This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
W IN TE R E D I TI ON -200 9
From The Editor’s Desk
Greetings! We seek to continue sailing on the seas charted by us last year and like true alchemists, transform the mundane into sparkling gold. We convey our gratitude to the pioneers and our best wishes to the newcomers. We also congratulate Venkataraman Ramakrishnan for doing us proud with his achievement. Presenting you with our WINTER EDITION! This issue sees recent major advances in the field of solid state chemistry and also the active participation of students in the contribution of articles. So it truly is a newsletter of the association, by the association and for the association. Hope you take pleasure in turning each page!
Graphene : The Next Big Thing For Small Things! What’s New For PVC? Glow In The Dark Freeze! Spectroscopy And The Way It Is Headed Of Chemicals And Criminals : Agatha Christie’s “The Blue Geranium”
Venkataraman Ramakrishnan 2009 winner of Nobel Prize in Chemistry
3 3, 4 4 5, 6 6 7
Venkataraman Ramakrishnan, born in 1952 in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, is a structural biologist at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, England. He received the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome" Ribosomes are instrumental in the production of amino acids and proteins. The ribosomes from bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes (the three domains of life on Earth), have significantly different structure and RNA sequences. These differences in structure allow some antibiotics to kill bacteria by inhibiting their ribosomes, while leaving human ribosomes unaffected. The ribosomes in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells resemble those in bacteria, reflecting the evolutionary origin of this organelle. Thus with the remarkable efforts made by our Indian scientist , many antibiotics can be generated to fight deadly diseases.
Secretary : Abhishek Chandna 4. R. Dr. Joint-Secretary: Anubhav Srivastava 3.V.G Chandrasekhar Faculty-In-Charge Medicinal Chemistry Chemistry Office Bearers : 1. Dr. Dr. Dr. N. K. R. Sumithra Theoritical chemical Physics 6.Rao. Editorial Board: Sayonee Ghosh Roy Chinta Uday Kumar 6. Dr.K. Dr.V. Event Coordinators: Payal Parate Leeon Passi Shweta Luktuke 7. Dr. Dr. Director-BPHC Green Chemistry. Subbalakshmi Material science Page 2 Winter Edition-2009 .S. Krishnan Bio-Inorganic chemistry Yogesh Bhojwani 5. J. Dr. Anupam Bhattacharya Synthetic organic chemistry 9. Treasurer: Prasanna 4. Srinivasan Inorganic materials 8.Faculty—chemistry group 1. Assistant-Treasurer 5. Rajesh Group leader Green Chemistry 3. 2. Ramakrishna Vadrevu Chemical Biology 2.
which is among the 20 most-cited papers in the field of Molecular Biology & Genetics. the hottest new material in physics and nanotechnology is graphene: a remarkably flat molecule made of carbon atoms arranged in hexagonal rings much like molecular chicken wire. WHAT’S NEW FOR PVC? Some new observations that relate to the polymerization chemistry of vinyl chloride (VC) and thermal degradation. its molecular structure is so resistant to defects that researchers have had to hand-make them to study what effects they have. As a result. So physicists call this an "effective mass" and consider them to be quasiparticles. this new material may allow physicists to conduct tabletop experiments that test their theoretical models of some of the most extreme environments in the universe. Chemistry Chronicles Page 3 . Not only is this the thinnest material possible. and nanotechnologists. 1947 an American scientist. Graphene when cleaned up enough shows a bizarre electrical phenomenon called the fractional quantum Hall effect. Electrons are confined to the interface between the two and their motions are restrained to two dimensions.tsein. born 15 January. unlike those in other materials. It turns out that graphene quasiparticles. professor of biological sciences in Columbia university. obey the rules of quantum electrodynamics.” He traces his work on Green Fluorescent Protein to a 1988 seminar from Paul Brehm about bioluminescent organisms: this led to some crucial experiments in 1992. When cooled this configuration down within six degrees of absolute zero and applied a magnetic field. where the electrons act together to create new particles with electrical charges that are a fraction that of individual electrons. These and graphene's other exotic properties have attracted the interest of physicists. detailed in his paper “Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression”. They have also succeeded in creating a close approximation to a two-dimensional electron gas by bonding two slightly different semiconductors together. First. inhibition of spread of fire and smoke suppression abilities of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). thermal stabilization. but they behave as if they have a mass of zero. the same relativistic equations that physicists use to describe the behavior of particles in black holes and high-energy particle accelerators. who want to study them. Martin Chalfie. the graphene generated a robust quantum Hall effect as predicted by theory. over the years scientists have put considerable thought into how twodimensional gases and solids should behave. but it also is 10 times stronger than steel and it conducts electricity better than any other known material at room temperature. Second. the electrons that carry electrical charge travel much faster and generally behave as if they have far less mass than they do in ordinary metals or superconductors. He shared the 2008 noble prize in chemistry along with Osamu Shimomura and Roger Y. for the “Discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein. Although graphene is the first truly two-dimensional crystalline material that has been discovered. When traveling through graphene they also act as quasiparticles. then the fractional quantum Hall effect appears. It has 2 features that make it exceptional. who want to exploit them to make novel electrical and mechanical devices.GRAPHENE : The next big thing for small things! Now. Semiconductor lithography techniques were applied to suspend ultraclean graphene sheets between microscopic posts above the surface of semiconductor chips. When such a system is cooled down to less than one degree above absolute zero and a strong magnetic field is applied.
