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ProductionandOperationsManagement

Unit12

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Unit12:
Structure
12.1Introduction BalancingforMaterialFlow 12.2.1 TheLineBalancingProblem 12.2.2JohnsonsAlgorithmofSequencing

PlantLayoutandMaterialHandling

12.2.3CDSAlgorithmfornjobsonmmachines 12.3Principles,PracticesandAdvancedAnalysisfororderpicking 12.3.1Equipments 12.3.2DesignConsideration 12.4ConsiderationswhenplanningandimplementingIntegratedMaterialHandling Systems 12.5ErgonomicsandMaterialHandling:AtaskorientedAssessmentofNeedsand Solutions 12.6 ApproachesforShopFloorSequencingofMaterialHandlingJobs 12.7 Summary TQ AnswertoSAQsandTQs 12.1 Introduction Material handlinghas become one ofthe importantfunctions of Operations Management owing to thenecessityofmakingthemefficientandeconomical.Thisnecessityistheoutcomeofworldwide outsourcing and meeting the demands of a global market. Variety and volumes have compelled companiestoseekspecializedsuppliersfromvariouscountries.Assembliestakeplaceatdifferent locations and distribution is across the world. Many companies do not have main stores at their manufacturing facilities. Suppliers deliver the required quantities to the places where they are requiredforfurtherprocessingorassembly.Toreduceinventoryonlyrequiredquantitieshavetobe madeanddeliveredatappropriatetimes.Thisnecessitatesthatflowlinesaresmooth.Balancing

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SikkimManipalUniversity 173

ProductionandOperationsManagement

Unit12

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flow lines, differentequipmentstoachievethe same and preparing layouts to achieve these is the subjectmatterofthisunit.

LearningObjectives: AfterStudyingthisUnityouwill
1. Knowtheimportanceofagoodlayoutinenablingefficientmaterialhandling 2. understandtheprinciplesinvolvedindesigningIntegratedMaterialHandlingSystems 3. appreciate the importance of the way human body is subjected to different forces when performingvariousactionsduringmaterialhandling 4. knowhowmaterialflowisregulatedsothatbalancingofworkloadsbecomesefficient. 12.2 Balancing for Material Flow Production lines have a number of workcentres in a

particular sequence so that the material that gets processed has to move further without encountering any bottlenecks. Thequantities produced, the rateof production ateach center, the numberofoperationsandthetotalproductionrequiredarefactorstakenintoaccount.Thepurpose of balancing is to see that no shortages occur between workcentres and minimum inventory gets created. We use the principles of JIT and Lean Manufacturing to achieve these. Linear Programming, dynamic programming and other mathematical models are used to study these problems. Some computerefficient approximate algorithms have been developed to help the process. 12.2.1 The Line Balancing Problem

Assembly lines are best suited for the study and

analysis of the Line Balancing Problem called Assembly Line Balancing ( ALB ). All ALB are categorizedbyGhoshandGagnonastofallingintofourcategoriesasunder: SMD SingleModelDeterministic Thismodelassumesthattheoneproductthatpassesthrough the dedicated line has all tasks times known. This model is useful when automatic machines or whereoperationshavetheirtimespredictablewithcertainty. SMS Single Model Stochastic This models allows the task times to be variable. This is applicable when a single product goes through machines where manual content is more and the operationsdonothavedefiniteperiods.Determininglocationsandsizesofbuffersrequiretokeep thethroughputisthepurposeofthisalgorithm.

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ProductionandOperationsManagement

Unit12

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MMD Multi/Mixed ModelDeterministic : Inthiscasetasktimesareknown,butwehavemany productsthatgothroughtheline.Theproductsareassembledinbatches. MMS Multi/MixedModelStochastic :Thetasktimesarevariableandwehavemanyproducts thatgothroughtheproductionline.Theproblemsofbalancingsuchlinesismore.Decomposition of the assembly into subassemblies and having advanced handling equipment may help to make inventoriessmallkeepingtheflowlinesmooth. Generally the criteria for all the above cases are technical and economic ones. The technical criterion seeks to maximize the line efficiency throughput. Minimising thenumber of workstations, numberofoperatorsandreducingthequantumofbuffersaretheeconomiccriteria.Manytimesa trade off may be necessary. It is for the operations manager to balance between two competing requirements.

