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About the Philippines Bodies of Water The Philippines boast of many different kinds of natural water forms, such

as bays, rivers, lakes falls, gulfs, straits, and swamps. Because it is made up of islands, the country's coastline, if laid end-to-end, would measure around 17.5 thousand kilometers. The Philippines is blessed with excellent natural harbors for ports like Manila Bay. Other excellent harbors with port potentials are found in Ilocos, Pangasinan, Visayas, and Mindanao. The three largest rivers in the country are the Cagayan River in Northern Luzon, the Rio Grande de Mindanao, and the Agusan River, also in Mindanao. Also noteworthy in terms of size are the Agno, Pasig, Angat Pampanga, and Bicol rivers in Luzon. Most popular among tourist is the famous underground river in Palawan. Aside from rivers, the country also abounds with lakes. Easily the most famous is the heart-shaped Laguna de Bay. Other famous lakes are Taal in Batangas, Sampaloc in Laguna, Buhi and Bulusan in Bicol, Naujan in Mindoro oriental, and Lanao and Mainit in Mindanao. Generating power for the Nation’s growth are the magnificent waterfalls that serve as tourist attractions, as well. The biggest is waterfalls is the Maria Cristina falls, it can be found in the North Western part of Lanao province in Mindanao, while the most popular is Pagsanjan falls in Laguna, where tourist came in droves. Natural Resources The Philippines is rich in natural resources. It has fertile, arable lands, diverse flora and fauna, extensive coastlines, and rich mineral deposits. Our Land The Philippines’ primary source of livelihood is its fertile land. Rich, wide plains suitable for farming are found in the Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, South western Bicol, Panay, Negros, Davao, Cotabato, Agusan and Bukidnon. The country ‘s six major crops are rice, corn, sugarcane, coconut, abaca and tobacco. Except for rice and corn, all these products are exported, along with bananas and pineapples. Our Forests The Philippines also boasts of wide tracts of lush, green forests. In fact, almost half of the country’s total land area is forested. Sixty percent of these forests are found in Mindanao. Mineral resources Except for petroleum and a number of metals, mineral resources abound in Philippine soil. The country’s mineral deposits can be classified into metals and non-metals. Our metal deposits are estimated at 21.5 billion metric tons, while non-metal deposits are projected at 19.3 billion metric tons. Nickel ranks first in terms of deposits and size, it is found in Surigao del Norte, Davao, Palawan, Romblon and Samar. Iron is found in Ilocos Norte, Nueva Ecija, Camarines

Norte and Cotabato. While copper in Zambales, Batangas, Mindoro, Panay and Negros. Among non-metal deposits, the most abundant are cement, lime, and marble. Other non-metals include asbestos, clay, guano, asphalt, feldspar, sulfur, talc, silicon, phosphate, and marble. Fishery Resources With its territorial waters measuring as much as 1.67 million square kilometers and located in the worlds fishing center, the Philippines is definitely rich in marine resources. Of the 2,400 fish species found in the country. 65 have good commercial value. Other marine products include corals, pearls, crabs and seaweeds. Some of the countries best salt water fishing area’s are found in Sintangki Island in Sulu Estancia in Bohol, Malampaya in Palawan, Lingayen Gulf in Pangasinan, San Miguel lake in Camarines Norte, Bantayan Channel in Cebu, and the seas of Quezon and Sorsogon. On the other hand, among our biggest fisher water fishing areas are Laguna de Bay, Bombon Lake in Batangas, Bato Lake in Canmarines Sur, Naujan Lake in Mindoro and Mainit lake in Agusan del Norte. Continue to Early Filipinos The First “Filipinos” Many historians and scientists believe that the first inhabitants of the Philippine islands emerged during the Pleistocene period. There are two theories on where the inhabitants (first Filipinos) came from namely: Beyer’s “Migration Theory” and Jocano’s “Evolution Theory”. Noted social scientist Henry Otley Beyer believes that Filipinos descended from different groups that came from Southeast Asia in successive waves of migration. Each group had a distinct culture, with it’s own customs and traditions. While Jocano believes that Asians, including Filipinos are the result of a lengthy process of evolution and migration. Migration Theory The first migrants were what Beyer caked the “Dawnmen” (or “cavemen” because they lived in caves.). The Dawnmen resembled Java Man, Peking Man, and other Asian Home sapiens who existed about 250,000 years ago. They did not have any knowledge of agriculture, and lived by hunting and fishing. It was precisely in search of food that they came to the Philippines by way of the land bridges that connected the Philippines and Indonesia. Owing perhaps to their migratory nature, they eventually left the Philippines for destinations unknown. The second group of migrants was composed of dark-skinned pygmies called “Aetas’ or “Negritoes”. About 30,000 years ago, they crossed the land bridged from Malaya, Borneo, and Australia until they reached Palawan, Mindoro and

Mindanao. They were pygmies who went around practically naked and were good at hunting, fishing and food gathering. They used spears and small flint stones weapons. The Aetas were already in the Philippines when the land bridges disappeared due to the thinning of the ice glaciers and the subsequent increase in seawater level. This natural events “forced” them to remain in the country and become its first permanent inhabitants. Because of the disappearance of the land bridges, the third wave of migrants was necessarily skilled in seafaring. These were the Indonesians, who came to the islands in boats. They were more advanced than the Aetas in that: they had tools made out of stone and steel, which enabled them to build sturdier houses: they engaged in farming and mining, and used materials made of brass; they wore clothing and other body ornaments. Last to migrate to the Philippines, according to Beyer, were Malays. They were believed to have come from Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula more than 2,000 years ago. Like the Indonesians, they also traveled in boats. The Malays were brown-skinned and of medium height, with straight black hair and flat noses. Their technology was said to be more advanced than that of their predecessors. They engaged in pottery, weaving, jewelry making and metal smelting, and introduced the irrigation system in rice planting. Jocano’s Theory Renowned Filipino anthropologist Felipe Landa Jocano disputes Beyer’s belief that Filipinos descended from Negritoes and Malays who migrated to the Philippines thousands of years ago. According to Jocano, it is difficult to prove that Negritoes were the first inhabitants of this country. The only thing that can positively concluded from fossil evidence, he says is that the first men who came to the Philippines also went to New Guinea, Java, Borneo, and Australia. In 1962, a skullcap and a portion of a jaw-presumed to be a human origin-were found in the Tabon Caves of Palawan by archaeologist Robert Fox and Manuel Santiago, who both worked for the National Museum. Carbon dating placed their age at 21,000 to 22,000 years. This proves, Jocano argues, that man came earlier to the Philippines than to the Malay Peninsula; therefore, the first inhabitants of our islands could not have come from the region. The “Tabon Man” is said to resemble Java Man and Peking Man. He gathered fruits, leaves and plants for his food. He hunted with weapons made of stone. Although further research is still being done on his life and culture, evidence shows that he was already capable of using his brain in order to survive and keep himself safe.

Instead of the Migration Theory, Jocano advances the Evolution Theory, as a better explanation of how our country was first inhabited by human beings, Jocano believes that the first people of Southeast Asia were products of a long process of evolution and migration. His research indicates that they shared more or less the same culture, beliefs, practices an even similar tools and implements. These people eventually went their separate ways; some migrated to the Philippines, the others to New Guinea, Java and Borneo. Proof, Jocano says, can be found in the fossils discovered in different parts of Southeast Asia, as well as the recorded migrations of other peoples from the Asian mainland when history began to unfold. Continue to Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines. Also see "About the Philippines". Back to Philippine History - Home Page

Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines The Magellan Expedition Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese in the service of the Spanish crown, was looking for a westward route to the to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. On March 16, 1521, Magellan's expedition landed on Homonhon island in the Philippines. He was the first European to reach the islands. Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly with Magellan and embraced Christianity, but their enemy, Lapu-Lapu was not. Humabon wanted Magellan to kill Lapu-Lapu while Magellan wanted to convert Lapu-Lapu into Christianity. On April 17, 1521, Magellan sailed to Mactan and ensuing battle killed Magellan by the natives lead by Lapu-Lapu. Out of the five ships and more than 300 men who left on the Magellan expedition in 1519, only one ship (the Victoria) and 18 men returned to Seville, Spain on September 6, 1522. Nevertheless, the said expedition was considered historic because it marked the first circumnavigation of the globe and proved that the world was round. Juan Sebastian de Elcano, the master of ship "Concepcion" took over the command of the expedition after the death of Magellan and captained the ship "Victoria" back to Spain. He and his men earned the distinction of being the first to circumnavigate the world in one full journey. After Magellan's death in Cebu, it took 16 more months for Elcano to return to Spain. The Magellan expedition started off through the westward route and returning to Spain by going east; Magellan and Elcano's entire voyage took almost three years to complete. Spain sends other expedition

After the Spain had celebrated Elcano’s return, King Charles I decided that Spain should conquer the Philippines. Five subsequent expeditions were then sent to the Islands. These were led by Garcia Jofre Loaisa (1525), Sebastian Cabot (1526), Alvaro de Saavedra (1527), Rudy Lopez de Villalobos (1542) and Miguel Lopez de Legazpi (1564). Only the last two actually reached the Philippines; and only Legazpi succeeded in colonizing the Islands. The Villalobos Expedition Ruy Lopez de Villalobos set sail for the Philippines from Navidad, Mexico on November 1, 1542. He followed the route taken by Magellan and reached Mindanao on February 2, 1543. He established a colony in Sarangani but could not stay long because of insufficient food supply. His fleet left the island and landed on Tidore in the Moluccas, where they were captured by the Portuguese. Villalobos is remembered for naming our country “Islas Filipinas,” in honor of King Charles’ son, Prince Philip, who later became king of Spain. The Legazpi Expedition Since none of the expedition after Magellan from Loaisa to Villalobos had succeeded in taking over the Philippines, King Charles I stopped sending colonizers to the Islands. However, when Philip II succeeded his father to the throne in 1556, he instructed Luis de Velasco, the viceroy of Mexico, to prepare a new expedition – to be headed by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, who would be accompanied by Andres de Urdaneta, a priest who had survived the Loaisa mission. On February 13, 1565, Legaspi's expedition landed in Cebu island. After a short struggle with the natives, he proceeded to Leyte, then to Camiguin and to Bohol. There Legaspi made a blood compact with the chieftain, Datu Sikatuna as a sign of friendship. Legaspi was able to obtain spices and gold in Bohol due to his friendship with Sikatuna. On April 27, 1565, Legaspi returned to Cebu; destroyed the town of Raja Tupas and establish a settlement. On orders of the King Philip II, 2,100 men arrived from Mexico. They built the the port of Fuerza de San Pedro which became the Spanish trading outpost and stronghold for the region. Hearing of the riches of Manila, an expedition of 300 men headed by Martin de Goiti left Cebu for Manila. They found the islands of Panay and Mindoro. Goiti arrived in Manila on May 8, 1570. At first they were welcomed by the natives and formed an alliance with Rajah Suliman, their Muslim king but as the locals sensed the true objectives of the Spaniards, a battle between the troops of Suliman and the Spaniards erupted. Because the Spaniards are more heavily armed, the Spaniards were able to conquer Manila. Soon after Miguel Lopez de

The Spaniards as Colonial Masters Spain reigned over the Philippines for 333 years. Overseas Council (1837-1863). When Mexico regained its freedom in 1821. In 1572.Legazpi arrived to join Goiti in Manila. collected taxes and built schools and other public works. It also exercised legislative and judicial powers. Continue to Spain as Colonial Masters. the Spaniards who came to colonize the Philippines easily took control of our country. This body became known by many names. and Ministry of the Colonies (1863–1898). and the powers that each Datu enjoyed were confined only to his own barangay. It is implemented the decrees and legal codes Spain promulgated although many of its provisions could not apply to condition in the colonies. Although the barangays already functioned as units of governance. How did this happen? The best possible explanation is that the natives lacked unity and a centralized form of government. They used the barangays that were friendly to them in order to subdue the barangays that were not. Why the Philippines was easily conquered Through largely outnumbered. pertaining to the colonies assisted the king in this respect. Lakandula and Matanda. the Spanish king ruled the Philippines through a governor general. Legaspi ordered the construction of the walled city of Intramuros and proclaimed it as the seat of government of the colony and the capital of the islands. the Spanish king ruled the Islands through the viceroy of Mexico. No higher institution united the barangays. In 1571. Manila was bestowed the title "Insigne y Siempre Leal Ciudad de España" (Distinguished and ever loyal city of Spain) by King Philip II of Spain. from 1565 to 1898. and the Spaniards took advantage of this situation. . Legaspi died and was buried at the San Agustin Church in Intramuros. which was then another Spanish colony. In 1574. each one existed independently of the other. With the cooperation of the local governments the national government maintained peace and order. cities. towns and municipalities. The Political Structure Spain established a centralized colonial government in the Philippines that was composed of a national government and the local governments that administered provinces. Legaspi built alliances and made peace with Rajahs Suliman. Council of the Indies (1565-1837). since Spain was far from the country. A special government body that oversaw matters.

The Archbishop and other government officials could also report the abuses of the colonial government to be Spanish king. There were two types of local government units – the alcadia and the corregimiento. headed by corregidor. as well. led by the alcalde mayor. submitted a report of its findings to the King. suspension. The Audiencia also audited the expenditures of the colonial government and sent a yearly report to Spain. The Visita The Council of the Indies in Spain sent a government official called the Vistador General to observe conditions in the colony. the governor general saw to it that royal decrees and laws emanating from Spain were implemented in the Philippines. governed the provinces that were not yet entirely under Spanish control. The governor general exercised certain legislative powers.The Governor General As the King's representative and the highest-ranking official in the Philippines. however. of which the incoming governor general was usually a member. He had the power to appoint and dismiss public officials. The Provincial Government The Spaniards created local government units to facilitate the country’s administration. The Residencia This was a special judicial court that investigates the performance of a governor general who was about to be replaced. an abusive governor general often managed to escape stiff fines. He also supervised all government offices and the collection of taxes. The alcadia. The residencia. the Royal Audiencia served as an advisory body to the Governor General and had the power to check and a report on his abuses. He issued proclamations to facilitate the implementation of laws. or dismissal by simply bribing the Visitador and other investigators. The alcalde mayors represented the Spanish king and the governor . The Royal Audiencia Apart from its judicial functions. Despite all these checks. governed the provinces that had been fully subjugated: the corregimiento. except those personally chosen by the King. The Visitador General reported his findings directly to the King.

