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Morah (2nd Grade) Standards Recognize that the sun supplies heat and light to the earth and is necessary for life. (MA) Describing things as accurately as possible is important in science because it enables people to compare their observations with those of others. (AAAS) Instructional Objective(s) Classroom Scenario Ms. Morah has her students divide into two different groups, Sunny-Side and Shady-Grove. Every student plants seeds in a paper cup and every student waters their plants on a regular basis. The Shady-Grove team places their cups away from the window. The Sunny-Side team places their cups on the window sill. Ms. Morah places several other cups with seeds in her supply closet. The plants sprout and grow at different rates over the course of several weeks. Assessment Items (2)

Ms. Mwalimu (4th Grade) Standards
Recognize that electricity in circuits requires a complete loop through which an electrical current can pass, and that electricity can produce light, heat, and sound. (MA) Technology extends the ability of people to change the world: to cut, shape, or put together materials; to move things from one place to another; and to reach farther with their hands, voices, senses, and minds. The changes may be for survival needs such as food, shelter, and defense; for communication and transportation; or to gain knowledge and express ideas. 3A/E4 (AAAS) Upper elementary- and middleschool students may not understand experimentation as a method of testing ideas, but rather as a method of trying things out or producing a desired outcome (Carey et al., 1989; Schauble et al., 1991; Solomon, 1992).

Instructional Objectives (1-3)

Classroom Scenario
The students walk into their completely darkened room after music class. The lights are off and the shades are pulled. Ms. Mwalimu has a single flashlight, with which she is directing the students to a pile of materials, including wires, batteries, springs, light bulbs, and other pieces made out of metal. She states that she will not turn on the lights until the class has figured out a way to create their own sources of light given the materials on hand. They may not talk, but they must use the materials to communicate via Morse code (they learned Morse code in another unit). As teams of three or four, each team having a flashlight, The students worked with the materials until each team had discovered that there were buzzers and switches and soon each team had created a type of telegraph. They then went to work and created different arrangements of light sources. The main classroom lights went on, and they discussed the common features of each telegraph and light fixture.

Assessment Items (2)