head-to-head VC emplacement leads to beta chloroalkyl radicals that can transfer chlorine atoms directly to VC. luciferase. but it is not so with fire flies. Prathyusha Have you ever seen insects which glow in the dark? Aren’t they beautiful? Fire flies and glow worms belong to this category. Luciferase is a heat sensitive protein and is used in detection of RBC (red blood cell) degeneration and in studying protein denaturation. and the reductive coupling of PVC chains may suppress both smoke and flame. luciferase and ATP. and hydrogen abstraction from the polymer by ordinary macroradicals leads to the structural defects that cause thermal instability. The propagation steps of the polymerization do not become diffusion-controlled at VC conversions near 90%. This phenomenon of light emission without heat is called luminescence. The intensity of the glow is directly proportional to the ATP present. Most insects produce heat as a waste product when they emit light. hoping that it might lead them to a solution for the energy crisis which the world is facing today. The thermal dehydro— chlorination of PVC involves ion pairs or four-center concerted transition states that are highly polarized. ATP and ions like Ca+2 and Mg+2 The energy released in the last step is enough to change the complex from a low energy ground state to a high energy excited state.If cats were radioactive. however. This coupling can result from reactions of the polymer with zero. This high energy complex then loses its energy by emitting a photon of visible light and returns to ground state. Scientists are now experimenting with luciferin. Page 4 Winter Edition-2009 . They use chemical reactions involving luciferin. The light they emit. and hence called cold light. is devoid of heat. Reversible thermal stabilization of the polymer by organic metal salts occurs by the Frye-Horst process. They are also called lightning bugs.or low valent transition metal species that are formed in situ from appropriate additives. for the polymer molecular-weight reductions that occur at high VC conversions. would they have 18 half lives? During polymerization. Another mechanism for transfer to monomer is responsible. PURPOSE OF FIRE FLY GLOW A way of communication (attracting mates) To escape predation LIGHT PRODUCTION Fire flies have a special organ for producing light. ATP and O2 Luciferin + ATP —> luciferyl adenylate (complex) + pyrophosphate Luciferyl adenylate + O2 —> oxyluciferin + AMP + light OVERALL REACTION : luciferin + O2 —> oxyluciferin + light The reaction is catalyzed by luciferase. This transfer process involves the abstraction of methylene hydrogen from the polymer by an ordinary macroradical and the subsequent Bimolecular donation of a chlorine atom to VC. ATOMIC KITTY GLOW IN THE DARK T.
