[Selections from


The Complete Mowgli Stories, Duly Annotated Rudyard Kipling annotated and edited by GMW Wemyss & Mar ham Shaw !yle
A "apton "oo

[from the prefatory essay on] Kipling and the Kaiser
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%AW)* The Jungle Book was

published in +,-./ The Second Jungle Book, one year later, in the year o0 Wilde1s 2on3i2tion 0or sodomy* Mr Gladstone ga3e way to %ord Rosebery at Downing Street* The Kaiser, ha3ing 4dropped the pilot1 "ismar2 in +,-5, began the year +,-. with Gra0 3on Capri3i as his &mperial Chan2ellor, and ended it with the !rin2e o0 #ohenlohe in that o00i2e, he whose aunt was 6ueen 7i2toria1s hal08sister* "oth Chan2ellors were liberal by instin2t, in 0a3our o0 0ree trade, rappro2hement with "ritain, and a re2on2iliation o0 the parties to the Kulturkampf. "oth were also rendered helpless to e00e2t their hopes and poli2ies/ the Anglo8 German Agreement or #eligoland89an:ibar Treaty o0 +,-5, consule 3on Capri3i, had been the last e;piring gasp o0 any hopes o0 a22ommodation between the "ritish and German $mpires* &t had been on 3on Capri3i1s wat2h also, 2apti3e upon the bridge, that the German <ingoes had allowed the Reinsuran2e Treaty with Russia to e;pire, leading to the +,-. allian2e between Russia and the =ren2h

Republi2 that le0t Germany e;posed to a 0uture two80ront war* &t was a time o0 anar2hy, assassination, and anti8Semitism> the year o0 the assassination o0 Sadi Carnot and o0 the Drey0us A00air* &t was the year o0 the a22ession o0 ?i2holas @d to the throne o0 all the Russias* A year a0ter the publi2ation o0 The Second Jungle Book, that is, in +,-A, Boe Chamberlain entered Cabinet as Colonial Se2retary* =ran2e was the 'ld $nemy, and, as "ismar2 had intended, "ritain1s new enemy in 2olonial and imperial e;pansion Cthe =ashoda &n2ident o0 +,-, was already impli2it in their ri3alryD/ Russia was the enemy in the Great Game and the ra2e 0or 2ontrol o0 Central Asia, with all that that implied 0or the se2urity o0 "ritish &ndia* Boe Chamberlain E li e, 0atally, his se2ond son ?e3ille a0ter him E was set upon stri ing hands with Germany* &n this as in all else he had the politi2ian1s gi0t o0 2apturing, in2arnating, 0ollowing, and pretending to lead, popular sentiment, or a 3ery large strain therein* Kipling would ha3e none o0 it* Certainly the son o0 the Ra< held Russia E 4the "ear that wal s li e a Man1 E to be the enemy o0 "ritish &ndia/ he did not howe3er there0ore embra2e Germany, least o0 all the noisy Germany o0 Kaiser Wilhelm, that was bent upon building Tirpit:1 na3y and the Kiel Canal, as a 0riend and ally* A tribalist rather than a ra2ialist or indeed a nationalist E see 4Mothers1 sons and motherlands1 in this 3olume E Kipling had no use 0or the Aryan master ra2e 0antasies o0 Gobineau and #ouston Stewart Chamberlain* There is neither East nor West, Border, nor Breed, nor Birth, When two strong men stand face to face, tho’ they

come from the ends of the earth. &n +,-5, Kipling had thrown ba2 in the 0a2e o0 the Kaiser 4An &mperial Res2ript1> to the sedu2ti3e prospe2t o0 4FThe road to the rest ye see > The strong shall wait 0or the weary, the hale shall halt 0or the wea / With the e3en tramp o0 an army where no man brea s 0rom the line, Ge shall mar2h to pea2e and plenty in the bond o0 brotherhood E signHI1, his 2hara2ters had replied, that they wor ed 0or ids and the missus, 4and, W* #ohen:ollern, & guess & shall wor till & drop1* &t was one thing, and bad enough, 0or 4The &slanders1 to 0awn upon the Gounger ?ations o0 the $mpire 0or 4the men who 2ould shoot and ride1/ but paying Danegeld was simply not on* Kipling in +,-+ had had his #ans "reitmann e;pli2itly 2ompare the 2oral sna e that illed his 0ellow German and 0ellow naturalist to the German 0lag* Kim, in whi2h the $urasians, &ndians, and Tibetans, and the sahibs who immerse themsel3es in &ndian 2ulture E Stri2 land, Creighton, Kim himsel0 E are the heroes, and the $uropean ri3als o0 the $mpire are the 3illains, dates 0rom +-5+, the year in whi2h the 6ueen8$mpress died* The Bubilee Gear o0 +,-J had seen the publi2ation o0 Kipling1s poem, 4Re2essional1, a star , stern note in 2ounterpoint to the easy alleluias, and the 0irst appearan2e o0 the phrase, the 4lesser breeds without the %aw1> the 4Gentiles1 whose trust is in military power alone* The Bandar log date to the +,-. publi2ation o0 The Jungle Book. Two years be0ore, Tirpit: had be2ome Chie0 o0 the German &mperials ?a3al Sta00* =rom +,-J E that Re2essional year> 40ar8 2alled our na3ies melt away, on dune and headland sin s the 0ire1 E Tirpit: was State Se2retary o0 the German &mperial ?a3al '00i2e, and it was his tas as it was his pleasure to 2arry out Wilhelm1s

