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FOR FIRST YEAR STUDENTS
WINSTON CHURCHILL’S PREP SCHOOL
The school my parents have selected for my education was one of the most fashionable and expensive in the country. It modeled itself upon Eton and aimed at being preparatory for that Public School above all others. It was supposed to be the very last thing in schools. Only ten boys in a class; electric light (then a wonder); a swimming pond; spacious football and cricket grounds; two or three school treats, or “expeditions” as they were called, every term; the masters all M.A.’s in gowns and mortarboards; a chapel of its own; no hampers allowed; everything provided by the authorities. It was a dark November afternoon when we arrived at this establishment. We had tea with the Headmaster, with whom my mother conversed in the most easy manner. I was preoccupied with the fear of spilling my cup and so making “a bad start”. I was also miserable at the idea of being left alone among all these strangers in this great, fierce, formidable place. After all I was only seven, and I had been so happy in my nursery with all my toys. I had such wonderful toys: a real steam engine, a magic lantern, and a collection of soldiers already nearly a thousand strong. Now it was to be all lessons. Seven or eight hours of lessons every day except half-holidays, and football or cricket in addition. When the last sound of my mother’s departing wheels had died away, the Headmaster invited me to hand over any money I had in my possession. I produced my three half-crowns, which were duly entered in a book, and I was told that from time to time there would be a “shop” at the school with all sorts of things which one would like to have, and that I could choose what I liked up to the limit of the seven and sixpence. Then we quitted the Headmaster’s parlour and the comfortable private side of the house, and entered the more bleak apartments reserved for the instruction and accommodation of the pupils. I was taken into a Form Room and told to sit at a desk. All the other boys were out of doors, and I was alone with the Form Master. He produced a thin greeny-brown covered book filled with words in different types of print. ‘You have never done any Latin before, have you?’ he said. ‘No, sir.’ ‘This is a Latin grammar.’ He opened it at a well-thumbed page. ‘You must learn this,’ he said, pointing to a number of words in a frame of lines. ‘I will come back in half an hour and see what you know.’ 3
’ And then seeing he was not carrying me with him. and I gabbled it off. as far as my private sorrows would allow. However. a table. sir.’ I blurted out in honest amazement. is the vocative case. He seemed so satisfied with this that I was emboldened to ask a question. I have been told. in invoking a table. with or from a table What on earth did it mean? Where was the sense in it? It seemed absolute rigmarole to me. ‘Then why does mensa also mean O table. ‘and what does O table mean?’ ‘Mensa. let me tell you. Mensa Mensa Mensam Mensae Mensae Mensa a table O table a table of a table to or for a table by. with an aching heart. very severely. and punished. Mensa.’ he answered.’ I repeated. there was one thing I could always do: I could learn by heart.Behold me then on a gloomy evening.’ he replied. There are five declensions. ‘If you are impertinent. ‘what does it mean?’ ‘Mensa means a table. ‘What does it mean.’ I enquired. ‘O table – you would use that in addressing a table. many of our cleverest men have derived so much solace and profit. THE IDEA OF SUMMERHILL 4 . ‘But why O table?’ I persisted in genuine curiosity. ‘You would use it in speaking to a table. In due course the Master returned.’ ‘But. you will be punished.’ I replied. And I thereupon proceeded. sir?’ ‘It means what it says. ‘I think I can say it. to memorize the task which had been set me. seated in front of the First Declension. ‘Have you learnt it?’ he asked. Such was my first introduction to the classics from which.’ ‘But I never do. You have learnt the singular of the First Declension. Mensa is a noun of the First Declension.’ was his conclusive rejoinder. O table.
for it demonstrates that freedom works. But we have not produced a street cleaner so far. for those uncreative citizens who want docile. all religious instruction. all moral training. We have no new methods of teaching. lessons are optional. We have been called brave. It was wrong because it was based on an adult conception of what a child should be and of how a child should learn. What is Summerhill like? … … Well. he will develop as far as he is capable of developing. I knew the other way well. The children have classes usually according to their age. it is now a demonstration school. all suggestion. for one thing. I knew it was all wrong. we had to renounce all discipline.This is a story of a modern school – Summerhill. we set out to make a school in which we should allow children freedom to be themselves. but it did not require courage. for I would rather see a school produce a happy street cleaner than a neurotic scholar. Summerhill is a place in which people who have the innate ability and wish to be scholars will be scholars. Whether a school has or has not a special method for teaching long division is fo no importance except to those 5 . There is a timetable – but only for the teachers. When my first wife and I began the school. Obviously. Logically. all direction. while those who are only fit to sweep the streets will sweep the streets. Children can go to them or stay away from them – for years if they want too. not an evil. a school that makes active children sit at desks studying mostly useless subjects is a bad school. It is no longer such. In order to do this. If left to himself without adult suggestion of any kind. All it required was what we had – a complete belief in the child as a good. My view is that a child is innately wise and realistic. Nor do I write this snobbishly. Well. but sometimes according to their interests. being. because we do not consider that teaching in itself matters very much. I had taught in ordinary schools for many years. It is a good school only for those who believe in such a school. Summerhill began as an experimental school. uncreative children who will fit into a civilization whose standard of success is money. we had one main idea: to make the school fit the child – instead of making the child fit the school.
Summerhill is a school in which the child knows that he is approved of. SUPPLEMENTARY READING SCHOOLS Schools in Britain are of two types: state (or maintained) schools. which charge no fees. The function of the child is to live his own life – not the life that his anxious parents think he should live. In Summerhill. of course. No one is allowed to walk on my great piano. the vote of a child of six counts for as much as my vote does. At a General School Meeting. and that is essential in any school. Indeed. Hate breeds hate. the absence of fear accounts for this phenomenon. because children when free have much less hate to express than children who are downtrodden. which are fee-paying. We have no truants and seldom a case of homesickness. Summerhill is possibly that happiest school in the world. for too many of my proposals are beaten. and I am not allowed to borrow a boy’s cycle without his permission. 6 . but seldom have I seen a stand-up fight like the ones we used to have as boys. Doesn’t the child of six wait to see how you vote before he raises his hand? I wish he sometimes would. says the knowing one. and independent (or private) schools. and love breeds love. All this interference and guidance on the part of adults only produces a generation of robots. in practice of course the voices of the grownups count. Love means approving of children. the absence of fear is the finest thing that can happen to a child. I seldom hear a child cry. And the child who wants to learn long division will learn it no matter how it is taught.who want to learn it. but some independent schools. everyone has equal rights. We rarely have fights – quarrels. Free children are not easily influenced. There are far more state schools than independent schools. You can’t be on the side of children if you punish them and storm at them. nor a life according to the purpose of the educator who thinks he knows what is best. But.
or voluntary schools. owned as well as funded by the LEA. middle schools for ages 9 to 13. Harrow and Winchester. grammar schools. and public schools. especially the oldest and best-known ones. offering a combination of academic and practical teaching.) Almost all independent schools are boarding schools. for pupils aged 11 to 16 or 18. Schools in the state system can be county schools. many boys’ public schools take girls in the senior classes. About half the public schools. and secondary. are for boys only. such as Eton.especially the older public schools. In the independent sector. founded by a voluntary body such as the Church of England or the Roman Catholic Church. not just locally. However. The fees in independent schools are usually several thousand pounds per year. for pupils aged 13 to 18. The school year usually runs from early September to mid-July and is divided into three terms of about 12 weeks each. offering a general education to all children. the main division is into preparatory schools. In secondary education most schools (over eight out of ten) are comprehensive schools. offering a more practical education. for children under 5. Children who go to a secondary modern. for pupils aged 7 to 13. which are funded by the government by the local education authority (LEA). are primary. There are also special schools for children with a physical or mental disability. It is possible for a child to win an “assisted place” so that parents who cannot afford the fees receive financial help from the government. although in some areas there are first schools for children of 5 to 9. have retained considerable academic and social prestige. State schools mostly have larger classes than independent schools. The main exam is the General 7 . but all schools share the same school-leaving examinations. taking pupils from any area. grammar or technical school do so as a result of an examination called the 11-plus or after some other selection procedure. and secondary or upper schools. and some are now fully co-educational. and technical schools. for children aged 5 to 11. and unlike state schools are usually for one sex only. State schools. providing a more academic education. and refers to the fact that such schools were originally opened to “the public”. There are also a small number of secondary modern schools. (The name “public school” is historic. Below primary schools are nursery schools. All children must receive a full-time education from the age of 5 until the age of 16.
geography. S-level (“S” for “Special” or “Scholarship”) provides additional. “prep schools”) are so named because they prepare pupils for entrance to public school. The Curriculum prescribes a course of central (“core”) subjects. namely English. and this same Act enabled secondary schools to opt out of the control of the LEA and to manage their own budget under a new “local management of schools” (LMS) scheme. in which pupils sit papers in different subjects (usually five or more) and are awarded a grade in each subject on a seven-point scale. such as the Cambridge University Local Examinations Syndicate or the University of Oxford Delegacy of Local Examinations. A to G. and many public schools begin the day with a short religious service in the school chapel. mathematics and science. 8 . and they must also hold a daily act of worship. harder papers for A-level students. This is usually done in two or three subjects only. is the A level (“A” meaning “Advanced”). Parents have the right. and includes seven basic (“foundation”) subjects. A/S level (“Advanced Supplementary”) is an alternative to A level. technology. normally taken two years after GCSE.Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). physical education and (in secondary schools) a modern foreign language. The National Curriculum was introduced by the Education Reform Act of 1988. All state schools are required to include religious education in their syllabus. There are attainment targets for what children should be capable of doing and knowing at the ages of 7. with subjects studied on a broader. less specialized basis. normally taken at the age of 16. Subjects taught in state schools are determined by the National Curriculum. Schools are free to choose a board in area. The exam itself is set by the Common Entrance Examination Board but is marked by the public school. 14 and 16. A further examination. to withdraw their children from the latter. In practice most independent schools also include religious education in their timetable. Preparatory schools (colloquially. A level boards are mostly organized by a particular university. which are history. The examination which admits them is the Common Entrance (so called because it is shared in common by most public schools). There are also S and A/S-levels. art. however. GCSE and A level exams are marked by one of the regional examining boards. It is taken at the age of 13 by boys but usually younger by girls. 11. music. in which case they usually sit that school’s own special exam as well.
One type of private school is the “preparatory school” or “prep school”. and so the senior class. and private schools. while in high school they are English. with grades 1 to 6 for elementary school pupils. which charge fees. they are assessed on the basis of performance in tests throughout the year. In the USA. which are free. composition and literature). teachers’ salaries are higher.Classes in a school are often designated as “year” (especially in state schools) or “form” (more in independent schools). and many have a sustained record of academic excellence. typically from 6 to 16. there are state schools. but is not given in public schools. and are often known as “parochial schools”. As pupils progress upwards from grade to grade. science. grammar. Unlike state schools. The fifth form is the one at which GCSE is taken. There are also junior high schools for 12-15-year olds. Most children (at least eight out of ten) attend public schools. “penmanship” (writing). (It is often divided into “lower sixth” and “upper sixth” for the two years. They are normally very well equipped. science and mathematics. The majority of private schools are sponsored by a religious organization such as a church. they often attach considerable importance to prowess at sport as well as class work. but basic subjects in elementary schools are “language arts” (reading. music. There are no national examinations.) The school year runs from early-September to mid-June. with continuous weekly attendance of five hours a day. apart from seasonal holidays. There is no national curriculum. so called as it prepares for university entrance.) Public schools are sometimes accused of being snobbish and “elitist”. There is no fixed school-leaving age. known as “public schools”. classes are smaller. The main types of schools are elementary school. 9 . Religious instruction is part of the curriculum in private schools. 7 to 9 for junior high school students. Pre-school education for children under 6 is in kindergarten classes (often designated as grade K) or nursery schools. Classes are organized in “grades”. five days a week. and 10 to 12 for senior high school students. for children aged 6-12 or 6-14 and high school for students aged 14 or 15 to 18. social studies (incorporating history and geography). art. social studies and physical education. but all states require a child to attend school between prescribed ages. and physical education. while the sixth form is normally the one preparing for A level. (“Preppy” is a colloquial term for the fashionable style of dress of students at these schools.
Most post-school education is provided at universities.participation in class discussions. but apply through the Universities’ Central Council on Admissions (UCCA). The normal pattern in high school is for a student to amass the required number of units in basic subjects called “requirements”. called “electives”. Some schools give their own end-of-year examinations. there are a number of ways to continue one’s education after leaving secondary school at 16 or 18. with about half the total number of students at this level in universities. and completion of written and oral assignments. then move on for the last two years to specialist subjects. such as New York. The average state requirement is 17. while a few states. which are set by the State Department of Education. polytechnics. High schools keep a “transcript” or summary of the courses taken and grades obtained. and acceptance. usually after an interview. give state examinations. which vary from school to school. or various specialized colleges. Students do not normally apply to the university they wish to apply. The criterion for a particular student’s high school graduation (leaving school with a diploma to show satisfactory completion of all courses) in the number of “units” he has amassed. Entrance to such courses normally depends on satisfactory GCSE and A level results. Students are given “report cards” at least twice a year indicating the grades they have been given in each subject. but students planning to go on to college (university) might take over 20 units. Oxford 10 .5 units. POST-SCHOOL EDUCATION In Britain. A typical choice of electives might be European history for the first year and world politics for the second. and then submit this to the college to which the student has applied for admission. polytechnics and other institutions of higher education. Degree-level courses are offered by universities. colleges of further or higher education. A high school unit equals about 120 hours (three hours a week) of classes in one subject. adult education centres. by the university or college concerned.
or do a four-year course 11 . Students may then proceed to research degrees such as Master of Philosophy (MPhil) and Doctor of Philosophy (DPhil or. Higher National Diploma (HND) or Higher National Certificate (HNC). A “higher degree” is a postgraduate degree taken after a first degree. is open to students of any age including those without formal qualifications. the Open University (OU).000 students studying on first-degree and postgraduate courses. All students on a university “first degree” course are automatically eligible for a grant. There are just under 50 universities in Britain. Teachers in Britain either do a first degree and then a one-year course leading to a Postgraduate Certificate of Education (PGCE). which usually lasts three years.) It has almost 100. Most of them are employed people who study in their leisure time. many specialist colleges (teacher training colleges. For historical reasons. the majority of students successfully complete their course.and Cambridge Universities take part in UCCA but also have a system of entrance examinations and interviews by individual colleges. The amount of the grant depends on the level of income of the student’s family. is private. music.) Polytechnics and colleges offer not only first or higher degrees. In recent years. at some universities. There are about 120 polytechnics and other institutions of higher education funded by central government through the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council. but also other qualifications. of which one. but provides tuition by radio and television. as well as on shorter courses. awarded by a student’s local education authority (LEA). (The OU is not a resident university. PhD). in classes at local centres and at summer schools. Polytechnics offer a wide range of subjects and many have close links with industry and commerce in their local area. for example Master of Arts (MA) or Master of Science (MSc). Buckingham.) have been incorporated into polytechnics. (Universities are also funded by central government through the Universities Funding Council. Because entrance to higher education is selective. architecture. Oxford and Cambridge Universities award MA degrees to all first-degree graduates without requiring them to take a further examination. etc. and colleges of art. and one. Most first degrees are for Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science (BSc). such as a Diploma in Higher Education (DipHE).
or “community colleges” as they are increasingly called. both academic and practical. as they do in British Universities. move to a second. foreign languages. American universities are of two kinds. and receive a degree from a third. Students specialize in a major subject area in their third (“junior”) and fourth (“senior”) years. Colleges offer a four-year course to students aged between 18 and 22 and award bachelor’s degrees in arts and sciences. Students do not gain a degree through a “finals” examination. so that a student may gain credits in one university. The first two years (for “freshmen” and “sophomores” respectively) cover a broad range of subjects. a student’s overall record is examined to see if he or she deserves to be awarded a degree. There are also junior colleges. Credits for work done like this can sometimes be transferred between universities. Their work is regularly assessed. It is possible to study for GCSEs and A levels at a CFE. Colleges of further education (CFEs).leading to the degree of Bachelor of Education (BEd) at a polytechnic or similar college. including subjects like computer studies. Adult education centres offer a wide range of part-time courses. offer academic and vocational courses for students from the age of 16. like schools. In the USA. Universities also offer part-time courses in their “extra-mural” or “continuing education” departments. At the end of the course. most being private. Colleges may be independent and privately controlled. by local authorities. in 1636. They may be funded by local education authorities or by voluntary bodies. and was originally a college for the education of Puritan ministers. It is now one of the most prestigious in the country. offering two-year courses at the end of which they award “associate in arts” degrees as their highest qualification. which specialize in teaching English as a foreign language. founded in 12 . but through the number of “credits” or hours of study they accumulate. there are many secretarial colleges offering business courses and language schools. most post-school education takes place in colleges and universities. state and private. The first state university was that of North Carolina. In the private sector. which are funded. cookery and sports skills. or may operate as the undergraduate division of a university. Harvard was the first of these to be founded. with all the credits and grades systematically recorded.
Dartmouth and Cornell. Although most colleges are now coeducational. Once they have completed high school.000 for non-state residents.000 students. fees. 13 . and although it has fewer colleges. while those that were at one time solely for female students are called the “Heavenly Seven”. At a state university it is around $4. and over $7. The State University of New York is essentially a “multiversity”. as in Britain. it has at least 200. in Britain. Smith. and on the number of places available. Most private universities founded in the 19th century were founded by gifts from rich men. For much of the present century. The fees may be paid by a student’s parents. are fee-paying. Heavenly Seven colleges (named for their number. charge almost twice this. Princeton. Vassar and Wellesley. All universities. They include the well-known Johns Hopkins. but most students have to support themselves by “working their way to college”. Acceptance depends on high school grades. by taking part-time jobs and working all through the long summer vacation. even state ones. and sometimes known as the “Seven Sisters”) are Barnard (part of Columbia University). Pennsylvania.000 students.1795.500 for state residents. colleges that were once exclusively for male students are known as the “Ivy League”. The average annual cost of tuition. and college room and board at a private university is about $11. one of the leading women’s colleges. and increased in academic status. however. was founded in 1861. such as Johns Hopkins in Baltimore.000. students can apply to any college or university they wish. that is. the state universities were regarded as inferior to private ones. Mount Holyoke. tuition and fees are about $4. Each US state now has one or more state universities. Vassar.000 students each. Stanford and Chicago Universities. with over 20 individual colleges and about 150. Columbia. have only about 13.) In the USA. verbal and analytical skills. Radcliffe (part of Harvard). which tests mathematical. California State University is similarly diverse. (Oxford and Cambridge. Brown. Ivy League colleges (so called because they belong to a sports league of this name) are Harvard. some universities are regarded as socially and academically superior to others. on the students’ performances in a Standard Aptitude Test (SAT). At a two-year college. Bryn Mawr. Yale. although some of the more prestigious universities. They have now improved their standards.700.