They managed the day-to-day operations of the provincial government. who valiantly and loyally served the Spanish crown. the King made them the first encomenderos in the colony. Through they were paid a small salary. Thus. or the right to participate in the galleon trade. Borneo and the Moluccas. The Spaniards closed the ports of Manila to all countries except Mexico. The Encomienda System Spain owed the colonization of the Philippines to Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. The encomenderos were only territorial overseers who had the duty to: 1) protect the people in the encomienda. The Galleon Trade When the Spaniards came to the Philippines. The Spanish government continued trade relations with these countries. they enjoyed privileges such as the indulto de comercio. implemented laws and supervised the collection of taxes. However.general in their respective provinces. As the King’s representatives in their respective encomiendas. (2) maintain peace and order. Siam. the encomiendas were not there to own. Cambodia. Japan. the Manila–Acapulco . Continue to The Galleon Trade. To show his gratitude to his conquistadors. our ancestors were already trading with China. the encomenderos had the right to collect taxes. to be left to the management of designated encomenderos. To hasten the subjugation of the country. and (4) help the missionaries propagate Christianity. King Philip II instructed Legazpi to divide the Philippines into large territories called encomiendas. Four lieutenants aided the Governardorcillo: the Teniente Mayor (chief lieutenant). The Municipal Government Each province was divided into several towns or pueblos headed by Gobernadordcillos. India. (3) promote education and health programs. whose main concerns were efficient governance and tax collection. the Teniente de Policia (police lieutenant). and the Manila became the center of commerce in the East. the Teniente de Sementeras (lieutenant of the fields) and the Teniente de Ganados (lieutenant of the livestock).

encouraged miners to extract gold. a tobacco monopoly was implemented in the Cagayan Valley. The tobacco monopoly successfully raised revenues for the colonial government and made Philippine tobacco famous all over Asia. Abra. the other sailed from Manila to Acapulco with some 250. Each of these provinces planted nothing but tobacco and sold their harvest only to the government at a pre-designated price. liberal ideas to enter the country. vessels journeying between .000 pesos worth of goods. In 1781. and sugarcane. spending 120 days at sea. Basco implemented a “general economic plan” aimed at making the Philippines self sufficient.Trade. and copper. silver. And because the Spaniards were so engrossed in making profits from the Galleon Trade. The government exported the tobacco to other countries and also part of it to the cigarette factories in Manila. better known as the "Galleon Trade" was born. No other province was allowed to plant tobacco.000 pesos worth of goods spending 90 days at sea. which gave incentives to farmers for planting cotton. Nueva Ecija. which connected the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Continue to Secularization of Priests During the Spanish Period. Tobacco Monopoly The tobacco industry was placed under government control during the administration of Governor General Basco. The Galleon Trade was a government monopoly. and Marinduque. Only two galleons were used: One sailed from Acapulco to Manila with some 500. Ilocos Sur. eventually inspiring the movement for independence from Spain. they hardly had any time to further exploit our natural resources. tin. Basco’s Reforms Filipino farmers and traders finally had a taste of prosperity when Governor General Jose Basco y Vargas instituted reforms intended to free the economy from its dependence on Chinese and Mexican trade. Ilocos Norte. and rewarded investors for scientific discoveries they made. The Secularization of Priests During Spanish Period The Opening of the Suez Canal The Suez Canal. spices. leaving little for the farmers. It was built by a French engineer named Ferdinand de Lesseps. He established the “Economic Society of Friends of the Country”. La Union. was inaugurated in 1869. It also allowed modern. By passing through the Canal. Isabela.

and inadequate experience. But the regular priests refused these visits. They were trained specifically to run the parishes and were under the supervision of the bishops. Dominicans. The Spaniards were clearly favouring their own regular priest over Filipino priests. Unfortunately. In 1774. A royal decree was also issued on November 9. The Secularization Controversy Two kinds of priests served the Catholic Church in the Philippines. he died in an earthquake that destroyed the Manila . which provided for the secularization of all parishes or the transfer of parochial administration from the regular friars to the secular priests. They had been exiled from the country because of certain policies of the order that the Spanish authorities did not like. Since there were not enough seculars to fill all the vacancies the Archbishop hastened the ordination of Filipino seculars. The controversy became more intense when the Jesuits returned to the Philippines. trading in the Philippines became increasingly profitable. sided with the Filipinos. The Filipinos not only gained more knowledge and information about the world at large. Among other reasons they cited the Filipinos’ brown skin. saying that they were not under the bishop’s jurisdiction. Secular priests did not belong to any religious order. Archbishop Basilio Santa Justa decided to uphold the diocese’s authority over the parishes and accepted the resignations of the regular priests. they also gained the desire for freedom and improvement in their lives. lack of education. Monsignor Pedro Pelaez. The issue soon took on a racial slant. bringing with them a lot of progressive ideas. 1774. Recollects. Thus. Conflict began when the bishops insisted on visiting the parishes that were being run by regular priests. The regulars resented the move because they considered the Filipinos unfit for the priesthood. Thanks to the Suez Canal. ecclesiastical governor of the Church. He assigned secular priests to take their place. and Augustinians. to check on the administration of these parishes. Examples were the Franciscans. They threatened to abandon their parishes if the bishops persisted.Barcelona and Manila no longer had to pass by the Cape of Good Hope. at the southern tip of Africa. More and more foreign merchants and businessmen came to the colony. they were able to shorten their traveling time from three months to 32 days. Regular priests belonged to religious orders. Their main task was to spread Christianity. they argued. It was their duty. These were the regulars and the seculars.

The Propagandists . Recognition of human rights The Propaganda Movement never asked for Philippine independence because its members believed that once Spain realized the pitiful state of the country. The illustrados did not succeeded in easing the sufferings of the Filipinos. The martyrdom of the three priests apparently helped to inspire the organization of the Propaganda Movement. was executed by the Spanish colonizers on charges of subversion. The death of Gomburza awakened strong feelings of anger and resentment among the Filipinos. other priests took his place in fighting for the secularization movement. However. the group could not really push very hard for the reforms it wanted. since the illustrados themselves were a result of the changes that the Spanish government had been slowly implementing. the Spaniards would implement the changes the Filipinos were seeking. they felt more confident about voicing out popular grievances. Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora. Their objectives were to seek: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain Equal status for both Filipinos and Spaniards Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes Secularization of Philippine parishes.Cathedral in 1863. 1872. all Filipino priest. but they were more systematic and used a peaceful means called the Propaganda Movement. The charges against Fathers Gomez. Jose Burgos and Jocinto Zamora (Gomburza). After his death. Because of their education and newly acquired wealth. Burgos and Zamora was their alleged complicity in the uprising of workers at the Cavite Naval Yard. Goals of the Propaganda Movement Members of the Propaganda Movement were called propagandists or reformists. Fathers Mariano Gomez. The illustrados led the Filipinos’ quest for reforms. They questioned Spanish authorities and demanded reforms. The Death of Gomburza & The Propaganda Movement In February 17. which aimed to seek reforms and inform Spain of the abuses of its colonial government. The intelligentsia also wanted reforms. They worked inside and outside the Philippines. but from this group arose another faction called the intelligentsia. Among them were Fathers Mariano Gomez.

" which all criticized the abuses of Spanish friars in the Philippines. clearly depicted the sufferings of the Filipinos and the rampant abuses committed by the friars in the colony. they proceeded to Madrid and Barcelona because they could no longer return to the Philippines. Jose Rizal was recognized as the great novelist of the Propaganda Movement. La Solidaridad & La Liga Filipina La Liga Filipina In 1892. He wrote a poem entitled “Sa Aking mga Kababata” when he was only eight years old.The Filipinos in Europe were much more active in seeking reforms than those in Manila." and "La Hija del Fraile. Jose Rizal (full name: Jose Protacio Mercado Rizal y Alonzo) returned to the Philippines and proposed the establishment of a civic organization called “La Liga Filipina. The second group consisted of illustrados in the Philippines who had been sent to Europe for their education. Del Pilar was an excellent writer and speaker who put up the newspaper Diarion Tagalog in 1882. "Dasalan at Tocsohan. not all Filipinos living in Spain were members of the Propaganda Movement." "Esperanza. or simply because they could not stand Spanish atrocities any longer. The third group was composed of Filipinos who had fled their country to avoid punishment for a crime. 1892. He was the first Filipino become famous for his written works. "Caingat Cayo" was a pamphlet answering the criticisms received by Jose Rizal’s novel Noli Me Tangere. Still. Graciano Lopez Jaena and Marcelo H. The writings produced by the Propaganda Movement inspired Andres Bonifacio and other radicals to establish the Katipunan and set the Philippine Revolution in place. His novels. After two many years in the Marianas. Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Some of his most popular writings included "Caiingat Cayo". Lopez Jaena was a brilliant orator who wrote such pieces as "Fray Botod. "Dasalan…" was parody of the prayer books used by the Church. They could be divided into three groups: The first included Filipinos who had been exiled to the Marianas Islands in 1872 after being implicated in the Cavite Mutiny. 1896. His favorite topic was the friars. He was executed at Bagumbayan (later renamed Luneta Park and now called Rizal Park) on December 30. the following were elected as its ." and "Ang Sampung Kautusan ng mga Prayle". Jose Rizal. while "Ang Sampung Kautusan…" was a satirical take on the Ten Commandments. del Pilar were it most prominent members. Rizal made a lot of enemies. Continue to La Solidaridad & La Liga Filipina.” On July 3. which highly ridiculed the Spanish friars. Because of his criticisms of the government and the friars.

a small. The Solidaridad’s first editor was Graciano Lopez Jaena. del Pilar took over in October 1889. Governor General Eulogio Despujol ordered Rizal’s deportation to Dapitan. 1895. The rich members wanted to continue supporting the Propaganda Movement. Rizal functioned as its adviser. Spain itself was . as the reformists fondly called their official organ. they began to drift apart. The next day. but later. The first issue saw print was published on November 15. La Liga Filipina's membership was active in the beginning. Why the Propaganda Movement Failed The propaganda movement did not succeed in its pursuit of reforms. Del Pilar managed the Soli until it stopped publication due to lack of funds. La Solidaridad In order to help achieve its goals. The colonial government did not agree to any of its demands. Andres Bonifacio was one of those who believed that the only way to achieve meaningful change was through a bloody revolution. and Deodato Arellano. secretary. Bonifacio Arevalo. came out once every two weeks. secluded town in Zamboanga. The Soli. La Liga Filipina aimed to: ▪ Unite the whole country ▪ Protect and assist all members ▪ Fight violence and injustice ▪ Support education ▪ Study and implement reforms La Liga Filipina had no intention of rising up in arms against the government. fiscal. Jose Rizal was secretly arrested. treasurer. but the Spanish officials still felt threatened. On July 6. but the others seemed to have lost all hope that reforms could still be granted. the Propaganda Movement put up its own newspaper. president: Agustin dela Rosa. Marcelo H. called La Solidaridad.officers: Ambrosio Salvador. 1892 only three days after La Liga Filipina’s establishment.

. wherein each one signed his name with his own blood. no other strong and charismatic leader emerged from the group aside from Jose Rizal. Each original member would recruit tow new members who were not related to each other. Because most of them belonged to the upper middle class. although he soon lost hope in gaining reforms though peaceful means. they performed the solemn rite of sanduguan (blood compact). which could explain why the mother country failed to heed the Filipino’s petitions. on the other hand. he Katipunan Finally Starts a Revolution The Katipunan is born Andres Bonifacio was also a member of La Liga Filipina. Lastly. Bonifacio then founded the “Katastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipuanan ng mga Anak ng Bayan” (KKK) on July 7. were at the height of their power and displayed even more arrogance in flaunting their influence. in Tondo Manila. Bonifacio became convinced that the only way the Philippines could gain independence was through a revolution. fine morals. The Katipunan had colorful beginnings. ▪ The moral goal was to teach the Filipinos good manners. Continue to The Katipunan. Many of the reformists showed a deep love for their country. This feeling was especially heightened when Jose Rizal was exiled to Dapitan.undergoing a lot of internal problems all that time. although they still failed to maintain a united front. The KKK members agreed on the following objectives: ▪ The political goal was to completely separate the Philippines from Spain after declaring the country’s independence. cleanliness. were also a hindrance to the movements success. 1892 in a house on Azcarraga street (now Claro M. hygiene. Recto). The friars. The members agreed to recruit more people using the “triangle system” of enlistment. and how to guard themselves against religious . Personal differences and petty quarrels. they had to exercise caution in order to safeguard their wealth and other private interests. As a symbol of the member’s loyalty. apart from the lack of funds. Each new member would do the same thing. Members were also asked to contribute one Real (about 25 centavos) each month in order to raise funds for the association. They had neither the time nor the desire to listen to the voice of the people. and so on down the line.