intention to 2hallenge the Royal ?a3y* Kipling wrote as mu2h o0 the sea and sailors, 2i3ilian and R?, as he did o0 the "ritish Army/ and he was one o0 many "ritish sub<e2ts who had, 0rom at least +,,. and the German s2ramble 0or 2olonies Cthe 0irst, ominously, was in ?ew Guinea, a threat to Australia and to the "ritish dominan2e $ast o0 Sue:D, regarded Germany as a potential enemy* The Russians were a danger to the Ra<, sharing a land border in their Central Asian e;pansion/ a Germany that a2Kuired 2olonies and ne2essarily wanted a 0leet to 2onne2t and prote2t them, was potentially an enemy greater yet* And Germany1s re2ord> o3er S2hleswig8#olstein, against Austria, against =ran2e> was an ugly one* They were a people outside the %aw and not to be trusted, human8li e yet not 0ully human/ and so they appear in Kipling, bombasti2, blustering, bullying> Bandar log. &n 0a2t, e3en i0 one doesn1t ta e "ron2 horst o0 the di3or2e 2ase as ma ing one, and assesses "reitmann as neutral in his morals E whi2h were a mista e E there is hardly a 4good German1 in Kipling, twenty years and more be0ore the Great War> 0or 0urther e;ploration o0 whi2h see the essay 4Mothers1 sons and motherlands1 in this 3olume*

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Rudyard Kipling






wor o0 this nature upon the generosity o0

spe2ialists are 3ery numerous, and the $ditor @ would be wanting in all title to the generous treatment he has re2ei3ed were he not willing to ma e the 0ullest possible a2 nowledgement o0 his indebtedness* #is than s are due in the 0irst pla2e to the s2holarly and a22omplished "ahadur Shah, baggage elephant +J. on the &ndian Register, who, with his amiable sister !udmini, most 2ourteously supplied the history o0 4Toomai o0 the $lephants1 and mu2h o0 the in0ormation 2ontained in 4#er Ma<esty1s Ser3ants1* N The ad3entures o0 Mowgli were 2olle2ted at 3arious times and in 3arious pla2es 0rom a multitude o0 in0ormants, most o0 whom desire to preser3e the stri2test anonymity* Get, at this distan2e, the $ditor 0eels at liberty to than a #indu gentleman o0 the old ro2 , an esteemed
+ @ N To The Jungle Book, +,-.* Mr Kipling, 2a es and all* ?one o0 the stories not 2on2erning Mowgli appears in this 3olume*

resident o0 the upper slopes o0 Ba o, . 0or his 2on3in2ing i0 somewhat 2austi2 estimate o0 the national 2hara2teristi2s o0 his 2aste E the !resbytes*A Sahi, a sa3ant o0 in0inite resear2h and industry, a member o0 the re2ently disbanded Seeonee !a2 , and an artist well nown at most o0 the lo2al 0airs o0 Southern &ndia, O where his mu::led dan2e with his master attra2ts the youth, beauty, and 2ulture o0 many 3illages, has 2ontributed most 3aluable data on people, manners, and 2ustoms* J These ha3e been 0reely drawn upon, in the stories o0 4TigerH TigerH1, 4Kaa1s #unting1, and 4Mowgli1s "rothers1* =or the outlines o0 4Ri i8ti i8ta3i1 the $ditor stands indebted to one o0 the leading herpetologists o0 (pper &ndia, a 0earless and independent in3estigator who, resol3ing 4not to li3e but now,1 lately sa2ri0i2ed his li0e through o3er8appli2ation to the study o0 our $astern Thanatophidia. A happy a22ident o0 tra3el enabled the $ditor, when a passenger on the Empress of !ndia, to be o0 some slight assistan2e to a 0ellow8passenger* #ow ri2hly his poor ser3i2es were repaid, readers o0 4The White Seal1 may <udge 0or themsel3es*

. A O


Ba o #ill, Simla Cnow ShimlaD* The langurs/ "res#ytis being the genus o0 'ld World mon eys in whi2h the langurs o0 &ndia, now pla2ed in Semnopithecus, were then pla2ed* ?ote that the langur re0eren2ed abo3e is resident at Simla, in the #imalayan 0oothills, well to the ?orth o0 Seeonee, whilst Sahi has 0ound himsel0 well to the Southwards* 4Ge now the saying> F?orth are the 3ermin/ south are the li2e* We are the Bungle*I1 The theme o0 e;ile has been already introdu2ed* This is an in2onsisten2y, as it seems unli ely 0rom the 2orpus o0 the wor s that any o0 the =ree !eople o0 the Seeonee !a2 e3er 0ell into the hands o0 man to be tamed* ?ote that this is any 2ase a re0eren2e to the =irst Seeonee !a2 *

Mowgli1s "rothers Lpart one,M

?ow Chil the Kite- brings home the night That Mang the "at+5 sets 0ree E The herds are shut in byre and hut, =or loosed till dawn are we* This is the hour o0 pride and power, Talon and tush and 2law* 'h, hear the 2allH E Good hunting all That eep the <ungle %awH $ight Song in the Jungle


WAS S$7$? '1C%'CK '=

a 3ery warm e3ening in the Seeonee ++ hills

when =ather Wol0+@ wo e up 0rom his day1s rest, s2rat2hed himsel0, yawned, and spread out his paws one a0ter the other to get rid o0 the sleepy 0eeling in their tips* Mother Wol0 lay with her big grey nose
, &n order to gi3e out, as promised, the ad3entures o0 Mowgli in their internal 2hronologi2al order, the editors ha3e, with appalling presumption and no little trepidation, bro en this 2hapter up* - The raptor, %il&us migrans spp.' here probably %. m. go&inda. +5 There are numerous spe2ies and subspe2ies o0 bat in &ndia* There is no telling whi2h Kipling had in mind, as ranges o3erlap* Clearly Mang is one o0 the 3esper bats, (espertilionid), who appear at e3ening and 4set 0ree the night1* ++ Seoni, Madhya !radesh* +@ *. lupus pallipes.