If a boy gives his “fraternity pin” to a girl this is regarded as step on the way to an engagement or a proposal of marriage. Both fraternities and sororities exist independently of the university.American universities differ from British in their “fraternities” and “sororities”. 4. 4. What attitude and philosophy does Summerhill propose? 3. Reading comprehension 1. 5. Both fraternities and sororities run private halls of residence known as “fraternity houses” or “sorority houses”. this plan will not work. Vocabulary practice I. a long I time have to abandoned/decided/resigned myself to the worst. Are you aware/conscious/knowledgeable that $10000 has gone missing? 6. As Tom there didn’t is little hope us. In my point of view/viewpoint/view. and these are used for entertaining. Compare Winston Churchill’s school with Summerhill. What is the child’s attitude in Winston Churchill’s Prep School? What is the teacher’s method? What is the teacher’s attitude towards the school? 2. and of it being took rescued. The name of each is made up of three Greek letters. for example “Sigma Beta Chi”. I haven’t really the faintest sense/notion/opinion of what you are talking about. 14 . 2. I define/regard/suppose this project as the most important in my career. and the letters are worn on small badges called “pins”. 1. These are basically social clubs for men and women students respectively. 3. believe convince/establish/persuade him. Choose the most suitable word underlined. and are usually organized on a national basis. Make a comparison between the Romanian educational system and the Anglo-Saxon one.
cherished deplored dreaded loathed mourned offended regretted reproached resented stressed 15 . but instead I’m going to be ………. 6. 3. conceited conscientious considerate envious lenient loyal naughty rash sentimental unscrupulous 1. My new assistant couldn’t care less about his work. 4. He’s very ……… in fact. Sue just can’t stop thinking about football! She is biased/concerned/obsessed with her local team! 10. You have all been very ………. 9. III. Your new boyfriend recollects/remembers/reminds me of a cousin of mine. 8. Steve thinks too much of himself. When my brother managed to buy a sports car. I was really ………. Do not use a word more than once. I need someone who is much more ………. John’s children used to be well-behaved but now they are quite ………. as if everything in her life was better then. Mary talks about the past all the time. Do not use a word or phrase more than once. Janet doesn’t care about right and wrong when she wants to make a sale. Mr Smith has appointed his best friend as the new director! It’s a clear case of favouritism/prejudice/subjectivity. She is totally ………. 5. I just can’t understand the attitude/manners/mentality of people who are cruel to animals. Helen now realises that suddenly giving up her job was rather ………. 7. Complete each sentence with one of the words given. 8. II. Thank you all for standing by the company during this difficult time. 2. 10. Replace the words underlined with one of the words or phrases given. She does tend to be rather ………. 9. I suppose I should punish you. You have been very ………. Thank you for all your help.7.
Peter was very sorry about leaving his old job. 4. 7. 10. 2. 6. demonstrators. her. Jim strongly criticised me for not doing my fair share of the work. 8.1. 9. Our teacher laid emphasis on the importance of regular study. 5. Neil grieved for the death of his mother and father for many weeks. 3. The Prime Minister strongly disapproved of the behaviour of the Lily felt bitter about the fact that everyone had been promoted except David felt extremely worried about visiting the dentist. I am sorry if I hurt the feelings of your sister. 16 . Brenda really felt a strong dislike for her new boss. Sally held very dear the memory of her childhood in the country.
then. with its lure of glamour and eternal youth. fitness and the body beautiful?’ asks Dina La Vardera. Watching television. Apart from the odd football 17 . manners. Most people’s early experiences of exercise – after crawling into furniture – come from school. and experience seems to support my parents’ philosophy that pain. ‘It’s high time you hung up your trainers and exercised your mind. and I suppose their future attitude to it is shaped then. good taste in art. the fallacies of team spirit and character building. Don’t let all the youngsters – and let’s face it most of the oldsters.UNIT 2 IN SICKNESS AND IN HEALTH MUSCLE BINDS ‘Where’s the virtue in sport. while sipping chilled lager? How about eating lasagne verde by candlelight in a favourite Italian restaurant? What do they all have in common? They all involve nothing more strenuous than sitting or lying down. suffering and illhealth result from anything more strenuous than walking to the pillar box on the corner or digging the allotment. not your body. and the general humiliation of young and sensitive beings. perhaps. literature and food. athletes crippled by arthritis. this present mania for doing things that necessitate remaining vertical or running around? I hate exercise and all forms of sport and I abhor the smugness and self-righteousness of those who think developing rippling muscles and flat stomachs superior to the cultivation of personality. music. I was brought up to believe that physical exercise was bad for one. dressed up in their snazzy sports suits – fool you with their high-tech trainers and pump attachments to inflate their insoles and their egos. Why. I hate the multi-million propaganda that accompanies the body beautiful.’ Think about the things in life that give you most pleasure. or joggers dropping dead with heart attacks. This has been reinforced over the years by reports of footballers with torn ligaments. The present decline in PE in schools only shows up the failings of a system that flourishes on the brutality of competition.
not from running round a park with 2. Couch Potatoes. Exercise is repetitive and unending: once you stop. effort and material things like club fees. But take heart. come from within. like religion. finding out who one is and where one is going. a real drag and you have better things to do. It puts off the moment of realisation that we are mortal. It saves a lot of trouble if early on in life you put your cards on the table and announce to the world that exercise and sport are a bore. and exercising is a fashion. And you are one of the pagans. wouldn’t they rather be eating a hamburger with their mates in town? We are all followers of fashion in some way. It is isolationist. for the best club to join is free. It certainly save you from requests to join in marathons for charity and fun games with colleagues. Welcome. They are full of their own importance and rightness. Who might it be given to? Is it sensible advice? 18 . It’s all so serous. has no age limit.000 other people. It’s right their in your front room. All you get is an obsession with your body. Coming to terms with oneself. Read this advice: ‘It’s high time you hung up your trainers and exercised your mind and not your body. But people who take exercise don’t see it like that. equipment and special outfits. to your rightful place beside the fire. an ephemeral fad. Reading comprehension A. your shape is gone and the pulse slows down again. If you don’t stay still long enough you don’t have to think about such things. muscle-man pumping iron and aerobic freak. And it’s expensive: in terms of time. Exercising makes people think that they can live forever. requires no previous experience or special outfits. It’s difficult talking to sporty people: they get a far-off look in their eyes and their feet keep moving on the spot.’ Explain what this advice means.fanatic.
8. indulge in. In the article we have the expression come to terms with. Once you start exercising you have to continue with it. Physical exercise is apparently a very dangerous thing to Competitive sports and a team spirit build up one’s Wearing sports clothes is no indication of a truly ‘sporty’ By declaring yourself anti-sports you are spared you have read in the above text. The true path to contentment lies in becoming a couch participation in undesirable sporting activities. 6. Look at the following diagram of this and other uses of the verb come and choose one in its correct form to complete the sentences below. 1. come in for something (be exposed to something unpleasant) out with something (say something surprising) 19 . 10.B. 9. 2. The passage above is written in a very chatty. Decide whether the statements below are true or false. 4. Sports enthusiasts are sympathetic towards those who do the following devices does the writer use to create this informality? Vocabulary practice I. not share their interests. according to what The things that give us the most pleasure in life involve us The writer is a great believer in regular physical exercise. character. C. potato. 7. in very little physical activity. character. Which of rhetorical questions direct address abbreviations imperatives repetition slang Exercise gives one a false sense of security. 5. 3. informal style.
it takes him ages to …………… After deliberating for several hours we finally …………… a possible Soon after their arrival at the holiday resort they all …………… flu. 3. he had absolutely no idea I’m afraid we have …………… a lot of criticism over our discussion to where she hears them. 1. 6. 5. The new law …………… those driving with no proper tax and My little girl …………… some strange expressions. close the hospital. There are many colourful idioms like couch potato in English.down (heavily) on somebody (criticize or punish) down with something (catch an illness) to terms with something (accept a situation as it is) 1. II. up with something (produce an idea) to the point (reach a conclusion) round (regain consciousness) His wife died last year and he still cannot …………… her death. solution to the problem. 5. 3. a new broom a wet blanket a stuffed shirt a couch potato an armchair critic a fair weather friend a nosy parker a rolling stone 20 . When he …………… after the operation. 8. 7. where he was. 2. 7. 4. 6. 8. Goodness knows Although he’s an entertaining speaker. 4. Can you match the explanations a – h to the idiomatic expressions 1 – 8? They are all connected with different kinds of people. insurance. 2.
h. self-opinionated person a gossip who wants to know everything that happens to someone who stands by you only when things are going someone who likes to sit in comfort and do nothing a new person in charge who makes changes someone who does not want to join in and spoils the fun In pairs. for everybody else someone who expresses opinions about things he/she someone who has no fixed roots a pompous.’ ‘He’s been taken ill … he’s in a coma … fighting for his life … still critically ill … in a very critical condition … no change … still seriously ill … still hasn’t regained consciousness … is responding to treatment … off the danger list … showing signs of coming round … making progress … his condition is satisfactory … he’s out of the coma … he’s as well as can be expected … comfortable … no change … he’s turned the corner … he’s on the mend. illustrating what the idiom means in a humorous way. g. Study the ‘case history’ below. c.a. knows very little about b. choose one of the expressions above. Write a short dialogue or a context using the expression you have chosen. ‘You’re in perfect health … as fit as a fiddle … there’s nothing wrong with you. well f. SUPPLEMENTARY READING HEALTH AND ILLNESS 1. other people e.’ 21 .’ ‘I feel a bit off-colour … rather under the weather … I do feel funny … I really don’t feel well … I think I’m sickening for something … I feel feverish … like death warmed up. d.
‘We all wish you a speedy recovery … get well soon … we’re glad you’re over it.’ ‘The worst is over … he’s almost completely recovered … he’s practically cured … he’s convalescing … coming along nicely … he’ll be on his feet again soon … he’ll be out and about again in a few days.’ ‘He’s had a relapse … he’s no better … he’s getting worse … his condition is deteriorating … he’s getting weaker … he’s slipping away … fading fast … his life is hanging by a thread … it’s just a matter of time … he could go at any second!’ ‘He’s made a miraculous recovery … he’s as good as new … as right as rain … he’ll live till he’s a hundred.’ 2. After all that, do you feel well enough to read on? Note the ways that illnesses can be spoken of and reported in the text below. Examination fever For most of the year, most of us had been allergic to work; apparently there had been a history of such allergies in the school. Throughout the spring there had been quite a few cases of ‘Exams are stupid’, which proved highly contagious among friends. Then late in May, one or two of us suffered a mild attack of ‘Gosh, is it really next month?’ and we seemed to give that to the others rather rapidly. You could tell how it was spreading from improved attendance at lessons. An even more serious outbreak was that of the very infectious ‘I don’t know a thing’ two weeks before. At about the same time everyone seemed to catch ‘You’re no good!’ from the teachers. Then there was a bout of ‘I don’t really care’ followed by a few chronic cases of ‘My parents will kill me’. This again proved very catching; half the class was down with it in the week leading up to the exam itself, and it had reached epidemic proportions by the Friday before. By this time, those who had been suffering from ‘It’ll be easy for me’ had made a total recovery. That Friday there was a ‘What if I’m suffering from amnesia?’ scare, and this had developed by Monday into a touch of ‘I can’t even remember my own name’. There were also, of course, the normal isolated cases of ‘My pen doesn’t work’ and several pupils had a sudden fit of ‘Where’s the toilet?’
Afterwards there were a couple of complaints of ‘I know I’ve failed’, but generally the worst seemed to be over. Such diseases are rarely terminal. And after all, we had a convalescence and recuperation period of six and a half weeks to follow. 3. Complete the conversation with the correct idioms in the correct form. 1. run a temperature 2. on top of the world 3. come down with (an illness) 4. up to the mark 5. pass away 6. worn out 7. laid up 8. on the mend 9. throw off (an illness) 10. catch a cold Health, illness, death ‘Do you know that Mr Sykes has ………? The funeral’s on Friday. He was only fiftyfive.’ ‘Yes, I heard. It was a sudden heart attack. Very sad. I saw him only last week and he said that apart from having a lot of work he was feeling ………. But I thought he looked tired, ………, in fact. But tell me, how’s your husband?’ ‘Well, he ……… a week ago and he doesn’t seem able to ……… (it). Several of his office colleagues have ……… flu. He’s ……… as well, just over a hundred, so I called the doctor this morning. After all, I don’t want him to be ……… for Christmas.’ ‘No, of course not. My husband hasn’t been feeling ……… recently, either. Stomach trouble. But he must be ………. Now because he was shouting at the neighbour’s cat again this morning as usual.’
LANGUAGE, GENDER AND SOCIAL LIFE
THE MORALS OF GOSSIP
Gossip has always had a terrible reputation. A sin against charity, they said, quoting St. Paul. The odd, vivid term sometimes used for it was backbiting. The word suggested a sudden, predatory leap from behind – as if gossip’s hairy maniacal figure landed on the back of the victim’s neck and sank its teeth into the spine, killing with vicious little calumnies: venoms and buzzes. Gossip is rarely that wild. From the morning of the first individual folly of the race, gossip has been the normal nattering background noise of civilization. To say that gossip has been much condemned is like saying that sex has sometimes been held in low esteem. It is true, but it misses some of the fun of the thing. Gossip has always been one of the evil pleasures. It is unworthy, nosy, hypocritical and moralistic, a sort of participatory nastiness. But does it play a heroic moral role hitherto unnoticed? Is gossip merely a swamp that breeds mosquitoes and disease? (“Each man walks with his head in a cloud of poisonous flies,” wrote Tennyson.) Or does it have higher functions in the ecosystem? Large claims have often been made for homely old salacious gossip – the sort of assertions, one might think, that sweating pornographers used to make in court about the “redeeming social value” of their work. All storytelling, hence most of literature from Homer onward, rises from gossip’s fertile lowlands. What we hear in Tolstoy or Flaubert or Dickens or Proust, wrote novelist Mary McCarthy, ‘is the voice of a neighbour relating the latest gossip.’ The highly vulnerable Oscar Wilde went so far as to say that all history is gossip. Such gossip, unlike history, tends to evaporate. Gossip is certainly an instrument of power; Lyndon Johnson understood the magic leverage to be gained from intimate personal details, artfully dispensed. He made it a point to know the predilections of friends, the predicaments of enemies, orchestrating whole symphonies of power upon his own ego. Conversely, gossip seems to cherish a democratic, even subversive impulse: it likes to knock down authority a little. That 24
the gossip is a combination of dispassionate vivisection and blood sport: reputations are expertly filleted and the small brown pits of egos are spit out decorously into spoons and laid at the edge of the plate. and Dorothy’s Valium. nights of the long knives). At certain dinner parties in Georgetown and Beverly Hills and East Hampton (cannibals’ picnics. Microgossip keeps tumbling in like the surf: routines about Sylvia. the people pages of newspapers and magazines have all conspired to create international class gossip. It is no doubt meanspirited. The result is sometimes a resonant emptiness. on the contrary. But microgossip – the myriad back-nipping. Yet. ceremonial and merely entertaining – like public hangings. the low animated buzz of dirt-dishing that emanates from the globe – is the kind of gossip that may perform a kind of social mission. Gossip – which concerns people. the simple human interest in the passing pageant of follies. it also has subtler purposes. people do not seem to object to being gossiped about as much as they once did.is why royal families make their servants sign oaths not to write (gossip) about what goes on in the private quarters. Macrogossip tends to be exemplary. cautionary. the feeling of futility that might overcome the soul after watching Bob Hope and Brooke Shields host a television special. After all. oddly. Privacy is not the highest priority. a sort of evanescent celebrity. This macrogossip detaches the usual human taletelling from its local roots. 25 . who can’t get a divorce. radio. it can get out of hand: a man happy enough to be gossiped about as the office philanderer might grow queasy at learning that gossip is calling him a sadomasochist. even enjoys. as macrogossip has instructed. Perhaps most of the world’s gossip – both macro and micro – is done for the interest and entertainment of it. men’s room exchanges all over the world. In the late 20th century. not the positive. Gossip favours. Even gossip works to keep away what Saul Bellow called “the wolf of insignificance”. and Karl. about to be fired. kitchen-table. any gossip is a form of attention. Television. Of course. back-fence. If much gossip is retailed for the enjoyment of the exchange. dirt (the failings of the character). while rumour concerns events – is usually an instrument with which people unconsciously evaluate moral contexts. Gossip goes in for the negative. technology has immeasurably complicated the business of gossip. a certain emotional exhibitionism has been gaining ground.
and positions taken in the public domain. which can be awesome – ask Othello) also serves as a profound act of community. the small. Gossip is a safe way of sorting out this amoral brawl. They involve sex and money and alcohol and children and jobs and cruelty and treachery: mostly variations on the seven deadly sins. LISTEN! 26 .’ Gossip is the layman’s mythmaker and moralist. principles must be applied to the case. It is a form of improvisational daydreaming. but it is also a procession of ethical problems. Gossip is a training ground for both self-clarification and public moral action.’ If that is so. To decide whether some particular. psychologists John Sabini and Maury Silver write that ‘gossip brings ethics home by introducing abstract morality to the mundane. In gossiping. Moral norms are abstract. gossipers will weigh and sift and test the morals involved. Through the great daily bazaar of bitchiness (men can be just as bitchy as women) passes a dense and bewildering parade of follies. say. a way of dramatizing one’s own feelings about someone else’s behaviour. idle interior puppet-theatre in which he tries out new plays. ‘Both the virtue and vice of gossip. In a book called The Moralities of Everyday Life. DON’T TALK. new parts for himself. an office adultery.’ write Sabini and Silver. tolerated. It is also a medium of self-disclosure. people try to discover their own attitudes towards such behaviour – and the reactions of others. then gossip (whatever its individual destructiveness. or required. a way of asserting what we think acceptable or unacceptable.‘Did you see that Glen and Carolyn got out of the same cab at work this morning? And Carolyn was wearing the same dress she had on yesterday?’ In gossiping about. or demand proof… Gossip is transitional between things merely said. or even half said. encouraged. Gossip is intimate news (perhaps even false ones). ‘ is that one doesn’t confront accusers. concrete unanalysed action is forbidden.
Ours is a society that tries to keep the world sharply divided into masculine and feminine. We will call assertive girls unfeminine. We would rather change what we hear than change our ideas about the gender division of the world. Dale Spender looks at some myths about language and sex differences. they do not do it when investigators are around. This is why some research on sex differences and language has been so interesting. but because that is the way we believe it should be. and even more difficult for teachers to provide them with the opportunity’. It is an illustration of how wrong we can be. Males with high pitched voices are often the object of ridicule. Because we think that language also should be divided into masculine and feminine we have become very skilled at ignoring anything that will not fit our preconceptions. or talk about the same things over and over again.‘In mixed-sex classrooms. But it has also been found that this difference cannot be explained by anatomy. the question arises as to whether the difference is in the eye – or ear – of the beholder. and try to change them while still retaining our stereotypes of masculine and feminine talk. Pitch provides one example. particularly about language. it is not usually because they are unable to do so. It seems that our images of serious taciturn male speakers and gossipy garrulous female speakers are just that: images. stop talking in mid-sentence. And even when sex differences have been found. few have had any positive results. it has been found that males tend to have lower pitched voices than females. We believe that males were meant to talk in low pitched voices. It takes unwavering belief and considerable effort to keep this division. Of the many investigators who set out to find the stereotyped differences in language. The reason is more likely to be that there are penalties. it is often extremely difficult for females to talk. not because that is the way the world is. But pitch is not an 27 . None of these characteristics of female speech have been found. Well. If males do not speak in high pitched voices. We also believe that low pitch is more desirable. rather than in the language. It also leads us to make some fairly foolish judgements. Many myths associated with masculine and feminine talk have had to be discarded as more research has been undertaken. If females do use more trivial words than males. and supportive boys effeminate.