who admitted that it would indeed be fatal for the Filipinos to fight without enough weapons. Andres Bonifacio had already known Rizal during his La Liga Filipina days. He also recommended Antonio Luna as commander of its armed forces. but the Katipuneros still looked up to him as a leader.. or president. He directed them to store enough food and other supplies. Bonifacio ordered his men to prepare for battle. Bonifacio so respected Rizal’s intelligence and talent that in June 1896. The Leaders of the Katipunan: ▪ Deodato Arellano –Supremo ▪ Ladislao Diwa –Fiscal ▪ Teodora Plata –Secretary ▪ Valentine Diaz –treasurer ▪ Andres Bonifacio –controller Jose Rizal and the Katipunan Jose Rizal never became involved in the organization and activities of the Katipunan. The “Kataastaasang Sanggunian” (supreme council) was the highest governing body of the Katipunan. In fact.fanaticism. Battle plans were made with the help of . Each province had a “Sangguaniang Bayan” (Provincial Council) and each town had a “Sangguniang Balangay” (Popular Council). who were called bayani. The people were not yet ready and they did not have enough weapons. although Rizal did not know Bonifacio personally Nevertheless. there was no stopping the Revolution. since Luna had much knowledge and expertise in military tactics. Rizal’s name was used as a password among the society’s highest-ranking members. Valenzuela returned to Manila on June 26 and relayed Rizal’s advice to Bonifacio. It was headed by a supremo. Pio Valenzuela to Dapitan to seek Rizal’s advice on the planned revolution. He suggested that the Katipunan obtain the support of wealthy and influential Filipinos first. ▪ The civic goal was to encourage Filipinos to help themselves and to defend the poor oppressed. he sent Dr. Rizal told Valenzuela that the timing was not right for a revolution. in order to gain financial assistance. However.

what her brother had revealed. The Katipunan is Discovered Rumors about a secret revolutionary society had long been in circulation." Bonifacio asked his men whether they were willing to fight to the bitter end. and Andres Bonifacio immediately called for a general meeting. 1896. Teodoro Patiño told his sister Honoria about the existence of the Katipunan. Bonifacio then asked them to tear their cedulas (residence certificates) to pieces. came on August 19. The information upset Honoria so much that she told the orphanage’s Mother Superior. Sor Teresa suggested they seek the advice of Father Mariano Gil. Honoria was then living with nuns in a Mandaluyong orphanage. -Continue to Cry of Pugad Lawin & Andres Bonifacio's Execution. The men immediately tore up their cedulas. who though that it was too soon for a revolution. Various wings of the Katipunan gathered at the house of Juan Ramos in Pugadlawin on August 23. also known as “Tandang Sora” and was later acknowledged as the Mother of the Katipunan. although no solid evidence could be found to support them. 1896 when a KKK member. The big break as far as the Spanish authorities was concerned. if necessary. as a sign of their defiance and determination to rise against the Spaniards. The governor general was quickly informed. Ramos was the son of Melchora Aquino. Patiño was a worker in the printing press of Diario de Manila. The printing press was padlocked and hundreds of suspected KKK members were arrested. It was suggested that the revolutionary headquarters be located near the seas or mountains to provide for an easy retreat. shouting. except for Teodoro Plata.Emilio Jacinto. Sor Teresa de Jesus. Father Mariano Gil-accompanied by several Guardias Civiles immediately searched the premises of Diario de Manila and found evidence of the Katipunan’s existence. The Katipunan in Cavite . the parish priest of Tondo. The Cry of Pugadlawin News about the discovery of the Katipunan spread to Manila and nearby suburbs. Everyone shouted their approval. After hearing Patiño’s revelations. Mabuhay ang Pilipinas (long live the Philippines) -known as the Cry of Pugadlawin. Heartened by his men’s response.

Bonifacio was recognized as the leader of the Katipunan by the Magdiwang faction. Polavieja was more successful than his predecessor and slowly regained one-third of the province. 1896. The adoring Caviteños referred to him as “General Miong” and no longer “Kapitan Miong. Andres Bonifacio's Execution While Aguinaldo was recognized as leader by the Magdalo faction. essentially creating a government contending Aguinaldo's. on the morning of September 5.Cavite soon became the center of the Revolution. Aguinaldo tried to intercept Spanish reinforcements coming from Manila. Baldomero Aguinaldo. and was sentenced to death by a War Council of Aguinaldo's government. which was stationed in Noveleta. The Revolution Continues . while Alvarez attacked Noveleta. An assembly was held in Imus. and the Katipuneros there divided themselves into the Magdalo and Magdiwang factions. headed the Magdalo group. Owing to the defeat of the Spaniards in Cavite. Bonifacio later formed the Naic Military Agreement. A hundred Spaniards were killed and 60 weapons were confiscated. 1896. Buntis by Major Lazaro Makapagal on May 10. He issued a proclamation on October 31. Aguinaldo was hailed as a hero. Camilo de Polavieja replaced Ramon Blanco as governor general on December 13. Aguinaldo won as president while Bonifacio was relegated as the Director of the Interior. he defeated the Spanish troops under the command of General Aguirre. Aguinaldo initially commuted the sentence to deportation but later reversed the commutation upon pressure from Pio Del Pilar and other officers. another assembly was held at Tejeros (known as the Tejeros Convention) to elect officers of the revolutionary government. which was stationed in Kawit. The two groups fought in separate battles. stood trial.” General Aguinaldo’s numerous victories in the battlefield made him the acknowledged revolutionary leader in Cavite. 1897. Bonifacio was captured. 1897 to settle the leadership issue but was not successful. brother of Emilio Aguinaldo. In Bacoor. Soon after. On orders from General Mariano Noriel. Cavite on December 31. Emilio Aguinaldo overran Kawit on August 31. Bonifacio rejected the elections and declared it void. Then on March 22. 1896 enjoining the people to take courage and continue fighting for Philippine independence. Here. Andres Bonifacio was executed at the foothills of Mt. General Mariano Alvarez led the Magdiwang group. but he was repulsed and forced to retreat to nearby Imus.

where they temporarily set up camp in the town of Talisay. It also outlined certain basic human rights. Aguinaldo established the Biak-na-Bato Republic and issued a proclamation stating the following demands: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Expulsion of the friars and the return of the friar lands to the Filipinos Representation of the Philippines in the Spanish Cortes Freedom of the press and of religion Abolition of the government’s power to banish Filipinos Equality for all before the law. It was signed on November 1.Bonifacio’s death did not deter the Filipinos from fighting for their freedom. however. freedom of the press. declared his support for Aguinaldo. General llanera. A charter based on the Cuban Constitution was also drafted by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho. for its part. and the right to education. respectively. The Pact of Biak-na-Bato Pedro Paterno. However. The Biak-na Bato Republic Emilio Aguinaldo established his headquarters in Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan province. Emilio Aguinaldo and Mariano Trias were elected Supreme Council president and vice president. stood their ground. Aguinaldo realized that Cavite was no longer safe for his men. 1897 and proceeded to Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan. doubled its efforts in trying to control Cavite. Click here to continue with Pact of Biak-na-Bato. Thus. Cavite to persuade the Filipinos to surrender. 1897. They moved to Batangas. they retreated to Morong on June 10. he immediately marched to Naic. and the revolutionaries were once more in high spirits. 1897. In July 1897. When Governor General Primo de Rivera replaced Camilo Polavieja on April 27. The Spanish government. The news immediately spread throughout the country. The Biak-na-Bato Constitution provided for the establishment of a Supreme council that would serve as the highest governing body of the Republic. such as freedom of religion. Spanish soldiers were able to pursue them there. a Spaniard born in the Philippines volunteered to act as . The rebels. who was in Nueva Ecija. which was considered the seat of the Revolution.

Primo de Rivera in order to end the clashes. Nevertheless. 1897.000 (Mexican Pesos) as remuneration to the revolutionaries and an amnesty. . Continue to The Spanish-American War. December 15. Baldomero Aguinaldo-Treasurer. with the help of United States. Some Filipino generals.000. In exchange. The Leaders are: Emilio AguinaldoPresident. After receiving a partial payment of P400. 1897. The Biak-na-Bato Pact Fails The Filipino’s and the Spaniards did not trust each other.000. ▪ 2nd. and de Rivera as the representative of the Spanish government.000. the Te Deum was still sung on January 23. Paterno’s effort paid off when on.the US is a free country and Advocated democracy and freedom. in the amount of $50. a revolution broke out in Cuba -another Spanish Colony that rose against the rampant abuses of the Spaniards. since Cuba was located very near the US it was deemed covered by the protective mantle of the Monroe Doctrine. ▪ 3rd. Aguinaldo will receive P800. 1898.negotiator between Aguinaldo and Gov. As a result. They refused to surrender their arms. The Spanish-American War The US Helps Cuba One year before the historic Cry of Pugad Lawin. Antonio Montenegro-Secretary. did not believe in the sincerity of the Spaniards. Aguinaldo left for Hong Kong on December 27. A ceasefire was declared by both camps and an agreement between Aguinaldo and the Spanish forces was made -that the Spanish government will grant selfrule to the Philippines in 3 years if Aguinaldo went to exile and surrender his arms. Mariano Trias-Vice President.the US wants to protect its huge economic interest in Cuba. however. It became independent in 1898 after three years of revolt. and Emilio Riego de Dios. The Americans were supportive of the Cubans for various reasons: ▪ First.a lot of stories reached the United States about Spanish maltreatment of Americans living in Cuba and this greatly angered the US citizens. the Pact he sign the Pact as the representative of the revolutionaries. 1897. On December 23. Generals Celestino Tejero and Ricardo Monet of the Spanish army arrived in Biak-na-Bato and became hostages of the rebels. periodic clashes between the two groups still took place even after Aguinaldo’s departure from the country. ▪ Finally. The Spanish did not pay the entire agreed amount.

it tried to repair its rift with the US in order to avoid a disastrous war. the U. 1898. 1896. The Battle of Manila Bay George Dewey. 1898. paid Spain US$ 20 million. the American had control of portions of the Philippine islands. The Spanish-American War Spain did not relish American intervention in its affairs. he immediately put his plan into place.S. On May 1. In turn. By June. then a Commodore United States Navy’s Asiatic Squadron was waiting in Hong Kong when He received a cable from the then secretary of Navy. 1898. Spain declared war on the United States on April 23. the United States Navy lead by Commodore George Dewey crushed the Spanish squadron in Manila Bay and the Spanish naval base at Sangley Point in Cavite. especially since the United States had more advanced technology and weaponry. 1898. the moment hostilities between Spain and US break out. The treaty conferred ownership of the Spanish colonies of Guam. On February 25. The Spanish-American War ended with the Treaty of Paris signed on December 10. the Americans called for war against Spain. Roosevelt was one of many US officials who considered the destruction of the Maine as act of treason and supported the declaration of war. how ever a fateful event accrued in Cuba. wanted a war to erupt between the US and Spain so he could strengthen and expand the US Navy.The US interest in the Philippines At that time. Continue to Battle of Manila Bay. Dewey sailed from Hong Kong on board his flagship Olympia with six other heavily armed ships. with the Philippine and Cuban revolutions going on. Dewey entered Manila Bay almost undetected. resulting in the death of its 260 officers and crewmembers. he ordered Commodore George Dewey to make Hong Kong the headquarters of the American Asiatic Squadron. he ordered his men to . 1898. Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt. it could not afford to add the Americans to its enemy list. The American warship Maine was blown up in Havana harbor. On February 15. which were under the command of General Patricio Montoya. The United Sates declared war against Spain on April 25. Although it was not proven that the Spaniards had sunk the Maine. He brought with him a report on the location of the Spanish ships in Corregidor and Manila at dawn of May 1. However. stating that the war had begun between the US and Spain. 1898. In the face of Spain’s declining power. Theodore Roosevelt. 1898. He also directed Dewey to attack Manila Bay and destroy the Spanish fleet. Puerto Rico and the Philippines to the United States. When he saw the Spanish ships.

As for the Americans. The Siege of Manila By June 1898. Cruz. Pantaleon Garcia. General Emilio Aguinaldo had captured the whole of Luzon and was ready to storm Manila with the help of Gregorio del Pilar. The Spaniards stubbornly hoped for the arrival of reinforcements from the Spanish mainland. Sta. and Caloocan were likewise secured. Aguinaldo on the other hand. Continue to Revolutionary Government: Malolos Congress. the Spaniards were raising the white flag in surrender. The battle proved to be too costly for the Spaniards. but none ever came. The atmosphere was festive and the Pasig Band played the national anthem. In accordance with these two decrees. The Battle of Manila Bay is considered one of the easiest encounters ever won in world history. Therefore. Artemio Recarte. Passage of a law that allowed the Philippines to borrow P 20 million from banks for government expenses . 1898. ratified the declaration of Philippine independence held at Kawit. San Juan. After Aguinaldo had read his speech congressional elections were held among the delegates present. which declared that Aguinaldo would appoint representatives of congress because holding elections is not practical at that time. Cavite on June 12. he Philippine Revolutionary Government The Malolos Congress Emilio Aguinaldo issued a decree on July 18. 1898 asking for the election of delegates to the revolutionary congress. the term “Manila” referred to the walled city of Intramuros. he started planning for the declaration of Philippine independence. Nearby areas like Tondo. was firmly convinced that it just was a matter of days before the Spaniards and many other able generals. The battle began at 5:41 in the morning and by 12:30 of the same day. 1898 2. He appointed 50 delegates in all (but this number fluctuated from time to time). In September 29. the weapons of the Americans were far more superior to those of the Spaniards. 1898. At that time. another decree was promulgated five days later. Bulacan on September 15. The following were among the most important achievements of the Malolos Congress: 1. Antonio Montenegro. Aguinaldo’s men surrounded the walls of Intramuros. and no soldier was killed or injured. Aguinaldo assembled the Revolutionary Congress at the Brasoain Church in Malolos. Although The Spanish ships outnumbered those of the Americans. who lost 167 men and had 214 others wounded. no ships were destroyed.