12.2.2JohnsonsAlgorithmofSequencing Thisalgorithmisusedforsequencingofnjobs
through two work centres. The purpose is to minimize idle time on machines and reduce the total timetakenforcompletingallthejobs.Therearenopriorityrulessincealljobhaveequalpriority.The Theorderoftheoperationswillbemachine1firstandmachine2next. Thestepstobetakenare: (i) (ii) (iii) Choosethejobwhichhastheshortestprocessingtimeinanyofthetwoworkcentres. Ifithappenstobeonmachine1,thenloaditfirstifitisonmachine2,allotitforloadinglast. Eliminatethisjob.Continuethistillalljobobleobshavebeenallotted.

Example:Timeon

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ProductionandOperationsManagement

Unit12

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Job A B C D E F M/c1 2.5 3.5 1 2.25 3.75 1.25 M/c2 1.5 2.0 3.25 2.75 1.75 4.0

Time1Hr.isonM/c1 loaditfirst.Cancelthe rowwhichcontains1and 3.25.ThejobisC Next,time1.25ison M/c1.LoadjobFnext. Thenextis1.5whichis onM/c.2.Loaditlast. ThejobisE,,continue

Theloadingsequenceisgivenintheboxbelow C F B D E A

Incasetheperiodsontwomachinesforanyofthejobsisthesame,youmaychooseeitherofthem forapplyingtheaboverule

12.2.3CDSAlogrithmfornjobsonmmachines: ThisalgorithmgivenbyCampbell,Dudek
andSmith,givesm1solutionsandwecanchoosethemostoptimalamongthem. Wewillusethe Johnsons rule by converting the number of machines from m to 2, by considering differing combinationslike1andm,then1+2,thenM1andM,then1+2+3andaM2,M1andM,andso on.Thisprocessisuseful,whenthnumbersofmachinesissmall.Wewillworkoutaproblemwhen wehave4machines.

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ProductionandOperationsManagement

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Example: TimeonMachinesinHrs. Job M1 M2 M3 M4

A6874 B4536 C5573 D3462 E4 347

TakecolumnM1andM4,ignoringM2 andM3.Getthesequencebyapplying Johnsonsrule NextCombineM1andM2 Makeit asonemachineMX andcombneM3 andM4andcallitMY.Getthe sequence. NextCombineM1andM2andM3 andcallitMC. Similarlycombine M2andM3andM4.CallitMD.Find thesequence. Calculatethetotaltimetakento processalljobsA,BC,DandE. Choosewhichevergiventhetotaltime.

Thefirsttablewillbe MachiningTime Job A B C D E M1 6 4 5 3 4 M4 4 6 3 2 7

Calculatethetotaltimetakenwhenthissequenceisfollowed.Remember,thatexceptforM1,other machinesmayhavetowaittostarttheiroperations,untilthepreviousoperationisover.Youhave toincludeidletimesatthebeginning,middleortheend.

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ProductionandOperationsManagement

Unit12

________________________________________________________________________________ 12.3Principles,PracticesandAdvancedAnalysisfororderpicking
Order Picking is a process by which items or productsfor which supply is to be made have to be retrievedfromspecificstoragelocation. Itisfoundtotake60%oflabouractivitiesinthewarehouse. Since it is critical to business to the meet customers demand expeditiously and accurately, lot of attentionisbeinggiventothisaspectofoperations.Inthemanufacturingarena,wedesiretomove towards small lot sizes, pointofusedelivery and cycle time reductions. These are necessary to meetthetargetsofJIT,whichhaveeconomicimplications.Efficientorderpickingisnecessaryfor being competitive. In the supply chain, storage, retrieval and delivery do not add value to the product,butarenecessary.

