Planimetric Map. A planimetric map presents only the horizontal positions for the features represented.

It is distinguished from a topographic map by the omission of relief, normally represented by contour lines. Sometimes, it is called a line map. Topographic Map. A topographic map portrays terrain features in a measurable way, as well as the horizontal positions of the features represented. The vertical positions, or relief, are normally represented by contour lines on military topographic maps. On maps showing relief, the elevations and contours are measured from a specific vertical datum plane, usually mean sea level. Photomap. A photomap is a reproduction of an aerial photograph upon which grid lines, marginal data, place names, route numbers, important elevations, boundaries, and approximate scale and direction have been added. Joint Operations Graphics. Joint operations graphics are based on the format of standard 1:250,000 medium-scale military topographic maps, but they contain additional information needed in joint airground operations. Along the north and east edges of the graphic, detail is extended beyond the standard map sheet to provide overlap with adjacent sheets. These maps are produced both in ground and air formats. Each version is identified in the lower margin as either joint operations graphic (air) or joint operations graphic (ground). The topographic information is identical on both, but the ground version shows elevations and contour in meters and the air version shows them in feet. Layer (elevation) tinting and relief shading are added as an aid to interpolating relief. Both versions emphasize airlanding facilities (shown in purple), but the air version has additional symbols to identify aids and obstructions to air navigation. Photomosaic. A photomosaic is an assembly of aerial photographs that is commonly called a mosaic in topographic usage. Mosaics are useful when time does not permit the compilation of a more accurate map. The accuracy of a mosaic depends on the method employed in its preparation and may vary from simply a good pictorial effect of the ground to that of a planimetric map. Terrain Model. A terrain model is a scale model of the terrain showing features, and in large-scale models showing industrial and cultural shapes. It provides a means for visualizing the terrain for planning or indoctrination purposes and for briefing on assault landings. Military City Map. A military city map is a topographic map (usually at 1:12,550 scale, sometimes up to 1:5,000), showing the details of a city. It delineates streets and shows street names, important buildings, and other elements of the urban landscape important to navigation and military operations in urban terrain. The scale of a military city map depends on the importance and size of the city, density of detail, and available intelligence information. Special Maps. Special maps are for special purposes such as trafficability, communications, and assault maps. They are usually in the form of an overprint in the scales smaller than 1:100,000 but larger than 1:1,000,000. A special purpose map is one that has been designed or modified to give information not covered on a standard map. The wide range of subjects that could be covered under the heading of special purpose maps prohibits, within the scope of this manual, more than a brief mention of a few important ones. Some of the subjects covered are:         Terrain features. Drainage characteristics. Vegetation. Climate. Coasts and landing beaches. Roads and bridges. Railroads. Airfields.

[edit]Orientation of maps The Hereford Mappa Mundi. tax assessors. Road maps are perhaps the most widely used maps today. In addition to location information maps may also be used to portray contour lines (isolines) indicating constant values of elevation. by the Dutch cartographerFrederik de Wit. temperature. rainfall. A classic "T-O" map with Jerusalem at centre. carried out bymunicipalities. Europe the bottom left and Africa on the right. railroad network maps. which also include aeronautical and nautical charts. . east toward the top. emergency services providers. such as the British Ordnance Survey (now a civilian government agency internationally renowned for its comprehensively detailed work). England.Urban areas. Hereford Cathedral. and form a subset of navigational maps. Many national surveying projects have been carried out by the military. utilities. and other local agencies. etc. the largest number of drawn map sheets is probably made up by local surveys. Cartography or map-making is the study and practice of crafting representations of the Earth upon a flat surface (see History of cartography). Geographic maps A celestial map from the 17th century. and hiking and bicycling maps. and one who makes maps is called a cartographer. In terms of quantity. about 1300.

Old maps of Edo show the Japanese imperial palace as the "top". The word "orient" is derived from Latin oriens. reverse the "North is up" convention and have South at the top. for example. In the Middle Ages many maps. Indeed. the direction North would be towards or away from the centre of the map. degrees increase clockwise) for orientation of transects. degrees increase counter-clockwise). Compass decimal degrees can be converted to math degrees by subtracting them from 450. prior to the reintroduction ofPtolemy's Geography to Europe around 1400. were drawn with East at the top (meaning that the direction "up" on the map corresponds to East on the compass).The orientation of a map is the relationship between the directions on the map and the corresponding compass directions in reality. but also at the centre. are oriented to the shores they describe. respectively. rather than compass degrees (0 is north. of the map. Portolan charts. [edit]Scale and accuracy . Several kinds of maps are often traditionally not oriented with North at the top:  Maps from non-Western traditions are oriented a variety of ways. Typical maps of the Arctic have 0° meridian towards the bottom of the page.  Modern digital GIS maps such as ArcMap typically project north at the top of the map. meaning East. but use math degrees (0 is east. Polar maps of the Arctic or Antarctic regions are conventionally centred on the pole. there was no single convention in the West.  Buckminster Fuller's Dymaxion maps are based on a projection of the Earth's sphere onto an icosahedron. maps of the Antarctic have the 0° meridian towards the top of the page.  Reversed maps.  [citation needed] Medieval European T and O maps such as the Hereford Mappa Mundi were centred on Jerusalem with East at the top. Route and channel maps have traditionally been oriented to the road or waterway they describe. The resulting triangular pieces may be arranged in any order or orientation. including the T and O maps. Labels on the map are oriented in such a way that you cannot read them properly unless you put the imperial palace above your head. Today. the most common – but far from universal – cartographic convention is that North is at the top of a map. also known as Upside-Down maps or South-Up maps.    Maps of cities bordering a sea are often conventionally oriented with the sea at the top.

