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For the pipe system shown below (Figure 1), determine the length of a single equivalent pipe that has a diameter of 8 inches. Use the Hazen Williams equation and assume that CHW = 120 for all pipes. Solve the problem using the following steps: 4 points total for entire C homework

2 3

Fall 2009

A

1

B

4

D

5

Length Diameter Pipe 1 500 12 Pipe 2 500 6 Pipe 3 800 8 Pipe 4 1000 10 Pipe 5 700 12 ft in

a. First determine an equivalent pipe (with D=8 in) for pipes #2 and #3 in series. Use a flow of 800 gpm. 0.5 points for #1a I used the Hazen Williams equation for Q in gpm and diameter in inches. 1.85 Q L hL = 10.5 1.85 4.87 C D I used this to calculate the headloss in pipe 2 and pipe 3 (recognizing that the flow in pipe 3 must also be 800 gpm.

C L D Q hL Pipe 2 120 500 6 800 28.49666 Pipe 3 120 800 8 800 11.23213 ft in gpm ft

The total headloss is then the sum of these two hL total = 39.73 ft

Page 2 of 7 and the equivalent length for a 8 in pipe is calculated by rearranging the H-W formula and solving for L hL C 1.85 D 4.87 L= 10.5Q 1.85 = 2839 ft

b. Second, determine an equivalent pipe for pipe #4 and the parallel equivalent pipe from part (a). Use the head loss resulting from the flow for part (a) as the basis for determining the equivalent pipe length (use D=8 in). What is the flow split between these two parallel pipes? (i.e., for 800 gpm through the part (a) pipe, what is the flow in the parallel pipe, and the total flow) Now that we know the headloss from node B to node D is 39.73 feet, we can determine the flow in pipe #4 by the H-W formula, rearranged as follows:

h 0.54 CD 2.63 Q= L 3.56 L0.54 = 2526 gpm Now the total flow between nodes B and D is then the sum: QB-D = 2526 + 800 = 3326 gpm

Finally using the H-W equation, you can calculate an equivalent length of an 8 inch pipe that gives the existing headloss with this flow: L= hL C 1.85 D 4.87 10.5Q1.85 = 203 ft

c. Finally, determine a single equivalent pipe (D = 8 in) for the three pipes in series, pipe #1, the pipe from part (b), and pipe #5.

Next you can use the H-W formula to calculate the headloss in pipes #1 and #5, recognizing that the flow in each must be the same as the flow determined for node B to node D (e.g., 3326 gpm):

Pipe 1 120 500 12 3326 13.60007 Pipe 5 120 700 12 3326 19.0401

C L D Q hL

ft in gpm ft

The total headloss is then the sum: hL = 39.73 + 13.60 + 19.04 = 72.37 ft

Page 3 of 7

and returning to the H-W equation, we can calculate an equivalent length based on this headloss and to flow: h C 1.85 D 4.87 L= L 10.5Q1.85 = 369 ft

d. Show that your pipe is hydraulically equivalent by calculating the head loss for this single pipe and comparing it to the sum of the head losses for pipes in the original system.

Recalculate the headloss in each of the original pipes. Sum the headloss from each node to the next one, recognizing that there are two ways of getting from node B to node D (use either one, but not both). 0.5 points Q1.85 L hL = 10.5 1.85 4.87 for #1d C D

C L D Q hL Pipe 1 120 500 12 3325.68 13.60007 Pipe 2 120 500 6 800 28.49666 Pipe 3 120 800 8 800 11.23213 Pipe 4 120 1000 10 2525.684 39.72879 Pipe 5 120 700 12 3325.68 19.0401 Total ft in gpm ft

72.36896

Page 4 of 7

2. Use the Hardy Cross method (and the Hazen Williams equation) to solve for the flows in each pipe of the network shown in Figure 2 and described in Table 2. Also, determine the values of the hydraulic grade line (HGL) and pressure at each node (pipe junction) in the system. Assume that CHW = 120 for all pipes. The elevation of water in the tank at node A is 250 ft.

Table 2. Pipe & Node Data for Figure 2 Pipe Network External Demand (gpm) 0 0 400 1200 1400 1000

Pipe # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Diam (in) 16 12 10 8 8 6 8

Node # A B C D E F

C

2 5

B A

1 3

E

4

For the calculation below, I used the following units: Q in gpm D in inches L in feet

Page 5 of 7 This corresponds to the following from of the Hazen-Williams equation Q1.85 L hL = 10.5 1.85 4.87 C D An now I calculate the Hazen-Williams K for each pipe from: L K = 10.5 1.85 4.87 C D Where: L is in ft and D is in inches

Then, adopt a pair of loops and sum up headloss around them in clockwise fashion.

