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09EC314

ANTENNAS AND WAVE PROPAGATION

(Prerequisite: Electromagnetic Fields & Waves) UNIT 1 RADIATION FIELDS OF WIRE ANTENNAS Concept of vector potential, Modification for time varying, retarded case. Power radiated and radiation resistance of current element. Radiation resistance of elementary dipole with linear current distribution, Radiation from Half-wave Dipole & Quarter-wave Monopole, Radiation Fields, Near and Far fields. UNIT II ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS & LOOP ANTENNAS Definitions: Radiation intensity, Directivity, Beam width, Gain and radiation resistance of current element, Half wave dipole and folded dipole, Main lobe, side lobe level, Null depth, Front to back Ratio, Figure of Merit, Polarization, Reciprocity Principle, Antenna efficiency, Effective length and Effective Area, Relation between gain, Effective length and Radiation Resistance, Relation between Effective Area and Directivity and related problems. UNIT III ANTENNA ARRAYS AND ANTENNA TYPES Antenna Arrays: Expression for Electric field from two or three element Arrays, Uniform linear arrays BSA, EFA, Directivity of BSA, EFA, Related problems, Principle of Pattern multiplication, Binomial Arrays. Antenna Types: Yagi Uda Antenna, V and Rhombic Antennas, Turnstile antenna, Horn antenna, Slot antenna, Micro strip antenna. UNIT IV REFLECTOR AND LENS ANTENNAS Focusing in paraboloid Reflectors Geometry, Uniform and tapered illumination, Types of feeds, Importance of F/D ratio, Cassegrain feed system, Focusing in a lens Antenna Dielectric lenses & metal plane Lens Antenna, Lumeberg lens, Plane Reflector, Corner reflector. UNIT V WAVE PROPAGATION The three basic types of propagation; ground wave, space wave & sky wave propagation. Ground wave propagation: Attenuation characteristics for Ground wave Propagation, Summerfield analysis of Ground wave, Losses due to earth constants.

Space wave propagation: Effect of curvature of an Ideal earth, Atmospheric effects in Space-wave propagation, Radio-Horizon, Duct Propagation, Maximum range of distance for LOS. Sky Wave Propagation: Structure of Ionospheric Propagation, Gyro frequency, Refraction and Reflection of sky waves by Ionosphere, Critical frequency, Skip distance, Maximum tunable Frequency, Virtual height.

Text books:
1. C.A Balanis, Antenna Theory, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd ed., 2001. 2. E.C. Jordan and K.G. Balamain, Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems. 2nd ed., Pearson Education, 2000. 3. G S N Raju, Antenna and Wave Propagation, Pearson Education.

Reference Books
1. K D Prasad, Satya Prakashan, Antennas & Wave Propagation, Tech India Publications, New Delhi, 2001 2. John D Kraus, Antennas. 2nd ed., Mc Graw-Hill,1988 3. F.E.Terman , Radio Engineering, MC Graw Hill

Simulation
1. Sophocles J. Orfanidis, Electromagnetic Waves and Antenna