It established a democratic. then to English (when the Flag Law was abolished during the American period) then later. Brazil. Judicial powers were given to the Supreme Court and other lower courts to be created by law. Establishment of the Universidad Literatura de Filipinas and other schools 4. a composer from Cavite province was asked to write an an instrumental march for the proclamation of independence ceremony. Guatemala. 1899. Baldomero Aguinaldo. Continue to Filipino-American Hostilities. Bulacan on January 21. Drafting of the Philippine Constitution 5. The constitution was read article by article and followed by a military parade. . was translated to Tagalog. The original lyrics was written in Spanish. trade & commerce. Belgium and France. Declaring war against the United States on June 12. The original title was "Marcha Filipina Magdalo". Mariano Trias. Apolinario Mabini. finance & war. Apolinario Mabini was elected as a prime minister. This paved the way to launching the first Philippine Republic. Aguedo Velarde. The constitution was inspired by the constitutions of Mexico. public instruction. the Philippine National Anthem. The executive powers were to be exercise by the president of the republic with the help of his cabinet. After being proclaimed president. interior.the Executive. The Chief justice of the Supreme Court was to be elected by the legislature with the concurrence of the President and his Cabinet. After some minor revisions (mainly due to the objections of Apolinario Mabini). The Philippine National Anthem Aguinaldo commissioned Julian Felipe. for the first time by representatives of the Filipino people and it is the first republican constitution in Asia. The other cabinet secretaries were: Teodoro Sandico. 1899 Malolos Constitution A committee headed by Felipe Calderon and aided by Cayetano Arellano. war. This was later changed to "Marcha Nacional Filipina". and Leon María Guerrero for agriculture. The lyrics was added in August 1899 based on the poem titled "Filipinas" by Jose Palma. the final draft of the constitution was presented to Aguinaldo. Gracio Gonzaga for welfare. Legislative and the Judicial branches. foreign affairs. Gen. republication government with three branches . First Philippine Republic The first Philippine Republic was inaugurated in Malolos. Costa Rica. Emilio Aguinaldo took his oath of office. which underwent another change of title to “Lupang Hinirang”.3. Maximo Paterno. It called for the separation of church and state. the constitution was drafted. public works & communication.

This prompted Grayson to fire at the men. waiting for more reinforcements to arrive from the US. where they met by formidable American troops. 1899. General Luna was buried at the nearby churchyard. Aguinaldo had already moved his headquarters to San Fernando. The death of Antonio Luna. however. because the Americans were actually just biding time. they were able to overrun Guadalupe. Pampanga. A significant event that greatly weakened Aguinaldo’s forces was the death of General Antonio Luna. By this time. Aguinaldo's role on his death is not clear and his killers were never charged or investigated. In a matter of days. The Filipino American War was on.Filipino-American Hostilities Emilio Aguinaldo agreed to hold a peace conference between Filipino and American leaders. Nueva Ecija. saw 4 armed Filipino men on San Juan Del Mote Bridge and ordered them to stop. Hostilities finally exploded between the Filipinos and Americans on February 4. American soldiers marched on to Pasig and nearby areas. and Caloocan. Nueva Ecija. On May 5. On June 5. Luna went out of the convent and was met and killed by Captain Pedro Janolino with Kawit. marched to Malolos. They burned the living quarters of the Americans in Tondo and Binondo. and well educated. acknowledged as the best and most brilliant military strategist of the Philippine Revolution. It ended without definite results. which was then the capital of the Philippine Republic. General Arthur MacArthu. General Fredrick Funston crossed the Pampanga River in April 1899 and entered San Fernando. who immediately fired back. Bulacan two days later. The conference lasted from January 9 to 29 in 1899. and reached as far as Azarraga Street (now Claro M. General Elwell Otis immediately attacked the northern part of Manila. 1899 in San Juan. Aguinaldo was able to flee to San Isidro. When American reinforcements arrived in the Philippines. . a convent on the town plaza in Cabanatuan. Jr. Luna arrived at the headquarters. Fortunately. Cavite troops. Recto Avenue). His harsh and rough manner earned him a lot of enemies. and was a strict disciplinarian. General Antonio Luna and his men showed great heroism when they attacked Manila on the night of February 24. but was told that Aguinaldo left for Tarlac. Malolos was taken on March 31. He was brave. Pateros. An American soldier named Robert Grayson. Marikina. The following day MacArthur ordered his troops to openly engage the Filipinos in battle. From San Juan. The telegram instructed him to proceed to Aguinaldo’s headquarters in Cabanatuan. In June 1899 Luna was at his command post in Bayambang. who latter plotted to kill him. but he also had a fiery temper. while General Henry Lawton went to the south. Angry. intelligent. Pangasinan when he received a telegram allegedly sent by Aguinaldo. Luna was forced to retreat to Polo. the Americans had gained control of Pampanga. 1899. but they ignored him.

Emilio Aguinaldo. 1901. Other revolutionaries soon followed. The Macabebe Scouts pretended to have been sent by Lacuna. The Americans then declared the arrest of Aguinaldo and his men in the name of the United States government. On the night of March 6. and some Cabinet members. Jr. 1901 he finally pledged allegiance to the United States. He boarded the American warship Vicksburg and docked at Casiguran Bay on March 14. Continue to the End of the Philippine Revolution. There he stayed for some time. Aguinaldo’s loyal men guarded all roads leading to the area. 1899. Funston plotted the capture of Gen. End of the Philippine Revolution Aguinaldo is Captured Gen. So. Aguinaldo was brought to Manila and presented to then military GovernorGeneral Arthur MacArthur. The Americans followed in hot pursuit. Thus Aguinaldo have no idea of his impending capture until Tal Placido of the Macabebe Scouts embraced him. However. 1901. with the American officials as their prisoners. he soon realized that being constantly on the run put the women in his group at great disadvantage. mother sister. Isabela. son. The generals started to disagree among themselves.1903. and the Filipinos began losing battles. Pangasinan with his wife. The Philippine Revolution Ends The first to yield to the Americans was by General Simion Ola. From Palanan Funston group reached Aguinaldo’s headquarters in Palanan on March 23. The objectives of the Military government are: 1) to establish peace and order to the Philippines. (father of General Douglas MacArthur) at Malacanang Palace. he surrendered them to the American Aguinaldo then continued his march from Pangasinan to Palanan. Philippine military strategies began to fail with the death of Antonio Luna. He established a military government and became the first American Military governor of the Philippines.Aguinaldo Flees. He surrendered to Colonel Harry Bandoltz in Guinobatan Albay on September 25. On April 19. but Aguinaldo still managed to elude them. and 2) to prepare Philippines . 1898. On November 13. 1899. General Emilio Aguinaldo fled to Calasiao. Military Government General Wesley Merritt was the highest-ranking American official in the Philippines after Spaniards surrendered Manila on August 13. since the place was mountainous and difficult to approach. on December 25.

United States President William McKinley appointed the then Judge William Howard Taft to head the second Philippine Commission. Appoint American and Filipino member of the Upper house to head the cabinet 4. 1900. the president of the U. McKinley wanted to hasten the transition of the Philippine military government into a civil one. Taft would become Governor-General of the Philippines and later. Thus it became known as the Schurman Commission. The Americans used propaganda and other means to win the Filipinos to their side. Schurman. Assign highly qualified Filipinos to important government positions The US Congress adopted all the recommendation of the Schurman commission. Some of these laws included the Municipal and Provincial codes. It began legislative work on September 1. 1900. The commission proposed the following: 1. The Taft Commission On March 16. The government in the Philippines can be classified into opposition and collaboration. and laws organizing the Philippine Constabulary and the countries judicial system. The Commission arrives in the Philippines on June 3. president of Cornell University. 1899. Create a civil service system 6. The Schurman The first commission was chaired by Dr. . Jacob G. From September 1900 to August 1902. the Commission was able to enact 440 pieces of legislation for the Philippines. Set up a bicameral legislature with members of the lower house to be all elective 3. The Taft Commissions was given executive and legislative powers it could use to achieve the President’s objective. Establish civil governments in areas were peace and order had been restored 2. which established municipal and provincial governments all over the country. which would also be known as the Taft Commission.for civil governance. Preserve Philippine natural resources 5. Continue to The Taft Commission. the first law it passed set aside P2 million for the construction of treads and bridges. Their group arrived on the Philippines on February 4.S.

Congress convened in its first regular session on July 9. Quezon died of tuberculosis while in exile and Osmeña took over as president. It was the first time the people’s representatives have assembled since their election on November 11. The Philippine Commonwealth Era The Commonwealth era is the 10 year transitional period in Philippine history from 1935 to 1945 in preparation for independence from the United States as provided for under the Philippine Independence Act or more popularly known as the Tydings-McDuffie Law. Douglas MacArthur landed on the island of Leyte to liberate the Philippines from the Japanese. Laurel as president. the military government of the Philippines was replaced with a civil one albeit temporary pending the legislation of permanent colonial government by the United States. the Allied forces led by Gen. The Taft Commission continuing functioning as legislative body. lead by Manuel L. The first law of this congress. 1942. Spooner. The Spooner Amendment The modification sponsored by Senator John C. Jose Zulueta was speaker of the house. Benito Legarda. Japan formally surrendered in September 2. 1944. At the same time. Quezon and Sergio S. This government is known as the Second Philippine Republic. The Commonwealth era was interrupted when the Japanese occupied the Philippines in January 2. Cayetano Arellano was the first Filipino to hold a high position of government he was named Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on May 28. allowed the US president to fully administer the Philippines. Thus.Aside from enacting laws the commissions also visited various provinces and help it in the government peace efforts. while Prospero Sanidad became speaker pro Tempore. the Commonwealth government was restored. 1945. Manuel Roxas was elected Senate President. 1899. 1941. Civil Government under Taft The Philippine civil government was inaugurated on July 4. Continue to The Philippine Commonwealth. and Elpidio Quirino was chosen President Pro Tempore. Gregorio Araneta was appointed as Secretary of Justice and finance. .S.. with William Howard Taft as its first governor. After liberation. On October 20. the Japanese forces installed a puppet government in Manila headed by Jose P. The Commonwealth government. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera. Osmeña went into exile in the U. 1901. and Jose Luzuriaga were selected as members of the Philippine Commissions. 1945. the powers and duties of a governor were passed on to Taft.

Roxas won thus becoming the last president of the Philippine Commonwealth. Sergio Osmeña and Manuel Roxas vied for the Presidency. with the Philippine Commission as the upper house and a still-to-be-elected Philippine Assembly as the Lower House ▪ Retention of the executive powers of the civil governor. such as the establishment of the Philippine Commission. 1902. Here are some of the more important provisions of the Cooper Act: ▪ Ratification of all changes introduced in the Philippine government by the president of the U. President Theodore Roosevelt signed it into law in July 2.enacted as commonwealth act 672. The commonwealth deal also tackled the issue of collaboration. the third commonwealth elections were held on April 23. also known as the Cooper Act. The Commonwealth era formally ended when the United States granted independence to the Philippines. the Japanese. who was also president of the Philippine Commission ▪ Designation of the Philippine Commission as the legislating authority for nonChristian tribes ▪ Retention of the Judicial powers of the Supreme court and other lower courts ▪ Appointment of two Filipino resident commissioners who would represent the Philippines in the US Congress but would not enjoy voting rights ▪ Conservation of Philippine natural resources The bill contained 3 provisions that had to be fulfilled first before the Philippine Assembly could be establishing these were the: ▪ Complete restoration of peace and order in the Philippines . or given aid to. The bill proposed the creation and administration of a civil government in the Philippines. Included were prominent Filipinos who had been active in the puppet government that the Japanese had been established.. Important legislations and events during the American period that made the Philippines a commonwealth of the United States: The Philippine Bill of 1902 .S. as scheduled on July 4.Cooper Act United States Congressman Henry Allen Cooper sponsored the Philippine Bill of 1902. organized the central bank of the Philippines. the office of the civil governor and the Supreme court ▪ Extension of the American Bill of Rights to the Filipinos except the right of trial by jury ▪ Creation of bicameral legislative body. Amidst this sad state of affairs. 1946. In September 1945 the counter intelligence corps presented the people who were accused of having collaborated with. ”A Peoples Court" was created to investigate and decide on the issue. 1946.

During Harrison’s term. while the Philippine Commission served as the upper house. the executive and legislative branches of government worked harmoniously with each other.S. as stated in its preamble. with US secretary of War William Howard Taft as guest of honor. and Camilo Osias. The vice governor general. Replace the Philippine bill of 1902 as the framework of the Philippine government. The Assembly functioned as the lower House. the U. the speaker of the Lower House. Sergio Osmeña was elected Speaker while Manuel Quezon was elected Majority Floor leader. Other Filipinos who occupied this position included Manuel Quezon. Resident Commissioners Benito Legarda and Pablo Ocampo were the first commissioners. Congress enacted the Jones Law on August 29. The vice governor would act concurrently as the Secretary of Education. It provide for the creation of the executive powers. The Recognition of the Philippine Assembly paved the way for the establishment of the bicameral Philippine Legislature. 1981. It was the first official document that clearly promised the Philippine independence. and the Senate president. Isaro Gabaldon. The Jones Law or the Philippine Autonomy act. Teodoro Yangco. Governor General Francis Burton Harrison issued an executive order on October 16. would exercise executive powers. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña. as soon as a stable government was established. The Jones Law To further train the Filipinos in the art of government. It was the Council’s duty to advise the governor general on matters such as the creation of policies for administering government offices. Creation of the Council of State Upon the recommendation of Manuel L. The Os-Rox Mission . 1916. 1907 at the Manila Grand Opera House. creating the first Council of State in the Philippines. The Council held meetings once a week and whenever the governor general called for one.▪ Accomplishment of a Nationwide census ▪ Two years of peace and order after the publication of the census The Philippine Assembly The assembly was inaugurated on October 16. It was composed of the governor general. the department secretaries. assisted by his Cabinet. Jaime de Veyra.