dropped a2ross her 0our tumbling, sKuealing 2ubs, and the moon shone into the mouth o0 the 2a3e where they all li3ed* 4AugrhH1 said =ather Wol0, 4it is time to hunt again1/ and he was going to spring, downhill, when a little shadow with a bushy tail 2rossed the threshold and whined> 4Good lu2 go with you, ' Chie0 o0 the Wol3es/ and good lu2 and strong white teeth go with the noble 2hildren, that they may ne3er 0orget the hungry in this world*1 &t was the <a2 al+N E TabaKui, the Dish8li2 er E and the wol3es o0 &ndia despise TabaKui be2ause he runs about ma ing mis2hie0, and telling tales, and eating rags and pie2es o0 leather 0rom the 3illage rubbish8heaps* "ut they are a0raid o0 him too, be2ause TabaKui, more than any one else in the Bungle, is apt to go mad, and then he 0orgets that he was e3er a0raid o0 any one, and runs through the 0orest biting e3erything in his way* $3en the tiger runs and hides when little TabaKui goes mad, 0or madness is the most disgra2e0ul thing that 2an o3erta e a wild 2reature* We 2all it hydrophobia, but they 2all it dewanee E the madness E and run*+. 4$nter, then, and loo ,1 said =ather Wol0 sti00ly/ 4but there is no 0ood here*1 4=or a wol0, no,1 said TabaKui/ 4but 0or so mean +A a person as mysel0 a dry bone is a good 0east* Who are we, the +idur log Lthe Ba2 al8!eopleM, to pi2 and 2hooseP1 #e s2uttled to the ba2 o0 the 2a3e, where he 0ound the bone o0 a bu2 with some meat on it, and sat, 2ra2 ing the end merrily* 4All than s 0or this good meal,1 he said, li2 ing his lips> 4#ow
+N *. aureus indicus. Mu2h more wol08 or dog8li e Q 2oyote8li e, Mr !yle submits Q than the A0ri2an <a2 al* +. The re0eren2e is o0 2ourse to rabies* +A #umble, lowly*

beauti0ul are the noble 2hildrenH #ow large are their eyesH And so young tooH &ndeed, indeed, & might ha3e remembered that the 2hildren o0 Kings are men 0rom the beginning*1 ?ow, TabaKui new as well as any one else that there is nothing so unlu2 y as to 2ompliment 2hildren to their 0a2es/ and it pleased him to see Mother and =ather Wol0 loo un2om0ortable*+O TabaKui sat still, re<oi2ing in the mis2hie0 that he had made> then he said spite0ully> 4Shere Khan, the "ig 'ne, has shi0ted his hunting8grounds* #e will hunt among these hills 0or the ne;t moon, so he has told me*1 Shere Khan was the tiger +J who li3ed near the Waingunga+, Ri3er, twenty miles away* 4#e has no rightH1 =ather Wol0 began angrily E 4"y the %aw o0 the Bungle+- he has no right to 2hange his Kuarters without due warning* #e will 0righten e3ery head o0 game within ten miles, and & E & ha3e to ill 0or two, these days*1 4#is mother did not 2all him %ungri Lthe %ame 'neM 0or nothing,1 said Mother Wol0 Kuietly* 4#e has been lame in one 0oot 0rom his birth* That is why he has only illed 2attle* ?ow the 3illagers o0 the Waingunga are angry with him, and he has 2ome here to ma e our 3illagers angry* They will s2our the Bungle 0or him when he is 0ar away, and we and our 2hildren must run when the grass is set alight* &ndeed, we are 3ery grate0ul to Shere KhanH1
+O This re2urs in Kipling, the superstition that the praise o0 a 2hild attra2ts the en3y and enmity o0 dar powers that re3enge themsel3es upon the 2hild by 3isiting upon him illness and death* As a superstition, it is mu2h older than Kipling and by no means 2on0ined to &ndia* The Romans 0or one new it also* +J ". tigris tigris, the "engal tiger* +, ?owadays spelt 4Wainganga1> a ri3er rising near Seoni in Madhya !radesh* +- This is perhaps the happiest o0 Kipling1s many in3entions> that there is a %aw e3en in the <ungle, pace #obbes/ and that transgressors o0 it do not prosper*

4Shall & tell him o0 your gratitudeP1 said TabaKui* 4'utH1 snapped =ather Wol0* 4'ut and hunt with thy master* Thou hast done harm enough 0or one night*1 4& go,1 said TabaKui Kuietly* 4Ge 2an hear Shere Khan below in the thi2 ets* & might ha3e sa3ed mysel0 the message*1 =ather Wol0 listened, and below in the 3alley that ran down to a little ri3er, he heard the dry, angry, snarly, singsong whine o0 a tiger who has 2aught nothing and does not 2are i0 all the <ungle nows it* 4The 0oolH1 said =ather Wol0* 4To begin a night1s wor with that noiseH Does he thin bullo2 sP1 that our bu2 are li e his 0at Waingunga