But this has little to do with their sex. some very interesting sex differences have been found. I would rather suspect that the voices of Australian males are even lower. Contrary to our beliefs. the female is more polite than the male. It is less than 20 years since the BBC Handbook declared that females should not read the news. or high pitch is not as bad as it used to be.absolute. Research into sex differences and language may not be telling us much about language. It is the area of language and power. (Although no study has been done.) This makes it difficult to classify pitch as a sex difference. This is where some of the research on sex differences in language has been surprising. When it comes to power. Most people who are without power and find themselves in a vulnerable position are more polite. because their voices were unsuitable for serious topics. It is also becoming increasingly difficult to classify low pitch as more desirable. Females are required to be polite. but it is telling us a great deal about gender. males not only use longer sentences. is that females are more polite. the student is more polite than the teacher. Although as a general rule many of the believed sex differences in language have not been found (and some of the differences which have been found by gender-blind investigators cannot be believed) there is one area where this is an exception. When it comes to husbands and wives. they use more of them. This perhaps helps to explain why American males have deeper voices. 28 . The first one. The shop assistant is more polite than the customer. and a great deal to do with their position in society. which was to be expected. Although we may have been able to predict some of them. there are others which completely contradict our beliefs about masculine and feminine talk. it has been found repeatedly that males talk more. Phylis Chesler has also found that it is difficult for women to talk when men are present – particularly if the men are their husbands. for what is considered the right pitch for males varies from country to country. and this makes them responsible with accommodating male talk. Some people have suggested that gender differentiation in America is more extreme than in Britain. Presumably women’s voices have been lowered in that 20 years. and the way human beings strive to meet the expectations of the stereotype.
for they have little opportunity to talk in the presence of men. men are the talkers. we have rarely encountered a group of men sitting quietly listening to a female speaker. From the beginning the men talked more because although there were eight official male speakers. what was interesting was the impression people were left with about talk. If females want to talk. but that they do not protest when males interrupt them. on the other hand we have ample evidence that they do not talk as much as males. It was an exercise I set myself at a recent conference of teachers in London. women the polite. with one rule for females and another for males. But the contradiction only remains when we use the same standard for both sexes. This helps to explain some of the contradictions behind sex differences in language. There was almost twice as much man talk as woman talk. and females accommodate male talk. The greater amount of man-talk and the greater frequency of interruptions is probably something that few of us are conscious of: we believe so strongly in the stereotype which insists that it is the other way around. Studies by Don Zimmerman and Candace West have found that 98 per cent of interruptions in mixed sex talk were performed by males. A talkative female is one who talks about as much as a man. 27 were of the opinion that there had been more female than male speakers. Even a study of television programmes has revealed the way that males talk. Even when they do talk. they must talk to each other. supportive and encouraging listeners. it disappears when we use a double standard. so the organizing committee decided to exercise positive discrimination in favour of female speakers from the floor. The politeness of females ensures not only that they do not interrupt. Of the 30 people consulted after the sessions. However. It can be an interesting classroom exercise. The stereotypes were still holding firm. there were no female ones. When females are seen to talk about half as much as males they are judged to be dominating the 29 . This was seen as a problem. On the one hand we believe that females talk too much. At the first session – with positive discrimination – there were 14 male speakers and nine female: at the second session there were 10 male speakers and four female. they are likely to be interrupted. However.Although we might all be familiar with the sight of a group of women sitting silently listening to a male speaker. it is not difficult to check this.
if talking for learning is as important as Douglas Barnes maintains it is. In looking at talk. it is not even necessary to force women to be quiet. to support 30 . This double standard was not confined to the general session. females are not obliged to defer to male authority.talk. When the tape was played afterwards. This is what happened at the conference. myself included. It is not polite to talk about things which interest you – if one is female. it was also present in the workshop on sexism and education. In single-sex schools (providing. It is polite to accommodate. most people thought they had dominated the talk. male and female alike. they will obligingly monitor themselves. We all. In the past few years. but the assumption has been that the sexes have enjoyed equal rights to talk. a lot of attention has been paid to the role of language and learning. So females are kept in their place. The polite female is always at a disadvantage. but that they choose the topic. just how much the males were talking. It was surprising because no one realized. Males have to talk almost all the time before they are seen to be dominating the talk. so it would be surprising if this was reversed in the school. it was surprising to find that of the 58 minutes of talk 32 were taken up by males. Such teachers would be allowing boys to engage in talk more frequently than girls. of course. It is not polite to interrupt – if one is female. However. to listen. Not only can they use their power to ensure that they talk more. Because they have less power and because politeness is part of the repertoire of successful feminine behaviour. Although females were less than half of the speakers. Yet it is quite obvious that females do not have equal access to talk outside the classroom. The penalties are so great if they break the rule. use the double standard. There are numerous examples of the ways in which males can assume the right to talk in mixed-sex groups. then any teacher in a mixed-sex class who upholds the social rules for talk could well be practising educational discrimination. It is not polite to be the centre of conversation and to talk a lot – if one is female. it becomes clear that there are differences in girls’ singlesex and mixed-sex schools. Most people were aware that the males had talked disproportionately but no one had even guessed at the extent. They enjoy less rights to talk. that the teacher is female). At the first workshop session there were 32 females and five males. to be supportive and encouraging to male speakers – if one is female.
some teachers have stated. in fairly hostile terms. they learn more. If females want to talk. but that both sexes believe that ‘intellectual argumentation’ in the classroom is a masculine activity. It is appropriate for normal boys to demand more of the teachers’ time. If girls believe that it is unfeminine for them to speak up in class. while girls have been rebuked for calling out.male topics. This could be the explanation for the frequently claimed superior achievement of females in single-sex schools. or to make the tea while the males make the public speeches. I have seen girls ignored for the whole lesson. I asked a group of girls at an Inner London secondary school whether they thought it was unfeminine to speak up in class. female students conform when they are quiet and docile. but because they are governed by the same social rules as everyone else. In mixed-sex classrooms it is often extremely difficult for females to talk. This is not because teachers are supremely sexist beings. and they cannot always modify this situation. I have often observed the teacher engaged in a class discussion with the boys. I have heard boys praised for volunteering their answers. noisy and even disruptive. while the girls chat unobtrusively to one another. free to use language to learn. Angela Parker has found that not only do males talk more in class. In visiting classrooms. and even more difficult for teachers to provide them with the opportunity. ‘Free speech’ is available to females in a way which is not available in mixed-sex schools. they experience difficulties if they try to talk with males. they will probably take silence in preference to a loss of femininity – particularly during adolescence. challenge the 31 . make protests. teachers conform when they see such behaviour as gender appropriate. The girls thought it natural that male students should ask questions. When questioned. while the teacher copes with the demands of the boys. to agree to interruptions. that the girls in the classrooms talk all the time – to each other! This of course is a logical outcome under the present rules for talk: females do not get the same opportunity to talk when males are around. or to practise silence. They all agreed. Male students in the classroom conform to expectations when they are boisterous.
There is no physical reason. b. by enforcing the rules for talk they are unwittingly penalizing females. c. able to justify your answers. What is it? c. or plain boring. no sex difference. Make sure that you are 32 . 1. which is responsible for the relative silence of females. too. thought the work was silly. d. 3. What is her viewpoint? Which of the following would make the best title for the passage? How men discriminate against women in talk Changing our stereotypes of males and females Recent research into sex differences in language Sex inequalities in classroom talk What may have been the writer’s main purpose? To report To persuade To inform To instruct a. But this situation is not inevitable. Females on the other hand should ‘just get on with it’ – even when they. These words have been chosen to suggest the writer’s viewpoint. Although it is unlikely that teachers deliberately practise discrimination against their students on the grounds of sex. a. a. d. b. But we would have to change our stereotypes. These words all refer to the same idea. Reading Comprehension I. 2.teacher and demand explanations. Perhaps they can help females to enjoy the same rights to talk as males. As John Stuart Mill stated. Find the places in the first section of the passage where the Answer these questions in groups. Perhaps teachers can help females to be a little less willing to be silent in mixed-sex classrooms. c. following words are used: preconceptions myths stereotypes b. this asymmetry depends upon females willingly conceding the rights to males.
discarded. 4. 6. a. summarize the writer’s argument up to this point. Traditional approach to male/female language differences – Challenging the preconceptions – An example (Pitch) – Summarizing and preparing for the next section What evidence does Spender give for this explanation? Paragraph ten has two main discourse functions. approach? 5. 7. One is to Study this diagram which shows how the topic is organized in the What is the true explanation for male/female pitch ‘Pitch provides one example’ What does ‘pitch’ provide an example of? What is the preconception about pitch which Spender The third and fourth paragraphs describe what has led to the State what this is. Explain why the preconceptions have had to be What is Spender’s opinion about this traditional Use the information in the diagram to summarize what preconceptions being challenged. b.d. Can you say what the other function is? 33 . Preconceptions about male/female language differences: Ignore conflicting evidence a. challenges? c. b. 8. a. The diagram below represents the traditional approach to Basic beliefs about male/female language differences: male/female language differences which Spender describes. b. Make a list of the myths associated with masculine and feminine language which the writer mentions in the text. differences? d. his traditional approach consists of. first section of the passage.
women. the way they dominate talk. 1. In section one arguments relating to sex differences in In section one the writer’s general position regarding sex language use are considered. c. d. f. d. II.Read through the first section again. in section two these arguments are rejected. more than women. b. differences in language is outlined. a. c. 34 . 2. a. concentrating on how the topic is developed. in section two this position is illustrated. Which of these statements best describes the relationship between Whereas section one deals with some common fallacies Section one explains some fallacies regarding the topic in section one and that of section two in the passage? regarding male/female language differences. male/female language differences and section two illustrates these fallacies. talk. The questions in this activity will help you understand how the writer develops her argument in the second section. been found to be incorrect. b. section two deals with some real differences. men are their husbands. e. Men are responsible for keeping women in their place by We perceive men as dominating talk because they talk Women do not interrupt as much as men in mixed-sex Women find it easier to talk when men are present if the The common belief that women talk more than men has Which of the following statements are true and which are false? Women are more polite than men simply because they are Rewrite the false ones to make them an accurate record of what the writer says.
In this process language has an important part to play. Accordingly. and perhaps. It is possible that some differences between the language of men and women stem from differences in anatomy and physiology. but social codes provide us with a repertoire of behaviour which defines our gender. in effect. The view taken here. there are social expectations of how to be male or female. the genetic code may determine our sex. and these gender differences include not just features of observable behaviour but extend to our whole way of regarding ourselves as male and female: i. These changing patterns of difference between male and female are. they include questions both of gender role (ways of behaving) and also of gender identity (ways of relating to ourselves and others). In other words. is that the more significant differences are socially constructed. If obvious gender differences are signalled in part by surface contrasts in dress and demeanour. however. In recognizing this additional level of gender. there remains a great deal of variation over what is deemed appropriate behaviour for women and men from one society to another and from one historical period to another. It will also be concerned with why these differences arise. it is likely that even more profound differences of gender role and identity are carried by language. we allow for the possibility of change – even of a deliberate kind. The distinction between gender and sex is important because although all documented societies find the basic differences between the male body and the female body important. For language comprises not only a significant element in behaviour. it also helps us to formulate concepts and ways of meaning that are crucial to the construction of our identity. 35 . gender differences – social and cultural impositions on the ‘natural’ categories of sex. of choice.e. For that reason the term ‘gender’ rather than ‘sex’ has been adopted to discuss the linguistic differences between men and women. to some extent. signalling a great deal about our social origins. when the new born child is identified on the basis of anatomy as either a girl or a boy. it is only the beginning of a long process in which it will learn contrasting kinds of gender role and identity.SUPPLEMENTARY READING GENDER AND LANGUAGE Introduction This section is concerned with the differences between the way women and men use language.
Do men and women talk differently? – the claims and the evidence One important way in which language interacts with aspects of gender role and identity is through the commonsense beliefs and stereotypes that are held about the basic differences between the language of men and women. Women, it is said, are less assertive (more tentative) in their speech then men; it is said that they use fewer taboo forms and more euphemisms than men; that they talk than men or, conversely, that they talk less than men; that they are inclined to gossip; that they are more conservative in their speech and, at the same time, more sensitive to matters of correctness; that their speech is more polite; and so on. These may be described as folk-linguistic beliefs – widely held, grounded in anecdote and cursory observation, but not necessarily supported by systematic research. It is only in the last decade or so – and primarily due to the impact of the women’s movement – that these claims have been subjected to close scrutiny. Until then most socio-linguistic research was carried out by men, who tended to focus upon male speakers – especially when studying marginal or subordinate groups. Male linguistic behaviour was often assumed implicitly to be the norm; and when the linguistic behaviour of women was noted this was often treated as a departure from a norm centred on male behaviour. In some ways, then, until women researchers began to reshape the field of study and to pay more attention to the speech of women, socio-linguistics was prone to confirm gender stereotypes rather than to question them. Gender is now generally recognized as a salient dimension of social difference, and has become the focus for a great deal of recent discussion within socio-linguistics as a result of the burgeoning of feminist scholarship. In the light of the accumulating evidence, it has become easier to distinguish between fact and stereotype. Do women tend to speak ‘more correctly’ than men? A wide range of studies has shown that on social class measurements of pronunciation, women generally score higher for prestige forms than men do right up and down the social scale. But the detailed picture turns out to be much more
complicated. For example, a study by Milroy (1980) of two working-class communities in Belfast in Northern Ireland highlights the importance of other factors besides gender. In the particular communities she studied, it was clear that changes in vernacular speech were the result not so much of gender as of conditions of employment and unemployment, in particular, whether men and women were employed locally or had to go outside their own community and locality to find work. In her analysis she made use of the concept of the social network. This allows comparisons to be made between groups based on the density or looseness of group ties. An open network is one in which the number of reciprocal ties in the network is low: not everyone knows everyone else. A closed network is one in which each member of the network has several ties with other members of the network. In addition to the numbers of ties within a network it is also possible to take account of the nature of the ties that obtain between members and whether these are ties of work, kinship, friendship, recreation and so on. A closed network, for instance, may be of two types – uniplex or multiplex – so that in the latter the ties are not only many and reciprocal, but also of multiple types. The workplace, for example, may give rise to closed networks but these will not necessarily be of the multiplex type, unless members of the networks are also connected by other ties – for instance, those of kinship and shared recreational pursuits. Generally, therefore, the claim that women as such are more sensitive to norms of correct speech than men is not borne out by precise studies of actual groups of women. It depends upon which women are being considered (older versus younger, for instance) and, most fundamentally, upon what kinds of relationships shape their everyday lives. Certainly, there is no simple, direct link between sex of the speaker and tendency to use the vernacular or the standard. Instead, adoption of, and allegiance to, vernacular norms of speech seems to be associated broadly with membership of high density, multiplex networks with strong roots in a territorially bounded, local community: membership of such groups goes hand in hand with use of the vernacular. While networks of this type tend to be more characteristic of traditional male working-class culture, they are not an exclusively male phenomenon. Where women belong to such close-knit social networks they exhibit similar degrees of vernacular loyalty.
Is women’s speech more polite, less direct and less assertive than that of men? This question goes to the heart of the way we use words to make our social relationships. In order to answer it we have to focus upon quite specific and discrete ways of doing things with words, such as using them to command or question or interrupt. When talk between men and women is examined in these terms, we do find evidence to support the view that female speakers are more polite than males but care needs to be taken over how we interpret such findings. It is important always to take the context of situation into account and to consider whether it involves talk to the same or the other sex, or more generally whether it involves relationships of power or solidarity. An utterance may sound polite and unassertive in one context but not in another. For instance, if one pupil says to another in the course of planning an issue of the school newspaper, ‘Let’s ask the head what she thinks, shall we?’, it carries potentially quite different politeness values than if a pupil were to address the same words to a class teacher in the course of an altercation. The use of questions Many studies of male and female speech have found women using more questions than men especially when the addressee is a man. For instance, women were found to ask more questions than men when buying tickets at Central Station in Amsterdam, especially when the ticket seller was male (Browser et al 1979). And in a detailed study of three separate heterosexual couples based on fifty-two hours of tape-recorded conversation in their homes, Fishman (1983) found that the women asked a staggering two and a half times more questions than men did. Fishman sees this as a practical measure of the work these women were doing to keep conversation going. Women made sixty-two per cent of all attempts to introduce topics but only thirty-eight per cent of these attempts achieved joint development. Conversely, nearly all the topics initiated by men (usually in the form of a statement) were taken up in the conversation. Thus, on the one hand, women responded more positively to topics raised by men; and on the other hand they had
even accusatory. wasn’t it?’ or checking and therefore speaker-oriented (i. Consider. such as the classroom or. status-marked settings. or even challenge a power relation by their use. may be either facilitative and oriented towards the addressee. They quite typically operate to coerce agreement from the addressee in some negative assessment of their behaviour.e. making sure about something). For questions are not all of the same kind. for instance: ‘This homework isn’t very good. confirm. 39 . For example. This kind of finding seems fairly clear cut and can be used to support claims that women are more attentive in their talk to the needs and rights of others. for example. in asymmetrical. in particular circumstances. their function is to help the conversation along by offering a speaking turn to another participant. for instance. for example. However. which required them to use more questions. are you?’ (magistrate to defendant) Thus.e. i. tags similar in formal construction to those of the facilitative type seem to take a different force.to work harder to establish topics themselves. for example: ‘That was a good film. the courtroom. A questioner. for example: ‘You came to Glasgow last year. Tag questions. the same construction as that adopted for facilitative tags can well become coercive. overlaps and interruptions Giving commands and asking questions are all examples of conversational acts – ways of doing things with words that are crucial to the conduct of social life. is it?’ (teacher to pupil) ‘You’re not making much of an effort to pay off these arrears. Turn-taking. didn’t you?’ Their meaning can also differ according to context. Fishman makes no attempt to differentiate between various different types of question: her conclusions would have been more persuasive if she had discussed in more detail whether different types of question might not have been at work in her data and what criteria might be used to identify them. may claim. Examining the distribution of conversational acts – who uses which kind of cat. nor do they all perform the same function in conversation: not all of them necessarily work to support and sustain topical development.
These transition relevance points are signalled principally by grammatical completeness but other supporting cues are provided by changes in the pace and pitch of the speech as well as by gesture and eye movement.when and to whom – can reveal much about the character of social relationships. which provides the framework within which these acts can be performed. depends not only upon these acts themselves but also upon a more general underlying mechanism of exchange called the turntaking system. b) delayed responses to a turn. Our tacit adherence as conversationalists to the rules of the turn-taking system is displayed in the way that normally the turns at talk succeed one another smoothly – without overlap on the one hand. men interrupt very much more than women. The departures from normal fluency are of two main types: a) interruptions. Sacks at al (1974) argue that conversationalists manage the exchange of talk with such fluency by listening out for points in each turn where transition to other speaker has become relevant because the turn is (potentially) complete. despite the availability of the turn-transition cues. including the expression of gender relations. at any particular point in society. long before they can express themselves in words). and offer less support to 40 . The results of these studies indicate that in conversations between mixedsex pairs. conversationalists manage the exchange from one turn to another often with gaps of only a fraction of a second. The more the cues coincide. or more than minimal gaps on the other. constitute a deeper incursion into a speaker’s ongoing turn. At its most basic level. however. Interruptions were carefully distinguished from mere overlaps: in the latter case the beginning of one turn momentarily coincides with the end of another and is a common rather than a disruptive feature of fluent talk. however. the turn-taking system enables conversations to proceed without everyone talking all at once. Conversation as a process. penetrating well within the grammatical boundaries of a current speaker’s utterance. particularly in asymmetrical relationships involving dominant and subordinate parties. departures from such smooth turn-transitions do occur under certain circumstances. the more likely it is that the turn is complete. Interruptions. By relying on cues such as these (and some evidence suggests that infants of only a couple of months have learnt to attend to them. Both types of departure from normal turn-taking were examined by West and Zimmerman in two studies (1975 and 1983) of crosssex talk. Nonetheless.
An alternative formulation of this point would be that men are more assertive and impolite than women when engaged in cross-sex conversation. Secondly. epochs. Note. given the basic constraints of the turn-taking system. it is not women but men who seem to override them. as a social construct. speech differences between men and women are not clear cut. gender is constructed differently in different societies. and cultures. Systematic study of differences depends upon the accurate definition and identification of specific linguistic behaviour. Despite these complications there seems to be growing evidence to suggest that. For this reason. Two points in particular – one sociological and one linguistic – should be noted. Generalized claims about assertiveness or politeness are difficult to substantiate unless they are translated into more specific statements involving identifiable linguistic behaviour – hence the focus on activities such as questions or interruptions. from a linguistic perspective. Conclusions: difference and dominance What emerges from any review of work on speech differences between women and men is a complicated sense of variation affected by a range of factors. It is not difficult. however.topics introduced by women. that this formulation takes male behaviour as its taken-for-granted reference point. Instead. we need to consider carefully the ways in which gender as a dimension of difference between people interacts with other dimensions such as those of age. women and men do pursue different interactive styles: in mixed-sex conversations this means that men tend to interrupt women. The sex differences which stem from anatomy or physiology are filtered through the social construction of gender identity and gender relations. ethnic group. we need to be very clear about what exactly is being identified as a difference between men and women. class. Firstly. therefore. And there is always the additional complication that the form of an utterance is no consistent guide to what function it might be performing in a specific context. to derive from their work some support for the claim that women are less assertive and more polite than men in cross-sex communication. After all. in the words of Coates. and so on. So we need to recognize that. we should not expect some set of universal differences in the language of men and women. they use this strategy to control topics of conversation and their interruptions tend to induce 41 .
