 7. y = − f (x + 1) − 3 8. y = 3 f (x − 2) + 8 Solution: 1. y = f (x) + 4: 4 units up

5. y = − f (x) + 5: 5 units up and a vertical reﬂection 169

4. y = f (x + 6): 6 units to the left

3. y = f (x) − 6: 6 units down

2. y = f (x − 4): 4 units to the right

Function Transformations and their Graphs 6. y = − f (x − 5) − 7: 7 units down, 5 units to the right, and a vertical reﬂection

8. y = 3 f (x − 2) + 8: 8 units up, 2 units to the right, and a vertical stretching

7. y = − f (x + 1) − 3: 3 units down, 1 units to the left, and a vertical reﬂection

**5.44 Example The graphs of y = f (x) and y = g (x) are given in the ﬁgures. Find an expression for the function g (x).
**

5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5

g

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

g

f = x2

0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0

f = x2 g

0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5

f = x2

1

2

3

4

5

−5 −4 −3 −2 −1

0

1

2

3

4

5

Figure 5.46: a

Figure 5.47: b

Figure 5.48: c

Solution:

The formulas of the function g are:

3. Figure c: g (x) = (x − 3)2 − 2

2. Figure b: g (x) = −(x + 3)2 + 1

1. Figure a: g (x) = (x − 2)2 + 1

**5.45 Example The graphs of y = f (x) and y = g (x) are given in the ﬁgures. Find an expression for the function g (x).
**

5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5

g

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

g f = |x|

f = x3

0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0

f =

x

0 −1 −2

g

1 2 3 4 5

−3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5

Figure 5.49: a

Figure 5.50: b

Figure 5.51: c

Solution:

The formulas of the function g are:

1. Figure a: g (x) = x 3 + 2

2. Figure b: g (x) = − x + 3 − 2 3. Figure c: g (x) = −|x − 2| + 5

170

Chapter 5 5.46 Example The graph of the function y = f (x) is given. Match the following functions to the graphs in the ﬁgure. 1. y = f (x − 2) − 3 2. y = − f (x) + 4 3. y = f (x + 4) + 2 4. y = − f (x + 2.5) − 2.5

5 4 3 2 1

(a)

(b)

f

0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5

(c)

(d )

Figure 5.52: Functions Matching

Solution: 1. y = f (x − 2) − 3: (d)

4. y = − f (x + 2.5) − 2.5: (b)

3. y = f (x + 4) + 2: (c)

2. y = − f (x) + 4: (a)

171

Function Transformations and their Graphs

**5.4.3 Homework: Function Transformations
**

Identify the function y = f (x) and list the transformations in each function. 5.4.1 f (x) = (x − 3)2 + 5 5.4.2 f (x) = −(x + 4)3 5.4.3 f (x) = |x − 5| − 3 5.4.4 f (x) = − x − 2 − 4 Write the equation of the graph after the requested transformations. 5.4.5 The graph of y = |x| is shifted two units downward. 5.4.6 The graph of y = |x| is shifted ﬁve units to the left and one unit upward. 5.4.7 The graph of y = x 3 is shifted three units to the right and three unit upward. 5.4.8 The graph of is shifted four units downward and is reﬂected with respect x-axis. 5.4.9 The graph of y = x is shifted two units upward, seven units to the right and is reﬂected with respect xaxis. Use transformations of the function y = x 3 to graph the following functions. 5.4.10 f (x) = (x + 6)3 − 3 5.4.11 f (x) = −x 3 + 2

y = x3

5.4.12 f (x) = −(x + 1)3 − 3 5.4.13 f (x) = −0.5x 3 5.4.14 f (x) = −2x 3 + 8 Use transformations of the function y = |x| to graph the following functions. 5.4.15 f (x) = |x − 2| 5.4.16 f (x) = |x + 3| + 4 5.4.17 f (x) = −|x| + 5 5.4.18 f (x) = |x − 6| + 2 5.4.19 f (x) = 3|x| 5.4.20 f (x) = − |x| − 1 Use transformations of the function y = x to graph the following functions. 5.4.21 f (x) = − x 5.4.22 f (x) = 4 + x 5.4.23 f (x) = x − 6 + 3 5.4.24 f (x) = − x + 2 + 2 5.4.25 f (x) = x − 3 − 4 5.4.26 f (x) = 4 x

1 4

172

f − g 3. f g 4. ( f − g )(x) = f (x) − g (x) = 2x + 4 − (x 2 − 2x) = −x 2 + 4x + 4. Domain is R 3. we introduce some of the common techniques of construction functions and combining them. that is for any x ∈ D f ∩ D g : • Sum of functions: ( f + g )(x) = f (x) + g (x) • Difference of functions: ( f − g )(x) = f (x) − g (x) • Product of functions: ( f · g )(x) = f (x) · g (x) • Quotient of functions: f f (x) given that g (x) = 0 (x) = g g (x) 5. quotients and roots of functions. 2x + 4 f (x) f = . ( f + g )(3) 2.1 The Algebra of Functions In this section. Domain is R 4. f + g 2. Questions related to the domains of the resulting functions will be discussed. In addition. Domain is x = 0. f g Solution: 1. Functions can also be combined using arithmetic operations to produce new functions. 1.47 Example Let f (x) = 2x + 4 and g (x) = x 2 − 2x .2 (x) = g g (x) x(x − 2) 5. Find the following functions and their domains. that is D f ∩ D g = ∅. Domain is the set of all real numbers R 2. there is a new way of combining functions called composition will be introduced in this section. 5. For any two functions f (x) deﬁned on a domain D f and g (x) deﬁned on a domain D g . differences. g for any common point in their domains. 1. such that the intersection of these domains is not empty. (2 f − g )(−1) 3. ( f + g )(3) = f (3) + g (3) = 3 − 5 + 32 + 3 = 10 f g 2. we deﬁne the four arithmetic operations on the functions f . ( f + g )(x) = f (x) + g (x) = 2x + 4 + x 2 − 2x = x 2 + 4. ( f · g )(2) 4. The standard algebraic operations are well deﬁned for functions as long as there are common elements between their domains. (2 f − g )(−1) = 2 f (−1) − g (−1) = 2(−1 − 5) − ((−1)2 − 1) = −12 173 . multiplied and divided to produce new numbers. subtracted. Find the following values.5.5 The Algebra of Functions and Composition Numbers can be added. ( f g )(x) = f (x)g (x) = (2x + 4)(x 2 − 2x) = 2x 3 − 8x . These operations are the sums. ( )(a) Solution: 1. products.Chapter 5 5.48 Example Let f (x) = x − 5 and g (x) = x 2 + x .

f (a + h) − f (a) −7h = = −7 h h 2. This is because ( f g )(0) is undeﬁned.49 Example Let f (x) = x 2 and g (x) = . f − g 3. ( f g )(x) = f (x)g (x) = (x )( ) = 2x . f g 2 x Solution: 2 x 2 2 2. x f (x) x 2 x 3 f (x) = 4.51 Example Find the difference quotient Solution: We follow the steps f (a + h) − f (a) for f (x) = −7x − 2 h 1. Domain {x = 0} x 2 2 3. f (a + h) = −7(a + h) − 2 = −7a − 7h − 2 5. f g 4.The Algebra of Functions and Composition 3. f + g 2. ( f + g )(x) = f (x) + g (x) = x 2 + . ( )(a) = f g f (a) a −5 = g (a) a 2 + a 5. Domain {x = 0}. 1.52 Example Find the difference quotient f (a + h) − f (a) for f (x) = x 2 h 174 . ( f − g )(x) = f (x) − g (x) = x − . f (a) = −7a − 2 3. f (a + h) − f (a) = −7a − 7h − 2 − (−7a − 2) = −7a − 7h − 2 + 7a + 2 = −7h 4. f (a + h) − f (a) = 3(a + h) + 5 = 3a + 3h + 5 − 3a − 5 = 3h 4. f (a + h) − f (a) 3h = =3 h h 2. since they represent the average change of the function f between the points a + h and a and they lead to the deﬁnition of derivative.2 Difference Quotients f (a + h) − f (a) are called difference quotients. f (a + h) = 3(a + h) + 5 = 3a + 3h + 5 1. Domain {x = 0} = 2 g g (x) 2 x 1. ( f · g )(2) = f (2) · g (2) = (2 − 5)(22 + 2) = −18 4. Domain {x = 0} 5. Find the following functions and their domains. These quotients are very h important in calculus.50 Example Find the difference quotient Solution: f (a + h) − f (a) for f (x) = 3x + 5 h We divide the work into the following steps 3.5. 10 Deﬁnition Ratios of the form 5. = . f (a) = 3a + 5 5.