000.000 are small scale. continents and the whole globe. for example in a town planner's city map. but not all.000. cover large regions such as nations. say 1:10. .000 or 1:1.000. say 1:10. A narrow stream say must be shown to have the width of a pixel even if at the map scale it would be a small fraction of the pixel width.000 might well be considered as a medium scale. The same applies to computer maps where the smallest unit is the pixel. that is.000 of that same unit on the ground. Although the scale statement is nominal it is usually accurate enough for all but the most precise of measurements. on the other hand maps intended for motorists at 1:250.000. There is no exact dividing line between large and small but 1/100. which is a function of position. or approximately.000. on a printed map they would be narrower than could be perceived by the naked eye.000 maps produced for hikers. For example. The scale statement may be taken as exact when the region mapped is small enough for the curvature of the Earth to be neglected.A 'global view map' of Europe. the width of roads and small streams are exaggerated when they are too narrow to be shown on the map at true scale.000. meaning that 1 of any unit of measurement on the map corresponds exactly. Western Asia and Africa. Large scale maps. cover relatively small regions in great detail and small scale maps.000. maps are drawn to a scale. and strive to keep its variation within narrow bounds. The impossibility of flattening the sphere to the plane implies that no map projection can have constant scale: on most projections the best we can achieve is accurate scale on one or two lines (not necessarily straight) on the projection. The large/small terminology arose from the practice of writing scales as numerical fractions: 1/10. Over larger regions where the curvature cannot be ignored we must use map projections from the curved surface of the Earth (sphere or ellipsoid) to the plane. Thus for map projections we must introduce the concept of point scale. Examples of large scale maps are the 1:25. to 10.000 is larger than 1/10. It is important to recognise that even the most accurate maps sacrifice a certain amount of accuracy in scale to deliver a greater visual usefulness to its user. expressed as a ratio such as 1:10. Many.

smaller waterways or other prominent non-road objects. the practice makes the subject matter that the user is interested in easier to read. In AUTO the degree of decluttering is adjusted as the user changes the scale being displayed. OFF and AUTO as needed. have the scale deliberately distorted to reflect information other than land area or distance. [edit]Map types and projections Main article: World map Map of large underwater features. this map of Europe has been distorted to show population distribution. The basic geographical structure is respected but the tube lines (and the River Thames) are smoothed to clarify the relationships between stations. Software-based maps often allow the user to toggle decluttering between ON. Some maps. cartographers may simply omit military installations or remove features solely in order to enhance the clarity of the map.Cartogram: The EU distorted to show population distributions. dashed or dotted lines/outlines) than the main roads. and even if it does. For example. Near the center of the map stations are spaced out more than near the edges of map. it may show them less clearly (e. usually without sacrificing overall accuracy. (1995. a road map may not show railroads. Known as decluttering. while the rough shape of the continent is still discernable. NOAA) . called cartograms. Another example of distorted scale is the famous London Underground map. For example.g. For example. Further inaccuracies may be deliberate.

[edit]Electronic maps A USGS digital raster graphic. pointing out proximities and barriers not apparent on a conventional rectangular projection of the world. the indispensable tool of the cartographer has been the computer. fault lines. especially at the data-gathering survey level. Geological maps show not only the physical surface.  Azimuthal or Gnomonic map projections are often used in planning air routes due to their ability to represent great circles as straight lines. The cone intersects the sphere (the earth) at one or two parallels which are chosen as standard lines. Perhaps the best-known world-map projection is the Mercator projection.Topographic maps show elevations and relief with contour lines or shading. two-dimensional chart. has been subsumed by Geographic Information Systems (GIS). but characteristics of the underlying rock. Aeroplane pilots use aeronautical charts based on a Lambert conformal conic projection. soil type or land use including infrastruction such as roads. a way of translating the three-dimensional real surface of the geoid to a two-dimensional picture. From the last quarter of the 20th century. These used "bird's eye" projections to emphasise globally strategic "fronts" in the air age.  Richard Edes Harrison produced a striking series of maps during and after World War II for Fortune magazine. Maps that depict the surface of the Earth also use a projection. and subsurface structures. This allows the pilots to plot a great-circle route approximation on a flat.Maps of the world or large areas are often either 'political' or 'physical'. in which a cone is laid over the section of the earth to be mapped. the purpose of the physical is to show features of geography such as mountains. originally designed as a form of nautical chart. Much of cartography. The most important purpose of the political map is to show territorial borders. The functionality of maps has been greatly advanced by . railroads and buildings.