12.3.1 Equipments
efficiencytotheprocess.

First we will see the types of equipments that help us in bring in

(a) HorizontalTravel Theseareintheaisle,pickertopartsystemsThepickeraworker walksorridesavehicleandpickstheitemorproductandputsintothecartorvehicle.Hemay alsopickanplacetheitemonaconveyor.Thestoragesystemcouldbe palletracks,shelves, storagedrawersorgravityflowracks.Thepalletrackscanbeonlyoneortwolevels. (b)PersonAboardInthissystemthepickerisonaplatformofthevehiclehecanmoveupas alsohorizontallyalongtheaisle. (c) ParttoPicker Thesearemechanizedsystems. Hereastorage/retrieveldevicecarriesthe trays or bins to the person picking. These act on the instructions received through a remote controldevicewiththepicker.Morethanonepickercanalsoaccessthesystem. (d) Specialequipment Forhighthroughputandspaceefficiencyspecialequipmentaremade which are in theform of moveable shelves, rotary racks, mobile shuttlesthat travel in lanes or evenanautomaticitempickerwhichhasdispensingmechanismsthatejectitemsonaconveyor belt. (e) WorkplaceEquipment Itemscanbekeptonaworkbenchandbepickedup.Thecarts alsoareusedtokeepitemsforbeingpickedup. It should be noted that any of the systems described above are to suit the purpose and economies that can be derived. Before implementing any of these a detailed study of alternatives, a plan for expansion or reduction in the requirement of a particular product or a

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SikkimManipalUniversity 178

ProductionandOperationsManagement

Unit12

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probableshiftingofthelocationetc.willhavetobeundertaken.Someofthesefactorsarelisted below: A. B. C. Materialproperties size,weightandnestability cartoncounts,palletcounts fragility, value fragility environmenttemperature,humidity SystemRequirementsfortheproduct Volumeperproduct Numberofordertobeshipped Responsetime Supportingprocesseslabeling,pricing, Growthfactors EconomicFactors InvestmentRequired Projectlife Rateofreturn

12.3.2 DesignConsiderations Designconsiderationsarise,mainlyoutofthefollowing.Some ofthefactorsmentionedabovealsoarerelevantforthepurposeofdesign.Theyare a) b) c) d) Totalnumberofproductsthataretobestored Numberofproductsreceivedpershift Totalnumbersretrievedpershift Variabilityintheabove Thesewilldeterminethedimensionsofthebuildingrequiredfor

the purpose. Sizes of bins, racks, pallets are also fixed on the basis of above. Choice betweencarts,carousals,vehicles,conveyors,automaticitempickerscanbemadeasalso thespaceforlocatingandmovingthem. e) f) Labourforce ManagementInformationSystem.

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ProductionandOperationsManagement

Unit12

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SelfAssessmentQuestions1
1. In the supply chain, storage, retrieval and delivery do not add value to the product, but are necessary.(True/False)

12.4 Considerations when planning and implementing Integrated Material Handling

Systems

Material handling systems need to be made efficient so that resources used help

maintain the flow of material with minimum blockages bottlenecks and throughput being maximum. Integration is between various equipments, processes, information and a system of control. Inevitably, we use computer systems and some amount of automation to bring in efficiencies,whichotherwisewouldbelost.