Assume the oil spill moves in circular motion on the water surface with a constant speed of 0. then we present the formal deﬁnition and ﬁnally we present additional examples and problems of composition of functions. f (x + h) = 3 + 6(x + h) = 3 + 6x + 6h 2. First.55 Example The function f (x) = x2 + 1 1 + (x 2 + 1)3 has the repeated pattern x 2 + 1. f (a) = 1 a f (a + h) − f (a) 1 for f (x) = h x 2. we will introduce several illustrations and examples of the advantage of this concept. f (a) = a 2 3.54 Example Find the difference quotient Solution: We follow the steps f (x + h) − f (x) for f (x) = 3 + 6x h 1. How large is the oil spill in one hour. f (a + h) − f (a) = −h −h 1 1 f (a + h) − f (a) a(a + h) = = × =− 4. we obtain a new function which is simpler to work with: f (g ) = g 1+g3 5. f (a + h) − f (a) (2a + h)h = = 2a + h h h 2. f (x + h) − f (x) 6h = =6 h h 5.53 Example Find Solution: 1.8 meters/min. f (x + h) − f (x) = 3 + 6x + 6h − (3 + 6x) = 3 + 6x + 6h − 3 − 6x = 6h 3.5.Chapter 5 Solution: 1. h h a(a + h) h a(a + h) 1 a − (a + h) −h 1 − = = a +h a a(a + h) a(a + h) 5. in one day? 175 . f (a + h) = (a + h)2 = a 2 + 2ah + h 2 5. This concept allows us to simplify the calculations on complicated expression with patterns and allows us to perform the operations in sequential process. thus by introducing a new function g (x) = x 2 + 1 and substituting it in the function f . f (a + h) = 1 a +h 3. 5.3 Composition of Functions The composition of functions is a central idea in higher mathematics.56 Example The BP Gulf oil spill is the worst environmental disaster in US history. f (a + h) − f (a) = a 2 + 2ah + h 2 − a 2 = 2ah + h 2 = (2a + h)h 4.

In this problem. 2.3 square meters. f (2) 2. The radius (in feet) of the outer ripple (circle) is given by r (t) = 0. 1. f (4a) 4.The Algebra of Functions and Composition Solution: The area of the circular spill is given by the formula A = πr 2 and the spread of the oil spill is given by the distance formula r = 0.8 × 60 × 60 ÷ 1000 = 2. Solution: 1.8t for t in minutes. The area of the circle is given by the function A(r ) = πr 2 . where t is time in seconds after the stone strikes the water.53: Circular Illusion 5. r = 69 km with spill area A = π(692 ) ≈ 14.8)2 ≈ 26 square kilometres.6t)2 = 0.88 km with spill area A = π(10.2 × 60 = 48 meters. A ﬁgure of circular illusion of moving circles is given below. and the area of the circle with radius 3 is A = π32 ≈ 28. 5.36πt 2 Figure 5. The radius of spill after a day. After one hour.6t . Find the area of the circle after 5 seconds.900 square kilometres. The distance is the radius of the circle. and A = π(48)2 ≈ 7235 square meters. r = 0. causing ripples in the form of concentric circles. g (1) 176 .57 Example A stone is dropped into a calm pond. Find and interpret the area as a function of t : A(r (t)). after one hour we have r = 1. f (a) 3. and r = r (t) depending on time. Thus. At 5 seconds the radius is r =). To compute the area as a function of time is to make the substitution: A(t) = A(r (t)) = πr 2 (t) = π(0. 2.6 = 3 meters. we have two functions A = A(r ) depending on radius.58 Example Assume f (x) = 3x − 2 and g (x) = 5x + 1 Compute the following values by substitution: 1.

f (2) = 3(2) − 2 = 6 − 2 = 4 3. g (1) = 5(1) + 1 = 6 2. g (−3) = 3(−3) + 2 = −9 + 2 = −7 3. (g ◦ f )(−2) = g ( f (−2)) = g (4) = 3(4) + 2 = 12 + 2 = 14 6. 5. f (g ) = 3g − 2 4. Solution: 177 . f (4a + 2) = 3(4a + 2) − 2 = 12a + 6 − 2 = 12a + 4 5. f ◦ g = ( f ◦ g )(x) = f (g (x)) = f (3x + 2) = (3x + 2)2 = 9x 2 + 12x + 4 5. f (g (1)) = 3g (1) − 2 = 3 × 6 − 2 = 18 − 2 = 16 The substitution (or feeding) of a function into another function is called composition of functions. g ( f ) Solution: 1. evaluate f (−2) 4. f of g or 3. Find a formula for the composition g ◦ f Solution: 1. g ◦ f = (g ◦ f )(x) = g ( f (x)) = g (x 2 ) = 3x 2 + 2 5.Chapter 5 5. ( f ◦ g )(−3) = f (g (−3)) = f (−7) = (−7)2 = 49 4. evaluate (g ◦ f )(−2) 5.59 Example Assume f (x) = x 2 and g (x) = 3x + 2 1. evaluate ( f ◦ g )(−3) 3. f (−2) = (−2)2 = 4 2. g ( f ) = 5 f + 1 6. f composed with g . f (a) = 3a − 2 7. 11 Deﬁnition Assume f and g are two functions such that the domain of f contains the range of g . evaluate g (−3) 2. f (g (1)) 7. f circle g or 2. and it is deﬁned by f ◦ g = ( f ◦ g )(x) = f (g (x)) The function f ◦ g is read 1. The composition of f and g is a new function denoted by f ◦ g . Find formulas for f ◦ g and g ◦ f .60 Example Assume f (x) = x and g (x) = x 2 − 9. f (g ) 6. Find a formula for the composition f ◦ g 6. Use these formulas to evaluate ( f ◦ g )(5) and (g ◦ f )(100).