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[from] Kaa’s Hunting
L)M 4=ool that & amH 'h, 0at, brown, root8digging 0ool that & am,1 said "aloo, un2urling himsel0 with a <er , 4it is true what #athi the Wild $lephant says> FTo each his own fear- / and they, the Bandar log, 0ear Kaa the Ro2 Sna e* @5 #e 2an 2limb as well as they 2an* #e steals the young mon eys in the night* The whisper o0 his name ma es their wi2 ed tails 2old* %et us go to Kaa*1 4What will he do 0or usP #e is not o0 our tribe, being 0ootless E and with most e3il eyes,1 said "agheera* 4#e is 3ery old and 3ery 2unning*@+ Abo3e all, he is always hungry,1 said "aloo hope0ully* 4!romise him many goats*1 4#e sleeps 0or a 0ull month a0ter he has on2e eaten* #e may be asleep now, and e3en were he awa e what i0 he would rather ill his
@5 "ython molurus. @+ The serpent is traditionally represented as 2unning and wise Q in earthly wisdom, at least* Kipling departs 0rom this tradition only in ma ing Kaa rather good than e3il, as in the post8Christian West, or ambiguous, as 2ommonly* The oldest myths appear to hold that the $arth is a sour2e o0 wisdom Cthe priests o0 Dodona, the eldest #elleni2 ora2le, gained propheti2 wisdom in dreams by sleeping upon the ground, beneath the oa s, unshod and with unwashed 0eetD/ as the 2reature that goeth upon its belly in the dust, the serpent in 2ultures that are not Bewish or Christian Cor MuslimD is held to ha3e absorbed that wisdom 0rom the $arth8Mother8Goddess* "uddhism and #induism ali e re3ere the serpent/ !ython 0ounded the 'ra2le o0 Delphi, and the mythi2 0ounder o0 Athens, Ce2rops, was portrayed as hal08serpent* That being said, neither o0 the editors 2an bear sna es CMr Wemyss is nown to mutter impre2ations upon %ord Mandelson in this 2onte;tD*

own goatsP1 "agheera, who did not now mu2h about Kaa, was naturally suspi2ious* 4Then in that 2ase, thou and & together, old hunter, might ma e him see reason*1 #ere "aloo rubbed his 0aded brown shoulder against the !anther, and they went o00 to loo 0or Kaa the Ro2 !ython* They 0ound him stret2hed out on a warm ledge in the a0ternoon sun, admiring his beauti0ul new 2oat, 0or he had been in retirement 0or the last ten days, 2hanging his s in, and now he was 3ery splendid E darting his big blunt8nosed head along the ground, and twisting the thirty 0eet o0 his body into 0antasti2 nots and 2ur3es, and li2 ing his lips as he thought o0 his dinner to 2ome* 4#e has not eaten,1 said "aloo, with a grunt o0 relie0, as soon as he saw the beauti0ully mottled brown8and8yellow <a2 et* 4"e 2are0ul, "agheeraH #e is always a little blind a0ter he has 2hanged his s in, and 3ery Kui2 to stri e*1 Kaa was not a poison8sna e E in 0a2t he rather despised the poison8sna es as 2owards E but his strength lay in his hug, and when he had on2e lapped his huge 2oils round anybody there was no more to be said* 4Good huntingH1 2ried "aloo, sitting up on his haun2hes* %i e all sna es o0 his breed, Kaa was rather dea0, @@ and did not hear the 2all at 0irst* Then he 2urled up ready 0or any a22ident, his head lowered* 4Good hunting 0or us allH1 he answered* 4'ho, "aloo, what dost thou do hereP Good hunting, "agheeraH 'ne o0 us at least needs 0ood* &s there any news o0 game a0ootP A doe now, or e3en a young bu2 P & am as empty as a dried well*1
@@ That is an understatement*

4We are hunting,1 said "aloo 2arelessly* #e new that you must not hurry Kaa* #e is too big*@N 4Gi3e me permission to 2ome with you,1 said Kaa* 4A blow more or less is nothing to thee, "agheera or "aloo, but & E & ha3e to wait and wait 0or days in a wood8path and 2limb hal0 a night on the mere 2han2e o0 a young ape* !ss8hawH The bran2hes are not what they were when & was young* Rotten twigs and dry boughs are they all*1 4Maybe thy great weight has something to do with the matter,1 said "aloo* 4& am a 0air length E a 0air length,1 said Kaa, with a little pride* 4"ut 0or all that, it is the 0ault o0 this new8grown timber* & 2ame 3ery near to 0alling on my last hunt E 3ery near indeed E and the noise o0 my slipping, 0or my tail was not tight wrapped round the tree, wa ed the Bandar log, and they 2alled me most e3il names*1 4=ootless, yellow earth8worm,1 said "agheera under his whis ers, as though he were trying to remember something* 4SssssH #a3e they e3er 2alled me thatP1 said Kaa* 4Something o0 that ind it was that they shouted to us last moon, but we ne3er noti2ed them* They will say anything E e3en that thou hast lost all thy teeth, and wilt not 0a2e anything bigger than a id, be2ause Cthey are indeed shameless, these Bandar logD E be2ause thou art a0raid o0 the he8goat1s horns,1 "agheera went on sweetly*@. ?ow a sna e, espe2ially a wary old python li e Kaa, 3ery seldom shows that he is angry, but "aloo and "agheera 2ould see the big swallowing8mus2les on either side o0 Kaa1s throat ripple and
@N As Kipling also notes o0 the Ra< itsel0* @. The "la2 !anther is not without 2unning o0 his own* Shades o0 Gandal0 snoo ering "eorn, really*