In effect. 42 . the propensity of men to interrupt women more than women interrupt men may be seen in these terms. ‘kind of’. swear more and use imperative forms to get things done. The combination of such features amounts to a distinctive style of co-operative talk in which the joint working out of a group point of view takes precedence over individual assertions. it has been argued. as a result of which women are inclined to see relationships in terms of intimacy. conversely. Studies of language and gender have returned repeatedly to the question of how the language used by men and women reinforces their respective positions in society. and include gradual topic development. ‘sort of’. Underlying this felt sense of difference. Women use more linguistic forms associated with politeness. If the contrastive sub-cultures of men and women give rise to contrasting communicative styles.silence in women. is a recurrent concern with power. grow up within different social worlds. supportive overlaps between one speaker and another. Women are maintained in a subordinate position. men maintain their dominance by the use of verbal strategies associated with power. Women make greater use of minimal responses to indicate support for the speaker. while men talk more. women and men. connection and disclosure whereas men are inclined to see them in terms of hierarchy. an equally important theme that has emerged more recently is the focus on differences between men’s and women’s speech as the outcome fo what are in effect two different sub-cultures with contrasting orientations towards relationships. These sub-cultural differences are enacted in contrasting communicative styles. because they find themselves adopting powerless patterns of speech. However. frequent – and well-placed – minimal responses. and the growing body of evidence to support it. It also seems that women ask more questions. it is claimed. For example. This communicative style is not only characteristic to women in interaction with each other but – Coates believes – is in implicit contrast with men’s communicative style which is likely to be more adversarial and competitive. and many markers of sympathetic circularity such as ‘I mean’. then these very differences provide ample grounds for misunderstanding between men and women. Coates (1988) in a study of an allfemale group of speakers notes particular tendencies which she feels are characteristic of women’s style of speech with each other. and. status and independence.
Tannen’s work sidesteps the problem of how to interpret specific linguistic features. irrespective of the features through which such functions are realized. communicatively. For example. 43 . such as tag questions. they may be of great significance but accumulating statistical evidence about them is difficult. Women. At the same time we have to recognize that Tannen’s account quite deliberately sidelines questions of relationships of power between the sexes in order to focus upon the cross-cultural component of misunderstandings. whereas men speak and hear a language of status and independence. it is not easy to provide systematic evidence concerning their relative occurrence. Women. For another thing. In fact. Here is a study of differences rather than of dominance: misunderstandings arise. she suggests.The American linguist. talk of this type tends by definition to be private and not easily available for the public scrutiny of research projects based upon tape recordings and transcripts. men find that seeking advice (especially from men) is potentially demeaning. talk about troubles to share them. But this should not blind us to the possibilities of discrepancies between what we think we do as social beings and what we actually do. which she renders in the form of short scenarios. argues that men and women end up talking at cross purposes (You Just Don’t Understand. she believes. There is no easy way round this problem. of course. For one thing. by addressing directly the issue of function and purpose in interaction. 1992). because of the different (even if overlapping) sub-cultures inhabited by men and women. many readers – men as well as women – find her account compelling since it seems to match their own experience while casting it in a new light. even when such recording techniques are used. she argues. the actual incidence of events of this type is relatively small. but the least that can be said is that Tannen has provided a powerful set of hypotheses about what is going on when men and women are talking – ones which will prompt and guide important further work. tend to speak and hear a language of connection and intimacy. men talk about troubles to solve them. Deborah Tannen. But whilst gender differences in the functions of language in interaction offer perhaps the richest area of investigation to date. In many ways she is like an anthropologist – though one doing work on her own rather than someone else’s culture. women may be less inhibited about doing so. For this reason. sketches and anecdotes. Tannen relies for much of her evidence on her own and others’ remembered experiences.
3. the scale of cultural differences identified is ultimately rather narrow. since it suggests that greater awareness on both sides can overcome these misunderstandings. because in order to find it they’d have to understand the utterance from the position of a subordinate in a relation of power? One of the most important consequences of the work on language and gender is that even in those areas of investigation where the evidence remains inconclusive about the exact nature of the differences. To what extent. occupy the same sub-culture as women from the affluent suburbs of Georgetown. the picture that emerges from Tannen’s examples is of a somewhat idealized world in which the best intentions of men and women to understand each other are frustrated because of the cultural mismatch between them. 5. neither of which is differentiated internally. there is still enough to make it possible to pose questions of this type on an everyday basis and in an analytically informed way. 2. What is the difference between ‘sex’ and ‘gender’? What are the stereotypes of women’s speech? Do you agree with What reason does Fishman suggest for her finding that the women in her Why is it important to examine the pragmatic functions of linguistic What is the difference between an interruption and an overlap? all/some/none of them? Which do you disagree with. For the sake of clarity of exposition. and why? couples asked more questions than the men? forms such as tag questions? 44 . USA? Secondly. for instance. Reading comprehension 1. And so we are faced with essentially two sub-cultures. Is it possible. it nonetheless leaves out of the account ways in which miscommunication arises because of. and is fuelled by. 4. real conflicts of interests based upon asymmetries of power. Firstly. and another for men – at least in the United States. that men sometimes miss the point of what is said to them. by reference – for example – to ethnicity or class. we might ask. one might ask.Two kinds of problems may be identified with this broad approach. do working-class women of Asian origin from Bradford. Although this is a positive – even a therapeutic – approach. Tannen assumes for the most part one common culture for women. England.
a prospective employer would hardly ask a candidate to run a hundred metres. For example. a) estimate 2. a) looks 4.6. as on the (2) ……… words they say. as we all know. However. Do you agree with the view that men reinforce their social dominance What is the argument of the sub-culture theorists? Are you convinced by by using dominating strategies in conversation with women? it. or do you see difficulties in it? Vocabulary practice I. can such tests predict whether a person is likely to be a (15) ……… employee or a valued colleague? 1. The art of being (6) ……… lies in picking up these signals. and it may well be that we (5) ……… express views that we are trying to hide. and acting so that they are not embarrassed in any way. Facial (3) ……… and tone of voice are obvious ways of showing our (4) ……… to something. and the further problem of whether such tests actually produce (12) ……… results. Interpreting the feelings of other people is not always easy. After all. or expect his or her family doctor to provide (14) ……… medical information. and interviewers often (9) ……… particular attention to the way a candidate for a job walks into the room and sits down. while what many employers want to know relates to the candidate’s character traits. a) view b) rely b) real b) feeling c) reckon c) identical c) notion c) unaware d) trust d) actual d) manner d) reaction d) cannot b) expression c) image 5. and (11) ……… stability. For many people. realising what the other person is trying to say. we may understand that they are in fact (7) ……… to answer our question. it is not difficult to present the right kind of (10) ……… . and so we stop pressing them. This raises the awkward question of whether job candidates should be asked to complete psychological tests. being asked to take part in such a test would be an objectionable (13) ………. Choose the most suitable word for each space. into their private lives. Quite apart from this problem. Body movements in general may also (8) ……… feelings. 7. and we (1) ……… as much on what they seem to be telling us. a) other 3. a) unconsciously b) rarely 45 .
reader of science fiction novels. I was in rather a silly ………. Choose the most suitable word or phrase. Tom is quite a/an ……… character and easy to understand. In a/an ……… moment. Billy. a) thorough b) humble b) indicate b) gain b) candidate b) physical b) intrusion b) secretive b) particular c) tactful c) contain c) in c) manners c) psychological c) infringement c) reticent c) laborious d) successful d) hesitant d) infer d) pay d) introduction d) relevant d) interference d) confidential d) conscientious d) predictable c) tending 12. 4. I decided to climb the cliff on my own. 3. Stop looking at yourself in the mirror! You’re so ………! a) conceited b) self-centred a) evil a) frank a) avid a) nuisance b) vicious b) straightforward b) ardent b) wearying 5. a) similar 13. a) set 10. unfortunately. You’re being rather ………. 1. a) reluctantb) used 8. I’m sorry that I giggled so much. When our teacher saw what we had done he was absolutely ………. a) temper a) angry a) rash b) mood b) upset b) impulsive c) feeling c) furious c) sudden c) vain c) abusive c) candied c) zealous d) outlook d) annoyed d) risky d) proud d) malicious d) understanding d) fervent 2. a) faithfulb) regular c) reliable II. a) good at 7. 8. a) invasion 14. a) have 9. Do stop banging that drum. 6. 7. c) disturbing d) tiresome c) put in for d) come up to 9. Jean has been the subject of much ……… gossip in the village. a) appearance 11. I am a/an ………. The film didn’t really ……… our expectations.6. a) classified 15. a) meet with b) fall short of 46 .
I asked him if he could point me in the general direction of some people who didn’t work for a living. honestly!’. ‘Of course if I wanted a gentleman’s gentleman I’d have one.30. and the Financial Times. He lives a luxurious bachelor life. Over breakfast I read the Mail from cover to cover. and two Yorkshire farmers were drinking beer. I’ve always had everything I wanted. but otherwise I haven’t denied myself much. Amanda.’ he said. I skim through the Daily Express. He gave me quite a long list of names. I get up at 9. except a bit of travelling.’ I had to ask how rich he was. My childhood was a bit Spartan as you couldn’t get things in the war. elegantly decorated with pictures of horses and hunting prints.UNIT 4 SOCIETY THE UPPER CLASS There are different ways of being unemployed. for instance? ‘It’s frightfully sordid to talk about money. ‘I have Margaret from Kilburn to wash and clean for me. who was tremendously welcoming and said of course I could come and interview him about his way of life. But the only one who actually proved accessible was Rupert Deen. He has never been married. ‘Well. some more pleasant than others. and has never done very much to earn his living.’ he said firmly. Rupert Deen is 40. I was put in touch with Rupert Deen by Richard Compton Miller. really!’ and ‘Oh Bear. the Sporting Life. It was his grandfather who made a fortune out of Royal Dutch Oil. In the course of the interview they added their comments and expostulations. Rupert Deen is known to his friends as Bear. He started by describing for me a more or less typical day in his London life. Amanda was given to comments like ‘Oh Bear. He ushered me into his drawing room where his beautiful blonde girl friend. I get the Mail. and then I look at the 47 . all my life. as a kind of chorus. the Express. and says he has no intention of marrying. I go out and buy the newspapers. the London gossip writer. I was rather disappointed that he doesn’t have a gentleman’s gentleman. He says his father before him didn’t do much either. He lives in a small Knightsbridge bijou house. Was he a millionaire.
But you certainly built up quite a knowledge of the world. Between 11.’ he said with surprising prissiness. Was that a university. ‘About two days a year. ‘So I retired after eight years.’ he added. He sets off to lunch at 12. when he was in town. ‘I just stood in queues and did what I was told. and get ready to go out to a dinner party or to the theatre. kind of. exhausted by my tiring afternoon I’ll have a bit of a rest. The rest of the time it’s lunch with friends.’ he said. I telephone my friends. He comes back from France. intelligence.00. ‘One can’t mention other people to the press.’ Amanda giggled. He comes back to England for Ascot in midJune. When he left there he went to the Ecole de Commerce at Neuchatel in Switzerland. I was there for a year. about horses or insurance.’ he said. I prefer retirement. I asked? ‘Well. Next I have a bath and I read the Sporting Life.’ ‘I say.’ Rupert Deen is a Lloyds underwriter – not exactly a strenuous career. ‘Not exactly academically. ‘I hope you’re commenting on my good looks. if you know what I mean.’ He then went straight into Lloyds and stayed for eight years at something that was a more or less full-time job. goes something like this: in May he goes to the South of France. or the Savoy.’ His year. so I wouldn’t be eating in restaurants on that day. to Monte Carlo or St. he says. and brilliant wit. ‘About twice a week it’s business of some sort. I usually go to Drones. are no problem. and whose dinner parties he went to. I’m in the city one day. Mimmo’s. I got a degree. what!’ He continued with the description of his day. ‘Well. stopping in Paris for the Arc de Triomphe on the first Sunday in October. Of course I go to the races about one day a week if it’s not raining. or films. Tropez. and shoots grouse every day. Nothing too intellectual. In August he goes to the second Test match.30.’ Did it teach him anything useful? He raised his thick eyebrows in a knowing look and said. an occupation closer to gambling on a large scale than to work. Rupert Deen said one or two days a week.) In July he goes racing at Newmarket and York. In September he takes a house in St. ‘They gave you a degree if you turned up for 22 days out of 100.’ He wouldn’t say who his friends were. and often attends the Open Golf Championship. (Tickets. Tropez. and then Wimbledon. I asked how often he went into the office. then. he says. ‘Then I take a 48 .Financial Times. I might do a bit of business phoning too.00 and 12. as I complete my levee. The Connaught. He was educated at Harrow.
’ December he shoots. I think the vote should be given just to a few men. for that matter. JOBS AND EMPLOYMENT POLICIES People of working age can be divided into three groups: the employed. Britain’s total workforce was about 26 million. At the end of the 1980s. I said I wouldn’t mention any names in this interview.’ I explained. Hampshire. 49 .’ he says. I don’t like a woman prime minister as I don’t think women should have the vote. I asked if he thought his way of life at all anachronistic? ‘Ana what? Come again? Not so much of the brainy talk.’ he said. Scotland.’ He approves of Mrs. ‘I don’t agree with the modern idea that you should work for the sake of it. a proportion that is gradually growing. Where? Oh.’ What about November? ‘Oh well. Pakistan. it’s just that my energies go in a different direction to most people’s. Norfolk. Lincolnshire. I don’t approve of her. about two thirds of the adult population. Egypt. ‘Her policies. and the unemployed. It works. everywhere. Of this number. ‘I’ve been to Japan. November. I am extremely busy. those who employ people. I’m a hedonist. same day as Prince Charles. No. for even more days of the week. the self-employed. those who are well educated and who contribute to society. I go to South Africa occasionally. directly or indirectly.leisurely drive through Normandy. you see.’ He said he definitely included himself.’ Does he know Prince Charles? ‘My lips are sealed. what he calls ‘Heavy shooting’. ‘I’m back in time to shoot one or two pheasants. We ought to have it here. I don’t mind the discomfort of sleeping out of doors. and there were about 2 million unemployed. stopping to take in one or two studs on the way. November 14. About 40 per cent of the work-force are women. That’s my birthday. so long as one has plenty of servants. Thatcher. The rest of the year he likes to travel to exotic countries. I mean. I thoroughly approve of apartheid.’ Did he ever feel that life should have some purpose? ‘No. around 3 million people were self-employed. nor most men. Basically.
Instruction in practical skills is provided for the unemployed at Skillcentres. where the person is given similar advice followed by help in finding a job. an extensive adult training programme introduced in 1988 for people who had been out of work for more than six months. where local jobs are advertised and where individual advice is given. such as those in local newspapers. giving young people the opportunity to obtain a vocational qualification while under training. These were at first run by the Department of Employment but are now privately managed. there has been a gradual swing from employment in the manufacturing industries to jobs in service industries such as banking. A third possibility is self-employment under the Enterprise Allowance Scheme. he or she may attend an interview with a ‘Restart’ counsellor. which increased by 50 per cent. the largest rise was in the banking. and public administration. who will suggest alternative ways of finding work. compared with one quarter in manufacturing industry. however. If a person is unemployed for six months or longer. Training of a more theoretical kind can also be obtained through the Open College. The number of workers in transport. and the Enterprise Allowance Scheme. retailing. to Employment Training (ET). During the 1980s there were years of high unemployment. with a peak of over 3 million unemployed in 1986. One solution is for the person to attend a special five-day Restart course. Although many school-leavers obtain jobs after completing a one-year or two-year YTS course. Many unemployed people look for work in advertisements. About two thirds of the work-force are employed in service industries. Two further schemes are Business Growth Training. People who 50 . programmes and incentives were introduced to help unemployed people find work. some find the experience depressing and regard it as a waste of time. has declined. A number of government schemes. an independent body that provides courses by radio and television. hotels. Another is a place in a Jobclub. Others make their first search through the government Jobcentres. which offers financial help to employers training their own employees. insurance and finance sector.As in many countries. with practical advice on the way to look for a job. During the 1980s. These range from the Youth Training Scheme (YTS). which helps the unemployed people start their own business.
Contributory benefits are paid from the National Insurance contributions made regularly by employees. Social security benefits are of two kinds: contributory and non-contributory. as well as to widows. an increasing number of workers are employed in service industries and where unemployment in 1990 was about 5 per cent. Young unemployed people are given training by Job Corps residential training centres. Non-contributory benefits are financed by income from general taxation. 51 .remain unemployed for a year or more are recommended to see a Restart counsellor every six months. which came into force in 1963. provides job training and employment services for poor and disadvantaged people. SOCIAL SECURITY In Britain. Similar schemes operate in the USA where. National Insurance contributions. The Federal-State Employment Service refers employable applicants to job openings where they can make the best use of their skills. with the aim of finding permanent jobs for as many people as possible. The Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). The benefit paid to retired people is the ‘state pension’ or ‘retirement pension’. It also helps unemployed people to obtain advice or training. In addition to these schemes. A special section of the Act caters for people who lose jobs in industries where they are unlikely to find another job. employers and the self-employed. as in Britain. disabled and unemployed. which are organized on a federal basis. ‘social security’ is the term used for all the payments (called ‘benefits’) made by the government to the retired. individual states also provide employment training which is paid for from state taxes. parents and people on very low incomes. are normally deducted from an employee’s pay by the employer. The whole system is the responsibility of the Department of Social Security (DSS). The benefits paid to the different categories of people are known by different names. to which women are entitled at the age of 60 and men at 65. sick. like income tax.
she receives a ‘widowed mother’s pension’. receive the more general ‘sickness benefit’. Various modifications of these benefits. Disabled people who find walking difficult or impossible may receive a tax-free ‘mobility allowance’ to help pay for their transport or to obtain a special vehicle. ‘Child benefit’ is the main social security payment for children. ‘Unemployment benefit’ is payable to a person who is out of work for up to a year in one single spell of unemployment. Employers can ‘contract out’ their employees from the state pension scheme for an earnings-related pension and provide their own pension instead. and who have very little money to live on. depending on the nature and severity of the illness or disablement. It is paid in addition to child benefit.Pensioners are able to earn income and still receive their pension in full. Employees who are not entitled to SSP. The amount paid depends on the money a person already has. ‘Housing benefit’ is paid to people with low incomes to help them pay for the cost of accommodation. are available for special categories of people. In addition to the basic pension. for example the self-employed. many people receive an earnings-related pension based on their pay during their working life. A woman whose husband dies before he retires receives a ‘widow pension’ if she is aged 45 or over. for example single parents or war widows 52 . About half the people at work in Britain are now contracted out in this way. Women who do not qualify for this. ‘Statutory sick pay’ (SSP) is paid by an employer for the first 28 weeks of an employee’s illness and is related to earnings. receive a ‘maternity allowance’ from the government. ‘Income support’ is paid to people who are unemployed for more than a year or work for less than 24 hours a week. ‘Family credit’ is paid to families with children who have very low incomes. Women who leave work to have a baby receive ‘maternity pay’ from their employer. There are many different benefits for sick and disabled people. If a person is still unable to work at the end of this period. It is payable for each child until he or she leaves school (at 16) or longer if the child continues in education (up to the age of 19). he or she receives an ‘invalidity pension’. and additional amounts. for example the self-employed. If she has children. The Social Security Act of 1986 also gave people the right to choose their own pension scheme rather than stay in the state earnings-related scheme or their employer’s scheme. paid taxfree and usually to the mother.