( f ◦ f )(0) 5. (h ◦ f )(4) = h( f (4)) = h(42 − 4) = h(12) = −5 × 12 = −60 2 1 1 99 ) = f (− ) = −4 = − 10 5 25 25 2 1 1 15 6. 1. h(x) = 1 . x −1 x −1 = x −1+2 x +1 1 1−x 1 (g ◦ h)(x) = g (h(x)) = g ( ) = − 1 = x x x x x +2 (h ◦ f )(x) = h((x)) = h( )= x +2 x 1−x 1−x 1−x x 1−x 1−x x = x = )= × = ( f ◦ g ◦ h)(x) = f (g (h(x)) = f ( 1−x 1+x x x 1+x 1+x +2 x x 1 (h ◦ h)(x) = h(h(x)) = h( ) = x x 178 . ( f ◦ h)(4) 3. ( f ◦ g )(x) = f (g (x)) = f (x 2 − 9) = x 2 − 9 3. ( f ◦ g ◦ h)(2) 6.62 Example Assume f (x) = 1. (g ◦ f )(x) = g ( f (x)) = g ( x) = ( x)2 − 9 = x − 9 5. (h ◦ h)(x) 6. ( f ◦ g ◦ f )(0) = f (g ( f (0))) = f (g (−4)) = f (− ) = f (− ) = − 4 = − 4 2 4 4 4. (g ◦ f )(100) = g ( f (100)) = 100 − 9 = 91 g (x) = 2.The Algebra of Functions and Composition 1. ( f ◦ g )(x) 2. 3. (h ◦ f )(4) 4. ( f ◦ g )(5) = f (g (5)) = f ( ) = ( )2 − 4 = 3. ( f ◦ g ◦ h)(x) 5. 5. ( f ◦ g )(5) 2. ( f ◦ g ◦ f )(0) Solution: 2 . ( f ◦ f )(0) = f ( f (0)) = f (02 − 4) = f (−4) = (−4)2 − 4 = 16 − 4 = 12 5. 4. x h(x) = −5x . (g ◦ h)(x) 3. (h ◦ h ◦ h)(x) Solution: x . evaluate the following expressions 2 4 96 2 −4 = − 5 5 25 25 2 2. ( f ◦ g )(5) = f (g (5)) = 52 − 9 = 25 − 9 = 4 4. x +2 g (x) = x − 1. (h ◦ f )(x) 4. ﬁnd formulas for the following compositions x 1. ( f ◦ g )(x) = f (g (x)) = f (x − 1) = 2.61 Example Assume f (x) = x 2 − 4. ( f ◦ h)(4) = f (h(4)) = f (−5 × 4) = f (−20) = (−20) − 4 = 400 − 4 = 396 1. ( f ◦ g ◦ h)(2) = f (g (h(2))) = f (g (−10)) = f (− 5.

u = f ◦ g . u = x x4 . u = (x + 7)4 2.63 Example Express the following functions as a composition of two functions in the form f ◦ g . u = (x + 7)4 . f (x) = x . u = 2x + 3 3. u = f ◦g. f (x) = x 4 . 1. g (x) = 2x + 3. 3. u = x4 1 + x4 Solution: 1. g (x) = x 4 . u = f ◦ g . (h ◦ h ◦ h)(x) = h(h(h(x)) = h(x) = 1 x 5. 179 .Chapter 5 6. u = 2x + 3. g (x) = x + 7. . f (x) = 1+x 1 + x4 2.

5. ﬁnd 1.5.5.5. g (x) = −2x 5.The Algebra of Functions and Composition 5. ﬁnd 1.10 f (x) = 5. f (x + h) 3. g (x) = −x 2 + 1 g )(3) 5. f (a) − f (h) a −h 2 f (x + h) − f (x) . g (x) = x −2. g (x) = 2x + 5 x 1 1 .12 Given f (x) = 1 .2 f (x) = x 2 − x.5 f (x) = 3x + 3.4 Homework: Algebra of Functions and Compositions Find f + g . f − g .1 f (x) = 2x + 3. ﬁnd ( f ◦g )(−1).5. f (0) 2.4 f (x) = −x 2 + 5x − 6. g (x) = 5x − x 2 − 6 Find ( f ◦ g )(x) and (g ◦ f )(x) 5.5.5. ﬁnd ( f ◦ g )(−4).9 f (x) = 1 . f /g and specify the domain.5.5.( f ◦g )(1) x f )(−4) 5.16 Given f (x) = 180 .(g ◦ 5.3 f (x) = x + 1. g (x) = − 2 x x 5.5.11 Given f (x) = 3x +1. g (x) = x − 4 5. g (x) = x 5.5. f (a) 3.7 f (x) = 2x + 4.( f ◦ 5. f (x + h) − f (x) h 5.5.13 Given f (x) = |x −2|.6 f (x) = x 2 + 1. f (h) 2.5. g (x) = 2x − 3 5.5.5. g (x) = x 2 − 1 5.15 Given f (x) = 3x − 6. 5. ﬁnd x h 5.5.14 Given f (x) = 2x 2 − 3. g (x) = x 2 −2. f · g . ﬁnd ( f ◦g )(2).8 f (x) = x + 4. g (x) = x 2 − 6 5.5. g (x) = 3x −1.

Chapter 5 5.(2.(5. The inverse problem is how many gallons can one buy for $30?.4)}.(3.−2).2). 2. The input is paying money. it is important to deﬁne the inverse of every operation.5 gallons.−1).1). 3.−4)} is a one-to-one function.−3).(9. the inverse of clockwise rotation is anticlockwise rotation.5)} has an input 3 with two different outputs 1 and 2 so the relation H is not a function. 181 .−1). The function is a rule relating an input to an output. That is for every y in the range there is only one x such that f (x) = y . we have the so called horizontal line test: 13 Deﬁnition A function f is one-to-one if no horizontal line intersects the graph of the function at more than one point.1)} does not have an inverse function because the reversal set H = {(3.7). From the previous examples. the inverse of multiplication is division. For example. The function g = {(1.6. 3.(3.(7.(1.(3.1). For example. So 10 gallons cost $40. Graphically.1). 5. The price of gasoline is $4 per gallon.(4. say $10 for an item A (output).3). 1. The following examples illustrate the concept of the inverse functions.1). the inverse function is also a rule relating the output to the input. The cost of x gallons is given by the function C = 4x . The process of buying and item.(2.3). then its inverse is another function g that reverses the rule and it is deﬁned by the pairs: g = {(3. because the output 16 correspond to two inputs: x 2 = 16 has two solutions x = 4.(3. The function f = {(1.(5.(2. each output appears only once.(4. 2.(2.2). 1. In mathematics.6 Inverse Functions The concept of inverse process indicates the reversal process. The function f (x) = x 2 is not a one-to-one function.5). we observe that not every function has an inverse and that ﬁnding the inverse requires a procedure.−4. because the output 1 appears more than once.3).9)}.1 One-to-one Functions 12 Deﬁnition A function f is called one-to-one if for each number in the range (output) there is only number in the domain (input). This includes the concept of functions. However.(4. the inverse of addition is subtraction. The inverse process is returning the item A and getting the initial refund for $10. the function h deﬁned by h = {(1. So the inverse function is x = C /4 or x = 30/4 = 7. Let the function f be deﬁned by the set of ordered pairs: f = {(1.3).−4)} is not a one-to-one function.

the inverse of f (x) = 2x is the function f −1 (x) = 1 x .59: c Solution: The formulas of the function g are: 1.64 Example Use the horizontal line test to determine whether the following graphs are graphs of a one-to-one functions. but the graphs of ﬁgures b and c are not one=to-one functions since they fail the horizontal test. 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 −1 −2 −3 −4 −5 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5. we conclude that the graph in ﬁgure a is a on-to-one function. Figure b: one-to-one function 3.coordinates to obtain a table for the inverse function: f −1 (x).Inverse Functions Applying the horizontal line test to the graphs below. For example.6.56: c 5.57: a Figure 5. Given a table of few function 2 182 . Figure 5.58: b Figure 5. Figure c: not a one-to-one function 5.2 Inverse Functions The inverse of a function f (x) is the function that reverses the rule of assignment and it is denoted by values and by interchanging the x.54: a Figure 5.55: b Figure 5.and y. Figure a: not a one-to-one function 2.

and expressions. For example 4−1 = Note that exponent −1 of any function denotes the inverse function.and y. that is x = f (y) (c) Solve for y in terms of x (d) Substitute f −1 for y 5.3). we have the compositions f ◦ f −1 (x) = x and f −1 ◦ f (x) = x . If the function is given by a set of ordered pairs of numbers.(0.3).0)} is the function f −1 = {(3. For example.65 Example Find the inverse of the function f (x) = 2x + 4. then interchange the the x. the inverse function of f = {(2.2). unlike the exponents of numbers 1 1 but the inverse f −1 = . if f ◦ f −1 (x) = x for every x in the domain of f −1 and f −1 ◦ f (x) = x for every x in the domain of f . The function f −1 (x) is the inverse function of f . then we follow the steps (a) Substitute f (x) by y .4)}.Chapter 5 x -2 0 1 3 f (x) = 2x -4 0 2 6 x -4 0 2 6 f −1 (x) = 1 x 2 -2 0 1 3 It is simple to check that for any input x .4). Substitute f (x) by y : y = 2x + 4 2. 2.(4.coordinates to obtain a set for the inverse function. If the function is given by a formula such as f (x) = 2x + 4 .(4.(3. Interchange x and y: x = 2y + 4 183 . 4 f Finding the inverse function 1. Solution: 1. Based on this observation we deﬁne the inverse function as follows: 14 Deﬁnition Suppose f (x) is a one-to-one function. that is y = f (x) (b) Interchange x and y.