12.5

ErgonomicsandMaterialHandling:AtaskorientedAssessmentofNeedsand

Solutions Inergonomics,thebodyisstudiedasifitwereamachinethewaythelimbsmove,
thekneesbend,thehandsreachorgrip,weightsarebeliftedatdifferentpositionsoftheback.The dynamicmotionsthatthebodyandtheorgansaresubjectedtoarestudiedwithaviewtodesigning the systems so that injuries. Dr. Bill Marris developed, what isfamous as ,LMMLumbar Motion Monitor inastudyoflowbackinjury.Itallowsmeasurementoftheforcesatworkinbendingand twisting.Thishelpsustomakeimproveddecisionsregardingjobimprovements.Thisisspecially helpful in material handling stations where workmen have to lift weights, raise them to awkward potionstofindaplace,movethem,holdthem,pushthem.Whenthesamemovementsaretobe repeated a number of times, knowing the problems the movements can cause, we can design equipments to reduce difficulties faced by the workers. You will remember that the same considerationswerediscussedwhenworkingonmachineswasconsidered.Itisworthmentioneda word of caution. Machine shop operations or material handling, we have to assess the need for implementing any methodology,becausethesewould havebeen workedout by theoperatorsand supervisors over years in different job situations and because it affects them on a personal basis, bestpracticeswouldhavesetin.Materialhandlingsystemsaremostlyoutsourcedandtheexpertise of the contractor will be of great help. However, the particular needs for the products which are handledbyus,theshapes,volumesandthetypeofhandlinglikelifting,storage,retrievalandloading

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SikkimManipalUniversity 180

ProductionandOperationsManagement

Unit12

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can be formulated and projected data will be useful. Solutions that are required should be consideredforalongtermusageasalsopossiblechangesthatcanbeanticipated.

12.6

Approaches for Shop Floor Sequencing of Material Handling Jobs

Sequencingdecidestheorderinwhichjobsareloadedondifferentmachines.Thepurposeistotake the job through the technological steps in which the processing needs to be done for the transformationthatistobeeffectedonthematerialthatisgettingprocessed.Themajorconcerns areaboutthequantitiesthatneedtobeprocessedandthetimethatthedifferentoperationsrequire. In case the product has to enter assembly, along with other parts that are being manufactured parallely,willalltherequiredpartsarriveatthatpointatthesametime.Somecomponentsmaybe outsourced.Tohandledifferentparts,wehavematerialhandlingequipmentssuchas cranes,lifting forks,trucksetc.Theproblemforthemanageristhelimitedsupplyoftheseequipmentsandthe needto optimize utilization of the equipmentand see that the manufacturing line hassmoothflow. Our concern is to reduced inventory, minimum movement and timely availability. This needs an integrationofinformationaboutallthefactorsandmakedecisionswhichaccommodateandoptimise utilisationofresources.

SelfAssessmentQuestions2.
1. Materialhandlingsystemsaremostly___________andthe___________ofthecontractor willbeofgreathelp.

12.7 Summary
InthisUnitwehaveconsideredvariousfactorsthataffectthelayoutofthemanufacturingplaceto provide for efficient utilization of the floor space vis a vis workflow. For sequencing of jobs JohnsonsAlgorithmisausefulstaringpointandmoreadvancedmethodologiesarealsoavailable. Balancingtheproductionisaveryimportantaspectofachievingmaximumthroughputandreducing inventory.Materialhandlingsystemsarealsoconsidered.

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SikkimManipalUniversity 181

ProductionandOperationsManagement

Unit12

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Terminal Questions

1. WhatdoyouunderstandbyLineBalancing? 2. Whatistheimportanceoforderpickinginmaterialhandling? 3. Materialmovementinamanufacturingplanconsiderseconomicsimportant.Why?Howareits


principlesapplied?

4. Describeasuccessfulcomputerintegratedmaterialhandlingsystem. 5. ExplainJohnsonsruleforsequencingandhowitisdifferentfromCDSalgorithm
AnswersforSelfAssessmentQuestions SelfAssessmentQuestions1 1.True SelfAssessmentQuestions2 1.Outsourced,Expertise AnswersforTerminalQuestions. 1.Refertounit12.2.1 2.Refertounit12.3 3.Refertounit12.5 4.Refertounit12.5 5.Refertounit.12.2

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