C

2 5

B A

1 3

E

4

h f = KQ1.85

Where Q is in gpm, and K is as calculated before And the iterative correction Q is:

Q =

h

loop

1.85

loop

hf Q

2 points for #2

Page 6 of 7

First Iteration (start with assumed flows). The assumed flows much be selected based on mass balance considerations for each node (i.e., the flow into each node must be exactly equal to the flow out, including external demands) Pipe 7 -200 -0.97 Pipe 6 800 74.09 Pipe 5 -800 800 -16.85 16.85 Pipe 4 -800 -11.23 Pipe 3 -2000 -15.48 Pipe 2 2000 8.49 56.27 -1.37 -256.60 17.29 Sum hf Delta Q gpm gpm ft ft

Second Iteration (adjust Qs by Delta Q; for pipe 5 in both loops, use both delta Qs) Pipe 7 Pipe 6 Pipe 5 Pipe 4 Pipe 3 Pipe 2 Sum hf Q (loop 1) -457 543 -1074 Q (loop 2) 1074 -783 -1983 2017 head loss 1 -4.48 36.23 -29.05 2.70 head loss 2 29.05 -10.79 -15.23 8.63 11.66

-14.10 -129.89

Third Iteration Q (loop 1) Q (loop 2) head loss 1 head loss 2 Pipe 7 -471 -4.74 Pipe 6 529 34.51 Pipe 5 -958 958 -23.52 23.52 Pipe 4 -913 -14.33 Pipe 3 -2113 -17.13 Pipe 2 1887 7.63 6.25 -0.31 -33.84 3.47 Sum hf Delta Q gpm gpm ft ft

Fourth Iteration Q (loop 1) Q (loop 2) head loss 1 head loss 2 Pipe 7 -505 -5.39 Pipe 6 495 30.54 Pipe 5 -995 995 -25.24 25.24 Pipe 4 -909 -14.23 Pipe 3 -2109 -17.08 Pipe 2 1891 7.66 -0.09 1.59 0.52 -17.51 Sum hf Delta Q gpm gpm ft ft

Fifth Iteration Q (loop 1) Q (loop 2) head loss 1 head loss 2 Pipe 7 -504 -5.38 Pipe 6 496 30.59 Pipe 5 -977 977 -24.40 24.40 Pipe 4 -927 -14.74 Pipe 3 -2127 -17.34 Pipe 2 1873 7.53 0.81 -0.15 -4.53 1.69 Sum hf Delta Q gpm gpm ft ft

Sixth Iteration Q (loop 1) Q (loop 2) head loss 1 head loss 2 Pipe 7 -509 -5.47 Pipe 6 491 30.08 Pipe 5 -984 984 -24.69 24.69 Pipe 4 -925 -14.69 Pipe 3 -2125 -17.32 Pipe 2 1875 7.54 -0.08 0.22 0.43 -2.45 Sum hf Delta Q gpm gpm ft ft

Page 7 of 7

Looks like were quite close now. Note that the number of iterations and the rate of convergence will depend on the initial guess for flow in each pipe. The above table shows the final pipe flows in gpm, in accordance with the sign convention. Of course the flow in pipe #1 must be equal to the system demand of 4000 gpm.

HGL2 = HGL1 hL

Also, the pressure is determined from the difference between the hydraulic grade line and the elevation, then multiplied by the unit weight of water (W) which is 62.4 lb/ft3 or 0.433 lb/in2/ft:

P = (HGL Z )W

Pressure (psi) 30 78 84 58 69 69 58 58 58

Node A (tank) B C D E E F F F

HGL 250 231 224 214 199 199 194 193 194

Elev 180.0 50.0 30.0 80.0 40.0 40.0 60.0 60.0 60.0

So the multiple routes to the same node give identical pressures as they should. Now summarizing with a single unique answer for each node:

Node A B C D E F hf (ft) 0.0 18.9 7.5 17.3 32.2 37.6 HGL 250.0 231.1 223.6 213.8 199.0 193.5 Elev 180.0 50.0 30.0 80.0 40.0 60.0 Pressure (psi) 30.3 78.4 83.8 57.9 68.8 57.8

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