184 1 8 .66 Example Find the inverse of the function f (x) = x 3 .Inverse Functions 3. Solve for y in terms of x : x = 2y + 4 x −4 =y 2 x −4 y= 2 x − 4 = 2y 4.67 Example Find the inverse of the function f (x) = 1 − 6x .68 Example Find the inverse of the function f (x) = x + 4. Substitute f −1 for y : f −1 = x −4 2 5.69 Example Find the inverse of the function f (x) = x 3 − 10. Solution: We follow the standard steps: y= x= 2 x +4 y +4 x −4 = y 2 x = y +4 y = x2 − 4 f −1 = x 2 − 4 5. Solution: We follow the standard steps: y = 1 − 6x x −1 =y −6 x − 1 = −6y x = 1 − 6y x −1 6 x −1 −1 f =− 6 y =− 5. Solution: We follow the standard steps: y = x3 3 x = y3 x=y y= = 3 x x f −1 3 5.

Thus. the graph of the inverse function f −1 can be obtained from the graph of the function f . These points are symmetric with respect to the line y = x .63: Function and its inverse 185 .60: Function and its inverse We note that the graphs of f and its inverse f −1 are symmetric with respect to the line y = x . corresponds to a point (b. 1 Figure 5.62: Function and its inverse Figure 5.61: Function and its inverse Figure 5. we plot the function f (x) = x +1 in black and its inverse function f −1 (x) = 2(x −1) 2 in red. a) on its inverse.b) on a one-to-one function.Chapter 5 Solution: We follow the steps: 1 3 x − 10 8 1 x = y 3 − 10 8 1 x + 10 = y 3 8 8(x + 10) = y 3 y= 2 x + 10 = y 3 f −1 = 2 x + 10 y = 2 x + 10 3 3 Graphical representation of inverse functions In the ﬁgure below. As illustrated in the ﬁgures Figure 5. In general every point (a.

3).6.6.12 f (x) = 2x − 4 5.∞) Graph the following functions. 5.(3.6.6.13 f (x) = −3x + 6 5.6 f (x) = 1 3 x 27 5.4 f (x) = 3x − 2 5.(2.b).6.2 G = {(−1.(0.6.5 f (x) = x 5.11 f (x) = x 2 +16 where the domain of f equals (0. 15)} 5.Inverse Functions 5.1 F = {(1. then sketch the graph of its inverse using the symmetry property.6.7 f (x) = x − 4 5.9 f (x) = 2 x 1 3x − 2 5.6.15 f (x) = − x − 4 5. a).6.0).6. 8).6.14 f (x) = x + 3 5.8 f (x) = x + 10 3 5 186 .10 f (x) = 5. c))} 5. (4.6.6.6.3 f (x) = 4x 5.6.3 Homework: Inverse Functions Determine the inverse of the following functions 5.(1.6.

f (x) = x + 4 5. on the interval (2. b. f (t + s) and g (s 2 − t 2 ) and g (3x + 3) 9. Find a. g (x) = 3.6) and show that f (3) = f (4) 19. y = x 2 − 5x + 3.3) 16. Given f (x) = x 2 − x 4 and g (x) = x + 2. The height h in feet is given by h(t) = −16t 2 + 96t . y = x 100 − x 2 .6) 15. A golf ball is hit into the air. g (x) = 3 − 2 | x − 4 | and h(x) = −3 + 2 | x − 4 | on the same system 13. on the interval (0. After how many seconds did the ball hit the ﬁeld. y = x 3 + x − 1. Assuming the ﬁeld to be ﬂat. 3. f (x) = −3 + x 2 + 5 12. h(x) = − x 2 − 25 Evaluate the following Given f (x) = x 2 − 2x − 3 and g (x) = 6. (g ◦ f )(x) Graph the functions 11. f (x) = x 3 − x + 1 2. 2.8) 18. f (u) and g (3u) 8. on the interval (−1. Find the time at which the ball reached its maximum height.Chapter 5 5. ( f g )(x) and (g / f )(x) 10. ( f ◦ g )(x). 1. f (x) = x 25 − x 2 . f (−3) and g (−3) 7. f (x) = 2 x 2 − 4x + 3 x +2 2x + 9 4. on the interval (−3. 187 .7 Exercises Determine the domain of the functions 1. Find the maximum height. f (x) = x 2 + 4x − 7 and ﬁnd its vertex and axis of symmetry 14. on the interval (−3. y = x 4 − 7x 2 + 3x − 12.4) 17. where t is time in 3 x −3 seconds.

a 3 − 2a 2 + a − 1 − 1 = 0. given that f ( f ( −1) = 1 Answer: a(a − 1)2 − 1 = 1. 3 Answer: f (2x) = x 2x + 2 so f (x) = + 2 and 3 f (x) = x + 6 3 3 188 . Let the function f deﬁned by f (x) = ax 2 − 1. Find 3 f (x). a = 2. 2(x + 3) 21.Exercises 20. If f (2x) = . a 2 (a − 2) + (a − 2) = 0. Find the value a .

we present three methods of solving system of equations: • Graphical method: using graphing calculators. 2x − y x + 2y =4 =3 There are many ways of solving system of linear equations. • Algebraic method II: Elimination (Addition) method.1 The Graphing method 1. 2. In this section. If the graphs are parallel. 6. such as the system of two linear equations. The height of the woman and one daughter is 9 feet. The daughters are twins and they have the same height. These coordinates are the solution. • Algebraic method I: Substitution method. then the system has no solution. Find the coordinates of the intersection point. Graph each line. What are the heights of the woman and her daughters? Solution: Assume the height of the woman is w and the height of a daughter is d then we have the relations: w + d = 9 and w + 2d = 12 we observe that an extra d in the second equation increases the right side by 3 so d must be 3 and then w = 6 Now instead suppose we have the combination w + 2d w +d =9 = 12 in this case d = 3 and w = 6 feet. This system of equations can be rewritten in terms of the variables x = w and y = d : x + 2y x+y =9 = 12 6.1 Example Check that x = 5 and y = 3 solve the equations 3x + 5y x+y =8 = 30 We are interested in solving a pair of equations simultaneously. 189 . The total height of the three women is 12 feet.6 System of Linear Equations OBJECTIVES • The Graphing Method • Substitution Method • Addition Method A puzzle problem A woman has two daughters. 3.

press Enter three times 3. Every point on the line is solution to both equations. CALC. select from the menu 5: intersect 5. copy the coordinates of the intersection point: X = 1. Solve each equation for y : y y = −x + 3 = (x + 3)/2 x − 2y x+y =3 = −3 2. Solve each equation for y : y y = (−x + 4)/2 = 2x − 3 x + 2y =4 2x − y =3 2.The Graphing method 4. Graph the lines: Y 1 = (−X + 4)/2 and Y 2 = 2X − 3 4. If the graphs are identical. Press 2nd.Y = 1 4 x + 2y = 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 1 2 3 4 2x − y = 3 Figure 6.1: Graphic solution of the system of equations 6. then there are inﬁnite many solutions. CALC. press Enter three times 3. 5. Press 2nd.Y = 2 190 . copy the coordinates of the intersection point: X = 2. Graph the lines: Y 1 = −X + 3 and Y 2 = (X + 3)/2 4. select from the menu 5: intersect 5. Check your solution 6.2 Example Solve the system of equations using graphing calculator Solution: 1.3 Example Solve the system by graphing method Solution: 1.