In the USA. social security contributions are usually deducted by the employer. as are pensioners. It is thus roughly equivalent in this respect to the National Health Service (NHS) in Britain. Doctor Policeman Reporter Soldier Secretary Farmworker Politician Dentist Teacher Pop singer Miner Minister (priest) Which of them do you think earns most? Which of them do you think should earn most? Why? Which of them would you like to do? Which wouldn’t you like to do? Why? Are there any very important jobs which are very badly paid? 53 . Some US states also have a ‘state disability insurance’ scheme providing benefit for an employee who cannot work because of illness for seven or more days. where they apply.(women whose husbands have been killed fighting in a war). All benefits are taxable except child benefit. When an employed person reaches the age of 62. social security is limited mainly to the provision of pensions and Medicare for the retired and elderly. and a couple will not receive twice the amount that a single person gets. (The higher pension age is being gradually increased to 67 over a 21year period. and at the age of 65 to a full pension. Both social security contributions and state disability contributions. beginning with people aged 62 in the year 2000. Reading comprehension A valuable job? Which of the following jobs is the most important in your opinion? Put them in order. This means that unemployed people are taxed on their benefit.) Medicare is the scheme which pays most or all of the fees for hospital or medical treatment for a person of pension age. are compulsory. although the NHS provides free treatment for people under pension age as well. There are usually different rates of payment for single people and couples. As in Britain. he or she is entitled to a reduced old age pension.
can you give examples? Are there some jobs which you think you would be unsuitable for? If so.It’s the money of course. Or we can blame it all on someone else. the sense of achievement behind the clinching of an important (5) ……….Suitability of a job Do you think that some jobs require people with special characteristics? If so. or feel aggrieved that nobody has yet recognised their leadership (10) ……… . and I say this under my (11) ……… . what about farmers? Is it the conversation in the farmyard that keeps them captivated by the job? Work is power and a sense of status say those (9) ……… have either attained these elusive goals. the family or the taxman. but if that is the (8) ……… . or put it to others in moments of weakness or confidentiality. Choose the most suitable word given for each space in the text. some say with a smile. I suspect. that most 54 . why? What sort of job do you think you are suitable for with your personal characteristics? What is a good job? What do you consider to be the most important aspects of a good job? Put these in order of importance: Being your own boss Job security Power Seeing the results of your work Good pay Interesting work Opportunity to help people Flexible hours Vocabulary practice I. you (2) ……… well have heard some or all of the (3) ………. Or it’s the satisfaction of (4) ……… well done. Have you ever asked yourself what are you working for? If you have ever had the time to (1) ……… this taboo question. as if explaining something to a small child.I worked as a bus conductor once. It’s the company of other people perhaps. and I can’t say I (6) ……… the same as I staggered along the swaying gangway trying to (7) ……… out tickets without falling over into someone’s lap.
a) round 15. 6. We’ll win the pools. hoping for something to (12) ……… up.of us work rather as Mr Micawber lived. 3. a) resources 14. a) move 13. The bookmaker was discussing the binding/odds/printing with a client. a) ambition b) meditate b) can b) rest b) a job b) position b) wished b) turn b) case b) must b) status b) suspicion b) turn b) opportunities b) over b) station c) who c) consider c) will c) following c) a task c) job c) hoped c) issued) give c) question d) to c) property c) breath c) ease c) rest c) into c) vocation d) requirements d) pressure d) end d) money d) to d) promotion d) former d) launch d) should d) latter d) engagement d) felt d) an effort II. but until then at least we have something to do. a) might 3. Jim is a real craftsman and works on a boat/with his hands/for a low salary. Sue is a lecturer at the local institute/secondary school/university. 1. a) people 10. One day we’ll get that (15) ……… we deserve. a) a work 5. We’ll scrape together the (13) ……… and open that little shop we always dreamed of. I had to call a plumber because my room was blacked out/flooded/cracked. a) oath 12. or go (14) ……… the world. or spend more time in the garden. 7. And we are so busy doing it that we don’t have time to wonder why. Choose the most appropriate word or words underlined. and tell the boss what we really think. a) below 4. a) deal 6. Peter is an undertaker and goes to funerals/the stock exchange/the factory. 4. 1. If you are an accountant you have to be good at figures/numbers/totals. 5. 2. a) one 9. 55 . you’ll need an advocate/barrister/solicitor. a) enjoyed 7. a) propose 2. a) qualities 11. If you are selling your house. a) make 8.
could you collect my carpet/cat/licence? 10.8. If you’re passing the vet’s. We were married by my uncle. 56 . who was the local father/official/vicar. she’s freelance/liberated/unattached. Helen doesn’t work for a company. 9.
more recently. Common law is the ancient ‘law of the land’ that has been passed down by precedent and custom. distinct from those in England and Wales. legislation and. Judgements are based on judgements made in previous cases and this forms the basis of all law that is not specifically legislation. A distinctive ancient British law is that of habeas corpus.UNIT 5 LAW LAW AND ORDER The main sources of British law are common law. and hears appeals from people tried in those courts. It sits at various centres around the country and is presided over either by a visiting High Court judge. Magistrates’ courts deal with less important offences. More serious offences are committed to a Crown Court. In some circumstances it can reverse judgements made in the British courts. The decision to bring a person to court in the first place is usually made by the police. Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own legal system and law courts. and is the opening words of a 17 th century writ guaranteeing a person a fair trial. Legislation consists of Acts passed by the Parliament and there are also by-laws made by local authorities. This Latin phrase literally means ‘you must have the body’. It is unwritten. A person who believes that he is wrongly held by the police can issue a writ of habeas corpus to have his complaint heard by a court. which then decides whether to prosecute or not. A magistrate. the papers go to the Crown Prosecution Service. also called a Justice of the Peace (JP). European Community law. Criminal offences are prosecuted either in a magistrates’ court or at a Crown Court. which also passes sentence on criminals convicted by magistrates’ courts. There are also some full-time legally qualified magistrates who normally sit alone in town courts where the number of prosecutions is usually higher. This is also part of the US Constitution. If a criminal charge is made. European Community law is mainly concerned with economic and social affairs. normally these magistrates sit together as a court. is a member of the public who is not legally qualified. a ‘circuit judge’ (a former barrister or solicitor serving as a full-time 57 .
for example. The lawyers who speak for the prosecution or the defence in magistrates’ courts and county courts are normally solicitors. and the defence. an appeal against an adoption or custody order would be heard. The defendant normally has a lawyer to represent him and act as his legal adviser. All Crown Court trials are heard by a judge and a jury. the Queen’s Bench Division and the Family Division. i. It is a principle of English law that a person is presumed to be innocent until proved guilty. where. The Crown Court can only hear criminal appeals from the magistrates’ courts in criminal cases. otherwise he must be found ‘not guilty’.judge on a ‘circuit’. is normally composed of 12 people chosen at random from the list of local people who have a right to vote in the area. Sudden or suspicious deaths are investigated in a special coroner’s court. while in the Crown Courts they are barristers. These go to the High Court of Justice. Young people under 17 are tried in a special juvenile court. An accused person pleads ‘guilty’ or ‘not guilty’. The judge normally sits alone. it cannot hear appeals from them in civil matters. but may very rarely in special cases order a trial by jury. who make the eventual decision in the Crown Court as to whether the defendant is actually ‘guilty’ or ‘not guilty’. A trial in a criminal court is a contest between the prosecution. Appeals from the High Court and the county courts go to the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal. while appeals from the Crown Court go to its 58 . which itself is divided into the Chancery Division. Barristers are so called because they have been ‘called to the Bar’ by one of the Inns of Court. Their decision is called a verdict. civil disputes (for example. or by a judge alone if the accused pleads guilty.e. such as the adoption of a child. In Scotland a barrister is known as an ‘advocate’. a kind of magistrates’ court which is held separately from the other courts. who put the case and call the evidence against the defendant. The jury. Non-criminal cases. a claim for damages as a result of a traffic accident or a dispute about custody of children) are usually heard by a circuit judge in a county court without a jury. Circuit judges and recorders sit with magistrates in the Crown Court to deal with appeals. and the Prosecution have to satisfy the Court of the defendant’s guilt so that the Court is sure of it. or a recorder (a part-time judge). one of six administrative districts for legal purposes).
the highest in the country. This is the House of Lords. with the former. 59 . courts and prisons. There are both federal and state judges. district and county courts. Five of them usually sit at one time. such as wills. One of their most frequent jobs is to supervise the legal procedures involved in conveyances (the buying or selling of a house). statute law and the US Constitution. who can deal with minor legal matters. Juries are used in civil cases as well as in criminal trials. state and federal. as well as the judges of the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court itself at present comprises the Chief Justice of the United States and eight Associate Justices. They are paid either by the client or by the state if the client’s low income qualifies him for legal aid. with some states having a Supreme Court. There are two types of court.Criminal Division. The Civil Division is presided over by the Master of the Rolls. with each state having its own distinctive laws. Appeals are made to one of 13 Courts of Appeal or to the Supreme Court. Appeals in both civil and criminal cases may then go on to the final court of appeal. Routine criminal and civil cases are heard in local. They are qualified lawyers who not only appear in court but draft legal documents. called a ‘justice of the peace’. Even small villages may have a local judge. Federal law cases are first heard before a federal district judge in a district court presided over by a Chief Judge. and give advice on legal matters. the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). or as legal advisers to a company. where the judges are the nine ‘Lords of Appeal’. although this can now also be carried out through a building society or bank. Solicitors have much wider duties than merely speaking in court. and the Criminal Division by the Lord Chief Justice. being appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. US law is based on English law and is represented by common law. Some solicitors also work in local government. The federal legal system has its own police force.
Moreover. Over the past few years in Britain. private businesses and voluntary groups have collaborated with the police in some areas of Britain. with murder. In both countries there have been incidents of mass shootings. The high level of crime in general has led to the coordination of efforts to fight it. they are given a sentence that specifies the length of their punishment. Crime Concern. and the handling of stolen goods. At the same time there has been a decrease in burglary and to a lesser extent in robbery. In the USA. there has been an increase in crimes of violence against people. most prisoners sentenced to 12 months or more are also 60 .CRIME AND PUNISHMENT Crime in both Britain and the USA is a cause of constant and serious concern. which have resulted in a review of the regulations controlling the purchase of firearms. in particular heroine and cocaine. and in 1988 an independent crime prevention organization. When people are sent to prison in Britain after being found guilty of a crime. there has been a marked ride in violent crimes among young people. The risk of burglary is ten times higher in inner city areas than in rural areas. and in Britain local crime prevention panels operate in conjunction with the police to discuss ways of tackling this type of crime. was established to encourage further schemes of this type. especially within companies. rape and assault all on the increase. will normally be eligible for a remission of one third of the period stipulated. and increasing attention is being paid to methods of preventing it. notably in the inner cities. The import and sale of illegal drugs. and has led to international cooperation between police forces in order to combat it. Local authorities. The setting up of ‘Neighbourhood Watch’ schemes has been a practical move towards the prevention of break-ins and thefts from private houses. This means that a person sentenced to a year’s imprisonment will normally be released after eight months. the majority of crime is directed against property. and in criminal damage. theft. is a growing area of crime. and one sentenced to three years will leave prison after two. in sexual offences. however. Even so. In 1988 a Serious Fraud Office was set up in Britain to deal with complicated cases of fraud. Most. with car theft accounting for a quarter of all crimes.
Open prisons do not have physical barriers such as the locked and barred 61 . such as a single instance of drunk and disorderly behaviour. Such prisoners remain on parole for the rest of their lives. However. decides when a prisoner sentenced to life should be released. If convicted for another offence of the same kind.e. A person on parole is released from prison on condition that he or she remains in touch with a probation officer over the period of time for which the original sentence would have run. Courts also have the power to allow a convicted person to go free. the offender is liable to be recalled to prison. if it was carried out during a terrorist attack or a robbery. On the whole. i. The government minister responsible for law and order. to be completed within 12 months. Prisons can be ‘closed’ or ‘open’. to discharge him or her conditionally. the Home Secretary. and may be imprisoned again if it seems likely that they will commit a further offence. Although a ‘life sentence’ for murder rarely means imprisonment for life. especially if imprisonment or other punishment seems inappropriate. or probation. or if it involved the sexual or sadistic killing of a child. Fines are awarded in about eight cases out of ten. requiring him or her to ‘keep the peace’ and ‘be of good behaviour’. Community service involves doing unpaid physical work for between 40 and 240 hours. At present about three prisoners out of four obtain parole. it can last for 20 years or more if the crime was the murder of a police officer or prison officer. prisoners sentenced to five or more years for serious offences involving violence. arson or sexual crimes are rarely granted parole. For a trivial offence. There are separate prisons for men and women. ‘Probation’ involves the offender leading a normal life but under the supervision of a probation officer. the person may be given a punishment for the original offence. or have to pay a sum of money stipulated when ‘bound over’. the court may ‘bind over’ the offender. such as a fine. after a minimum of six moths in prison. such a person will be brought back to court and will be liable for the punishment that could have been imposed in the first place. If this condition is not observed. and instead impose some other punishment. or a community service order. If parole conditions are abused. A court may impose a prison sentence ‘suspended’ for up to two years: the offender will not have to serve the sentence unless he or she commits other offences during the period.eligible for parole when they have served one third of the stated period. however. many courts try to avoid passing prison sentences in the first place.
There are also special prisons for offenders needing psychiatric treatment. the equivalent of prison for an adult. for instance up to a maximum of 240 hours of community service. or be placed with foster parents. No child under 10 can be brought to court at all. however. The young person can be ordered to spend up to three hours on a Saturday at such a centre. but payment is the responsibility of the parents or guardians.windows of other prisons. Offenders of either sex aged 16 can also be ordered to carry out up to 120 hours of community service. The centre gives instruction in physical training and practical subjects. Prison populations have been growing in both Britain and the USA in recent years. especially sanitation. however. because some date from the 19th century. It is still the case. A more serious punishment is to order the offender to spend a period of leisure time at an ‘attendance centre’. Opportunities for exercise and for education and training are restricted in old and overcrowded prisons. and girls of 15 and 16 can be sentenced to a period of more than four months. the child may be placed under a ‘supervision order’. The sentencing court may place the young person under a ‘care order’. when he or she will continue to live at home but be supervised by a social worker or probation officer. by using alternative punishments whenever possible. Boys aged 14 can be sentenced for a period of three weeks to four months. A prison building programme is planned to improve conditions and measures have also been taken to reduce the number of people sent to prison. Many British prisons are seriously overcrowded and. that 62 . they have very poor facilities. or be sent to a ‘community home’ run by the local authority or by a voluntary body. Sentences for young people aged 17 to 20 are similar but may be for longer periods or on similar conditions as those for adult sentences. Girls of 14 may not be sentenced like this. In this case the child can remain at home under supervision. and because they are not locked up they can carry out useful work for longer periods than prisoners in closed prisons. If a child or young person aged between 10 and 17 commits an offence. Courts can fine young offenders. The prisoners are trusted not to escape. he or she is similarly subject to different types of punishment. while those of 15 and 16 can be given up to twelve months. and partly as a result of this there have been some serious riots in British prisons. Alternatively. up to a total of 24 hours. Older children may be sent to a young offender institution. with the US prison population increasing by 90 per cent from 1980 to 1988.
among the licit actions.Britain sends a higher proportion of the population to prison than many other European countries. in which the parts are subjects equal in rights. and some nonpatrimonial relations. the juridical act has an important place. SUPPLEMENTARY READING CIVIL LAW AND PROCEDURE The civil law is the branch of the law system that establishes some patrimonial relations. The patrimonial relations deal with the real relations (the right of property and other real rights) and with the law of contract (the law of credence). the contents (the subjective rights of the active subject). the object (actions or abstentions of committing certain facts connected with the subjective rights and with the parts’ obligations in the juridical relation). to a residence). 63 . the existence of the parts (subjects of law) and the existence of a juridical fact. It also establishes the juridical terms of the physical persons and of other collective subjects in their quality as parts in the juridical civil relations. The civil law contains all the juridical standards. having the roots in the code of Civil law. it turns the parts into holders of rights and of legal obligations. the relations generated by the intellectual creation (the copyright). The nonpatrimonial relations contain: the relations regarding the existence and the integrity of the subjects of the civil law (the right to life. the relations regarding identification (the right to a name. The premises of the arising of the civil juridical relations are: the existence of a standard of the civil law. to health. The elements of this relation are: the subjects (physical or juridical persons). The juridical facts: events and actions (licit or illicit). The civil juridical relation is a social relation established by the norms of civil law. connected with the person’s individuality. to reputation).
The successions (the succession bestowed by will) with two categories: the legal successional devolution and the testamentary successional devolution. They are designed to regulate the conduct of the parties and their advocates in an adversary trial. the unilateral act of will. The prescription: a) the extinctive prescription – which has the effect of losing the possibility of obtaining certain rights by coercion. This mass of rules really has three objectives. The major real rights establish the right of property in its various forms (private and public) and the dismemberments of the right of property (the usage. The third objective is to ensure that the remedy or remedies prescribed by that rule of law can adequately be enforced. the occupancy. during a period of time established by law.The juridical act – is that licit action committed in order to create. The rules of civil procedure which govern the handling of cases are technical. b) the acquisitive prescription – which has the effect of acquiring certain rights on immovable property (landed property) by performing the possession over that estate. complex and detailed. The first objective is to ensure that the facts on which a claim is based are accurately found and appropriately arranged so that the issues between the parties can be identified. the easement). The second is to ensure that the correct and appropriate rule of law is found and applied. to modify or to cancel a juridical relation. The right over the intellectual creation: the right of the author and the right of the inventor. The civil obligations have the following sources: the contract. the enrichment without fair ground. They can be found in large volumes entitled The supreme Court Practice (known among lawyers as ‘The White Book’) and The County Court Practice (known among lawyers as ‘The Green Book’). The judge acts principally as umpire or referee and leaves it to the parties to put the case before him. The juridical acts have power of law between the parts that concluded them. the illicit and injurious act. 64 . the usufruct. to assign. The English system of civil procedure is based on the adversary principle: a series of statements of facts are put forward by one party to be attacked by the opposing party.
as they are of private nature. but there are also rights that belong to the public law. although some judges sit in both civil and criminal courts. partitions for 65 . Such civil acts could be: the determination of rights arising under a contract. CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS Understanding the English legal system must start with the distinction between civil and criminal proceedings. Few of their recommendations have been implemented. but there has been a succession of calls over the last 30 years for the redrafting of the rules in order to make High Court practice and procedure quicker. The role of the civil law and civil proceedings is to determine the rights and obligations of individuals themselves. the petitioner. the person who begins the proceeding is the plaintiff and he sues or brings an action against a defendant. The distinction between civil and criminal proceedings consists mainly in the legal consequences that follow a particular act. usually in the form of damages (money compensation). The plaintiff will be seeking a remedy. the rights regarding property and succession. The terminology is not the same in all the civil proceedings. Most civil proceedings are heard by a judge sitting alone. or questions of planning and compulsory purchase. For instance. such as divorce. adoption and the custody of children. Civil and criminal proceedings require different courts and procedures. The judge delivers a judgement after hearing the action. the obligation of paying damages for torts. as well as in their relations with the others. In a civil proceeding. questions of status. in divorce proceedings. in defamation cases. like questions of taxation. The recommendations of the Civil Justice Review pick up some of these recommendations and their implementation will mark the start of a new era in the processing of civil disputes. which are of public nature. but possibly also in the form of an injunction (an order prohibiting the defendant from committing or continuing to commit a wrongful act). like negligence. who asks for the marriage to be dissolved. the judge will be helped by a jury in civil proceedings. nuisance or defamation. These rights belong to the area of private law. which are very rare.Whether the rules actually achieve their objectives remains to be assessed. simpler.