enlarging the same map without enlarging the pixels. possibly more detail can be seen.technology simplifying the superimposition of spatially located variables onto existing geographical maps. John Snow to discover the cause of cholera. enlarging the same map with the pixels enlarged (replaced by rectangles of pixels). depending on the quality of one's vision. Today. but may apply for a cathode ray tube). or demographic data integrated within the map allows more efficient analysis and better decision making. distribution of wildlife. centered where possible on the same point. hence showing more detail by removing less information compared to the less detailed version 3. then replacing a pixel by a rectangle of pixels does show more detail. In the pre-electronic age such superimposition of data led Dr. A variation of this method isinterpolation. it is used by agencies of the human kind. but overlapping instead (this does not apply for an LCD. most cartographers now use a variety of computer graphics programs to generate new maps. . allowing users to zoom in or zoom out (respectively meaning to increase or decrease the scale). zooming in entails one or a combination of: 1. if a computer display does not show adjacent pixels really separate. Having local information such as rainfall level. as diverse as wildlife conservationists and militaries around the world. sometimes by replacing one map with another of different scale. but. Relief map Sierra Nevada Even when GIS is not involved. From the computer scientist's point of view. In-car global navigation satellite systems are computerised maps with route-planning and advice facilities which monitor the user's position with the help of satellites. no additional detail is shown. computerised maps are commercially available. Interactive. replacing the map by a more detailed one 2.

The NGA can provide black and white reproductions of many foreign maps and can produce its own maps based upon intelligence.   (2) may apply to text and (3) to the outline of a map feature such as a forest or building. Foreign maps have been compiled by nations other than our own. use substitute maps. The scales may differ from our maps. of course. (1) may apply to the text as needed (displaying labels for more features). Fuels. For example:  Typically (2) applies to a Portable Document Format (PDF) file or other format based on vector graphics. limited to the information contained in the file: enlargement of a curve may eventually result in a series of standard geometric figures such as straight lines. If military maps are not available.          Electric power. Ground water resources. Airborne operations. Cross-country movements. Foreign Maps. but they do express the ratio of map distance to ground distance and can be used in the same way. The substitute maps can range from foreign military or commercial maps to field sketches. Suitability for airfield construction. a road represented by a double line may or may not become wider when one zooms in. arcs of circles or splines. if time permits. Surface water resources. Text is not necessarily enlarged when zooming in. For a single raster graphics image (2) applies until the pixels in the image file correspond to the pixels of the display. Natural construction materials. Similarly. while (2) applies to the rest of the image.  The map may also have layers which are partly raster graphics and partly vector graphics. thereafter (3) applies. the marginal information and grids are changed to conform to our standards. The increase in detail is. When they must be used.A world map in PDF format. The legend must be used since the map symbols almost always differ from .

. Geographic Maps. museums. Aerial photographs can be used as map supplements or substitutes to help you analyze the terrain. Tourist Road Maps. Some of these maps show secondary networks of roads. vegetation. and hydrography. countries. Tourist road maps are maps of a region in which the main means of transportation and areas of interest are shown. City/Utility Maps. They also show the general location of major urban areas. Because the accuracy of foreign maps varies considerably. and beaches in detail. or guide your movement. relief. They may contain road and time distance between points. they are usually evaluated in regard to established accuracy standards before they are issued to our troops. electricity and telephone lines. Atlases are collections of maps of regions. historic sites. plan your route. Geographic maps provide an overall idea of the mapped area in relation to climate. Field sketches are preliminary drawings of an area or piece of terrain. or the world. continents.ours. City/utility maps are maps of urban areas showing streets. The scale should be carefully considered when using these maps. Field Sketches. Such maps are accurate only to a degree and can be used for general information only. Atlases. and sewers. Aerial Photographs. water ducts. population.

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. They use map colors in a variety of ways. .Road maps and other general use maps are often a jumble of color..

lest you decide to turn right at an aqueduct. streams. national parks. buildings. forest.deserts. borders  Yellow . reservoirs.parks. highways.lakes. topographic maps to represent features added to the map since the original survey) As you can see. rivers. .S. special interest sites. local borders Red .built-up or urban areas  Green . reservations. (also used on U. contour (elevation) lines  Black .roads.G. airports. different maps can use colors in a variety of ways. military reservations or bases. borders  Purple .highways. historical sites. oceans.major highways. urban areas. It is important to look at the map key or map legend for the map you are using to become familiar with the color scheme. place names. golf courses. highways  Brown . highways.S.  Blue . orchards. buildings. place names. military sites. roads. bridges. railroads.