System of equations that does not have a solution is called inconsistent system of equations. 4 3 2 1 6x − 2y = 4 1 2 3 4 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 y = 3x + 1 −3 −4 Figure 6. The system of equation does not have a solution. check that the coordinates of the intersection point (1.Chapter 6 6. we solve both for the variable y : The two lines are parallel so they do not have any common point.4 Example Solve the system by graphing method 6x − 2y y = 3x + 1 y y = (6x − 4)/2 = 3x + 1 =4 Solution: To graph the lines.5 Example Solve the system by graphing 4x + 2y y =4 = −2x + 2 191 .2) satisfy both equation.2: Graphic solution 6. 4 3 2 x − 2y = −3 −4 −3 −2 1 x+y =3 1 2 3 4 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 Figure 6.3: Parallel Lines 6.

4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −1 −2 −3 −4 1 2 3 4 Figure 6. there are inﬁnitely many solutions. =3 5x + y 6.4: Same Line 6. = 1 2 If possible. Every point on one line satisﬁes the other line. y 5 1 =− x+ 2 2 = 4x − 6 4 3 2 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 −2 −3 −4 1 2 3 4 Figure 6.−2). Thus. There is no solution to this system of equations. The lines are parallel.6 Example Solve the system by graphing Solution: 4x + 6y 2x + 3y = 24 =6 If possible.7 Example Solve the system by graphing 2 1 2x − y 2 Solution: Graph the two lines: y The solution is the intersection point (1.The Graphing method Solution: The two lines are the same line.5: Intersecting Lines 192 .

Substitute back in any equation to ﬁnd y : y = 1 + 6(1) = 7. 4. Solve the ﬁrst equation for y : y = −4x + 13. Substitute back in any equation to ﬁnd y : y = −4(1) − 2 = −6. Solve for x : x = 1.2 The Substitution Method 1. 2. Solve the second equation for y : y = −4x − 2.−3) 193 . 4. Substitute in the ﬁrst equation: 3x + 2(−4x − 2) = 1 or 3x − 8x − 4 = 1. Solve for y : y = −2. The solution is x = 1. 2x + y = −6 2. or written as a point (1. The solution is (4. Substitute the resulting expression into the other equation and solve it.Chapter 6 6.10 Example Solve the system by substitution Solution: 1. The solution is (1. Substitute in the second equation: 2(4y + 6) + y = −6 or 8y + 12 + y = −6. Solve the ﬁrst equation for y : y = 1 + 6x 2. 2. 3. The solution is (−2. Find the other value of the variable from any equation.9 Example Solve the system of linear equations by substitution method Solution: 1. 2. Solve for x : x = 1. Substitute back in any equation to ﬁnd y : y = −4(4) + 13 = −3.−2) 4x + y = 13 6.−6) x − 4y = 6 3x + 2y = 1 −6x + y = 1 5x + y = 12 4x + y = −2 6. 4. 6. Solve for x : x = 4.8 Example Solve the system of linear equations by substitution method Solution: 1. Solve on equation for one variable (preferably with coefﬁcient 1). 3. Substitute back in any equation to ﬁnd x : x = 4(−2) + 6 = −2.11 Example Solve the system substitution Solution: −2x + 3y = −17 1. Substitute in the second equation: −2x + 3(−4x + 13) = −17 or −14x + 39 = −17. Solve the ﬁrst equation for x : x = 4y + 6. Substitute in the second equation: 5x + (1 + 6x) = 12. y = 7. 4. 3. State and check the solution. 3. 4. 6.7). 3.

194 . y = 2 x−y =6 x+y = 10 2. Solve for y : y = 6. Multiply the second equation by 2 to get: −2x + 3y 4x + y = 13 = −17 3.The Addition Method 6. 3. Rewrite both equations in standard form: 4x − 3y = 6 3x + 2y = 30 8x − 6y 9x + 6y = 12 = 90 2. Substitute in the ﬁrst equation: 4x − 3 = 13. −4x + 6y 4x + y = 13 = −34 6. 3. 6. That is the system is inconsistent (No solution). solve for y : y = −3. Add both equations to get 7y = −21. Write both equations in general form Ax + B y = C . 2. The solution is x = 8. simplify 8x − 8x − 16 = 7 or −16 = 7 which is contradiction. Substitute the value in either equation and ﬁnd the other variable. Substitute in the second equation: 18 + 2y = 30. y = 6 6. 6. solve for x : x = 6. 5. 4. Add both equations to get 2x = 16. The solution is x = 6.15 Example Solve the system Solution: 8x − 4y = 7 y = 2x + 4 Substitute the ﬁrst equation in the second to get: 8x − 4(2x + 4) = 7. The procedure of this method is based on the following steps. Solve for x : x = 4. solve for x : x = 8. Add both equations to get 17x = 102. Multiply the ﬁrst equation by 2 and the second equation by 3 to get: 3. Multiply the terms of one or both so the coefﬁcients differ only in sign.14 Example Solve the system Solution: 4x = 3(2 + y) 3(x − 10) = −2y 1.13 Example Solve the system by Addition Method Solution: 1. Add the equations and solve for one variable. 1. 5. Substitute in the second equation: 8 + y = 10. Solve for y : y = 2. 4.12 Example Solve the system by Addition Method Solution: 1. The solution is x = 4. 4. y = −3 2.3 The Addition Method The addition method is also referred to as the elimination method. State the solution and check your solution.

The solution is x = 30/11. 195 . That is there are inﬁnitely many solutions. 6. Solve for y : y = −24/11.18 Example Solve by any method Solution: 4x + y = 17 2x − y = 7 We suggest addition method: 2. solve for x : x = 12. the two lines are the same line. Geometrically. Substitute in the second equation: 2/11 + 2y = −7. 6. Solve for y : y = −79/22. Substitute in the ﬁrst equation: y = 6 − 90/11. Add both equations to get 6x = 24. We multiply the equations by common multiples so all coefﬁcient become integers: 2. 5x − y = 9 6. 3. Add both equations to get 11x = 30. Substitute in the second equation: 4(12) + y = 17. y = −24/11 4.20 Example Solve by any method x 6 − y =2 3 2 Solution: 1. The solution is x = 12. y = −31 1. 3. y = −79/22 3. The solution is x = 2/11. 4. Multiply the ﬁrst equation by 3 to get: 9x + 3y = 18 2x − 3y = 12 3x + y = 6 2x − 3y = 12 5.17 Example Solve by any method Solution: x + 2y = −7 We suggest addition method: 10x − 2y x + 2y =9 1.16 Example Solve the system −2x − 3y = −6 Solution: Multiply the second equation by 2 and add to the ﬁrst to get 0 = 0 which is an identity. Add both equations to get 11x = 2.Chapter 6 4x + 6y = 12 6. Multiply the ﬁrst equation by 2 to get: = −7 2.19 Example Solve by any method 3x − 8 = 0 x − 5y − 10 = 0 x y + =1 2 6. solve for x : x = 30/11. Solve for y : y = −31. solve for x : y = 2/11.

000. Solve for y : y = 17. and non student tickets were sold at $ 5 each. 2. Solution: 1. y=500 196 . The price of a student ticket was $ 3. Add both equations to get 2x = 72.22 Example The income from a student production was $ 10. We assume the numbers to be x and y . Three thousand tickets were sold. 6.21 Example The sum of two numbers is 53 and their difference is 19. y = −57 3.The Addition Method 6. Find the numbers. They satisfy the following linear system of equations: x − y = 19 x + y = 53 4. The solution is x = 36. Substitute in the ﬁrst equation: 36 + y = 53. solve for x : x = 36. How many tickets of each kind were sold? 3x + 5y = 10000 x + y = 3000 Solution: Solve x=2500.