This involves satisfying the tribunal of fact (magistrates or jury) that every essential element of the offence is proved and that the acts of the defendant were done with the requisite intent.a decree against the respondent. The prosecutor must adduce admissible evidence to prove that there is no reasonable doubt that the defendant committed the offence charged. This party is called co-respondent. the court imposes a sentence (usually a fine or a term of imprisonment) or makes some other order (such as a probation or community service order). When certain defences are raised. usually the police. even companies can commit criminal offences. Criminal law and criminal proceedings are concerned with wrongs regarded as committed by the individual against society for which guilty individuals must be punished. As the objective of civil proceedings is to provide a remedy for the person wronged. A finding that the accused is not guilty is termed on acquittal. In other words. if insanity is raised as a defence. If it is certain that the marriage has broken down irretrievably because of the respondent’s adultery. the prosecutor does not have to prove beyond all reasonable doubt that the defendant 66 . Part of the purpose of the penalty is also seen as seeking to rehabilitate the wrongdoer. if that person is found to be guilty. such as insanity. which is said to be beyond all the reasonable doubt. In criminal proceedings the prosecutor almost invariably has the burden of proof. the defendant has the burden of proof on the balance of probabilities. usually in the form of damages. In criminal proceedings a prosecutor. In some circumstances. to punish the wrongdoer and to protect the society. which is more reliable than his statements which he pretends to be true. In other words. which in the civil cases is said to be on the balance of probabilities. If the offence is proved. The outcome is a determination of guilt or innocence (by verdict if trial is by jury). the plaintiff must satisfy the judge through admissible evidence. In civil proceedings. the objective of criminal proceedings is to determine the guilt or innocence of the accused person and. This means that the plaintiff has the burden of a proof. the person with whom the respondent is alleged to have committed adultery must usually join the proceedings. the plaintiff usually must prove the facts on which the claim is based. institutes a prosecution against the defendant or accused person (sometimes referred to as the accused).
Appeals serve a variety of purposes and can be divided into those concerned with the merits of the decision under appeal and those concerned with the legality of the process by which that decision was reached. When both civil and criminal cases go on appeal. 67 .was sane. but also a decision arrived at by due process of law. A civil action by the injured person often follows as well as a prosecution for a driving offence. The most common example is the motor accident where someone is injured because of a driver’s bad driving. Such action amounts to breach of contract (a civil wrong) or theft (a crime). which are in their possession for repair. Another example of overlap might occur in the case of persons who sell dishonesty goods. A litigant is entitled not only to a fair and proper decision on the merits. but rather the defendant must prove that on the balance of probabilities he or she is insane within the legal definition of that term. The same set of facts may give rise to both civil and criminal proceedings. the terminology again changes. The party appealing is called the appellant and the other party who responds to the appeal is called the respondent.
(2) Collective administrative acts shall be those acts (a) general characteristics. provided no other form is required by law or imposed by the nature and circumstances for which the act is intended. 58 Individual and Collective Administrative Acts (1) For the purposes of this law administrative acts shall be those official decisions by administrative bodies. Art.CODE OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE (Fragments) Part III Administrative Acts Chapter I General Provisions Concerning Administrative Acts Art. 59 Form of Administrative Acts Administrative acts must be put into practice in written form. (b) institutions. which under the provisions of Public Law regulate individual cases to create legal consequences (individual administrative acts). concerning public property and its use or public addressed to a class of persons determined by 68 .
without prejudice to the provisions in paragraph 3 of this article. (c) (d) for the publication of a collective administrative act. a statement of the facts on the basis of which the act is issued. if so ordered by law.Art. if the issuing authority as well as any delegation and subadequate identification of the party or parties to whom the act is delegation of power concerning the issuance of the act. the signature of the office holder [=civil servant] responsible for decision. so that their juridical effects may be determined without any doubt. 69 . (3) A statement of reasons shall not be required (a) party. 61 Purpose and Content of Administrative Acts (1) Administrative acts must state with precision their respective purpose. (c) relevant. where the addressee of or the third party affected by the act has full knowledge of the opinion of the administrative body concerning the facts and legal basis where the administrative body complies with the application or declaration of the interested party and where the act does not interfere with rights of a third a statement of reasons including the content or meaning of the the date on which the act is put into practice. (2) Without prejudice to other information specifically required by the circumstances of the case. every written administrative act must contain: (a) (b) addressed. (d) (e) (f) the act. (b) of the case.
Art. (3) Apart from the cases listed in the preceding paragraph. Acts containing an obvious incorrectness are considered incorrect. 65 Types of Invalidity For the purposes of this Code. (2) Administrative acts shall have retroactive effect: (a) (b) an administrative act. when interpreting an existing act or correcting an incorrect act when executing a court decision which declared null and void according to Article 70 of this Code. 63 Taking Effect of Administrative Acts. Retroactivity (1) Any administrative act shall take effect from the date on which it is put into practice. (c) where the law provides for the retroactive effect of the act. Acts suffering from a lesser violation of the law are voidable. administrative acts may be deemed invalid in three respects: (a) (b) (c) Acts suffering from a severe violation of the law are void. Chapter II Invalidity and Revocation of Administrative Acts Art. not harm the rights and legally protected interests of third parties. save for the cases where the law or the act itself shall provide for retroactive or delayed effect. the administrative body may order the retroactivity of the act: (a) (b) (c) when retroactivity is favourable to the interested parties and does when in the course of appeal the act abrogates a previous when so authorized by law. 70 . administrative act and decisions of its implementation.
(2) Any interested party may request at any time an act to be declared void.Art. issued in violation of legally binding form and procedure or if offending whose object is impossible. independently of any declaration that the same are void. the essential content of a fundamental right. Upon such a request or on its own motion. (3) Where only part of the act is void. (2) Void acts may not be revoked. (2) Administrative acts shall be void if (a) (b) (c) (d) issued by a non-identifiable administrative agency. Art. 67 Effects of Void Administrative Acts (1) Void acts shall have no juridical effect. unintelligible or illegal. the administrative agency may declare void an administrative act at any time. Art. the whole act shall be considered void if the nullified part is so substantial that the act would not have been issued without the void part. 71 . 71 Revocation of Administrative Acts (1) Administrative acts may be revoked on the motion of the competent administrative body or at the request of the interested partied or third parties. issued by an agency acting outside its legally established authority. 66 Void Administrative Acts (1) Void acts shall be those which lack any of their essential elements or in respect of which the law has expressly imposed this form of invalidity.
73 Revocation of Valid Administrative Acts (1) A valid administrative act imposing a burden or establishing a duty for the addressee may be revoked at any time with or without retroactive effect. (5) Where a voidable administrative act granting a right or another legal benefit is revoked. (3) The protection of legitimate trust may not be claimed in cases where: (a) the administrative act was issued following the submission by the interested party of false or incomplete information. (d) the interested party did not comply with the purpose for which the act was issued. (2) Any voidable administrative act granting a right or another benefit to its addressee may only be revoked if the principle of legality or public interest outweighs the legitimate trust on the part of the addressee. (2) A valid administrative act granting a right or another benefit to its addressee may only be revoked if (a) revocability is provided by law or by the act itself. the revocation may have retroactive effect. (b) the administrative act was issued because of other violations of the law on the part of the interested party. the revocation of the act shall not have retroactive effect.Art. (b) the interested parties agree to the revocation. Where the addressee of the act may not claim protection of legitimate trust under the provision laid down in the preceding paragraph. (c) the interested party knew the invalidity of the act. Art. the addressee of that act shall be entitled to a fair compensation. (4) Where the addressee of the act is entitled to claim protection of its legitimate trust. 72 Revocation of Voidable Acts (1) Any voidable administrative act containing a burden or establishing a duty for its addressee may be revoked at any time with or without retroactive effect. 72 .
by means of a request for review or administrative appeal. (3) Administrative bodies superior to or supervising the issuing body may repeal administrative acts only if so authorized by law. Art. Art. (3) If a valid administrative act granting a legitimate right or another legitimate benefit is revoked. 74 Motion for Revocation (1) Administrative acts may be revoked by motion of the competent agency or at the request of the interested parties or third parties. (2) Administrative acts may only be revoked within a time limit of one year. The period begins to run on the day 73 . the interested party shall be entitled to fair compensation. condition] and the interested party did not comply with the charge within the established time limit. (b) in the interest of the parties or agreed to by the same. unless retroactivity is (a) provided by law.(c) the administrative act is encumbered with a charge [= obligation. (d) revocation can be justified by a compelling public interest. (c) justified by a compelling public interest. (4) Revocation shall have effect only for the future. (2) Administrative acts issued by delegation or sub-delegation may be revoked by the delegating or sub-delegating body as well as by the delegated or sub-delegated body as long as the delegation or sub-delegation is valid. 75 Form and Time Limit of Revocation (1) The revocation of administrative acts shall have to observe the same formalities and shall be subject to the same procedures as the revoked act unless otherwise provided by law. unless otherwise provided by law.
(3) The execution of financial obligations which arise from administrative acts may be enforced by the Public Administration under the terms of the Tax Law. Chapter III Execution [= Implementation] of Administrative Acts Art. (2) Obligations and respect for any restrictions which arise from an administrative act may be enforced coercively by the Public Administration without prior recourse to the courts.(a) the administrative body notified the interested parties of its intention to revoke the administrative act. provided that the enforcement is made in the form and subject to the conditions established by law. (2) The taking effect of administrative acts may be suspended by those administrative bodies having authority to revoke the same and by those supervising/superior bodies to which the law grants such power. (e) acts which only confirm acts capable of execution. (b) the administrative body obtained knowledge of circumstances justifying the revocation. (c) acts which are subject to approval by another administrative body or by a private person. 78 Acts not Capable of Being Executed (1) The following acts shall not be capable of being executed: (a) acts whose taking effect has been suspended. (d) void acts. Art. 77 Execution (1) Administrative acts shall be capable of execution as soon as they take effect. and also by 74 . (b) acts which are subject to an appeal having suspensive effect.
(2) The administrative body may notify the execution jointly with the notification of the definitive administrative act and therefore subject to immediate execution. 80 Notification of Execution (1) Prior to the commencing of the execution. (c) the performance of an obligation.the courts according to the provisions of the Law on Administrative Disputes [Code of Civil Procedure]. Art. Art. 81 Purpose of Execution Execution may be directed at (a) the payment of a fixed sum of money. (2) Interested parties or third parties may bring administrative and judicial appeal against those acts or operations of execution exceeding the limits of the law or of the administrative act which is being executed. the decision to proceed to administrative execution shall always be notified to the party to whom it is addressed. 82 Execution for Payment of a Fixed Sum 75 . and violate their legally protected interests or rights.79 Legality and Proportionality of Execution (1) The execution of administrative acts must observe the principles of legality and proportionality while ensuring the effectiveness of the operation. Art. (b) the handing over of an object. Art.
(2) In case the debtor does not carry out the obligation within the determined time period. under the terms of an administrative acts. the competent administrative body shall take such steps as shall be necessary to obtain administrative possession of the object. Chapter IV Notification 76 . 84 Execution for Performance of an Obligation (1) In the case of execution for performance of an obligation not specifically personal to the debtor [of the obligation]. and always with strict observance of the fundamental rights established in the Constitution [and the European Convention of Human Rights]. the administrative body shall notify the debtor. establishing a reasonable time period for the obligation to be carried out. the executing body shall follow. payment of a fixed sum of money is ordered to be paid to the Public Administration. (3) The performance of positive obligations which are specifically personal to the debtor alone. Art. shall be for the account of the person under the obligation.When. the procedural provisions of the Tax Code. the administrative body may choose to carry out the acts to be executed or to do so through the intervention of a third party and in this case all expenses. including compensation and pecuniary penalties. 83 Handing Over of an Object In case the person under the obligation does not hand over the object which the Public Administration should receive. may only be the object of direct execution against the person under obligation in cases expressly set out in the law. Art. if such is appropriate.
(3) In the following cases notification is waived: (a) when the administrative act is practiced orally in the presence of the interested party or third party. discloses his/her full knowledge of the content of the act in question.Art. Art. (c) where. (b) which impose duties. the number of parties affected cannot be identified. (b) when the concerned interested party or third party. increase or diminish legally protected interests or rights. 77 . extinguish. (c) which create. including the indication of the name of the office holder/ civil servant responsible for the act and the date of the same. (c) the agency having competence or the court having jurisdiction to decide any appeal against the act. (b) identification of the administrative proceedings. or which may affect the conditions for the exercise of the same. 85 Duty to Notify (1) Interested parties must be notified of all administrative acts issued in relation to them (a) in which decisions are taken about any claim formulated by them. obligations or penalties or which may cause loss. (2) Third parties must be notified of all administrative acts issued in relation to an interested party which may have negative consequences for their legally protected interests or the exercise of their rights. 86 Contents of the Notification (1) The notification must contain the following: (a) the full text of the administrative act. the formalities to be observed for an appeal and the time limit within which the appeal has to be filed. through any participation in the proceedings. because of the general nature of the administrative act.
whenever the act has granted in full the claim formulated by the interested party or third party. or where it deals with the taking of procedural measures.(2) The full text of the act may be substituted by a summarised indication of its contents and purpose. to the superior agency or to the delegating agecy. or (b) by a formal administrative appeal addressed to the issuing administrative body. modification or amendment. Part V Administrative Review and Appeal Chapter I General Provisions Art. 94 Informal Request (1) Informal requests shall not be subject to formalities. or time-limits. (2) The right set out in the preceding paragraph may be exercised: (a) by an informal request addressed to the administrative body or office holder [= civil servant] responsible for the act. procedural requirements. 93 Right to Request Administrative Review (1) Interested parties who are addressees or third parties who are adversely affected by an administrative act shall have the right to request the review of the same for the purpose of revocation. Art. under the terms regulated by this Code. 78 .
(4) An administrative body receiving an informal request shall inform the petitioner about the legal effects of such request. The petitioner is entitled to a reasoned response within one month after the submission of the request. 95 Administrative Appeal (1) An administrative appeal may be filed against any administrative act or the refusal to issue an administrative act. save for legal provisions requiring a specific form. (3) In case of an oral filing of the appeal. The office holder (civil servant) must confirm in writing the appeal and notify the applicant thereof within 7 days. Art. Art. judicial review shall only be open to administrative acts that have been subject to administrative appeal.(2) Informal requests must be treated like petitions according to Article 24 of the Constitution. (2) The administrative appeal may be filed orally in the presence of the competent office holder (civil servant) or in writing. 96 Formal Requirements of an Administrative Appeal (1) Administrative appeals must always have as their basis the illegality of the administrative act to be reviewed or of the refusal to issue the administrative act applied for by the interested party. (4) A written appeal must contain the name and address of the applicant and indicate the administrative act against which it is filed or which 79 . (2) Upon an administrative appeal the competent administrative body shall review the legality and the practicability of the contested decision. (3) Informal requests shall suspend neither administrative acts nor the time-limits. the office holder (civil servant) must record the name and address of the applicant and the facts and reasons states by the applicant. (3) Save for legal provisions to the contrary. in particular about the difference between an informal request and a formal administrative appeal.
(d) modify or amend the act and partially uphold the appeal.is claimed. (b) revoke the act and accept the appeal. (c) the appellant does not have standing to file an appeal. 101 Notification of Third Parties Affected by the Appeal Decision 80 . (b) the time limit for filling the appeal has expired and restoration cannot be granted or was not applied for. (c) correct evident mistakes and uphold the act. the appeal agency may decide to: (a) uphold the contested administrative act and reject the appeal. Art. 99 Appeal Decisions According to the facts and the legal basis of the matter. Art. Chapter II Appeal Procedure Art. It should contain a statement of facts and reasons and the necessary documents according to Article 51 of this Code. (5) Any administrative body or office holder must assist applicants in meeting the formal requirements according to the principle of cooperation set forth in Article 5 of this Code. (d) the appeal is deemed unfounded. 100 Rejection of Appeals Appeals shall be rejected where (a) they concern an administrative act which by its nature is not subject to appeal. (e) oblige the administrative body to issue the act that was previously refused.
public health or other compelling public interests. 104 Effects of Administrative Appeal (1) Any administrative appeal. Where the immediate execution was ordered according to 81 . (3) The appellant shall have the right to be informed why suspension was denied. the latter shall be invited to participate in the appeal procedure and shall be notified of the appeal decision. (d) where the immediate execution of the act has been expressly ordered by the competent administrative body or the appeal agency for the protection of public safety. it shall transfer the appeal to the superior or supervisory agency (appeal agency) which shall review the matter and issue the final appeal decision. Art. not prima facie [evidently] inadmissible or ungrounded. (2) Where the competent administrative body decides to reject the appeal request. 103 Appeal Procedure (1) Where the administrative body which issued or which refused to issue the contested administrative act decides to comply with the appeal request it shall issue the decision. shall suspend the administrative act and its execution. (c) in other cases specifically regulated by law. Art. legally protected interests or rights of a third party.Where the appeal agency shall hold that the appeal decision is likely to infringe. or for the protection of the overriding interests of a third party. (b) in relation to undeferrable police measures. (2) The suspensive effect shall be excluded: (a) where the purpose of the administrative act is the requisition of public revenues [taxes and fees]. in any possible way.
the interest in suspension prevails over the interest in execution. (5) Upon a motion of the interested party. 114 Authorization (1) Save for legal provisions to the contrary. administrative bodies shall be authorized to conclude administrative contracts if they deem contracts to be expedient for the public interest. (4) In the cases set out in paragraph 2 of this Article.subparagraph (d) of the preceding paragraph. the court having jurisdiction may order the stay of the execution in the cases set out in paragraph 2 if. modify or terminate a legal relation under public law. Part VII Administrative Contracts Chapter I General Provisions Art. save for legal provisions to the contrary. Art. on balance. Details shall be regulated by the Law on Administrative Disputes [Code of Civil Procedure]. the administrative body which has the competence to issue the administrative act or the appeal agency may stay the execution upon its own initiative or the motion of the interested party. the reasons must be stated in writing. (2) Administrative contracts may be concluded as cooperative contracts where the parties to a contract are agencies of the Public 82 . 115 Definition and Types of Administrative Contracts (1) Administrative contracts are agreements which constitute. (2) Where administrative bodies are authorized to issue an administrative act they may instead conclude an administrative contract.
(b) must serve the fulfilment of a public task. 116 Purposes for Administrative Contracts Administrative contracts may be concluded in particular for the following purposes: (a) the undertaking or granting of public work. (3) Cooperative and hierarchical contracts may be concluded as (a) settlements where the uncertainty of a legal situation is to be removed by mutual concessions of the parties concerned. (c) trading franchising in the public sector or franchising of private user within the public sector. (b) the granting of public services. Art. (e) supply of services for the purpose of immediate public utility.Administration or as hierarchical [subordination] contracts where one party to a contract is a private person. 117 Exchange Contracts (1) Exchange contracts shall be subject to the condition that the consideration [= counter-performance. (c) must be adequate. 83 . (b) exchange contracts where the parties enter into an agreement about reciprocal claims. (d) supply upon a continuous basis. obligation] of the private party (a) may only be concluded for a definite purpose. Art. and (d) objectively related to the performance of the administrative body.
(2) Where a party is entitled by law to obtain what the administrative body promised in the contract. to the formation of administrative contracts. with the necessary adaptation. Chapter II Procedural Rules. the counter-performance of the private party shall only be legal/valid if it might be ordered as a condition. Art. (2) Administrative contracts which replace administrative acts requiring the agreement of another administrative body shall take effect only after the said agreement has been formally obtained. 119 Application of Provisions Relating to Administrative Proceedings The provisions of this Code relating to administrative proceedings shall be applicable. (2) All entities which satisfy the general requirements established by law shall be admitted to public tenders. the contractor must be chosen by public tender or by direct grant in contracts which seek to associate private persons (entities) to the regular performance of administrative functions. Coercive Execution and Arbitration Art. 121 Choice of Contractor (1) Save for special regimes established by law. suspensive condition or restriction to an administrative act according to Article 60. 84 . Art. 120 Consent (1) Administrative contracts which infringe upon legally protected interests or rights of third parties shall take effect only after the consent of the same.
(4) Direct grant must be preceded by consultation with at least three entities. (2) If. the court shall order the individual contractor to perform an obligation or hand over a certain object. as a result of failure to perform contractual obligations. shall depend upon the observance of the provisions which regulate the incurring of public expenditure. Art. 122 Waiver of Tender (1) Contracts must always be preceded by public tenders. and the same may only be waived by a duly reasoned proposal by the competent administrative body. which must receive the express agreement. the use or waiver of public or limited tenders. the coercive execution of contractual obligations in default may only be obtained through a court decision. 123 Coercive Execution (1) Save for legal provisions to the contrary.(3) Only those entities which satisfy the requirements specifically established by the Administration in each case or which have been invited for the purpose by the public contracting party shall be admitted to limited tender. in conformity with the case. of its superior administrative body or supervisory agency. as well as direct grants. the competent administrative body may. Art. by a definitive 85 . (2) Without prejudice to the preceding paragraph.