bulge* 4The Bandar log ha3e shi0ted their grounds,1 he said Kuietly* 4When & 2ame up into the sun to8day & heard them whooping among the tree8tops*1 4&t E it is the Bandar log that we 0ollow now,1 said "aloo/ but the words stu2 in his throat, 0or that was the 0irst time in his memory that one o0 the Bungle8!eople had owned to being interested in the doings o0 the mon eys* 4"eyond doubt then it is no small thing that ta es two su2h hunters E leaders in their own Bungle & am 2ertain E on the trail o0 the Bandar log,1 Kaa replied 2ourteously, as he swelled with 2uriosity* 4&ndeed,1 "aloo began, 4& am no more than the old and sometimes 3ery 0oolish Tea2her o0 the %aw to the Seeonee wol08 2ubs, and "agheera here E 1 4&s "agheera,1 said the "la2 !anther, and his <aws shut with a snap, 0or he did not belie3e in being humble* 4The trouble is this, Kaa* Those nut8stealers and pi2 ers o0 palm8lea3es ha3e stolen away our Man82ub, o0 whom thou hast perhaps heard*1 4& heard some news 0rom & i Chis Kuills ma e him presumptuousD@A o0 a man8thing that was entered into a wol08pa2 , but & did not belie3e* & i is 0ull o0 stories hal0 heard and 3ery badly told*1 4"ut it is true* #e is su2h a Man82ub as ne3er was,1 said "aloo* 4The best and wisest and boldest o0 Man82ubs E my own pupil, who shall ma e the name o0 "aloo 0amous through all the <ungles/ and besides, & E we E lo3e him, Kaa*1
@A #is Kuills, as we ha3e seen, ma e him in3ulnerable, in 0a2t*

4TssH TssH1 said Kaa, sha ing his head to and 0ro* 4& also ha3e nown what lo3e is* There are tales & 2ould tell that Q1 4That need a 2lear night when we are all well 0ed to praise properly,1 said "agheera Kui2 ly* @O 4'ur Man82ub is in the hands o0 the Bandar log now, and we now that o0 all the Bungle8!eople they 0ear Kaa alone*1 4They 0ear me alone* They ha3e good reason,1 said Kaa* 4Chattering, 0oolish, 3ain E 3ain, 0oolish, and 2hattering, are the mon eys* "ut a man8thing in their hands is in no good lu2 * They grow tired o0 the nuts they pi2 , and throw them down* They 2arry a bran2h hal0 a day, meaning to do great things with it, and then they snap it in two* That man8thing is not to be en3ied* They 2alled me also E Fyellow 0ish,I was it notP1 4Worm E worm E earth8worm,1 said "agheera, 4as well as other things whi2h & 2annot now say 0or shame*1 4We must remind them to spea well o0 their master* Aaa8sshH We must help their wandering memories* ?ow, whither went they with the 2ubP1

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@O Well played, sir*

[from] Mowgli’s Brothers [part two]
L)M &t was one 3ery warm day that a new notion 2ame to "agheera E born o0 something that he had heard* !erhaps & i the !or2upine had told him/ but he said to Mowgli when they were deep in the Bungle, as the boy lay with his head on "agheera1s beauti0ul bla2 s in> 4%ittle "rother, how o0ten ha3e & told thee that Shere Khan is thy enemyP1 4As many times as there are nuts on that palm,1 said Mowgli, who, naturally, 2ould not 2ount* 4What o0 itP & am sleepy, "agheera, and Shere Khan is all long tail and loud tal E li e Mao, the !ea2o2 *1 4"ut this is no time 0or sleeping* "aloo nows it/ & now it/ the !a2 now it/ and e3en the 0oolish, 0oolish deer now* TabaKui has told thee, too*1 4#oH hoH1 said Mowgli* 4TabaKui 2ame to me not long ago with some rude tal that & was a na ed man1s 2ub and not 0it to dig pig8 nuts/ but & 2aught TabaKui by the tail and swung him twi2e against a palm8tree to tea2h him better manners*1 4That was 0oolishness/ 0or though TabaKui is a mis2hie08ma er,

he would ha3e told thee o0 something that 2on2erned thee 2losely* 'pen those eyes, %ittle "rother* Shere Khan dare not ill thee in the Bungle/ but remember, A ela is 3ery old, and soon the day 2omes when he 2annot ill his bu2 , and then he will be leader no more* Many o0 the wol3es that loo ed thee o3er when thou wast brought to the Coun2il 0irst are old too, and the young wol3es belie3e, as Shere Khan has taught them, that a man82ub has no pla2e with the !a2 * &n a little time thou wilt be a man*1 4And what is a man that he should not run with his brothersP1 said Mowgli* 4& was born in the Bungle* & ha3e obeyed the %aw o0 the Bungle, and there is no wol0 o0 ours 0rom whose paws & ha3e not pulled a thorn* Surely they are my brothersH1 "agheera stret2hed himsel0 at 0ull length and hal0 shut his eyes* 4%ittle "rother,1 said he, 40eel under my <aw*1 Mowgli put up his strong brown hand, and <ust under "agheera1s sil y 2hin, where the giant rolling mus2les were all hid by the glossy hair, he 2ame upon a little bald spot* 4There is no one in the Bungle that nows that &, "agheera, 2arry that mar E the mar o0 the 2ollar/ and yet, %ittle "rother, & was born among men, and it was among men that my mother died E in the 2ages o0 the King1s !ala2e at 'odeypore*@J &t was be2ause o0 this that & paid the pri2e 0or thee at the Coun2il when thou wast a little na ed 2ub* Ges, & too was born among men* & had ne3er seen the Bungle* They 0ed me behind bars 0rom an iron pan till one night & 0elt that & was "agheera E the !anther E and no man1s plaything, and & bro e the silly lo2 with one blow o0 my paw and 2ame away/
@J (daipur, the 7eni2e o0 &ndia, the Ra<put City o0 %a es, and one o0 the lo3eliest pla2es upon $arth*