7 y = −1 = −5x + 2 6.3.3.3.1 Homework: System of Equations Solve the system of equations graphically 6.1 3x − y x+y = 11 =1 6.3.3.6 3x + 5y x + 4y = 20 =6 y 7x + y 6.10 2x + 3y = −5 6.3. and their difference is 20.3 5x − y y =5 =5 7x − 3y = −4 6.3.3. 197 .3.3.8 6x − 7y 2x − 3y y 1 x +3 2 =9 = 6.2 −4x + 6y 2x − 3y = −12 =6 Solve the system by addition method 6.3. Find the numbers.3.3.Chapter 6 6.5 2x + 3y y = 15 = x +2 = −2 =3 Solve the system by either method 6.9 5x − 2y y =8 = 5x + 7 6.15 The sum of two numbers is 54.3.12 2x + 1 y 3 3 4x − 2y Solve the system by substitution method 6.4 1x − 1 y 2 4 2x − y = −4 =7 7x − 3y = −1 6.3.3.14 x − 2y = 10 −3x + 6y =5 2 1 = x− 3 3 = 10 6.11 3x + 5y =2 6.13 6.

5 − 4x 3y 2 1.1.4 1 1.8 1.1.2.13 −1 1.2.2.5 1.2.3.2.3.1.1.2.2.16 1 1.6 8t 4 1.4 1.2.1.3.11 1.1.4 a + b 1.1 − 1.17 1.14 1.3 a 2 1.2.2.2.1.18 1.2.1.1.1.2.17 x −1 2 y 2 + x y + x2 y +x x 2 + 3x + 9 x +3 1.2.7 1.3.11 a + 2b 1.2 1.2.3.18 x + 1 1 1.16 1.19 3x + 1 1 1.6 1.1.3 1 2 s t 2x y 3(x + 3) 2t 2 + 9t 6t + 9 x +3 x −1 u 2 − 3u + 2 u +3 1 4 1.2.2 5 3 1.1.6 1 198 .9 1.5 1 x −2 1.7 1.15 1.1.20 − 2 1 1.13 1.8 1 9 25 49 10 9a 2x 4 3 1 2y 3b 5 2 x +2 x −4 x −2 x +4 b b −6 x +2 3(x + 3) 4a 3 1.A Answers and Hints 1.12 x −3 x x x−y 3x − 2 2x − 1 4x 2 − 2 x +1 5n + 2 2 n −8 n −6 1.2.1.20 1.10 1.19 1.1.3.1 5 6 3 5 1.14 1 1.10 1.2.1.2.1.2.1 − 2 1.1.2 − 1.1.1.9 1.12 1.3 24a 2 1.15 1.

Appendix A 1.4.24 1.27 1.3.5.4.4.5 2 1.5.20 1 1.11 7x + 7 12 1.3.3.4.4.22 − 1.18 − 1.3.8 1.21 1.4.23 1.4.7 1.26 1.28 2x 2 + 5x 2x + 2 7n − 12 5(n + 4)(n − 4) 5x (x 2 + 1)(x + 1) 2x (x − 1)(x + 1)2 2 (x − 2)(x − 3) −13x − 3 5(x − 1) 4x + 2 x2 − 1 4x 3 − 8x 1.3.14 1.15 1 1.16 1.6 1.4.4.4.19 3 1.4.13 1.3.19 b2 − b b2 − 4 y 2 − 2x y + x 2 y +x xy x y − x2 + x 1 x2 + x − 2 −1 ht 1 x+y x +3 x +2 x 2 − 2x − 3 x 2 + 2x − 3 1.3.4.3.1 a +1 a −1 16 a 17 3 1.14 4x − 11 1.3.3.25 1.3.3.3.7 u −1 u +1 11 10 a 2 + b2 + c 2 abc 1.30 1.12 1.10 1.4.20 − 1.8 − 1.9 1.9 − 15 3 1.4.12 10 −17 1.4.13 40x 1.4.17 7x + 1 1.11 1.10 4 1.16 − x 2 − 3x 1 1.4.2 8b ac 2 1.3 −3 1.5 58 21 1.3.3.21 3 − 2x 1.3.1 2x 1.18 1.4.4.4 − 1.3 m 1.3.4 2x 2 + 10x 5x − 25 63 50 2a − 1 2 y2 3y − 2 x +2 x ab − 2a 2 3n − 7 5n − 13 y − 5x − 10 5x + 7 y −x y +x 2a − 3b 1.4.3.5.22 1.3.5.3.3.3.17 1.3.29 − x 4 − 5x 2 + 4 7 11 199 .4.15 8x + 9 30x 2 86n + 9 18n 2 5x − 9 1.3.4.

8 27x 6 y 3 2.17 4 a 12 b 16 x +2 x3 2.13 −1.5.6 ab 3 8 2.14 5 3 2.5.1 1.5.1.2.16 6.1.21 2x y 2.1.19 x y z 2 2.5.2.5.11 3x 2 y 3 2.4 3 2 2.2.2 −3 2.9 2.19 −3 1.5 −1 1.14 9 2.20 0 2.5.1.11 8/9 2.2.10 2 3 1.1 −72 2.−2 2 2.17 −2x y 2 2 2.18 −7 ∓ 33 2 1.1.1 −9 2.5.1.9 − 2.5.24 y x 1.2.12 .1.5.−5 3 ∓ 3 7i 1.8 14 3 2.1.17 2.5.1.2.1.5.2.2.20 2y z 2.15 6x 2 3 2.1.2.5.2.16 2.2.18 x4 y2 15 x2 y 6 1 a8 1.1.2 59 2.5 32x 5 y 1 5 2.4 16 2.6 x = ∓8 2.2.5.1.12 2a 2 b 2.6 1.11 3.12 64 2.2.23 2.3 81 2.16 2a 4 b 6 7 2.13 −3/2 2.7 None 1.13 5x 4 4y 2 2.2.8 3 2 1.2.2.2.1.3 49 81 2.1.2.10 1 121 1 4000 y 2z 2 3x 2 z 2 5x 2.1.Answers and Hints 1.21 11/3 1.1.2.20 2 1.19 a 4 b 10 2.22 2 2.1.1.2.1.5 2.5.6 −11 5 2.1.1.15 a 4 2.5.18 x y 2 x y z 2.14 5 9 1.1.15 4 1.21 x2 3y 2 4 3 2.22 10x 200 .7 22/4 3/2 3 1.1.7 bc 11 2.6 2.5.