frozen soils in winter. 1949) is an American medical doctor. ice-cream and composite material synthesis? All of these situations involve the propagation of a solidification interface and its encounter with particles. They benefited from access for several days to the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble. roads and thoroughfares. Up until now. studies have simplified the problem by only considering a single particle in front of a flat interface propagating at low velocity. is still poorly understood for the most part and difficult to observe experimentally. the movement of particles while they are being frozen. Researchers at the Laboratoire de Synthèse et Fonctionnalisation des Céramiques (CNRS/Saint Gobain) and the Laboratoire Matériaux. Although the phenomenon can be described in just a few words. Every cell is primarily water. one line of which (ID19) is dedicated to X-ray imaging." Chemistry Chronicles Page 5 . In most situations however. since the phenomena take place at small dimensional scales and at high velocity. professor. "But the water doesn’t just sit in the cell. and molecular biologist who was awarded the 2003 emistry (which he shared with Roderick Mackinnon) for his discovery of Aquaporins. Ingénierie et Sciences (CNRS/INSA Lyon) have tackled the problem using X-ray imaging. What is the connection between sea ice formation at the poles. it moves through it in a very organized way. These results have been obtained by researchers at the Laboratoire de Synthèse et Fonctionnalisation des Céramiques (CNRS/Saint Gobain) and the Laboratoire Matériaux. Ingénierie et Sciences (CNRS/INSA Lyon) by observing. its mechanism and control remain however extremely complex and still far from being fully understood. is not flat. The researchers were then able to demonstrate that. Aquaporins are "the plumbing system for cells. Aquaporins are water-channel proteins that move water molecules through the cell membrane. They then obtained a three-dimensional image of the ice crystals after freezing by exploiting the differences in X-ray absorption between the ice and the particles. the researchers were able to observe in situ the growth of ice crystals and the movement of particles during freezing." said Agre. The behavior of the interface in these conditions. By freezing a concentrated suspension of ceramic particles." accelerating in a punctuated manner and Peter agre (born January 30. cryopreservation of cells. These results were published online in the journal Nature Materials on 8 November 2009. Their work could make it easier not just to develop porous materials with specific properties but also to understand better the mechanisms of soils freezing in winter. through X-ray imaging at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The process occurs rapidly in tissues that have these aquaporins or water channels. there are a multitude of particles and the numerous interactions between the particles play a considerable role on the way the system behaves. microorganisms or bubbles in suspension in a liquid. critical in numerous applications. the interface "jumps. under certain conditions. the interface propagates rapidly. in certain conditions it leads to a modification of the redistribution of particles and the growth of crystals.FREEZE! The freezing of suspensions of particles is not always a uniform phenomenon. which can have a considerable impact on plants.
e. Earlier. Page 6 Winter Edition-2009 . It has made an impact in many fields like Forensic Material Engineering. It is now used for quantitative analysis i. chemists are spending their time in analysing spectra of known molecules rather than discovering new ones. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging. advanced medical imaging techniques etc. 7. the freezing of soils in winter has quite considerable consequences on plants and roads. 2. ESR. It has a wide range of applications and is the most applied science in today’s world as diagnostic tool. 5. has reduced the utility and scope of the field. When a person undergoing MRI scan. But nowadays. not caffeine are more efficient in waking you up in the morning air becomes liquid at –190 degrees Celsius gold and copper are the only two non-white metals . where salt and microorganisms are expelled between ice crystals. It can also be used to detect diseased tissues and tumours by their differential rates of returning to their equilibrium states. how much of a substance is present in a mixture. which helps in constructing the image and providing a contrast between different soft tissues of the body. is commonly used in radiology to visualise the internal structure and function of the human body. a new technology. 4. when the interface propagates in an irregular manner. The phenomenon of freezing can in fact be used to develop porous materials with specific biomimetic structures. Thus. is placed in an external magnetic field.AMAZING FACTS : 1. Shravya Spectroscopy. the process would take 2-7 days but now it takes only 15 min – 1 hr. chemistry and biology fields. Pearls melt in vinegar. SPECTROSCOPY AND THE WAY IT IS HEADED S. This. which significantly affect its final properties. 3. These results thus provide the key for working in conditions where such defects are absent and cast new light on natural freezing mechanisms. numerous defects appear that weaken the structure. plays an important role in thermal exchanges between the atmosphere and the oceans. The position of the protons can be determined by applying an additional magnetic field during the scan. The liquids inside young coconuts can be used as substitute for blood plasma. The body is composed of many H2O molecules. which is extremely interesting to materials science researchers. Tungsten has the highest melting point in metals of 3410 degrees Celsius. 6. depending upon the complexity of the molecule. Such modern technology and equipment will definitely aid scientists in their research and efforts to take spectroscopy to newer heights. in my opinion. is a requisite probe. This shows how our science has evolved in such a short time. as scientists say. the magnetic moments of the protons align themselves in the direction of the field. In the 1960’s. the mechanical properties of which seem to be particularly promising for a wide range of applications in the energy. The only letter not appearing in the periodic table is J. The formation of sea ice. They explain this result by a systematic return of the interface to equilibrium when it is given enough time to do so. In fact. spectroscopy was mainly used in the identification of new molecules. modifying the redistribution of particles and the growth of crystals. they return to their original position. When the field is turned off. NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) is an upcoming branch of spectroscopy and possibly the most interesting one. Apples . each of which contains 2H nuclei.