and be2ause & had learned the ways o0 men, & be2ame more terrible in the Bungle than Shere Khan*@, &s it not soP1 4Ges,1 said Mowgli/ 4all the Bungle 0ear "agheera E all e;2ept Mowgli*1 4'h, thou art a man1s 2ub,1 said the "la2 !anther, 3ery tenderly/ 4and e3en as & returned to my Bungle, so thou must go ba2 to men at last, E to the men who are thy brothers, E i0 thou art not illed in the Coun2il*1 4"ut why E but why should any wish to ill meP1 said Mowgli* 4%oo at me,1 said "agheera/ and Mowgli loo ed at him steadily between the eyes* The big panther turned his head away in hal0 a minute* 4That is why,1 he said, shi0ting his paw on the lea3es* 4?ot e3en & 2an loo thee between the eyes, and & was born among men, and & lo3e thee, %ittle "rother* The others they hate thee be2ause their eyes 2annot meet thine E be2ause thou art wise E be2ause thou hast pulled out thorns 0rom their 0eet E be2ause thou art a man*1 4& did not now these things,1 said Mowgli sullenly/ and he 0rowned under his hea3y bla2 eyebrows* 4What is the %aw o0 the BungleP Stri e 0irst and then gi3e tongue* "y thy 3ery 2arelessness they now that thou art a man* "ut be wise* &t is in my heart that when A ela misses his ne;t ill, E and at ea2h hunt it 2osts him more to pin the bu2 , E the !a2 will turn against him and against thee* They will hold a Bungle Coun2il at the Ro2 , and then E and then E & ha3e itH1 said "agheera, leaping up* 4Go thou down Kui2 ly to the men1s huts in the 3alley,

@, Well, that1s one e;planation*

and ta e some o0 the Red =lower@- whi2h they grow there, so that when the time 2omes thou mayest ha3e e3en a stronger 0riend than & or "aloo or those o0 the !a2 that lo3e thee* Get the Red =lower*1 "y Red =lower "agheera meant 0ire, only no 2reature in the Bungle will 2all 0ire by its proper name* $3ery beast li3es in deadly 0ear o0 it, and in3ents a hundred ways o0 des2ribing it*N5 4The Red =lowerP1 said Mowgli* 4That grows outside their huts in the twilight* & will get some*1 4There spea s the man1s 2ub,1 said "agheera proudly* 4Remember that it grows in little pots* Get one swi0tly, and eep it by thee 0or time o0 need*1 4GoodH1 said Mowgli* 4& go* "ut art thou sure, ' my "agheera1 E he slipped his arm round the splendid ne2 , and loo ed deep into the big eyes E 4art thou sure that all this is Shere Khan1s doingP1 4"y the "ro en %o2 that 0reed me, & am sure, %ittle "rother*1 4Then, by the "ull that bought me, & will pay Shere Khan 0ull tale 0or this, and it may be a little o3er,1 said Mowgli/ and he bounded away* 4That is a man* That is all a man,1 said "agheera to himsel0, lying down again* 4'h, Shere Khan, ne3er was a bla2 er hunting than that 0rog8hunt o0 thine ten years agoH1

L$nd o0 this sele2tionM Lsample 2ontinuesM
@- =ire* N5 The tapu against naming that whi2h is 0eared, and the use o0 periphrases, is an2ient and deep8seated* Ms Rowling has lately made use o0 it, li e a thousand writers be0ore her* ?or is it restri2ted to not naming things that are 0eared, as su2h> as witness the Bewish periphrases 0or God, or the way in whi2h Gaeli2 spea ers in the &sles use bye8 names 0or 2ertain islands or 0ish or game at 2ertain seasons* At bottom, all that has mana impli2ates tapu.

&n the Ru hN+ C0rom %any !n&entionsD
The .nly Son/0 She dropped the bar, she shot the bolt, she 0ed the 0ire anew, =or she heard a whimper under the sill and a great grey paw 2ame through* The 0resh 0lame 2om0orted the hut and shone on the roo08beam, And the 'nly Son lay down again and dreamed that he dreamed a dream* The last ash 0ell 0rom the withered log with the 2li2 o0 a 0alling spar , And the 'nly Son wo e up again, and 2alled a2ross the dar > E 4?ow was & born o0 woman ind and laid inNN a mother1s breastP =or & ha3e dreamed o0 a shaggy hide whereon & went to rest* And was & born o0 woman ind and laid on a 0atherSs armP =or & ha3e dreamed o0 2lashing teeth that guarded me 0rom
N+ As a matter o0 2hronology, this is the last o0 the Mowgli stories/ it was written well be0ore the Jungle Books, howe3er, and there are 2ontradi2tions, as we shall see* 4Ru h1 is 40orest1, o0 2ourse* N@ This is the 2omplete poem, in its 0inal 3ersion, not that appended to the story in %any !n&entions* NN 4&n1 appears the proper reading, not 4on1/ the pious are in Abraham1s bosom, and the roisteringly impious $nglishman Sir Bohn =alsta00 o0 2ourse in Arthur1s bosom* 1enry (, A2t &&, S2ene N*