4.13 2.4.9 5+2 3− 2 2.2 60 2.3.Appendix A 2.2.4.24 3ab 2 5 2.3.10 7 − 4 3 2.15 x − 4y 2 2.4.23 12a 2.20 −5 6a 2.2.5 − 3 2y 2.18 a 2 − a 2.4.22 4 − 2 4x − x 2 2.1 −30 2 2.3.19 14 3 a 2.3 6 + 21 3 2.5.14 3x − 3x − 6 2.2.4.5.11 15x 2 y 3 2.16 3 2.3.5.20 5x − 10 x y + 5y 2.2.9 14b a − 13a b 2.3.5 −40 6 2.1 2.15 2xx 2x + 3x 2 2.7 − 3 − 2 2.5.11 −10abc 2.5.3.3.6 2.5.8 2 5 4 3 2.5.12 7x y 2x 2 − 6x 2 y 2.5.5.4.2.15 x− y 2a + 1 5( 2x + 5 2x − 25 3 2 2 5t 2 5t 3 2.4.2 2 2 3 x 3 x+y 2 2 a +4 3 2−1 4x 2 2.21 8 + 2 7 2.7 2.16 3a − 3b 2.4.5.14 2.13 x − 10 x + 25 2.19 10 − 3 10 201 .3.6 4y 3 5x y 2.3.4.16 7x 2 10x + 2x 2 5x 2.2.4.4.3.3.18 2x 2x x −4 2.11 5 3 + 3 5 + 15 + 3 2.3.3.3.4.4.5.18 −6 5a 2.3.5.4.5.5.12 1 − 6x 2.3.5 3a 2 b 4 6a 2.5.19 3x + 6 3x + 9 2.27 6x y 2 3 y 2.5.14 8x 10x 2.17 x − 1 2.4.4 12 2 − 6 2.4 3x y 2.10 5a − 5 ab 2.8 2.3.5.5.17 −10x 3 2.12 2.4.4 −18 3 3 2.5.3.10 −4x 6x 2.1 7 3 2.3.4.2 −2 6 2.4.6 −1 − 8 30 2.3.25 2x 2.3 −11 3 2 2.26 10x 3 2x 2.28 2y 7x 2.17 2.3 2.13 10x − 4x 2 3 2 2.

000300601 2.6.6.7.11 2.7.7.7.5)(10)6 2.6.9 = 515 2.6.9 (−1)9 + 18 = 0 2.7.17 6x 2 y 3 2.13 2.7.7. 2.2 (7.7.8.9 2.6. 10 2 2.9 2 2.3 16 2.18 −9 2.7.6 64 2.803021)(10)3 2. 2.4 (5.8 81/16 2.6.6.5.22 2x 5/6 2.6.5)(10)−4 2.13 −4(x 2 + y 2 )1/3 3.19 1/6 2.5 −27 2.3 8 2.19 1.7.6.7.7.6.5 2670 2.9 9x 2 + 16x 2 5 = x 9 · 16 12 2 1 1 1 − 2.2 1/7 2.14 (a 2 − b 2 )1/2 2. Observe that (x − 3 x 2 − 1) + 1 + 10 = 10.6.16 2.8.10 −1 2.20 2.6. 2x x 2 − 1) = 1 so they are reciprocals thus (x + Add both expressions 2x = (x − 2.1.6 34 2.9 −1 2.7.9 ( ) 4 = ( 2 )−1/4 = (2−2 )−1/4) = 21/2 = 4 2 2.7.20 4 2.7 −10 2.7.−9/4 2.12 1 2.Answers and Hints 2. m − m 2 = m − 2 thus m = 1−m x 2 − 1) = 1 .1.2 5 2.16 −3x 2 2.8. Substitute x 2 for x to get (x + x 2 − 1) = 10 2 = 2(10.37)(10)7 2.21 −2 2.9 Multiply by the denominator to get 1 + 1 = 20(x − 3x (4a + 5b)2 x2 + y 2 x 2 − 1) That is (x − x 2 − 1)(x + x 2 − 1) = 10.9 = 3613 2.005.−6 2.11 2.000300601 2.8.6.8 0.7.9 m = m −2 .9 = 230 + 220 212 + 222 1 4 1 3 1 −1 ) = −12 12 = 28 = 16 2.7.1 −3 2.8 3 2.1/2)2 = 51.7 9/4 2.7.7 0.6.16 1.7.5 4 2.1 (3.10 2.7.9 ( − )−1 = (− 2.14 4 2.6.4 No solution.6.12 4 4 x −4 2.6.7.7.15 (6x 2 y 3 )1/6 2.1 2 2.8.6.8.9 6(66 ) = 67 2.1 4 3i 202 .6 50.8.17 8.3 2.9 = x 7/8 2.21 No solution.4 −1/125 2.18 x + 64 2.3 (3.6.20 −1.8.

3.2.17 x = −1 ∓ 3/3 3.3.3.11 ∓2 11 3.5 x = −1/2 ∓ 17/2 3.−9/2 3.12 −5 + ∓3 2 3.2.−3 3.2 −2 ∓ 10 3 3.16 ∓ 2 3.1.20 −1/3.3.3.4.2.2.20 3.1.1.10 ∓6 3.1/3 3.12 ∓ 15/3 3.11 2/3.16 x = 4 ∓ 6 3.16 −5i 3 3.5 3.25 3.1.10 −5 − 4i 3.9 7 ∓ 53 2 3.1 6.−1/3 3.3.Appendix A 3.3 3 ∓ 2 3 3.3.2.4 3.2.8 −1 ∓ i 11 3.1.3.3.9 17 − 16i 3.6 1/2.2.3 2 ∓ 5 3.4.19 −3 + i .13 5 3.2.15 x = −1/2 ∓ 2/2 3.2.1.−2 3.2 5.3 −10 10i 3.2i 3.2.1.21 −20 16 12 (3i + 4) = − − i 25 5 5 3 − 2i 3.5 i 22 3.22 2 21 3.1.1.3.14 x = 1 ∓ 2 2 3.3.1/6 3.1.1.13 (2 + ∓4i )/3 3.6 x = 3/2 ∓ 5/2 3.2.19 2 + 4i 3.9 0.8 −8 + 6i 3.2.18 4.13 −2 ∓ 10 2 3.18 1 2 − i 3 3 3.3.2.2.1.1 1/2 3.23 1 3.2.1.4 6.2.17 ∓2 3i 3.4 x = 4 ∓ 2 3 3.1.1.3.1.24 i 3.3.2.11 41 − 13i 3.4.2.10 1.22 15/34 + 9/34i 3.4 8i 3.15 −5 − 12i 3.17 i 2 3.14 −2i .−7 3.−4k 3.3.2.1.2.10 203 .1.5 3.1.3.−3 − i 3.12 12 + 18i 3.5/4 3.−3/2 3.2.15 −1 ∓ 5 2 3.8 0.1 −5.−5.7 4 ∓ i 3.1.4.18 x = 5/2 ∓ 3 5/2 3.3 3.3.2 2 5i 3.1.4 0.7 −4/3.1.7 9 + 8i 3.1/5 3.2.2 −3/2.21 8 2 3.3 0.14 25 3.3.1.

5.6.6.4.∓2i 3.0) 4.4 27.4.4.17 x < −6.6.3) 4.15 3.0).1.6.5. or x >≥ 1 3.13 0 < x < 2 3.6.4 (−3.6.5.4.1 d = 4.1.1.6.8 5 3.3 d = (1 − 3)2 + (0 − 1)2 = 5 36 + 49 = 85 3.1 ∓2.19 y > −1 3.4 (−1.17 1∓ 2 2 2 ∓ 2 14 13 −1 ∓ 3i 2 1 ∓ 7i 2 3. or x > 6 3.6. or x ≥ −6 3.1.4.4.4.12 4 ∓ 14 3.1.6 ∓2.11 (x + 6)2 + (y − 6)2 = 36 4.13 −6 ∓ 2 10 3.5 3.8 All real numbers 3 ∓ 91i 3.2 d = 4.6.1.7 ∓3.14 0 < x < 1/2 3.24 x > 3.∓i 3 3.16 x ≤ −10/3. or x ≥ 7/2 3.5.16 3.11 1 < x < 5 3.1.1.5 −5 < x < 6 3.15 x < −4.6.6. 3.14 3.6 −3 < x < 3 3.6.10 1 ∓ 31i 3.1) 3.21 2 ∓ 7 3.6.6.6.12 (0.6.6.4.18 x ≤ −9.23 x < 0 3.10 −6 ≤ x ≤ 0 3.5. x > 2 3.9 x 2 + y 2 = 64 4.3 −5 ≤ x ≤ 0 (−8 + 2)2 + (−2 − 5)2 = (1)2 + (1)2 = 2 4.12 −2 < x < 2.5.6.9 3. or x > 5/2 3.6.Answers and Hints 1 ∓ 33 4 3.3 0.10 5 ∓ 13 2 2 ∓ 133 3 3.10 x 2 + y 2 = 12 4.6.6.6 (4.1.4.10 T w o 3.1.−8 3.5 (−2.1.5. or x > 0 3.∓ 10i 3.6.r = 7 4.9 x < −2.13 (0.4.4.4.4.6. or − 3 < x − 1 4.11 2.6 10 3.r = 4 204 .7 1 ∓ 65 8 ∓ 15i 3.9 None 3.1.4.4.20 3 ∓ 19 3.1.7 −4 ≤ x ≤ 4 3.8 T w o 3.0).2 −4 < x < 2 3.7 (x + 2)2 + (y + 3)2 = 9 4.5.5.1) 4.6.20 −5 < x < 1/5 or x > 1 3.8 (x − 5)2 + (y + 4)2 = 18 4.22 x < 0.6 3.−10/7 3.2 ∓ 5 3.19 4 3.4.4.1 x ≤ −3.18 0.21 x ≥ 0 3.