Vocabulary practice I. a) constituent b) division house had been burgled. a) achieve a) bandits Choose the correct answer: 1) This was one of the few crimes he did not ………. b) clearc) sober d) steady c) element d) portion 6) The police said there was no sign of a ……… entry even though the 86 . I’m as ……… as a judge. against the risk of burglary. 124 Judicial Review and Arbitration (1) Any differences arising between parties to an administrative contract shall be decided by the courts according to the Law on Administrative Disputes [Code of Civil Procedure]. 5) Police blamed a small hooligan ……… in the crowd for the violence which occurred.and executable administrative act obtain the coercive execution of the judgement by administrative means. a) broken a) calm b) burst c) forced d) smashed 7) Look. officer. a) care a) death b) cover b) homicide c) relief c) murder d) security d) suicide 4) The man jumped out of the window and committed ………. 3) Our insurance policy offers immediate ………. Art. (2) A clause which provides that any differences arising between parties to an administrative contract shall be decided by an arbitration tribunal shall be valid. b) commit b) guerrillas c) make c) hijackers d) perform d) kidnappers 2) The ……… are still holding twelve people hostage on the plane. I’m not drunk. accident or damage by fire.
The police have not yet found a possible ……… for the murderer. It is the responsibility of the police to ……… the law. b) declaration c) deposition d) statement b) connection c) join d) joint b) lifeless c) motionless d) static 2. 9. 4. The police asked if I thought I could ……… the man who stole my car if I looked at some photos. c) compensation d) team c) strode d) wandered 11) The child was kidnapped by a notorious ……… of robbers. 87 . a) deductive b) disturbing c) suggestive d) suspicious 6. but I don’t think he’ll ……… his threat. a) enquiring b) investigating a) anonymity b) identification a) example b) motive c) researching c) identity c) principle 8.8) He said he would sue us. We promise not to reveal your ……… if you tell us who the murderer is. a) certify b) identify c) justify d) verify 5. a) account b) gangc) staff b) stood c) red-handed d) true blue d) reward 10) He offered me $500 to break my contract. a) attentive b) complete c) thorough d) suspicious d) seeking d) personality d) understanding 7. 12) The burglar ……… silently into the room. The inspector was very ……… and he rechecked the evidence several times. not to take into their own hands. The policeman was ……… when he saw a light in the office. The policeman asked the suspect to make a(n) ………. That’s ………. The detective stood ……… behind the door waiting for the assailant. The chief of police said he saw no ……… between the four murderers. a) in black and white b) in red a) blackmail b) bribery a) crew a) crept II. 10. The police who were ……… the crime could find no clues at all. a) achieve b) bring about c) carry out d) perform 9) The police caught the thief ………. Choose the right answer: 1. a) communication a) immovable 3.
They all thought he was guilty. a) adjust b) coincide c) identify d) reconcile c) denied 9. The judge was very ……… on pickpockets. The ……… sentenced the accused to 15 years in prison. a) contradicted the crime. it is difficult to ……… the two versions. a) account a) deny a) discarded a) condition b) notice b) neglect b) dismissed b) date c) statement c) refuse c) refused c) force b) declined d) summary d) resist d) resigned d) power d) refused 5.a) compel a) observers III. 7. The youth involved in the disturbance at the demonstration made a(n) ……… to the police. b) counsel b) give c) judge c) possess d) solicitor d) reflect 2. 3. 8. Choose the right answer: 1. His comments ……… little or no relation to the facts of the crime. a) accuse b) enforce b) onlookers c) force c) spectators d) press d) witnesses 11. The suspect is ……… to have been in the neighbourhood at the time of 88 . The high court judge will pass ……… next week. a) barrister a) bear him. 6. After the accident. I ……… to say anything unless I am allowed to speak to my solicitor. The suspect ……… that he had assaulted a policeman. but no one could ……… anything against b) ensure c) prove d) point 4. the policeman asked if there had been any ………. b) punishment c) sentence b) hard c) strong 11. Peter gives one account on the accident and John another. a) accused a) justice a) bad b) affirmed c) alleged d) announced d) verdict d) strict 10. The case against Mary Wrongdoer was ……… for lack of evidence. The new laws come into ……… on May 15. 12.
He was thrown into prison and ……… of his property. the judge put the young offender ……… for 89 . two years. Choose the correct answer: 1. Mr Tipsy was ……… twenty pounds for drinking and driving. the jury came to a(n) b) delinquents c) sinners d) villains 7. a) absolved problems. a) unambiguous a) assessment b) unanimous c) undivided d) united d) verdict 9. After considering the evidence for a few hours. Those acting for the defendant propose to appeal ……… the sentence. nor have the police placed any ……… on his movements. The accused man was able to prove his innocence at the trial and he was b) in control c) on probationd) on trial 2. a) obstacle a) against a) charged IV. The young offenders were warned never to ……… with the members of b) regulation c) restriction b) for b) fined c) out c) ordered d) veto d) to d) penalised 14. a) inoffensive b) offensive ……… verdict. The suspect is not under arrest. After considering the case. a) basis b) causes c) grounds c) deprived d) reasons d) removed 5. a) in charge any gang. a) confiscated b) denied ………. The judge recommended more human forms of punishment for juvenile b) acquitted c) forgiven d) pardoned 4. a) assign ………. b) conclusion c) interpretation c) unoffending d) unsuspicious 8. The murderer proved to be an apparently well-behaved ……… middle6. His sentence had been commuted to five months on the ……… of health b) assimilate c) associate d) assume 3. 15. It was a reasonable ……… to draw in the light of evidence. a) convicts aged woman.13.
The officer compelled the prisoner to do exactly as he wished. a) gave a pardon to c) passed judgement upon taken. The judge sentenced the convicted man. 4. Choose the word or phrase that best keeps the meaning of 1. The frown on the judge’s face showed that he was displeased. 7. a) cause a) abruptly a) allowed officer. The boy felt disgraced because he knew that he had been wrong to steal. 10. a) look of anger of surprise 5. Some risk must be 90 . At first. a) hide oneself b) protect oneself c) run away d) stay away b) gave his praise to d) sympathized with 11. The indecisive man was readily persuaded to change his mind again. c) beseeched d) hired 8. the accident seems to be a trivial one. The criminal insinuated that he had been roughly treated by the arresting b) look of delight b) a lying man c) an unhappy man d) a the original sentence if it is substituted for the underlined word: 9. It is useless to attempt to flee from every danger. A smiling face often distinguishes the mind and heart of a villain. a) critical a) colour b) momentous b) indication c) significant d) unimportant c) smell d) taste c) look of fear d) look 3. There was no trace of poison in the coffee the chemist analysed.V. The driver tried to avert the accident by bringing the car to a sudden stop. a) a foolish man wicked man 2. a) argued convincingly c) stated flatly a) ashamed b) sorry b) denied positively d) suggested indirectly c) tempted d) worried b) control b) easily b) forced c) minimize c) hardly d) prevent d) subtly 6.
6. 91 . Most changes to taxes are made then and new taxes may be introduced. 3. Who is the person who begins the proceedings and what does he do? 4. In most criminal proceedings the person beginning the proceedings is the plaintiff. The distinction between civil and criminal proceedings is of no importance in understanding of the English legal system. 5.Reading comprehension I. 4. 2. The questions of taxation are of private law nature. What does the civil law establish? 5. Enumerate the institutions of civil law. Which are the aims of the civil law and civil proceedings? 3. What are the criminal law and criminal proceedings concerned with? 7. Most civil proceedings are heard by a jury of 12 persons. false? Correct the false ones: 1. The British financial year runs from April to March and in March each year the Chancellor of the Exchequer presents a budget for the coming year in the House of Commons. What is the task of the prosecutor in criminal proceedings? II. The objective of criminal proceedings is to provide a remedy for the person wronged. Is there any difference between civil and criminal proceedings? 2. Which of the following sentences are true and which are UNIT 6 ECONOMY TAXATION AND TAX SYSTEMS In Britain and the USA a variety of taxes are collected in order to pay for government expenditure. taxes on capital and taxes on capital and taxes on expenditure. The three main kinds of taxation are taxes on income and profits. Answer the questions: 1.
there is a tax payable to the local authority in each area. customs duties and excise duties. a tax on every person on the electoral register (the list of people eligible to vote) in an area. In 1991 there were two bands of income tax. including food. Companies pay corporation tax on their profits. which is paid at the same rate as income tax on the gains made when assets such as property or shares are sold. with a lower 25 per cent rate for small companies. 92 . alcohol. a compromise between the rates as a property-based tax and the community charge.5 per cent. an amount of money that is tax-free. Excise duties are taxes on petrol. called ‘the rates’. popularly called the ‘poll tax’. and capital gains tax (CGT). Taxes on expenditure include Value Added Tax (VAT). In 1991 the rate was 35 per cent. Customs duties are paid on imports from other European Community countries. People who do not pay tax by the PAYE method normally fill in a statement of their earnings (called a tax return) and pay tax directly to the Inland Revenue. A person’s home is exempt from capital gains tax. Employees pay tax through the Pay-As-You-Earn (PAYE) system. The business rates charged by local authorities were replaced in 1990 by a unified business rate payable to central government. In addition to the taxes paid to central government. Every taxpayer has a personal allowance. gambling and vehicles. The main taxes on capital are inheritance tax. it was replaced in 1990 by the community charge. by which tax is deducted by the employer from weekly or monthly earnings and paid to the Inland Revenue (the government body responsible for collecting taxes on income and capital). children’s clothes. which is paid on transfers of wealth made on a person’s death or in the seven years before it. Certain categories of goods are exempt. It was in turn replaced in 1991 by a ‘council tax’. periodicals. Formerly a tax on each dwelling.Income tax is paid on earnings. Value Added Tax is a percentage added to the price of goods and services and collected by the Customs and Excise department. public transport and fuel (except petrol). In 1991 it was 17. cigarettes. and above this allowance all income is taxed. books. the first taxed at 25 per cent and a higher band taxed at 40 per cent for people with higher than average incomes. was extremely unpopular and caused widespread protests. tobacco. This tax. There is a special 75 per cent tax on the profits earned from North Sea oil production. profits and investment income.
there are two income tax percentage rates. according to the person’s status. estate tax (the equivalent of British inheritance tax) on money on property over $40000. as in Britain. as appropriate. and income tax is deducted on the basis of that. Even where this is the case. people with children. But there is one essential difference between individual and corporate tax payers: because the latter have vastly more political influence. for example. but they are about one third lower. BRIBERY. It often takes years of litigation to determine if a new corporate tax strategy is legal or not. they are able to obtain specific industry – by industry tax breaks and loopholes to make most corporate tax avoidance completely legal. The difference between what has been deducted and what should have been deducted is then paid or refunded. CORRUPTION Business organizations have the same motivation to avoid paying their taxes as individual citizens. most 93 . Tax is calculated on the basis of a percentage plus a flat fee which varies according to the level of income. US income tax levels are still lower than the British. As well as income tax. For a couple under pension age (65). however. the taxpayer has to fill in a complicated form with details of what was actually earned. it is about $10000. but it is based on a person’s estimate of what earnings will be for the coming year. The amount of income that is taxable at one or the other rate varies for single people. The amount varies. again. People who earn less than a specified minimum do not have to complete a tax return. sales tax (the equivalent of British capital gains tax) on the sale of personal property. other US taxes include gift tax on amounts over $10000 to a single person in a single year. The bewildering complexity of the tax laws is a major ally of corporate tax dodgers. married couples. In the USA income tax is collected by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). etc. At the end of the tax year (which is the same as the calendar year). and property tax (the equivalent of the British council tax) as a local tax on the value of a person’s property. TAX EVASION. There is a scheme similar to PAYE.In the USA. Some states charge a local income tax in addition to the federal tax. As a result.
intended to influence government policy. the 94 . the practice creates a climate of corruption and disrespect for the law and gives major corporations with vast financial resources an unfair advantage over their smaller competitors in the USA. Accordingly. References in Greek and Roman laws. Thus. and political bribery. for the motivations and modus operandi of the offenders are often identical. Sometimes. From a sociological viewpoint. Supporters of this position argue that the total amount of money paid out in bribery cases is relatively small and has little effect on the average consumer. Bribery is a universal phenomenon with roots that stretch far back into human history. many more people are willing to brush it off as a normal business practice that causes little real harm. it makes more sense to include in bribery the payoffs made to win private business. they distinguish bribery directed at private firms and individuals from bribery directed at government employees. as they know who is likely to accept bribes and what kind of inducements they prefer. Under this arrangement. they often employ local sales agents who know the people involved in making major purchases. Many criminologists classify individual bribery cases on the basis of the intended target. And although it is often condemned. When firms attempt to buy sales for their products. however. The concept of commercial bribery is a more recent legal development. we will distinguish between commercial bribery intended to promote sales or obtain confidential business information. In addition. Because many multinational corporations find it difficult and expensive to set up an office in every country in which they do business. the parent corporation can write off bribe money as a legitimate business expense and claim it knew nothing about the payoffs. their first targets are often the purchasing agents who are paid to make such decisions. Such agents also provide an excellent conduit for the distribution of bribe money. show that bribery was condemned with harsh penalties in ancient societies.corporations are shielded from criminal prosecution even when their actions are apparently intended to defend the Government. as well as in the Bible. businesses distribute payoff money through sale agents. Corporate payoffs are often made through dummy firms set up specifically to act as conduits for illegal transactions. Critics charged that even if the total amount of money involved in commercial bribery is small.
or secretly pay campaign expenses by shifting part of a candidate’s advertising bills to their own accounts. The most popular legal method of purchasing political influence is still through campaign contributions. Other corporations make large loans to candidates that may or may not be paid back. What is the income tax? 4. Compare the Anglo-Saxon tax system with the Romanian. Recent restrictions on direct corporate contributions to political candidates have created some problems and led to many illegal attempts to skirt the law.use of local sale agents allows foreign multinational to avoid direct involvement in the illicit payments. What other taxes do you know? 5. there are special-interest groups that use a host of different techniques to bend the government’s actions to their ends. What is the VAT/ 3. Reading comprehension 1. Which are the roots of bribery? Vocabulary practice 95 . Corporations have not always been content to operate through such indirect methods. in the hope that such assistance will be less obvious than illegal monetary contributions. Despite their corrosive effects upon the democratic process. 2. many of those techniques are completely legal. What do you mean by bribery? 7. Corporations sometimes provide free services directly to sympathetic candidates. and there have been numerous relations of direct corporate payments to finance election campaign. What is the difference between individual and corporate tax-payers? 6. Regarding political bribery and corruption.
ever since I received my first pocket money when I was five. a) money 8. So no more credit card frauds (10) ……… . Not to (14) ……… the other obvious problems which will be caused by (15) ………. as the computer may by then be able to read your handprint. and thank you politely. of real money – like how to start a football match.I. But I am afraid that I shall (11) ……… money. I had to read the article twice to make sure it wasn’t April 1st. a) earn 4. the familiar (5) ……… and banknotes will soon be replaced entirely by credit cards of various kinds. a) keep 2. a) thanks 5. You may not even have a number for your (9) ……… as such. for change and pretend at the pub that you have left your money at home. You don’t have to dig deep in your (8) ………. a) taken 7. Still. So it should come as no surprise to most of us to hear that yet another part of everyday life is (2) ……… to go for ever. a) pockets 9. a) about 3. for example! 1. Even if my credit card of the future will be able to tell me exactly how much (12) ……… power I have left in the computer files. and kept it in a money-box. Choose the most suitable word for each space. a) wealth b) manage b) almost b) know b) contrary b) coins b) alone b) charge b) wallet b) savings c) cope c) ready c) use c) according c) change c) responsible c) cost c) cheque bookd) cash c) account d) payment d) survive d) tending d) need d) accustomed d) pence d) linked d) amount 96 . nothing will be able to replace the sheer pleasure I gained from (13) ……… the coins in my money-box. Someone once described the age we live in as that of a vanishing world. And the shop of the future (the ‘retail outlet’ as Prof. when I read recently that within the next decade money as we (3) ……… it will probably cease to exist in technologically advanced countries. even if it lights up and plays a happy (or sad) tune at the same time. Montague puts it) will be (6) ……… directly to the network of banking computers. I have felt strongly attached to it. one in which the familiar is constantly disappearing for ever and technological change is often difficult to (1) ……… with. The assistant will simply key in your bank account code number and the (7) ……… you have spent. a) banks 6. (4) ……… to Professor Gerry Montague of the Institute for Economic Reform.
I’m going to the bank to get out/remove/withdraw the money for the rent. 1. We would appreciate it if you would close/settle/pay your bill as soon as possible. We put in an insurance ……… after our house was damaged in a storm. Unfortunately the old painting I found turned out to be priceless/valueless/worthless. By the time Kate retired she was a fortunate/prosperous/wealthy businesswoman. 8. a) miss 12. 6. Complete each sentence with one of the words given. Harry gains/gets/makes over $50000 a year. a) a shortage b) either b) spend b) financial b) confront c) stolen c) waste c) economical c) guess d) however d) borrow d) spending d) throwing d) mention b) withdrawing c) estimating b) an expense c) an absence d) a replacement II. a) tell 15. account claim company currency enterprise figures market payment price venture 1. 7. Mary was awarded a grant/scholarship/subsidy to study child psychology. We had a good holiday but it was rather costly/expensive/valuable. 4. a) arrested 11. The manager disappeared with the receipts/takings/wages from the concert. Their house fetched/produced/sold for a lot more than they expected. a) rattling 14. I am interested in buying the property. 97 . This government believes firmly in the value of free ………. 10. 3. 5. 5. 6. In each sentence choose one or more appropriate words. 2.10. How much did you give/pay/take for your new car? 4. but I find the ……… too high. We have decided to turn our business into a limited ………. I am saving money to make the down ……… on a new car. 2. John became rich by playing the stock ………. 9. 3. III. a) more 13.
a) legacy b) inheritance c) will c) cut d) testament d) budget 2. j) We have a high income.7. h) We want a rise. 1) We spend a lot. 9. Match each sentence a) to j) with a sentence from 1) to 10) which has a similar meaning. 4) We earn according to what we sell. 2) We don’t waste money. 10. 7) We don’t have to pay. a) We have to haggle. I inherited $10000 in my uncle’s ………. 3) We let people borrow from us. The ……… price is lower than the retail price. 8. Choose the most suitable word or phrase. V. b) We have a nice little nest-egg. d) We get in free. 6) We earn a lot. I keep most of my money in a savings ………. i) We lend money. f) We are very thrifty. Margaret lost a lot of money in an unwise business ………. a) wholesale b) bargaining 98 . g) We are paid on commission. 9) We owe money. e) We are in debt. 8) We need higher wages. IV. Everyone was impressed with the sales ……… for the new product. 10) We have some savings. 5) We argue about the price. c) We have high expenditure. 1. Our company receives a lot of payments in foreign ……….
a) profitless b) bankrupt a) cost a) bid a) figures a) soaring a) assure b) worth b) venture c) insignificantd) uneconomical c) value c) investment d) rate d) rolling d) doubt d) price d) estimate 6. Don’t forget to draw up the list of items to be discussed for the next meeting. I was declared ……… by the court. We usually count the money we have made when the shop closes. We demanded pay rises to take account of the ……… of inflation. business is ………. We need someone else to be in charge of the meeting. After my business failed. 7. 5. 8. As soon as you buy a car. 3. his earnings nearly doubled. 6. it starts falling in ………. 5. 4. Things are going well. In fact. Replace the words underlined by one of the words given. 7. 2. b) percentage c) price b) booming b) challenge c) leaping c) bet 9. I ……… you don’t make as much profit this year! VI. 9. 10. I am afraid this product is temporarily out of stock. We had to give the customs official a ……… not to inspect our suitcases. 8. When Mark took his new job. Do you like my new dress? It was a very good price. 99 . We don’t deal with goods of that kind in this company. 10. We make no request for payment for delivery in the London area.3. The cost of moving house was another problem for us. I still have three more ……… to pay on my motorbike. a) shares a) fee b) donations b) reward c) instalments d) contributions c) bonus d) bribe 4. agenda bargain chair charge expense fortune handle income takings unavailable 1. Sheila made a lot of money selling used cars. A multinational company has made a/an ……… to take over our firm.
