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1. Whats the difference between an amplifier and a repeater?

(Chapter 8) An amplifier increases signals amplitude and range by boosting its power however it does not distinguish between distortion and noise. A repeater is a device that extracts data embedded in a signal and resends the data in new signal that can cover a greater distance. The main difference between an amplifier and a repeater is a repeater can be used to extend a network if an existing infrastructure is absent, and a repeater does not retransmit noise or distortion. While an amplifier reproduces the same signal with power it also amplifies and may add distortion to the signal.

2. Describe the function of each layer of the TCP/IP model. (Chapter 9) 3. Compare static and dynamic linking. (Chapter 10) Static linking is used when a library and other subroutines cannot be changed after the inserted an executable code. Dynamic linking is performed during program loading or execution. Dynamic linking has two advantages over static linking is smaller executable files and linking flexibility. While static linking main advantages is execution, speed and improves reliability and predictability of executable programs.

4. What is a process control block, and what is it used for? (Chapter 11) A process control block or PCB is a data structure (a table) that holds information about a process. Every process or program that runs needs a PCB. When a user requests to run a particular program, the operating system constructs a process control block for that program.

Typical information that is stored in a process control block i - the location in memory of where the process is - the priority of the process - a unique process identification number (called PID) - the current process state (ready, running, blocked) - associated data for the process 5. List the FMS layers and describe their functions. (Chapter 12) FMS Layers - Command layer or application layer is the utility programs that system administrators and users to manage files, directories, and secondary storage devices. This management is done in the application layer to perform tasks and functions. File control is used to administer files and directories. This layer is used to processes service requests from the command layer or application layer. The issuance of these commands to the Storage I/O control layer is for interaction with the hardware. Storage I/O control is part of the kernel that accesses storage location and manages data movement between storage device and memory. Application and users view secondary Storage as a collection of files organized in directories and storage volumes.

6. Describe the levels of RAID. What are their comparative advantages and disadvantages? (Chapter 12) RAID 0 - Offers no redundancy, fault tolerance, and drive failure will result in data loss. However the RAID group uses full capacity easy implementation and is more cost effective than all other RAID groups. RAID 1 provides redundancy by writing all data from one disk to another. However this redundancy is expensive and inefficient use of space. RAID 0+1 has a minimum requirement of 4 drives and combines RAID 0 and RAID 1 to offer striping and mirroring. This is very expensive and has high overhead but does utilize full disk capacity, has higher performance than RAID 5 and is easy to implement. RAID 1+0 or 10 provides high performance but is very expensive, drive spindles cannot be sync, and is not saleable. But it has high fault tolerance, very good read and write performance, along with high data availability. RAID 3 requires at least four drives and writes to all drives. This is very good for streaming, publishing applications, and systems that have large file block transfers. The only drawback here is poor small file transfer. RAID 3 has high read/write data rate, single dedicated parity disk, and Best and Worst case performance is similar. RAID 4 stripes data across at a block level across all drives with parity stored on one drive. The reads on RAID 4 are as good as RAID 0; however writes have to be updated on the parity disk each time. These random writes can slow performance on the array. RAID 4+DP (Dual Parity) is the same as RAID 4 but offers more redundancy with an extra parity disk RAID 5 provides data parity across three disk or more and is used in more production environments. This offers the best balance in efficiency and cost it also the most dynamic RAID Group. The main drawback is one disk failure will impact performance. RAID 6 is similar to RAID 5 however it has more fault tolerance because of the extra parity drive.

7. What are the components of a URL? (Chapter 13) The components of a URL are broken into four components listed below: - Protocol is an optional header specifying the resource access protocol (http:// is the default value) - Host is the IP or registered name of an Internet host computer or device - Port is an optional port number that together with the IP address, specifies a socket (If omitted the host can rerun a default resource if configured correctly) - Resource is the complete pathname to resource on the host 8. Describe at least five standard Internet and Web protocols. (Chapter 13) Below are the five standards of Internet and Web Protocols

H.323 is a protocol for standard multimedia communications. This protocol is designed for real time transfer of video and audio Common Internet File System (CIFS) protocol is network protocol that shares file on a local network that is mostly used Microsoft Operating Systems. Network File System (NFS) is implemented by using the Remote Procedure Call (RPC) that is used on UNIX, Linux, and Solaris. NFS supports a Lookup identifier, usually an I-node number, or disk block address. The main purpose of this protocol is to provide access via a hyperlink to files and directories. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is for file and document transfer. FTP specifies a client/server request and response language for copying files from one Internet host to another. Telnet protocol, users on one Internet host can interact with the OS command layer of another host. This method sends data in plain text where as Secure Shell (SSH) encrypts data between client and server.

9. What is a virus? How can users and system administrators prevent virus infections? (Chapter 14) 10. What is a monitor? List types of monitors and the information they provide. (Chapter 14) Monitors are programs or hardware devices that detect and report processing or I/O activity the types of monitoring hardware and software. Hardware monitoring is physical device attached directly to a communication link between two devices. This monitoring allows for capture of activity between two devices and stores statistical information. Software monitoring is normally OS based and detects and reports processing activity or requests.