The Tydings-McDuffie Law In December 1933. the new U.S. Franklin D. The HareHawes-Cutting Law provided for a 10-year transition period before the United States would recognize Philippine independence. The Os-Rox group went to the United States in 1931 and was able to influence the U. The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Law) .S. Congress in 1933 but was vetoed by U. president the right to maintain land and other properties reserved for military use. Quezon returned to the Philippines from the United States with a slightly amended version of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting bill authored by Senator Milliard Tydings and representative McDuffie. U. it was rejected by a the American High Commissioner representing the US president in the country and the Philippine Senate.S. 1934. The Philippine Independence Act was authored by Senator Milliard Tydings (Democrat) and Representative John McDuffie (Democrat). President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. president. The U. The Tydings-McDuffie Act (officially the Philippine Independence Act of the United States Congress. Quezon wanted an amended bill. so called because it was headed by Sergio Osmeña and Manuel Roxas. Public Law 73-127) or more popularly known as the The Tydings-McDuffie Law provided for the establishment of the Commonwealth government for a period of ten years preparatory to the granting of Independence.S. Allied Liberation. Senator Henry Hawes. specifically the provision that gave the U.S. The new bill named. For a selection of great places to stay with discount prices visit Boracay Hotels for more information. President Herbert Hoover did not sign the bill. The Philippine Independence Act is a U. however.S. Roosevelt.One delegation. 1934. and Senator Bronso Cutting. Congress to pass a pro-independence bill by Representative Butter Hare. Manuel L.S. that met with partial success was the Os-Rox Mission. Manuel Quezon was tasked to head another independence mission to the united States. signed it into law on March 24. See the full text of the Tydings-McDuffie Law or Continue to Japanese Occupation. Quezon. The new president. signed it into law on March 24. but both Houses of Congress ratified it. law that provided for Philippine independence.S. Congress overrode the veto but was rejected by the Philippine Senate upon urgings of Manuel L. President Hoover. It is a slightly revised version of the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Bill passed by the U. When the Os-Rox Mission presented the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law to the Philippine Legislature.

charitable. pending the final and complete withdrawal of the sovereignty of the United States over the Philippine Islands. 1934. to formulate and draft a constitution for the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. but not later than October 1. shall contain a bill of rights. and all lands.Public Law 73-127 24 March 1934 An act to provide for the complete independence of the Philippine Islands. declaring. and improvements used exclusively for religious. or educational purposes shall be exempt from taxation. (2) Every officer of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall. The Philippine Legislature shall provide for the necessary expenses of such convention. the boundaries of which are set forth in Article III of said treaty. and shall. 1898. which shall exercise jurisdiction over all the territory ceded to the United States by the treaty of peace concluded between the United States and Spain on the 10th day of December. either as a part thereof or in an ordinance appended thereto. . (3) Absolute toleration of religious sentiment shall be secured and no inhabitant or religious organization shall be molested in person or property on account of religious belief or mode of worship. Convention to Frame Constitution for Philippine Islands Section 1. before entering upon the discharge of his duties. and parsonages or convents appurtenant thereto. together with those islands embraced in the treaty between Spain and the United States concluded at Washington on the 7th day of November. at such time as the Philippine Legislature may fix. to provide for the adoption of a constitution and a form of government for the islands. take and subscribes an oath of office. buildings. subject to the conditions and qualifications prescribed in this Act. (4) Property owned by the United States. that he recognizes and accepts the supreme authority of and will maintain true faith and allegiance to the United States. and for other purposes. among other things. which shall meet in the hall of the House of Representatives in the capital of the Philippine Islands. churches. The Philippine Legislature is hereby authorized to provide for the election of delegates to a constitutional convention. (1) All citizens of the Philippine Islands shall owe allegiance to the United States. cemeteries. contain provisions to the effect that. Character of Constitutions — Mandatory Provisions Section 2. (a) The constitution formulated and drafted shall be republican in form. 1900.

its provinces. as hereinafter provided: (1) That the property rights of the United States and the Philippine Islands shall be promptly adjusted and settled. effective as of the date of the proclamation of the President recognizing the independence of the Philippine Islands. shall be recognized. and no loans shall be contracted in foreign countries without the approval of the President of the United States. (6)The public debt of the Philippine Islands and its subordinate branches shall not exceed limits now or hereafter fixed by the Congress of the United States. thereof. (16) Citizens and corporations of the United States shall enjoy in the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands all the civil rights of the citizens and corporations. and instrumentalities. (12) The Philippine Islands recognizes the right of the United States to expropriate property for public uses. exercise the right to intervene for the preservation of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands and for the maintenance of the government as provided in the constitution thereof. by Presidential proclamation. and. and obligations of the present Philippine Government. and for the protection of life. liabilities. (8) Provision shall be made for the establishment and maintenance of an adequate system of public schools. (11) All acts passed by the Legislature of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall be reported to the Congress of the United States. exports. respectively. to call into the service of such armed forces all military forces organized by the Philippine Government. upon order of the President. imports. (b) The constitution shall also contain the following provisions. primarily conducted in the English language. valid and subsisting at the time of the adoption of the constitution. (7) The debts.(5) Trade relations between the Philippine Islands and the United States shall be upon the basis prescribed in section 6. municipalities. (10) Foreign affairs shall be under the direct supervision and control of the United States. to maintain military and other reservations and armed forces in the Philippines. as provided in this Act. (13) The decisions of the courts of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States as provided in paragraph 6 of section 7. and that all existing property rights . and immigration shall not become law until approved by the President of the United States. shall be assumed and paid by the new government. (9) Acts affecting currency. property. (14) The United States may. and individual liberty and for the discharge of government obligations under and in accordance with the provisions of the constitution. (15) The authority of the United States High Commissioner to the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. coinage.

municipalities. cities. will assume all continuing obligations assumed by the United States under the treaty of peace with Spain ceding said Philippine Islands to the United States. (5) That by way of further assurance the Government of the Philippine Islands will embody the foregoing provisions [except paragraph (2)] in a treaty with the United States. (4) That the Government of the Philippine Islands. on becoming independent of the United States. until the President and the constitutional convention are in agreement. and that where bonds have been issued under authority of an Act of Congress of the United States by the Philippine Islands. and safeguarded to the same extent as property rights of citizens of the Philippine Islands. respected. The Governor-General shall in turn submit such message to the constitutional convention for further action by them pursuant to the same procedure hereinbefore defined. the Philippine Government will make adequate provision for the necessary funds for the payment of interest and principal. who shall so advise the constitutional convention. or any province. Submission of Constitution to Filipino People . stating wherein in his judgment the constitution does not so conform and submitting provisions which will in his judgment make the constitution so conform. (3) That the debts and liabilities of the Philippine Islands. and such obligations shall be a first lien on the taxes collected in the Philippine Islands. Upon the drafting and approval of the constitution by the constitutional convention in the Philippine Islands. city. Submission of Constitution to the President of the United States Section 3. the constitution shall be submitted within two years after the enactment of this Act to the President of the United States. shall be assumed by the free and independent Government of the Philippine Islands. its provinces. which shall be valid and subsisting at the time of the final and complete withdrawal of the sovereignty of the United States. who shall determine whether or not it conforms with the provisions of this Act. If the President finds that the proposed constitution conforms substantially with the provisions of this Act he shall so certify to the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands. and instrumentalities. (2) That the officials elected and serving under the constitution adopted pursuant to the provisions of this Act shall be constitutional officers of the free and independent Government of the Philippine Islands and qualified to function in all respects as if elected directly under such government. If the President finds that the constitution does not conform with the provisions of this Act he shall so advise the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands.of citizens or corporations of the United States shall be acknowledged. and shall serve their full terms of office as prescribed in the constitution. or municipality therein.

If a majority of the votes cast are against the constitution. within thirty days after receipt of the certification from the Philippine Legislature. privileges. except such land or other property as has heretofore been designated by the President of the United States for and other reservations of the Government of the United States. Transfer of Property and Rights to Philippine Commonwealth Section 5. issue a proclamation for the election of officers of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands provided for in the constitution. and upon the issuance of such proclamation by the President the existing Philippine Government shall terminate and the new government shall enter upon its rights. and duties. it shall be submitted to the people of the Philippine Islands for their ratification or rejection at an election to be held within four months after the date of such certification. such vote shall be deemed an expression of the will of the people of the Philippine Islands in favor of Philippine independence. to which the return of the election shall be made. as provided under the constitution. Relations with the United States Pending Complete Independence . powers. After the President of the United States has certified that the constitution conforms with the provisions of this Act. on a date to be fixed by the Philippine Legislature. the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands shall certify the results of the election to the President of the United States. and a copy of said constitution and ordinances. If a majority of the votes cast shall be for the constitution. All the property and rights which may have been acquired in the Philippine Islands by the United States under the treaties mentioned in the first section of this Act. Such election shall be held in such manner as may be prescribed by the Philippine Legislature. The present Government of the Philippine Islands shall provide for the orderly transfer of the functions of government. the existing Government of the Philippine Islands shall continue without regard to the provisions of this Act. When the election of the officers provided for under the constitution has been held and the results determined. together with a statement of the votes cast. and except such land or other property or rights or interests therein as may have been sold or otherwise disposed of in accordance with law. and the Governor-General shall. at which election the qualified voters of the Philippine Islands shall have an opportunity to vote directly for or against the proposed constitution and ordinances appended thereto. The Philippine Legislature shall by law provide for the canvassing of the return and shall certify the result to the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands. The election shall take place not earlier than three months nor later than six months after the proclamation by the Governor-General ordering such election.Section 4. are hereby granted to the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands when constituted. who shall thereupon issue a proclamation announcing the results of the election.

The Government of the Philippine Islands is authorized to adopt the necessary laws and regulations for putting into effect the allocation hereinbefore provided. (e) The government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall impose and collect an export tax on all articles that may be exported to the . (d) In the event that in any year the limit in the case of any article which may be exported to the United States free of duty shall be reached by the Philippine Islands. (c) There shall be levied. coming into the United States from the Philippine Islands in any calendar year in excess of a collective total of three million pounds of all such articles hereinbefore enumerated. and paid upon like articles imported from foreign countries. and the amount of sugar from each mill which may be so exported shall be allocated in each year between the mill and the planters on the basis of the proportion of sugar to which the mill and the planters are respectively entitled. the same rates of duty which are required by the laws of the United States to be levied. collected. and paid upon like articles imported from foreign countries. and on unrefined sugars in excess of eight hundred thousand long tons. cordage. coming into the United States from the Philippine Islands in any calendar year. (b) There shall be levied. collected. After the date of the inauguration of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands trade relations between the United States and the Philippine Islands shall be as now provided by law. and paid on all coconut oil coming into the United States from the Philippine Islands in any calendar year in excess of two hundred thousand long tons. collected. collected.Section 6. cord. collected. and paid on all refined sugars in excess of fifty thousand long tons. wholly or in chief value of Manila (abaca) or other hard fibers. collected. except that in the case of unrefined sugar the amount thereof to be exported annually to the United States free of duty shall be allocated to the sugar-producing mills of the Islands proportionately on the basis of their average annual production for the calendar years 1931. 1932. the same rates of duty which are required by the laws of the United States to be levied. the amount or quantity of such articles produced or manufactured in the Philippine Islands thereafter that may be so exported to the United States free of duty shall be allocated. tarred or untarred. and paid on all yarn. subject to the following exceptions: (a) There shall be levied. under export permits issued by the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. twine. rope and cable. to the producers or manufacturers of such articles proportionately on the basis of their exportation to the United States in the preceding year. and 1933. and paid upon like articles imported from foreign countries. the same rates of duty which are required by the laws of the United States to be levied.

the Virgin Islands. and paid on like articles imported from foreign countries. municipalities.United States from the articles that may be exported to the United States from the Philippine Islands free of duty under the provisions of existing law as modified by the foregoing provisions of this section including the articles enumerated in subdivisions (a). provinces. (3) During the eighth year after the inauguration of the new government the export tax shall be 15 per centum of the rates of duty which are required by the laws of the United States to be levied. and paid on like articles imported from foreign countries. Section 7. and instrumentalities until such indebtedness has been fully discharged. collected. and the island of Guam. and such funds shall. American Samoa. (4) During the ninth year after the inauguration of the new government the export tax shall be 20 per centum of the rates of duty which are required by the laws of the United States to be levied. and paid on like articles imported from foreign countries. collected. The government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall place all funds received in such export taxes in a sinking fund. Until the final and complete withdrawal of American sovereignty over the Philippine Islands: . (5) After the expiration of the ninth year of the inauguration of the new government the export tax shall be 25 per centum of the rates of duty which are required by the laws of the United States to be levied collected and paid on like articles imported from foreign countries. and paid on like articles imported from foreign countries. within the limitations therein specified. the term "United States" includes all Territories and possessions of the United States. collected. collected. (b) and (c). be applied solely to the payment of the principal interest on the bonded indebtedness of the Philippine Islands. in addition to other moneys available for the purpose. as follows: (1) During the sixth year after the inauguration of the new government the export tax shall be 5 per centum of the rates of duty which are required by the laws of the United States to be levied. When used in this section in a geographical sense. except the Philippine Islands. (2) During the seventh year after the inauguration of the new government the export tax shall be 10 per centum of the rates of duty which are required by the laws of the United States to be levied.

by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The United States High Commissioner shall annually. contract. by the commanding officers of the military forces of the United States. the United States High Commissioner shall immediately report the facts to the President. If the President approves the amendment or if the President fails to disapprove such amendment within six months from the time of its submission. and at such other times as the President may require. which in his judgment will result in a failure of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands to fulfill its contracts. or which in his judgment will violate international obligations of the United States. and shall be furnished by the Chief Executive of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands with such information as he shall request. who may thereupon direct the High Commissioner to take over the customs offices and administration of the same. He shall have access to all records of the government or any subdivision thereof. If the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands fails to pay any of its bonded or other indebtedness or the interest thereon when due or to fulfill any of its contracts. or to meet its bonded indebtedness and interest thereon or to provide for its sinking funds. He shall be known as the United States High Commissioner to the Philippine Islands. or executive order of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. administer the same. (2) The President of the United States shall have authority to suspend the taking effect of or the operation of any law. (4) The President shall appoint. the amendment shall take effect as a part of such constitution. render . or which seems likely to impair the reserves for the protection of the currency of the Philippine Islands. a United States High Commissioner to the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands who shall hold office at the pleasure of the President and until his successor is appointed and qualified. (3) The Chief Executive of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall make an annual report to the President and Congress of the United States of the proceedings and operations of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands and shall make such other reports as the President or Congress may request. He shall be the representative of the President of the United States in the Philippine Islands and shall be recognized as such by the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands.(1) Every duly adopted amendment to the constitution of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall be submitted to the President of the United States for approval. and apply such part of the revenue received therefrom as may be necessary for the payment of such overdue indebtedness or for the fulfillment of such contracts. and by all civil officials of the United States in the Philippine Islands.