14 (3.9).4 y = (x + 7)2 + 1 5.10 x ≥ 0 5.−4). 5.14 All real numbers 5.−1).18 D = {0. x = 5 5.3 y = (x − 3)2 5.8 1.0) 5. 5. h(2) = 0 5.1.−1).(2 − 3.4.0).13 V = (4.1.2.9 2.3.0) i nt er cep t s : (0.(−5.(2.19 Set of natural numbers N 5.5 1.3. x = 3 5.2.4.r = 3 4.4. x = 6 5.2.0). x = 1.2 Function 5.3. 5.7 1.1.3.(−5.4.(6. f (a − 3) = a 2 − 12a + 36 4.17 (6.1. f (a + 3) = −3a − 8 5.3 y = |x|.6).2 y = x 3 .1.15 V = (2.1.1.15 (5. f (x) − f (3) = x 2 + 5x − 24 5.1.1.1.0).0).17 (3.6 f (x) = 2(x + 2)2 − 13 5. 5 units to the right. x = 0 5.1.0). x = −1 5.4 Not a function 5. x = −2 5.17 x = −2.(3.4).4 y = reﬂection x . x = −5. x = 0. 5.18 V = (4.(−2. 0) 2.1.1.0). 3 units to the right. f (3) = 0 f (−a) = a 2 + 6a + 9 2.2.3.−2). f (a + h) = −3a − 3h + 1 1. 5.(1.1.0).−5).10 V = (0. i nt er cep t s : (0. f (a + h) = (a + h)2 − 5(a + h) 5.2 y = (x + 1)2 − 1 2 3 2.3 Function 5.7).7 f (x) = −3(x + 5)2 + 5 5.−7).1.13 (−4.3. x = 0 5. x = 2.0).1 y = (x − 2)2 − 4 5.2.0) i nt er cep t s : (0.9).1.(2 + 5.15 x ≤ 2 4.16 V = (0. 205 . 0) i nt er cep t s : (0.(3.17 V = (−5/2. h(a) = a − 5. f (−2) + f (5) = 38 i nt er cep t s : (0.18 (0. 5.16 x = −2/5 5.5/6). f (a − 1) = a 2 − 7a + 6 3.6 5.5).1.20 All real numbers 5. x = 0.3.3} 5.3.3. f (a) = a 2 − 5a 3.−6).18 (−2.11 V = (1.1.1.1/3 5.12 (0.2.r = 6 4. 3 units downward 5.9 V = (0.r = 1 4.1. f (3x) = 9x 2 − 18x + 9 5.1.−4).r = 2 5.3.12 V = (−5. f (a) = −3a + 1 3.2. x = −5/2. 5.3.5 f (x) = −(x + 5/2)2 + 17/4 5.3.1.3.−4). 5. h(3) = 1/2 1 3 1 3 3.0).1. h( ) = −5/9 4.(2.r = 4 5 4.15).r = 5 4.3. x = 4.3.14 (−1.12 All real numbers 5. f (x 2 ) = x 4 − 6x 2 + 9 5.1.2.20 (2.1. x = 4. x = −4 5.0) i nt er cep t s : (0.9).r = 3 4. 4 units downward.3.16 (4. 0) 5.11 x = 0 5.3.12).14 (1.0). 2. reﬂection 5.8 V = (0.3) i nt er cep t s : (0.13 x ≥ 9/4 5.−4).19 (0.1.2).25).3. 5 units upward 5.(−3.16 (−1. 4f (x) = 4x 2 + 20x − 12 5.0).25/4).1.−1) i nt er cep t s : (0.(5. 4 units to the left.1 y = x 2 . f (a) + 3 = a 2 + 5a 5. i nt er cep t s : (0.3). f (−2 + 5) = 21 1.0).0) i nt er cep t s : (0. 2 units to the right.1).1.1 Not a function 5.15 (−3. x = 1. x = 0.Appendix A 4.0).

5.3.1 x = 3.5.(b.8 f −1 = (x − 10) 5.2).8 x 2 + 3.3. f (x + h) = 2x 2 + 2xh + 2h 2 − 3 3.16 −2/x(x + h) 5.6.8 x = 3.5. f · g = 4x 2 − 9. 2x 5.(3.6 x = 50/7.3 f −1 = x 5.9 y = − x − 7 + 2 5. y = 19/2 6.5 f ◦ g (x) = −6x + 3.2 Inﬁnite many solutions 6.6.10 x = −1. y = 9 6.7 x − 4 + 4.3.8 y = −x 3 − 4 5. x 2 + 8x + 15 5. g ◦ f (x) = −6x − 6 5.4.4. 1.3.5 y = |x| − 2 5.5 x = 9/5.14 No solution 6.3. x 4 − x 3 − 6x 2 − 6x.3. f (h) = 3h − 6 f (a) − f (h) =3 a −h 5.6 y = |x + 5| + 1 5.−x + 6.14 2. y = 19/5 6. y = −2/7 6. y = 1/3 6.4. g ◦ f (−4) = 4 5. (x 2 − x)/(x 2 − 6) 2x + 3 2x − 3 5.6. x + 1/ x 5. x + 1 x.9 1/(2x + 3). y = −1 6.5.1 5.3.6. y = −15/4 6. y = 17 5. y = 5 6.12 x = −9/8.5. g ◦ f = −(x 2 + 1)2 + 1 5.2/x + 5 5.5.3. g ◦ f = −x 2 5.6.11 x = 1/44.0).3.5.(8.6 f −1 = 3 3 x 5.5. 4)} 5.4 −2x 2 + 10x − 12.4.6. f /g = 5.0.3. y = 17/44 6.2 G −1 = {(a.7 f −1 = (x + 4)2 5.(15.6.−1).10 f −1 = 5.5. f − g = 6.1))} 206 .5.1 f + g = 4x.3.2 2x 2 − x − 6.10 f ◦ g = −x 2 .7 y = (x − 3)3 + 3 5.3).11 f ◦ g (−1) = −2.5 f −1 = x 5.Answers and Hints 5.4 No solution 6.3. f (a) = 3a − 6 3.9 x = −22/5.3 x = 2.4. f (x + h) − f (x) = 2(x + h) h 1.9 f −1 = 2 x 2x + 1 3x 5 3 5. g ◦ f (1) = 2 5.5.6.5.13 f ◦ g (−4) = 8. g ◦ f (3) = 98 5.5.(c. y = −2 6.6.3.6 f ◦ g = (−x 2 + 1)2 + 1.6.1).3 x + 1 + x.3.6.15 x = 37.12 f ◦ g (2) = 1/5.13 x = −3/2.11 f −1 = x − 16 6. y = −15 6.1 F −1 = {(0.15 2.7 x = 12.4 f −1 = x +2 3 1 4 5.5.5.3. f (0) = −3 5.5.(−x + 5x − 6)2 .