the unstable ammonium carbonate. No wonder chemicals have always been the favourite modus operandi. inevitably frightened by the appearance of the blue geranium.. yielding a patent on the Bergius process in 1913. Elementary.. Her husband left no stone unturned to make her life easier...well. But full moon arrived and a primrose in the wallpaper turned blue. But a little knowledge of chemistry will always lead us to the culprit! Since such cases have always tickled the fancy of crime fiction writers. not the yellow ones.. techniques for the highpressure and hightemperature chemistry of carbon-containing substrates were developed.. In this process liquid hydrocarbons used as synthetic fuels are produced by hydrogenation of lignite (brown coal).. Case closed. So the blue geranium did. as every horticulture enthusiast knew. Mary was found dead in her room with a bottle of smelling salts in her hand and a blue geranium on the portion of the wall beside her bed.. the easier it is to hide and thus. Did the lady scare herself silly and die of fright? Was there something supernatural about this entire incident? Or was it calculated. For this he was awarded the noble prize in 1931. known for the Bergius process of synthesizing synthetic fuel from coal. in a way. a blue hollyhock turned up on the wallpaper and the full moon after that. hollyhock and geranium turned blue. Friedrigh karl Rudolph Bergius. Mary.. Red to blue. I present one such for study : THE BLUE GERANIUM by Agatha Christie Mary Pritchard was a neurotic patient. her nurse sent for one.. Chemistry Chronicles Page 7 . Next full moon. don’t you think? Suppose someone pasted red litmus paper on these flowers on the wall and held up an alkali near it. was a german chemist. The handier the weapon of murder. there is no such thing as a blue primrose.a familiar phrase.. we all know what happens when someone comes in contact with cyanide. cold—blooded murder? Let’s start our investigation with the flowers. it was emptied out of the bottle and replaced with something like potassium cyanide.. Someone like... And the immediate source of alkali in the room was the bottle of smelling salts or sal ammoniac. turned to her smelling salts for comfort and inhaled the cyanide. quite elementary. it would naturally turn blue. the elegance of the crime. He hired a nurse for her constant care and even got the walls of her room plastered with flowery wallpaper for a soothing effect. And suppose after usage. The funny thing was that only the red variety of the primrose. hollyhock or geranium (these flowers are usually of the red or yellow variety) and told her to think nothing of it. for the fortune-teller told her Beware of every full moon! The blue prim rose means danger The blue hollyhock means warning The blue geranium means death Her husband pooh-poohed this saying that. born October 11th 1884.the nurse.OF CHEMICALS AND CRIMINALS Sayonee Ghosh Roy One simple rule for committing a crime : leave no clues. my dear Alchemists. mean death after all! So who’s the culprit here? Someone who was obviously in league with that phony fortune – teller and also possessed a good knowledge of chemicals and its interactions... At her request... Mary had a peculiar fondness for fortune-tellers.. But the meeting only left her more hysterical than ever. During his habilitation.
The common name for PbO 10.CROSSWORD 3 1 8 7 5 4 6 9 2 10 11 12 ACROSS 1.chemassoc. The presence of this group imparts a rotten egg smell to the compound 5. Anti knocking agent for petrol 12.com 4 Iodine 3 Mercapto Or email us at 6 Litharge 5 Ethylene www. caustic : other name for silver nitrate 11. Artificial process : the product of cupro ammonium 8. reddish brown in liquid state and violet in gas phase 6. The reagent which forms the precipitate named iodide to the millionths base ATOMIC KITTY ACROSS ANSWERS 1 Technetium 2 DOWN Buckminster chemassoc@gmail. The radioactive manmade element that occurs before Bismuth in the periodic table 4. The organic compound which is also a plant hormone for ripening 7. The carbon allotrope named after a very famous fullerene architect : 3.blogspot. Headache? This regulates the blood flow DOWN 2. This element is grey in solid state. The compound with the highest dielectric constant 9.com 10 Lunar 7 Silk Please visit us at 12 Aspirin 11 TEL 9 8 Water Nessler We’re on the Web! .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.