harm* And was & born an 'nly Son and did & play aloneP =or & ha3e dreamed o0 2omrades twain that bit me to the bone* And did & brea the barley82a e and steep it in the tyreP N. =or & ha3e dreamed o0 a youngling id new8ri3en NA 0rom the byre> =or & ha3e dreamed o0 a midnight s y and a midnight 2all to blood And red8mouthed shadows ra2ing by, that thrust me 0rom my 0ood* 1Tis an hour yet and an hour yet to the rising o0 the moon, "ut & 2an see the bla2 roo08tree as plain as it were noon* 1Tis a league and a league to the %ena =alls NO where the trooping bla2 bu2 go/ "ut & 2an hear the little 0awn that bleats behind the doe* 1Tis a league and a league to the %ena =alls where the 2rop and the upland meet, "ut & 2an smell the wet dawn8wind that wa es the sprouting wheat* (nbar the door* & may not bide, but & must out and see &0 those are wol3es that wait outside or my own in to meH1 )* She loosed the bar, she slid the bolt, she opened the door anon, And a grey bit2h8wol0 2ame out o0 the dar and 0awned on the 'nly SonH
N. Tayir, soured 2ream* NA Rei3ed, rustled, stolen away* NO !ossibly near the $llora Ca3es in Maharashtra* That modern state ad<oins, o0 2ourse, modern Madhya !radesh, wherein lies Seoni E Kipling1s Seeonee* Certainly there are 0alls near $llora and its 2a3e8temples Cin2luding the Gopilena and Dhumar %enaD, in an area that Kuite notably is where 4the 2rop and the upland meet1*







that turn under the &ndian

Go3ernment, there is none more important than the Department o0 Woods and =orests*NJ The reboisementN, o0 all &ndia is in its hands/ or will be when Go3ernment has the money to spend* &ts ser3ants wrestle with wandering sand8torrents and shi0ting dunes> wattling them at the sides, damming them in 0ront, and pegging them down atop with 2oarse grass and spindling pine a0ter the rules o0 ?an2y* NThey are responsible 0or all the timber in the State 0orests o0 the #imalayas, as well as 0or the denuded hillsides that the monsoons wash into dry gullies and a2hing ra3ines/ ea2h 2ut a mouth 2rying aloud what 2arelessness 2an do*.5 They e;periment with battalions o0 0oreign trees, and 2oa; the blue gum .+ to ta e root and, perhaps, dry up the Canal 0e3er*.@ &n the plains the 2hie0 part o0 their duty is to see that the belt 0ire8lines in the 0orest reser3es are ept 2lean, so that when drought 2omes and the 2attle star3e, they may throw the reser3e open to the 3illager1s herds and allow the man himsel0 to gather sti2 s* They poll and lop 0or the sta2 ed railway80uel along the lines that burn no 2oal/ they 2al2ulate the pro0it o0 their
NJ And is yet so* The Mo$= CMinistry o0 $n3ironment and =orestsD is a 3ery important &ndian ministry* N, Re8a00orestation* N- ?an2y, in %orraine, being the 2entre o0 =ren2h 0orestry edu2ation, was long 2onsidered the premier s2hool o0 0orestry* =ran2e1s reputation 0or s2ienti0i2 management and engineering pre8dated Colbert1s intendan2y, in agri2ulture, 0orestry, 2i3il and military engineering C7auban1s 0orti0i2ations 2ome to mind, as does the =ren2h ministry o0 ponts et chauss2esD, and the li e* &t turns up e3en, Kuite e;tensi3ely, in Simon S2hama* .5 Mr !yle suggests it as ha3ing been a pity, that the 0armers o0 the soon8to8be Dust "owl didn1t read Kipling* .+ The Australian eu2alyptus tree* The dissemination o0 (se0ul !lants a2ross the $mpire is a 0as2inating sub<e2t o0 study Q see Ban Morris Q and has le0t the mar o0 $mpire upon widely separated lands, dis2ernible long a0ter that $mpire has, in Kipling1s own, re2essional phrase, be2ome one with ?ine3eh and Tyre* .@ Malaria was not yet understood, or at least its 3e2tors weren1t*

plantations to 0i3e points o0 de2imals/ they are the do2tors and midwi3es o0 the huge tea 0orests o0 (pper "urma, the rubber o0 the $astern Bungles, and the gall8nuts .N o0 the South/ and they are always hampered by la2 o0 0unds* "ut sin2e a =orest '00i2er1s business ta es him 0ar 0rom the beaten roads and the regular stations, he learns to grow wise in more than wood8lore alone/ to now the people and the polity o0 the <ungle/ meeting tiger, bear, leopard, wild8dog, and all the deer, not on2e or twi2e a0ter days o0 beating, but again and again in the e;e2ution o0 his duty* #e spends mu2h time in saddle or under 2an3as E the 0riend o0 newly8planted trees, the asso2iate o0 un2outh rangers and hairy tra2 ers E till the woods, that show his 2are, in turn set their mar upon him, and he 2eases to sing the naughty =ren2h songs he learned at ?an2y, .. and grows silent with the silent things o0 the underbrush* Gisborne.A o0 the Woods and =orests had spent 0our years in the ser3i2e* At 0irst he lo3ed it without 2omprehension, be2ause it led him into the open on horseba2 and ga3e him authority* Then he hated it 0uriously, and would ha3e gi3en a year1s pay 0or one month o0 su2h so2iety as &ndia a00ords* That 2risis o3er, the 0orests too him ba2 again, and he was 2ontent to ser3e them, to deepen and widen his 0ire8lines, to wat2h the green mist o0 his new plantation against the older 0oliage, to dredge out the 2ho ed stream, and to 0ollow and strengthen the last struggle o0 the 0orest where it bro e
.N &ndian laurel* .. The asso2iation o0 naughty songs and =ren2h edu2ation is in the "ritish mind ineradi2able* Sir Ri2hard Dalyngridge and Sir #ugh o0 Dallington said as mu2h, and pro3ed it by =ul e and Cler Gilbert, in "uck of "ook’s 1ill. .A Although this surname has been borne by M!s, by di3ines o0 the Chur2h by law established, and by 3arious Colonial ministers, it seems deri3ed, and sub3erted, 0rom that odd, 0orest8bound, 2uriously #erne8li e 0igure who was Robin1s antagonist, Guy o0 Gisbourne*