7. 100 . We’ve decided to put our house up for sale. Do not use any phrase more than once. Nigel cannot get used to being an unsuccessful businessman. 2. I am the possessor of a healthy balance at the bank. The company has decided to sell the premises in East Road. Jean has inherited a lot of money. so that the sentence has an opposite meaning. No one believes that the shop will ever be a business success. In each sentence. 6. 5. 7. appreciate dear hard up make prosperous purchase rise squander wasteful worthless 1. replace one or more words with one of the words given.VII. 9. We were poor when I was young and my father was very thrifty. The precious stones our company mines are now known to be priceless. Replace the phrase underlined in each sentence with one of the phrases given. challenged the figures come into a fortune commercially viable financial means free of charge in credit make a wise investment on easy terms on expenses on the market 1. 3. At the moment house values tend to go down in this area. 6. We bought our new electric cooker by instalments. 4. We don’t believe you have the money to take over this company. 3. 10. Sue and Jane went to South America with everything paid for by their company. VIII. At the meeting Peter said he thought the amounts were wrong. I like living in this part of town. 8. All employees can stay at the hotel without paying. 5. 4. Harry became rich after he managed to put his money in the right place. Jim inherited $20000 and managed to save it all. 2.
The workers were given a cut in wages when the takeover was announced. Richard’s family is incredibly well-off. 101 . 10.8. Nobody thought that the company would lose a lot of money. 9.
After the Cabinet ministers come the four Law officers. who work with the heads of department and who often have specific functions. Health. together with a number of other distinguished people from both Britain and the Commonwealth. and Northern Ireland. Scotland. they work with specific departments. Energy. Employment. The Sovereign appoints as prime minister the leader of the party that has a majority in the House of Commons. Social Security. has the title ‘Chancellor of the Exchequer’. who do not have responsibility for a government department. Transport. Defence. They in turn are followed by the junior ministers. the chief executive body was the Privy Council. such as the Lord President of the Council. Nationally. called the Treasury. but is now the private council of the Queen. The Prime Minister also appoints an advisory council of about 20 ministers. This is the Cabinet. who are usually known as ‘Under-Secretaries of State’. The Prime Minister not only presides over the ministers but by tradition holds the post of First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. There are Secretaries of State for the Home Office. A full 102 . which meets once or twice a week. Wales. Trade and Industry. This still exists. There are about 390 Privy Councillors. It comprises all Cabinet ministers. Most but not all the Cabinet ministers are in charge of a government department and have the title ‘Secretary of State’ or simply ‘Minister’. Like the Ministers of State. it is represented by the body of ministers who administer the county’s affairs under the Prime Minister. as ‘Privy Councillors’. All these are in the Cabinet. Education and Science.UNIT 7 POLITICS THE GOVERNMENT The British government operates at both national (central) and local levels. The head of the finance department. as head of state. whether Parliament is sitting or not. Until the system of Cabinet government developed in the 18th century. under the Lord Chancellor. and the Ministers of State. the Environment. as are holders of other traditional offices. Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs.
which are responsible for the widest areas. district councils and county councils. borough councils. Local government is carried out by local authorities led by elected councils. environmental health and refuse collection. Their link with central government is through the Department of the Environment. and the Commission for Racial Equality. the legislative and the judicial. There are 53 counties in Britain. and in Northern Ireland of the Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland. while district councils oversee such matters as housing. There are town councils. Until recently. This means that county councils are responsible for such aspects as transport. Elected councils operate at several levels. while district councils operate more locally. education in Inner London was run by a single body. in Wales of the Welsh Office. the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA). There are three branches of the federal government. the Constitution. there are other bodies that play a part in the process of government. answerable to the Department of Education and Science (DES). but in 1990 the government abolished the ILEA and transferred its powers to individual borough councils. There are also parish councils in rural areas. and the Home Office. Examples of these are the Arts Council of Great Britain. but this was abolished in 1986. Other departments also concerned with local government functions are the Department of Education and Science. the fire service and social services. In London. deal with the general planning and administration in a county. the Greater London Council (GLC). police. within which there are 369 districts. which may not necessarily represent the political party of the central government in Parliament. Apart from the government departments. established the structure of government. State schools are the responsibility of the local education authority (LEA). the executive. the British Council.session of the Privy Council is held only on the death of the sovereign or when he or she announces an intention to marry. Power is divided between the federal government and the governments of the individual states. In Scotland local government is the overall responsibility of the Scottish Office. Until recently Greater London had its own council. In the USA. the local authorities are the councils of the 32 boroughs and the Corporation of the City of London. education. The executive branch is led by the 103 . the Department of Social Security. drawn up in 1787. County councils.
In US usage. and consists of two chambers: the House of Commons. 38 for Wales. Historically. ‘local government’ usually means the governing body of the district. where most of the power lies. resulting in the English Civil War. Since 1832. the year of the first Reform Act. that is. At the state level. which can take different forms. 523 are for England. The legislative branch is the Congress. Parliament was presided over by the king. From the 13th to the 17th century. and the 21 bishops who are next in 104 . and the House of Lords. Its official head is the monarch. Parliament developed from the councils which in early times were appointed to advise the king. Durham and Winchester. Of the 650 seats. This guaranteed the rights and liberty of individual citizens and gave Parliament more power than the Crown. each of the states has its own system of local government. and the House of Lords less so. who accepted the terms of the Bill of Rights. including the Supreme Court. In the ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688 Parliament removed King James II from the throne and replaced him with William of Orange and his wife Mary. who is politically neutral and who presides over the House during debates. The most common administrative areas are counties and cities. the House of Commons has become increasingly important. it is similar to the British ‘local authority’. The federal courts. The House of Commons has 650 Members of Parliament (MPs). each elected by a majority of votes in a constituency at a general election or by-election. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of Canterbury and York. The House of Lords has two types of members: Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. make up the judicial branch. In the 17th century a struggle developed between the king (Charles I) and Parliament. with some cities also incorporating towns or boroughs. the Bishops of London. THE PARLIAMENT The British Parliament makes the laws of the country.President who chooses a cabinet made up of the heads of the administrative departments. 72 for Scotland and 17 for Northern Ireland. made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The chief officer of the House of Commons is the Speaker.
and the party with the next highest number of MPs as the Opposition with its Shadow Cabinet. their function being to assist the House in its judicial functions. they often lean on their dispatch box. many members of the House of Lords are not involved in party politics at all. In both Houses. both hereditary and life peers. The front bench on the Government’s side is known as the ‘Treasury bench’. Certain life peers are appointed to serve as Lords of Appeal or ‘Law Lords’. one on each side of the table. thus physically face each other in the House. The operation of Parliament is closely tied to the country’s political system. are known as ‘back-benchers’. seats at the far end of the Chamber at right angles to the rest. The Lords Temporal are all peers. 105 . with the party in power represented by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. there are galleries for the press and member of the public wishing to watch debates. because the Prime Minister is also the First Lord of the Treasury. and their respective supporters. Government and Opposition. The debating chamber of the House of Commons. is actually quite small. whereas backbenchers simply stand by their seats. on which are books and stationery and twp dispatch boxes. The Conservative and Labour Parties have been the parties of government since the Second World War. MPs representing minority parties sit next to the Opposition. as the Government. The Speaker sits at one end. in the Palace of Westminster. while the seats (called benches) on which members sit in their two opposing parties. but Lords who do not wish to be associated with any party sit on ‘crossbenches’. Between the front benches is the ‘Table of the House’. Some Labour MPs have campaigned for the abolition of the House of Lords. Members of the Cabinet and Shadow Cabinet are known as ‘frontbenchers’. or at least for significant changes in its functions and structure. and can hold only 346 of the 650 MPs. The leading Government members (the Prime Minister and the Cabinet) sit on the front benches to the right of the Speaker. while their equivalents (the Leader of the Opposition and the Shadow Cabinet) sit on the benches on the Speaker’s left. There are just over 1000 Lords in the House. When frontbenchers stand up to speak. who sit behind them. A similar arrangement applies to the House of Lords. most of whom are hereditary peers. The two sides. run the length of the chamber on both sides of the Speaker’s chair.seniority. Unlike the MPs in the House of Commons.
30 pm from Monday to Thursday. the subsequent debate and vote on it is the ‘second reading’. relating to the public in general. The parliamentary day begins at 2. A proposal for a new law is called a ‘bill’. and business may well continue until late at night. however. the Chancellor discusses the economic situation and outlines the measures to be introduced in order to raise the money the Government needs. usually at the end of October or after a general election. and one that started in the Lords is similarly passed to the Commons. when the monarch goes from Buckingham Palace to the Palace of Westminster to make the Queen’s (or King’s) Speech. after which it becomes one of the laws of the land and is known as an Act of Parliament. They then follow the same procedure as for public bills. Another occasion is the annual Budget Statement. a bill that started in the House of Commons goes to the House of Lords for consideration there. A third important event in the life of every MP is a ‘maiden speech’.30 am and 2. When both Houses are agreed.30 pm. Its formal introduction is known as the ‘first reading’.After a subject is debated. The hours are different then because Friday is the day when most MPs leave London to spend the weekend in their constituencies. whether a government minister or a ‘private’ member (the term for an MP who is not a minister). and its final review is the ‘third reading’. or decided by voting. Most bills are ‘public’ bills. such as a local authority. One is the State Opening of Parliament. Public bills can be introduced by any MP. In this speech. The Lords meet in a similar way to the Commons but for fewer days in the year. usually on a Tuesday in March or April. Some. when a new Member of Parliament stands up to speak for the first time. After the third reading. This is the speech that outlines the Government’s programme for the coming session of Parliament. are ‘private bills’. 106 . On Fridays the House meets between 9. which takes place annually. and are concerned with a particular individual or company or some specific local matter. The monarch delivers it in the House of Lords. to which MPs are specially invited. presents a petition to Parliament. it can either be agreed to without a vote. the bill is passed to the monarch for ‘Royal Assent’. or even last through the night. Private bills begin when the individual or body concerned. made by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in the House of Commons. Certain parliamentary occasions are particularly important.
Reading comprehension What is the Shadow Cabinet? Who are the ‘front-benchers’? What about the ‘back-benchers’? Describe the Romanian government. over the past few years first radio. with Westminster Abbey not far away. and now television. Maiden speeches. since 1989 they have also been televised. Compare the Romanian Parliament with the British. what in fact goes on when bills are (7) ……… and questions are asked. When speeches are controversial. particularly important or entertaining ones. A written account of each day’s speeches and debates in Parliament is printed in the publication Hansard. Vocabulary practice I. and the buildings are sandwiched between a busy square and the river. The architecture gives the place a (2) ……… look. Sadly. You have only to learn that the (4) ……… refer to each other as ‘The Honourable Member for So and So’ to complete the picture of a dignified gentleman’s club. In extreme cases of noise and disorder. the Houses of Parliament give a firm impression of all those (1) ……… which we are supposed to value in the British form of government. are by tradition never interrupted. with of course a few ladies to (5) ……… the numbers. Parliamentary proceedings in the Commons have been broadcast by radio for several years. The first obvious fact is 107 . the Speaker may have to expel an MP from the Chamber. who are after all the electorate. Choose the most suitable word for each space. hear’. they often indicate this by saying ‘Hear. Viewed from the outside at least. or suspend a sitting. have shown the general (6) ………. they may be interrupted with jeers and shouted comments. while many newspapers also print edited accounts of speeches and exchanges. making them a (3) ……… between the country house of an eccentric duke and a Victorian railway station. starting from the English description. on the other hand.When MPs agree with what a particular speaker is saying.
for them all in the chamber in any case. The government has decided to hold/introduce/organise an early election. a) take away 7. a) mixture 4. a) working b) appearances b) traditional b) candidates b) bring about b) determined b) majority b) whom b) places b) those b) visual b) often b) inevitably c) identities c) close-up c) delegates c) make up c) interest c) few c) room c) everyone c) positive c) voters c) filled c) speeches d) rule d) discussed d) number d) around d) committees d) striking d) well d) much c) voted d) features d) notorious d) senators d) set in b) combinationc) cross d) match 6. a) views 2. a) fashionable 3.that the chamber is very rarely full. a) seats 11. a) these 10. a) paid 8. 1. television does not follow the work of (11) ……… which are the small discussion groups that do most of the real work of the House. By the early evening. which is a second worrying point. a) audience 14. To put it bluntly. a) overall 13. a) situationb) public c) themd) others 15. or engaged in shouting like badly-behaved schoolchildren. a) mattersb) committees d) debates II. This is presumably why members resisted for so long the efforts of the BBC to broadcast parliamentary (15) ……… on television. parliament looks disorganised. telling jokes to their neighbour. is clearly behind the times and seems to be (14) ……… with bores and comedians. 2. and there may be only a (8) ……… of members present. 3. a) members 5. 108 . a) elections 12. 1. Of course. some of (9) ……… are quite clearly asleep. Voting for strike action must be done by secret ballot/electorate/poll. Choose the most appropriate word underlined. There is not enough (10) ………. a) handful 9. But the (12) ……… impression that we as (13) ……… receive of the workings of government is not a good one. most people had administered/cast/selected their votes.
4. 109 . 9. Although there is an elected assembly. the National Party are well ahead of their nearest rivals. Each Before member the of parliament each party represents published a its specific election candidate/constituency/convention. Do not use a word more than once. having previously been head of a large school in Bristol. 4. There is a locally elected ……… which has responsibility for roads. 5. My sister has decided to candidate/put in/stand for parliament in the next election. 8. Complete each sentence with one of the words given. The government has introduced a ……… outlining its plans for the coal industry. According to the latest opinion ………. It’s impossible to predict which way the election will go because there are so many indefinite/undecided/unknowing voters. 10. The National Party won the election with an increased majority/percentage/score. it is generally recognised that General Domenico wields the real ………. III. administration authorities bill cabinet council mayor motion poll power reign 1. election. 6. Mark Brown has been delegated/nominated/represented for the post of honorary treasurer. Mrs Fletcher has wide experience of ………. street lighting. and other facilities. Mr Bill Bradford has been elected ……… of Greenswold for the third time. brochure/manifesto/synopsis. The party’s election campaign/movement/struggle proved to be successful. the Cooperative Party. 6. 7. 2. 5. 3.
V. a) made out a) maintain b) set down b) imposed c) drawn up c) suppressed d) worked in d) conveyed 2. 6. and was eventually succeeded by his son. With the application. 7. For both parties to the agreement. 4. The Leader of the Opposition proposed a ……… of no confidence in the government. 9. 3. The Prime Minister stated that law and order must be ……… at all costs. Choose the most suitable word or phrase. IV. 9. The ……… were slow to take control of the situation after the earthquake. 5. Members of the ……… have a meeting with the Prime Minister each week. 2. The sale of drugs is controlled by law in most countries. Smoking is not allowed in the classroom. Students have been banned from using local pubs since the incident. the terms of this contract are to be obeyed. The proprietor is officially allowed to sell alcohol. 110 . 1. 10.7. Parking in this street is not allowed on weekdays at certain times. a passport-sized photograph is necessary. it’s your own decision. abolished barred binding compulsory illegal licensed permitted required restricted voluntary 1. 10. Education from the age of five is obligatory in Britain. 8. The minister has ……… new proposals for discussion with the union. Replace the word or words underlined with one of the words given. The law prohibiting the sale of fruit in the street has been done away with. The king enjoyed a long ………. 8. George. Do not use a word more than once. You don’t have to stay after school to help.
a) passed b) legislated c) voted d) billed b) regulations c) licences b) publicity c) reputation d) orders d) rumour 9. then technically you rule the country. a) level to consult a good lawyer.3. There are so many rules and ……… about importing food that you need b) ministering c) administrating b) elections c) debates d) running d) consultations d) notes d) overruled 4. 3) If you are this. 5. 4) This consists of powerful people and organisations who support the social order. a) reigning a) speeches a) minutes a) overwhelmed ………. 2) If you are one of these. Match the words and phrases in a) to j) with the explanations in 1) to 10). A politician always needs to protect his or her ………. you like to behave in the same way as everyone else. 111 . Mr Jackson challenged the government as to who exactly was ……… the country. 10. The chairman asked the secretary to take the ……… of the meeting. a) laws a) notoriety Sundays. The minister has a talent for talking to ordinary people as if they were her VI. b) discussions c) rulings b) took over c) ran over 6. 7. a) civil disobedience b) a conformist c) a dictatorship d) the head of state e) middle of the road f) a radical g) self-determination h) the establishment i) a licence j) the civil service 1) If you are this. Union leaders called for ……… between themselves and the government. you believe in complete political change. The generals ……… the country in a lightning coup d’etat. Parliament has now ……… a law making skateboarding illegal on b) fellows c) counterparts d) equals 8.
10) the various departments of the government VII. you have a good reputation in your community. 6) You might need one of these to get married. VIII. 10. you are tactful when dealing with people. perhaps too much so. then you live in a state controlled by one powerful person. you are being ruled unjustly or cruelly. If you are ………. Complete each sentence with one of the words given. ambassador chairperson delegate minister patriot president ringleader sovereign terrorist traitor 112 . you have more advantages than other people. 8. you are polite.5) This is an organised campaign involving breaking the law. 6. to drive. rather than let a colonial power do it for them. If you are ………. 7) This is the right for people to decide about their future for themselves. you like to follow social rules and customs on certain occasions. If you are ………. If you are ………. you are strongly against any kind of change. you are in favour of new ideas. If you are ………. 4. If you are ………. 9. If you are ………. Match the words given to the explanations. 8) If you live under one of these. 5. If you are ………. you are against authority and hard to control. 9) If you are this. you behave just like everyone else. 7. conventional courteous diplomatic formal oppressed privileged progressive reactionary rebellious respectable 1. you have no strong political opinions. or to own a gun. 3. 2. If you are ………. If you are ……….
2. 5. This person betrays their country. This person is the head of a formal meeting. 10. This person uses violence rather than the political system for political ends. 4. 6. 9. This person is responsible for a government department. This person represents their country abroad. 113 . 3. 7. This person loves their country. 8. This person represents others at a meeting or conference. This person may be the head of state by birth.1. This person leads others to make trouble. This person may be the elected head of state.
..........................................................................................................................................65 114 ...........................................................................................................................4 SUPPLEMENTARY READING................................................................................................................................26 SUPPLEMENTARY READING................21 UNIT 3..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................57 LAW AND ORDER...............................................................57 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT........................24 THE MORALS OF GOSSIP........................................................................................................................................................................................51 UNIT 5............................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 SUPPLEMENTARY READING............................................................................................63 CIVIL LAW AND PROCEDURE.................................................35 GENDER AND LANGUAGE........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... LISTEN!........35 UNIT 4................................10 UNIT 2..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17 MUSCLE BINDS..........................................49 SOCIAL SECURITY.................................................................................................................................................................................................63 CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS...................................................................................... 3 WINSTON CHURCHILL’S PREP SCHOOL............ GENDER AND SOCIAL LIFE................................................................................................................................................47 THE UPPER CLASS...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................21 HEALTH AND ILLNESS.......24 DON’T TALK.TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT ONE................................ 24 LANGUAGE..................................................................................47 JOBS AND EMPLOYMENT POLICIES.....................................................................................................................................3 THE IDEA OF SUMMERHILL..............................................................17 SUPPLEMENTARY READING..................................... 57 LAW.......................................... 47 SOCIETY................................................................................................. 17 IN SICKNESS AND IN HEALTH..........6 SCHOOLS......6 POST-SCHOOL EDUCATION................
......................... CORRUPTION..........................................................................................................................................................................................102 THE GOVERNMENT....................................................................................................................................................................... BRIBERY...............................................................................................................................................................................68 UNIT 6...................................91 TAX EVASION..............................................................................................................................................................................102 THE PARLIAMENT...............114 115 .................................................... 91 ECONOMY.............................................CODE OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE.......................................104 TABLE OF CONTENTS..... 102 POLITICS..........................................93 UNIT 7..........91 TAXATION AND TAX SYSTEMS..............................................................................................................................................................
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