He shall perform such additional duties and functions as may be delegated to him from time to time by the President under the provisions of this Act. who shall receive for submission to the High Commissioner a duplicate copy of the reports to the insular auditor. Appeals from decisions of the insular auditor may be taken to the President of the United States. (6) Review by the Supreme Court of the United States of cases from the Philippine Islands shall be as now provided by law. and shall fix his term of office. He shall have a seat in the House of Representatives of the United States. with the right of debate. exclusion. or expulsion of aliens. His salary and expenses shall be fixed and paid by the Government of the Philippine Islands. The United States High Commissioner shall receive the same compensation as is now received by the Governor-General of the Philippine Islands. and all other laws of the United States relating to the immigration. and such review shall also extend to all cases involving the constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. (a) Effective upon the acceptance of this Act by concurrent resolution of the Philippine Legislature or by a convention called for that purpose. The first United States High Commissioner appointed under this Act shall take office upon the inauguration of the new government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. this section. existing law governing the appointment of Resident Commissioners from the Philippine Islands shall continue in effect. but without the right of voting. (5) The government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall provide for the selection of a Resident Commissioner to the United States. Until a Resident Commissioner is selected and qualified under this section. For such purposes the Philippine Islands shall be considered as a separate country and shall have for each fiscal year a . and shall have such staff and assistants as the President may deem advisable and as may be appropriated for by Congress. the Immigration Act of 1924 [except section 13 (c)]. including a financial official report to the President and Congress of the United States. The salaries and expenses of the High Commissioner and his staff and assistants shall be paid by the United States. as provided in section 17: (1) For the purposes of the Immigration Act of 1917. citizens of the Philippine Islands who are not citizens of the United States shall be considered as if they were aliens. He shall be the representative of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands and shall be entitled to official recognition as such by all departments upon presentation to the President of credentials signed by the Chief Executive of said government. Section 8.

There shall be no obligation on the part of the United States to meet the interest or principal of bonds and other obligations of the Government of the Philippine Islands or of the provincial and municipal governments thereof. shall not be admitted to the United States if he is excluded by any provision of the immigration laws other than this section. the Philippine Islands shall be considered a foreign country. under a commission as a consular officer. although admissible under the provisions of the immigration laws other than this section. which such officer might properly perform in respect to the administration of the immigration laws if assigned to a foreign country as a consular officer. Section 9. shall apply to and be enforced in connection with the provisions of this section. and shall be enforced as part of such laws. (4) For the purposed of sections 18 and 20 of the Immigration Act of 1917. An alien. and an alien. The Secretary of Labor shall by regulations provide a method for such exclusion and for the admission of such excepted classes. or unless they were admitted to such territory under an immigration visa. (2) Citizens of the Philippine Islands who are not citizens of the United States shall not be admitted to the continental United States from the Territory of Hawaii (whether entering such territory before or after the effective date of this section) unless they belong to a class declared to be non-immigrants by section 3 of the Immigration Act of 1924 or to a class declared to be nonquota immigrants under the provisions of section 4 of such Act other than subdivision (c) thereof. as may be authorized by the Secretary of State. for such period as may be necessary and under such regulations as the Secretary of State may prescribe. (b) The provisions of this section are in addition to the provisions of the immigration laws now in force. as amended.quota of fifty. when used in this section. shall not be admitted to the United States if he is excluded by any provision of this section. (c) Terms defined in the Immigration Act of 1924 shall. during which assignment such officer shall be considered as stationed in a foreign country. although admissible under the provisions of this section. but his powers and duties shall be confined to the performance of such of the official acts and notarial and other services. have the meaning assigned to such terms in the Act. but such immigration shall be determined by the Department of the Interior on the basis of the needs of industries in the Territory of Hawaii. (3) Any Foreign Service officer may be assigned to duty in the Philippine Islands. and all the penal or other provisions of such laws not applicable. hereafter issued during the continuance of United States . This paragraph shall not apply to a person coming or seeking to come to the Territory of Hawaii who does not apply for and secure an immigration or passport visa.

not later than two years after his proclamation recognizing the independence of the Philippine Islands. or sovereignty then existing and exercised by the United States in and over the territory and people of the Philippine Islands. Upon the proclamation and recognition of the independence of the Philippine Islands. if and when the Philippine independence shall have been achieved. on behalf of the United States. shall recognize the independence of the Philippine Islands as a separate and selfgoverning nation and acknowledge the authority and control over the same of the government instituted by the people thereof. supervision. and. Tariff Duties After Independence . The President is requested. jurisdiction. (a) On the 4th. That such bonds and obligations hereafter issued shall not be exempt from taxation in the United States or by authority of the United States. Neutralization of Philippine Islands Section 11. at the earliest practicable date. under the constitution then in force. (b) The President of the United States is hereby authorized and empowered to enter into negotiations with the Government of the Philippine Islands. control. and pending such adjustment and settlement the matter of naval reservations and fueling stations shall remain in its present status. Notification to Foreign Governments Section 12. day of July immediately following the expiration of a period of ten years from the date of the inauguration of the new government under the constitution provided for in this Act the President of the United States shall by proclamation withdraw and surrender all right of possession. to enter into negotiations with foreign powers with a view to the conclusion of a treaty for the perpetual neutralization of the Philippine Islands. the President shall notify the governments with which the United States is in diplomatic correspondence thereof and invite said governments to recognize the independence of the Philippine Islands. for the adjustment and settlement of all questions relating to naval reservations and fueling stations of the United States in the Philippine Islands. Recognition of Philippine Independence and Withdrawal of American Sovereignty Section 10. including all military and other reservations of the Government of the United States in the Philippines (except such naval reservations and fueling stations as are reserved under section 5).sovereignty in the Philippine Islands: Provided.

Upon the final and complete withdrawal of American sovereignty over the Philippine Islands the immigration laws of the United States (including all the provisions thereof relating to persons ineligible to citizenship) shall apply to persons who were born in the Philippine Islands to the same extent as in the case of other foreign countries. and paid upon like articles imported from other foreign countries: Provided. place. The government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands shall be deemed successor to the present Government of the Philippine Islands and of all the rights and obligations thereof. all laws or parts of laws relating to the present Government of the Philippine Islands and its administration are hereby repealed as of the date of the inauguration of the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. but nothing in this proviso shall be construed to modify or affect in any way any provision of this Act relating to the procedure leading up to Philippine independence or the date upon which the Philippine Islands shall become independent. Except as in this Act otherwise provided. . amended. the laws now or hereafter in force in the Philippine Islands shall continue in force in the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands until altered. the time. insofar as applicable. respectively. collected. and all references in such laws to the government or officials of the Philippines or Philippine Islands shall be construed. After the Philippine Islands have become a free and independent nation there shall be levied. collected. Immigration After Independence Section 14. and manner of holding such conference to be determined by the President of the United States. and paid upon all articles coming into the United States from the Philippine Islands the rates of duty which are required to be levied. That at least one year prior to the date fixed in this Act for the independence of the Philippine Islands. Certain Statutes Continued In Force Section 15.Section 13. for the purpose of formulating recommendations as to future trade relations between the Government of the United States and the independent Government of the Philippine Islands. or repealed by the Legislature of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands or by the Congress of the United States. there shall be held a conference of representatives of the Government of the United States and the Government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. to refer to the government and corresponding officials respectively of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. Except as otherwise provided in this Act. such representatives to be appointed by the President of the United States and the Chief Executive of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands.

Meaning. then on December 22. Salient provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie Law: 1. The foregoing provisions of this Act shall not take effect until accepted by concurrent resolution of the Philippine Legislature or by a convention called for the purpose of passing upon that question as may be provided by the Philippine Legislature. it could not go to war without permission of the United States except when it had to protect itself. Continue to Japanese Occupation and Liberation by the Allied Forces. 1942. Japanese Occupation of the Philippines During Word War II On December 8. 1934.Section 16. The right of United States to establish military bases in the country 5. Quezon to avoid its destruction. Reclassifying all Filipinos as aliens and limiting immigration to the United Sates to 50 persons per year. 2. If any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional or the applicability thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid. MacArthur retreated with his troops to Bataan while the commonwealth government withdrew to Corregidor island before proceeding to the United . Japan invaded the Philippines. Effective Date Section 17. 1941. The organization of constitutional Convention that draw up the fundamental law of the land. General Douglas MacArthur declared Manila an open city on the advice of commonwealth President Manuel L. From the on. Filipinos busied themselves with preparations for the establishment of the Commonwealth government. The Tydings-McDuffie law also specified that the Philippines would practice neutrality. Clark Air Base in Pampanga was first attacked and also Nichols Field outside Manila was attacked. 19646. The Japanese forces landed at the Lingayen Gulf and continued on to Manila. 4. the validity of the remainder of the Act and the applicability of such provisions to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby. Manila was occupied by the Japanese on January 2. 6. The Philippine Legislature ratified the Tydings-McDuffie law on May 1. The election of the leaders of Philippine Commonwealth 3. Granting the United States president the power to call on all military forces of the Philippines into service. The recognition of Philippine independence on July 4.

Juan Feleo. some farmers of Pampanga banded together and created local brigades for their protection. hunger and exhaustion. which they agreed to call "Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon" or HUKBALAHAP. which noticeably lacked a bill of rights contained 12 articles lifted from the 1935 constitution that fitted the wishes of the Japanese. which was the only political party allowed to exist at that time.. Castro Alejandrino. The new constitution. Luis Taruc. Another meeting was held the following month. Two months later it was ratified by the KALIBAPI. education. Taruc was chosen to be the Leader of the group. Nueva Ecija. The Huks In the midst of fear and chaos. an election was held for members of The Preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence (PCPI). After the war. while the Philippines still in chaos. Jose Yulo was named Chief Justice of the Supreme court. MacArthur escaped to Corregidor then proceeded to Australia. and Quintin Paredes. Jose P. Pampanga and Nueva Ecija threshed out various details regarding their organization. The members were simply known as Huks! The Philippine Executive Commission In accordance the instructions of President Manuel Quezon to Jorge Vargas. where in representatives from Tarlac. Laurel. they agreed to fight the Japanese as a unified guerrilla army.States.000 captured soldiers were forced to embark on the infamous "Death March" to a prison camp more than 100 kilometers north. The joint American and Filipino soldiers in Bataan finally surrendered on April 9. justice. On January 23. and public welfare. interior. Recto. KALIBAPI is the acronym for "Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas". health. a new constitution would again be drafted for the new Philippine Republic. An estimated 10. with Vargas as chairman. Against the will of the PCPI delegates the new Constitution was finalized on July 10. In that meeting. public works and communication. The 76. The following month. 1942 the Philippine Executive Commission was established. The purpose of PCPI is to draw up a constitution for a free Philippines. Sr.000 prisoners died due to thirst. Antonio de las Alas. Claro M. 1943. and other leaders of organized farmers held a meeting in February 1942 in Cabiao. 1942. the Filipino officials in Manila were told to enter into agreements and compromises with the Japanese to mitigate the sufferings of the people under the iron-clad rule of the Japanese. finance. The Second Republic . Jose Laurel became its head. the following was appointed as department heads: Benigno Aquino. with Alejandrino as his right hand man. It was meant to be in effect only temporarily.

who is also known as the tiger of Malaya. The US victory in the battle of Leyte Gulf is said to have signaled the beginning of Philippine liberation from the Japanese. meanwhile. Douglas MacArthur Returns From Australia. Once a shore. Gen. From October 23 to October 26. 1944. The new republic was inaugurated on October 14 1943 on the front steps of the legislative building in Manila. By mid-December. bombing several Japanese strongholds until they regained control of areas previously occupied by the enemy. the Japanese started using propaganda to gain the trust and confidence of Filipinos who refused to cooperate with them. The Philippine flag was hoisted as the national anthem was played. The Japanese also deployed MAKAPILI units to defend Manila but neither succeeds. supreme commander of the Japanese troops in Manila. They hung giant posters and distribute their materials that contains such slogans as "the Philippines belong to the Filipinos. and barely a month later. Benigno Aquino Sr. Nevertheless. New York on August 1944.under the leadership of its director general. The Japanese. secured other area where their thought other American units would land.On September 20 1943. Lt. 1945. 1944 the Americans engaged Japanese forces in the Battle of Leyte Gulf. but still Japanese failed to gain the trust of the Filipinos. but they failed to stop Americans. mobilize his kamikazes (Japanese suicide pilots). the American soldiers had reached Mindoro. & Ramon Avancena as a vice-presidents. the KALIBAPI. Laurel was elected as president of the second republic (the first republic was Aguinldo's Malolos Republic) and both Benigno Aquino Sr. Consider as the biggest naval battle in World History. The bombings began on September 21 1944. "I have Returned. Promoting Japanese propaganda was one of the main objectives of the KALIBAPI. The Japanese ." they also used newspapers. General Douglas MacArthur said. On December 8. Meanwhile. President Laurel and his cabinet moved to Baguio upon orders of Yamashita. The news alarmed the Japanese. Allied forces slowly advanced toward the Philippines. US liberation forces successfully docked at Lingayen Gulf on January 9." Sergio Osmeña was Part of MacArthur’s group. held a party convention to elect 54 members of the National Assembly. Jose P. He had taken over Manuel L. Gen. Quezon as president after the latter past way at Saranac Lake. the Americans landed triumphantly in Leyte. The Assembly was actually made up of 108 members. and others to publicize the same idea. movies. this historic encounter almost destroyed the entire Japanese fleet and rendered in incapable of further attack. on October 20. 1944. but half of this number was composed of incumbent governors and city mayors. Tomoyuki Yamashita.