down and died among the long pig8grass* 'n some still day that grass would be burned o00, and a hundred beasts that had their homes there would rush out be0ore the pale 0lames at high noon* .O %ater, the 0orest would 2reep 0orward o3er the bla2 ened ground in orderly lines o0 saplings, and Gisborne, wat2hing, would be well pleased*.J #is bungalow, a that2hed white8walled 2ottage o0 two rooms, was set at one end o0 the great rukh and o3erloo ing it* #e made no preten2e at eeping a garden, 0or the rukh swept up to his door, 2urled o3er in a thi2 et o0 bamboo, and he rode 0rom his 3erandah into its heart without the need o0 any 2arriage8dri3e* Abdul Ga0ur, his 0at Mohammedan butler, 0ed him when he was at home, and spent the rest o0 the time gossiping with the little band o0 nati3e ser3ants whose huts lay behind the bungalow* There were two grooms, a 2oo , a water82arrier, and a sweeper, and that was all* Gisborne 2leaned his own guns and ept no dog* Dogs s2ared the game, and it pleased the man to be able to say where the sub<e2ts o0 his ingdom would drin at moonrise, eat be0ore dawn, and lie up in the day1s heat* The rangers and 0orest8guards li3ed in little huts 0ar away in the rukh, only appearing when one o0 them had been in<ured by a 0alling tree or a wild beast* There Gisborne was alone* &n spring the rukh put out 0ew new lea3es, but lay dry and still untou2hed by the 0inger o0 the year, waiting 0or rain* ., 'nly there was then more 2alling and roaring in the dar on a Kuiet night/ the tumult o0 a battle8royal among the tigers, the bellowing o0 arrogant bu2 , or the steady wood82hopping o0 an old boar sharpening his tushes against a bole* Then Gisborne laid aside his little8used gun
.O Mr !yle is put in mind here o0 se3eral passages in Aldo %eopold and Bohn Gra3es* .J &0 you are reminded o0 the letting in o0 the <ungle, you1re per0e2tly 2orre2t* ., Shades o0 "aloo awaiting the mohwa blossom*

altogether, 0or it was to him a sin to ill* .- &n summer, through the 0urious May heats, the rukh reeled in the ha:e, and Gisborne wat2hed 0or the 0irst sign o0 2urling smo e that should betray a 0orest 0ire* Then 2ame the Rains with a roar, and the rukh was blotted out in 0et2h a0ter 0et2h o0 warm mist, and the broad lea3es drummed the night through under the big drops/ and there was a noise o0 running water, and o0 <ui2y green stu00 2ra2 ling where the wind stru2 it, and the lightning wo3e patterns behind the dense matting o0 the 0oliage, till the sun bro e loose again and the rukh stood with hot 0lan s smo ing to the newly8washed s y* A5 Then the heat and the dry 2old subdued e3erything to tiger82olour again* So Gisborne learned to now his rukh and was 3ery happy* #is pay 2ame month by month, but he had 3ery little need 0or money* The 2urren2y notes a22umulated in the drawer where he homeletters and the re2apping8ma2hine*

ept his

&0 he drew anything, it

was to ma e a pur2hase 0rom the Cal2utta "otani2al Gardens, or to pay a ranger1s widow a sum that the Go3ernment o0 &ndia would ne3er ha3e san2tioned 0or her man1s death* !ayment was good, but 3engean2e was also ne2essary, and he too that when he 2ould* 'ne night o0 many nights a runner, breathless and gasping, 2ame to him with the news that a 0orest8 guard lay dead by the Kanye stream, the side o0 his head smashed in as though it had been an eggshell* Gisborne went out at dawn to loo 0or the murderer* &t is only tra3ellers and now and then young soldiers who are nown to the world as great hunters* The =orest
.- 'ne simply doesn1t shoot game in their mating season* 'r there shall soon be no new generations o0 game to shoot* A5 This should be 0amiliar by now* A+ Why buy new shells and 2artridges when one 2an re2ap one1s spent roundsP

'00i2ers ta e their shikar30 as part o0 the day1s wor , and no one hears o0 it* Gisborne went on 0oot to the pla2e o0 the ill> the widow was wailing o3er the 2orpse as it lay on a bedstead, while two or three men were loo ing at 0ootprints on the moist ground* 4That is the Red 'ne,1 said a man* 4& new he would turn to man in time, but surely there is game enough e3en 0or him* This must ha3e been done 0or de3ilry*1 4The Red 'ne lies up in the ro2 s at the ba2 o0 the sal3/ trees,1 said Gisborne* #e new the tiger under suspi2ion*


A@ Stal ing* AN The 3aluable tropi2al hardwood S. ro#usta, traditionally both sa2red to 7ishnu and the tree that sheltered the mother o0 the "uddha as she ga3e birth to him*

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