Admiral George Dewey schemed to convince the Spaniards to surrender to America. Aguinaldo anticipated independence from Spain with the help of America. which incriminated Jose Rizal resulting to his execution on allegations of treason and rouse the Katipunan in Cavite to organize in two groups creating conflict. 1899 in the struggle of the Filipinos for freedom conflicting with the interests of America to become a world power by establishing overseas empire to include the Philippines under the US imperial rule. And finally proclaim general freedom from the Japanese on July 4. resulting to bloody revolutions since the 19th century under the Spanish government. The Japanese in Manila would not give up easily. supported the United States with military forces including indispensable intelligence. the fact that Spain lost the battle to the Filipino troops. 1898 under the First Philippine Republic. The Filipinos fought countless battles. The Filipino forces were persistent to achieve independence for the country.forces retreated to Yamashita line a jungle battlefront stretching along the Sierra Madre Mountains from Antipolo. under the . Rizal to Appari Cagayan. hence. and swayed proudly before the joyous cries of the Filipinos by 4:20 in the afternoon at General Aguinaldo’s balcony of his mansion in Kawit. Albeit. Philippine Independence from the Americans Freedom is among the rights that Filipinos did not enjoy during the Spanish rule. It was a struggle for the Philippine revolutionary leaders to achieve independence from foreign power. It was an act of betrayal by America that no sooner short-lived the celebration of Philippine independence when America annexed the Spanish colonies to include the Philippines. The Filipino forces applied conventional. In fact. At the break of the Spanish-American war. Gen. The Filipino forces were determined to continue their efforts against imperialist power leading to a bloody fight against the American Army in February 1899 when America refused to grant Philippines the long-sought Independence. then guerrilla tactics in fighting against the US army as they become fully aware. America summoned Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines from exile and with confidence towards the pleasant US relations. it took 3 weeks of intense fighting before they finally surrendered on February 23. 1945. MacArthur continued to liberate other parts of the country. Aguinaldo declared the Philippine Independence from the Spanish colonial government on June 12. The Philippine National flag was held up. the Philippine Revolution started. Cavite. The Philippine-American War erupted in February 4. Continue to Philippine Independence from the Americans. the Filipino leaders saw the war between Spain and America as an opportunity to free the Philippines from the claws of the Spanish colony. Returning to the Philippines and leading the Filipino troops to hold the fort of Luzon with success except for Intramuros. In 1896.

Macapagal believes that the June 12. the American flag was lowered in Luneta. Hence. When the events were gearing towards Philippine independence as promised by the United States of America. The US President Woodrow Wilson promised Philippine Independence and started to entrust authority over Filipino leaders with the establishment of the Philippine Senate by a democratic election. 1946. The Philippines During Martial Law Proclamation of Martial Law: On September 21. for all Filipinos after pools of blood were shed in many revolutions. Nonetheless. 1972. and blue looked up by proud Filipinos. independence was granted to the Republic of the Philippines dated July 4. with elected President Manuel L. The National anthem of the Philippines was played next to America’s. holds less inspiration for the Filipinos according to the elected President of the Republic of the Philippines in 1961. Philippine independence is best commemorated in honor of the Filipino revolutionary heroes. Diosdado Macapagal. Manuel Roxas was elected President in April 1946 for the independent Second Republic of the Philippines. it was a good start towards the eventual Philippine Independence. Marcos placed the Philippines under Martial Law. Continue to The Philippines During Martial Law. however. Manila and raised the Filipino National flag in tri-color of red. President Macapagal changed the date of celebration of the Philippine independence from July 4 to June 12. of the strength of the US military heavily equipped with superior firearms. Bataan was surrendered to the Japanese but President Quezon along with Osmeña fled to America. Quezon. particularly by the Muslim Moros in the Southern part of the Philippines continued. July 4. General Aguinaldo was captured in 1901. The Philippine Commonwealth. America was preparing Philippines for independence that started with the creation of civil government. World War II broke out that created immense damage to Filipinos with roughly about one million casualties. It was indeed a moment of liberating glory. which still required approval from the US President. 1896 declaration of the Philippine independence by General Emilio Aguinaldo brings to memory the heroes of the revolution and therefore. At that time. In a formal declaration. although the legislative power was not absolute. President Ferdinand E. was instituted in 1935 under the Tydings-McDuffie Act that granted Philippines its selfgovernment. After the war. Although. The declaration issued under Proclamation 1081 suspended the civil rights and imposed military authority in .leadership of General Emilio Aguinaldo. white. Finally. the insurgencies. the Japanese invasion and occupation bolstered in a surprise. which the Filipinos celebrate each year up to this time.

Marcos imposed the need for self-sacrifice for the attainment of national welfare. Marcos also declared insurgency in the south caused by the clash between Muslims and Christians. which Marcos considered as a threat to national security. Marcos announced the emergency rule the day after the shooting incident. according to Marcos’s plan. Thirty-thousand opposition figures including Senator Benigno Aquino. The alleged attempt to the life of then Minister of Defense Juan Ponce Enrile gave Marcos a window to declare Martial Law. To match the accomplishments of its Asian neighbors. journalists. Threat to the country’s security was intensifying following the re-establishment of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) in 1968. Marcos explained citing the provisions from the Philippine Constitution that Martial Law is a strategic approach to legally defend the Constitution and protect the welfare of the Filipino people from the dangerous threats posed by Muslim rebel groups and Christian vigilantes that places national security at risk during the time. Marcos explained that martial law was not a military takeover but was then the only option to resolve the country’s dilemma on rebellion that stages national chaos threatening the peace and order of the country. The minority group organized the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) in Malaysia and pushed for the autonomy of Mindanao from the national government. Marcos used several events to justify martial law. Marcos started to implement reforms on social and political values that hindered effective modernization. also grew in numbers in Tarlac and other parts of the country. was to lead the country into what he calls a “New Society”.the country. The emergency rule was also intended to eradicate the roots of rebellion and promote a rapid trend for national development. The Muslims were defending their ancestral land against the control of Christians who migrated in the area. the New People’s Army. Supporters of CPP’s military arm. The autocrat assured the country of the legality of Martial Law emphasizing the need for control over civil disobedience that displays lawlessness. student and labor activists were detained at military compounds under the President’s command (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). The army and the Philippine Constabulary seized weapons and disbanded private armies controlled by prominent politicians and other influential figures . His reforms targeted his rivals within the elite depriving them of their power and patronage but did not affect their supporters (US Library of Congress. The move was initially supported by most Filipinos and was viewed by some critics as a change that solved the massive corruption in the country. Marcos defended the declaration stressing the need for extra powers to quell the rising wave of violence allegedly caused by communists. Martial law ceased the clash between the executive and legislative branches of the government and a bureaucracy characterized by special interest. The emergency rule. Martial Law and the Aftermath).

” The deterioration of the political and economic condition in the Philippines triggered the decline of support on Marcos’ plans. Marcos also allegedly funnelled millions of the country’s money by placing some of his trusted supporters in strategic economic positions to channel resources to him. Marcos took control of the legislature and closed the Philippine Congress (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). It was a day that gathered all Filipinos in unity with courage and faith to prevail democracy in . Numerous media outfits were either closed down or operated under tight control (Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). Continue to the EDSA People Power Revolution. This part of Philippine history gives us a strong sense of pride especially that other nations had attempted to emulate what we have shown the world of the true power of democracy. Marcos held a snap election in 1986 but what he hoped will satisfy the masses only increased their determination to end his rule that seated Corazon Aquino. his extended term as President of the Republic of the Philippines elicited an extensive opposition against his regime. in both events. 1986 marked a significant national event that has been engraved in the hearts and minds of every Filipino. The incident sent thousands of Filipinos to the streets calling for Marcos’ removal from post. won the election. where the peaceful demonstration was held on that fateful day. Marcos. EDSA People Power Revolution The Philippines was praised worldwide in 1986. More and more Filipinos took arms to dislodge the regime. Prayers and rosaries strengthened by faith were the only weapons that the Filipinos used to recover their freedom from President Ferdinand Marcos’s iron hands. The Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) stretches 54 kilometers. when the so-called bloodless revolution erupted. Turning again to his electoral strategy. Urban poor communities in the country’s capital were organized by the Philippine Ecumenical Council for Community and were soon conducting protest masses and prayer rallies. February 25. as President of the Philippines ousting Marcos from Malacañang Palace and ending the twentyone years of tyrant rule. These efforts including the exposure of numerous human rights violations pushed Marcos to hold an election in 1978 and 1981 in an aim to stabilize the country’s chaotic condition. The true empowerment of democracy was exhibited in EDSA by its successful efforts to oust a tyrant by a demonstration without tolerance for violence and bloodshed. Experts call this the “crony capitalism. called EDSA People Power’s Revolution.(Proclamation 1081 and Martial Law). Social unrest reached its height after former Senator Benigno Aquino was murdered. widow of Benigno Aquino. however.

upon his return to the Philippines from exile in the United States. that restored the democratic Philippines. With the power of prayers. was shot and killed at the airport in August 21. the armed marine troops under the command of Marcos withdrew from the site. Finally. Marcos held a snap presidential election in February 7. both withdrew their support from the government and called upon the resignation of then President Marcos. Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino showed the Filipinos and the world the strength and courage to claim back the democracy that Ferdinand Marcos arrested for his personal caprice. in the morning of February 25. it came to be known as the EDSA People Power’s Revolution. Aquino’s death marked the day that Filipinos learned to fight. ending the oppressive Marcos regime. The revolt commenced when Marcos' Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and the Armed Forces Vice-Chief of Staff command of Fidel V. They responsibly barricaded Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo and had their troops ready to combat against possible armed attack organized by Marcos and his troops. Corazon Aquino took the presidential oath of office. Corazon Aquino. 1983. Sr. who assembled in EDSA. particularly those who opposed the government. The Filipinos reached the height of their patience when former Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino. Ninoy’s death further intensified the contained resentment of the Filipinos. The Catholic Church represented by Archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin along with the priests and nuns called for the support of all Filipinos who believed in democracy. individuals and companies alike were subdued. Considering the depressing economy of the country. 1986. In the efforts to win back his popularity among the people. The demonstration started to break in the cry for democracy and the demand to oust Marcos from his seat at Malacañang Palace. Ramos. Celebrities expressed their support putting up a presentation to showcase the injustices and the anomalies carried out by the Marcos administration. Hence. It was an empowering demonstration that aimed to succeed peacefully with the intervention of faith. administered by the Supreme Court . It was the most corrupt and deceitful election held in the Philippine history. 1986. Radyo Veritas aired the message of Cardinal Sin that summoned thousands of Filipinos to march the street of EDSA. It was the power of the people. Nuns kneeled in front of tanks with rosaries in their hands and uttering their prayers. The revolution was a result of the long oppressed freedom and the life threatening abuses executed by the Marcos government to cite several events like human rights violation since the tyrannical Martial Law Proclamation in 1972. Such blatant corruption in that election was the final straw of tolerance by the Filipinos of the Marcos regime. There was an evident trace of electoral fraud as the tally of votes were declared with discrepancy between the official count by the COMELEC (Commission on Elections) and the count of NAMFREL (National Movement for Free Elections). where he was confronted with a strong and potent opposition.the country. In the years that followed Martial Law started the suppressive and abusive years–incidents of assassination were rampant. His grieving wife.

Filipinos living below the poverty line is alarmingly increasing in number. who called themselves members of the ‘Reform the Armed Forces Movement’ or RAM. The political condition of the country at that time did not look any better. staged seven coup attempts against the Aquino administration. Her rule as president began on February 25. the historic peaceful demonstration. reduced tariffs and lifted import controls in the Philippines. was elected into office. After the widowed wife of former Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino. The bloodless. 1987. To be eligible for IMF’s rehabilitation programs. Fifth Republic (1986–Present Time) The world’s eye was on the Philippines after it successfully toppled down almost a decade of dictatorship rule through a peaceful demonstration tagged as the EDSA People’s Power Revolution. It was not an easy task since the country’s economic condition was in its worse state since 1982.2 billion worth of debt Aquino inherited from the previous administration. President Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino faced both economic and political problems of the country. Sr. there was an attempt to revive People Power in the efforts to oust then President Joseph Estrada. People rejoiced over their victory proving the success of the EDSA People’s Power Revolution. the World Bank and the United States also forced the government to fulfill its obligations to pay an estimated $27. Although in 2001. Aquino commissioned a referendum that would be the . She was tasked to put together a nation devastated by the rule of her predecessor Ferdinand E. She was the 11th president of the Philippines and the first woman to become president of the country. it was not as strong as the glorifying demonstration in 1986. These reforms ended monopolization of the agricultural industry of the country. The group of soldiers. These attacks worsened the economic condition of the Philippines as investors became wary about Aquino’s ability to rebuild the country. To resolve the issue. was the most serious attack the government experienced. The International Monetary Fund (IMF). Marcos. People Power Revolution in EDSA renewed the power of the people.Associate Justice Claudio Teehankee at Club Filipino located in San Juan. She was the first lady president of the country. 1986 after taking oath at the Club Filipino in San Juan. Metro Manila. Aquino instigated reforms towards a freer economy. Aquino also struggled with Marcos’ supporters in the Armed Forces of the Philippines who attempted to remove her from power. strengthened the meaning of democracy and restored the democratic institutions of government. Continue to the 5th Republic (1986) up to the Present Time. Aquino was proclaimed as the 11th President of the Republic of the Philippines. which killed at least 53 people and injured more than 200 others. The attack held in August 28.

Metro Manila and vice president of Ramos. Ramos took office in 1992 and immediately worked on the country’s recovery. The Philippine Constitution allows the president to ran for a second term if he/she was sworn into office by succession and served in less than 4 years. Arroyo declared her presidential candidacy and she was seated into office for the second time. her administration was bombarded with several controversies and impeachment attempts in the .framework for the new government. Then Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide. Jr. Due to its immediate necessity. The Gross National Product reached an average of 5 percent annually. However. Released in February 1987. 2000. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as president the same day. This support dwindled down as his administration was rattled by corruption. The revelation led to Estrada’s impeachment in November 12. The country also saw improvements in its relations to secessionist Moro Islamic Liberation Front or MNLF as Ramos achieved a peace agreement with the group. to economic reforms involving foreign participations. He was the previous mayor in the municipality of San Juan. 2001. Joseph Ejercito Estrada. succeeded Ramos as president in 1998. A film actor. details of the referendum were left to the legislature to determine. otherwise the president is limited to one term of office. In the same year. He gained support in the election for his promise to begin a pro-poor administration that his predecessors failed to promote in their respective platforms. she did. Efforts made by Ramos to resolve political conflicts in Mindanao were also threatened as Estrada launched an allout war against the Islamic group in Mindanao called the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in March 21. swore-in vicepresident. Ilocos Sur Governor Luis “Chavit” Singson accused Estrada of receiving Php 400 million from him as payoff from illegal gambling profits. 1998. the new charter easily won the approval of the public. Critics accused him of failing to live up to his promises due to the resurfacing of cronyism in the government. Ramos bagged the first UNESCO Peace Award yet given to an Asian for this effort. Fidel V. He also came to be known as the ‘Centennial’ President for his successful supervision of the 100th anniversary of the country’s independence from the Spanish rule celebrated in June 12. Ramos initiated the Social Reform Agenda or SRA that was geared towards alleviating poverty. Arroyo promoted a “Stronger Republic” under her rule. He undertook the implementation of BuildOperate-Transfer (BOT) law which improved public infrastructure and deregulated several industries to help liberalize the economy. Arroyo was qualified to ran for another term. Estrada was placed into office by a wide margin of vote. 2000 and his ouster from presidency in January 20. It tackled various issues from shifting the government from presidential to parliamentary. which translated to a growth in the average family income of the Filipinos. Indeed. In the 2004 Philippine General Election. which was geared toward vigorous economic reforms. The rule that followed Aquino’s presidency established steadier governance of the Philippines.

Osmeña. Sr. Supporters of Arroyo are pushing for a change of government from a Presidential to a Parliamentary form. The representatives in the lower house of Congress were said to have made the move independently to pass the Con-Ass however.S. Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III. On June 30. many are skeptic of the true agenda of the Arroyo administration as the 2010 election countdown nears. Arroyo run and won for congresswoman for the 2nd district of Pampanga province. a. Hence. was proclaimed as president of the republic together with Jejomar Cabauatan Binay as vice-president. PHILIPPINE PRESIDENTS & VICE-PRESIDENTS LIST (with pictures of all the presidents of the Philippines) FIRST REPUBLIC (Revolutionary Government/The Philippines under Spanish rule) (1899-1901) President: Emilio F. Arroyo filed a resolution calling for Congress to hold a Constitutional Convention to amend the constitution. Once.k.a Noynoy Aquino. Quezon (Died in exile in the U. 2010 general elections. 2010. Making her the first president to hold a lower office after occupying the highest office of the land. This will enable Arroyo run for parliament and become prime minister.) (1936-1944) Vice-President: Sergio S. Aguinaldo (1897?) Vice-President: Mariano C.last five years. Arroyo had broken the people’s trust when she declared that she was not interested to run in the 2004 elections. as she announced her disinterest to extend her term or run for office in the 2010 elections. which is currently promoted by the Arroyo’s supporters in Congress when the ChaCha attempt has become improbable receiving critical disapproval. On her first day as congresswoman. Trias (elected VP during the Tejeros assembly) COMMONWEALTH PERIOD (American Period) (1935-1944) President Manuel L. critics expressed their apprehensions. Protesters express their disappointment every so often rallying at the streets calling against the Charter Change (Cha-Cha) and now the Constituent Assembly (Con-Ass). On the May 10. .

Sr. Pelaez (1965-1972) President: Ferdinand E. Lopez (1953-1957) President: Ramon F.) SECOND REPUBLIC (Japanese Occupation) (1943-1945) President: Jose P. "The New Republic" & Parliamentary Government) (1972-1986) President: Ferdinand E. Garcia (1957-1961) President: Carlos P. Garcia (Assumed the remaining term and re-elected) (1957-1961) Vice-President: Diosdado P.(1944-1946) President: Sergio S. Osmeña. Marcos (unseated by the People . Magsaysay (Magsaysay died in an airplane crash on March 16. 1957 on Mt. Laurel (1943-1945) Vice-Presidents: Benigno Aquino. Manunggal in Cebu) (1953-1957) Vice-President: Carlos P. Macapagal (1961-1965) President: Diosdado P. Quirino (1948-1953) President: Elpidio R. Lopez FOURTH REPUBLIC (Martial Law. Roxas (Died of a heart attack) (1946-1948) Vice-President: Elpidio R. Sr. Macapagal (1961-1965) Vice-President: Emmanuel N.S. (Assumed the presidency upon the death of Quezon while the Philippine Commonwealth government is in exile in the U. Marcos (the first to win 2 presidential terms) (1965-1972) Vice-President: Fernando H. Quirino (Assumed the remaining term & re-elected) (1949-1953) Vice-President: Fernando H. and Ramon Avancena THIRD REPUBLIC (1946-1948) President: Manuel L.

Ramos (1992-1998) Vice-President: Joseph Ejercito Estrada (1998-2001) President: Joseph Ejercito Estrada (Deposed by "People Power") (1998-2001) Vice-President: Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo The first Filipino flag can be traced from the time of the Andres Bonifacio's secret society named: Kataastaasang Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Honorable Society of the Sons of the Nation) or the Katipunan or KKK for short. Tolentino (proclaimed but did not serve due to the revolt) FIFTH REPUBLIC (Under the new "People Power" Constitution) (1986-1992) President: Corazon Cojuangco-Aquino (1986-1992) Vice-President: Salvador H. 1989 of Lupus complications) (1981-1986) Prime Minister Cesar E. . made the first Filipino flag. Benita Rodriquez and Bonifacio's wife. The first Philippine flags was made of red cloth with white KKK initials sewn in white.Power Revolution) (Marcos died in exile in Hawaii on September 28. A. Virata (1986) Vice-President: Arturo M. The red color symbolized the blood of the members of the Katipunan in which inductee to the society signed in their names with their own blood. Laurel (1992-1998) President Fidel V. Gregoria de Jesus.

Another variation is the Sun of Liberty of the Naic Assembly in 1897 and the flag used by the Republic of Biak-na Bato. In this Philippine flag picture. General Gregorio del Pilar also used another flag during the Battle of Pasong Balite and at the Battle of Tirad Pass. the Sun with the KKK underneath was also a derivative of previous Filipino flags. Some members arranged the KKK in a triangle while some generals of the revolution designed their own flags. . This Filipino flag is similar to the flag of Cuba. In 1896. It had an equilateral triangle with a K at each angle with a rising sun behind a mountain. the Magdalo faction of the Katipunan in Cavite headed by General Emilio Aguinaldo had a red ensign with a sun and at the center of the sun is the letter K written in the ancient Filipino alphabet. Of note is the black banner of General Mariano Llanera in Nueva Ecija with a letter K and a skull with two cross bones underneath. according to del Pilar. Another variation of the Filipino flag was that of General Pio del Pilar.The Filipino flag had variations (from 1892 to 1896).

the sun and the stars and the blue and red stripes. Laguna. Bulacan. Manuel L. In 1936.Gomburza (Fathers Mariano Gomez. .Ferdinand Magellan "discovers" the islands and names them: Archipelago of San Lazaro. Bataan. Nueva Ecija. Retained were the while triangle. ● 1872 . the Philippines becomes part of Spanish Empire. Pampanga. Cavite.Spanish expedition commandeered by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos claims the islands for Spain. and Batangas) and 3 stars representing the main island groups: Luzon. In times of peace. Quezon as president of the commonwealth. ● 1542 . The banner is almost unchanged with a few exceptions. Jose Burgos and Jocinto Zamora) were executed by the Spaniards.In 1898 Emilio Aguinaldo while in exile in Hong Kong had a banner sewn with the triangle of the Masonry with the mythical sun and face with 8 rays representing the 8 provinces that revolted against the Spanish rule (Manila. the banner is inverted with the red strip on the top. TIMELINE OF PHILIPPINE HISTORY ● 1380 . the blue stripe is flown on top but in times of war.Muslim Arabs arrived at the Sulu Archipelago. names them "Philippines" after Prince Philip. The triangle stood for equality and it's white color stood for purity. the most notable is the use of a plain sun without the face. later King Philip II of Spain. issued Executive Order 23 which contained the specifications of the national flag. The Philippine flag is the only flag to have this official dual display. ● 1521 . Visayas and Mindanao. The blue stripe stood for peace and the red for courage.

● 1901 . and defeats Gen.S.S.Treaty of Paris ends Spanish-American War. public outrage spawns rebellion.U. ● 1941 .S. .Japanese invades the Philippines. ● 1935 .S.General Emilio Aguinaldo establishes the a new republic at Biakna-Bato in Bulacan. which helped modernize and westernize the country. Noli Me Tangere (The Lost Eden).José Rizal publishes anti-Spanish novel. Taft improves economic conditions.Filipino people approve constitution creating the Philippine Commonwealth with Manuel Quezon y Molina as president. ● 1898 . governor of Philippines.U. cedes Philippines to U. William Howard Taft arrives as first U. Douglas MacArthur at Bataan and Corregidor. triggers the the Spanish-American war. ● 1897 .S. and seers up independence sentiment. the battle of Manila Bay ensues.Spanish execute Rizal for instigating insurrection. ● 1898 . ● 1886 . allowing Filipinos to study in U. ● 1896 . Cavite ● 1899 ..American warship Maine was blown up in Havana harbour. captures Aguinaldo. ● 1916 .S.● 1892 . congress approves the Tydings-McDuffie Law promising Philippine independence by 1946. after payment to Spain by U.S.Insurrection ends. of $ 20 million.Emilio Aguinaldo assembled the Malolos Congress in Bulacan. Quezon establishes government in exile in the U. settles disputes over church ownership of land. establishes "Pensionado" program. ● 1902 . ● 1934 .S. then declares independence in Kawit.Jose Rizal founded the civic organization La Liga Filipina. transition to independence begins. congress passes the Jones Law establishing elected Filipino legislature with house and senate. ● 1896 .S. Emilio Aguinaldo declares independence then leads a guerrilla war against U.U.Katipuneros tear their cedulas & shout in contempt of the Spaniards in what is called the Cry of Pugadlawin.

Aquino is declared president and forms a new government. Vice President Sergio Osmeña assumes the presidency.Asian financial crisis grips Asia and the Philippines escapes the crisis despite series of currency devaluations. ● 1965 .S.Quezon dies in exile. U. demonstrations erupt.Martial Law was declared by President Marcos.Estrada was forced to step down due to public outrage over corruption allegations. ● 1983 .On charges of corruption. ● 1996 .Opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino returns from exile and is assassinated on arrival at Manila International Airport. ● 2001 . ● 1998 . ● 1981 .Marcos lifts Martial Law. ● 1986 .● 1944 . Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) ends the guerrilla war with the government.Marcos was declared winner in a presidential election beating Corazon Aquino amid charges of fraud. Marcos flees to Hawaii. ● 1946 .S. MacArthur returns to the Philippines and lands in Leyte with little resistance. and Subic Bay naval base and Clark Air Field returns to Philippine government. gave the Philippines independence and Manuel Roxas y Acuña is elected as the first president of the new republic. . the lower house impeach Estrada. ● 1992 .Endorsed by Aquino.The U. MacArthur liberates Manila and President Osmeña establishes government. ending American military presence in the Philippines.Gen. ● 2000 . her Secretary of Defense Gen. Aquino's widow Corazon leads the "People Power" protest movement.Former movie actor Joseph Estrada is elected president.Ferdinand E. ● 1945 . ● 1972 . ● 1997 . Fidel Ramos wins presidential election.The government of Ramos agrees to greater autonomy for southern island of Mindanao. Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo assumes the presidency. Marcos is elected by a big majority as president.S. Philippine congress rejects a new treaty with the U.

First automated national elections in the Philippines. ● 2007 . ● 2010 .● 2004 . In September 2005. 2010. the first ever in the history of the Philippines. Arroyo's closest rival (a dear friend of Ex-President Estrada) is film actor Fernando Poe. Congress voted down the filing of an impeachment against Arroyo. Calls for her resignation and demonstrations followed soon after. ● 2010 . taking 39. ● 2005 .6%.A taped conversation between President Arroyo & an election official surfaced during the 2004 elections implying she influenced the official election results. Arroyo narrowly defeats Poe.Former President Joseph Estrada is convicted of plunder.5% of the vote to Poe's 36. Jr.Presidential election takes place. .Benigno "Noynoy" Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III wins the Presidential elections and sworn in at Manila's Rizal Park on June 30.