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‫ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬ 
 84 Po − 86 Rn − 88 Ra − 90Th − 93 Np − 94 Pu :‫א  
ولאو‬
λ = 1,36.10-11 s-1 : !")‫א‬$%‫ذא&א‬،α‫"! אط‬# 226 Ra ‫(א אدم‬1
226−‫*א אدم‬$+,‫ د‬-‫א‬./0 ،1$2‫ (א‬1.1
t !")‫אوא‬1456(2.1 

 1/2 

=>?6‫و‬-$@‫و‬A#‫א ول‬BC‫א‬.t 0 79,:;!m0 = 10-3 Kg 7$0$2،‫!  
א אدم‬8$(3.1 
t0 + 4 t1/2 

t0 + 3 t1/2 

t0 + 2 t1/2   

t + t1/2 

0  

 t0 

tD$‫א‬  

*$+$E‫א אدمא‬0$2
m(10-3Kg) 

.‫א; א‬.‫عد‬+,‫א‬H5/‫ و‬C$4 IJ$E‫אאא‬.،β− ‫"! אط‬# 239 Np ‫ م‬$F‫(א‬2 
‫ م‬$F‫*א‬$+,‫ د‬1$2‫(א‬1.2 
.*$+$‫אא‬KL
!M‫א@א‬145‫(א‬2.2 
‫*؟‬$+$‫אא‬KL
!M‫ א@א‬7:,‫ن‬6
OPBO"6Q0!(3.2 

m( 239 Np ) : 239,12777u * m( 239 Pu ) : 239,12700u
1u = 931,5MeV .C − 2 * m(e − ) = 0,00055u 

‫אو‬B$O‫א‬: 

‫ﺍﳊﻞ‬
226 
&0V)‫אدא‬W+X‫د)א‬S‫@ن‬T F, 88

Ra → 24 He + 226
86 Rn :L*$+$‫( دא‬1.1 
(Y‫وא‬ 

.t1/2 = 5,1.10 s= ‫و‬λ = 1,36.10
10

−11 -1

s 

:‫!د‬T F, t1 / 2 =

ln 2

λ

λ= 
Z$$4

ln 2
t1 / 2 @/‫( 
א‬2.1 

:CF$E‫*و `א‬$+$E‫א‬a‫א‬0$2_0E^‫ א‬.‫[אل‬4‫@ א\א‬1](3.1 
- ‫אدوא‬KOL‫و‬1/2 +1/4 :B ;‫وא‬b6QCF, cd*$+$ S ef >!cd‫و‬cd‫*א‬$+$ Scd‫!> א‬ 
t0 + 4 t1/2  

t0 + 3 t1/2 

t0 + 2 t1/2

1 1 1 1 15
1 1 1 7
+ + +
= 
+ + =
2 4 8 16 16
2 4 8 8 

1 1 3
+ =
2 4 4

t + t1/2 

 t0 

tD$‫א‬

1
2 

0 

*$+$E‫א אدمא‬0$2
m(10-3Kg) 

0  

 93 Np → 94 Pu + −1 e :L‫د‬E‫(א‬2
239 



[

]

∆E = m( Pu ) + m(e − ) − m( Np) .C 2
∆E = m( Pu ).C 2 + m(e − ).C 2 − m( Np ).C 2

239

0 

:L*$+$‫! 
א‬M‫(א@א‬2.2

MeV.C-2 5‫و‬B>$4uLB$O‫א‬5‫نو‬6g
m(Pu).C2 = 239,127.931,5 = 222746,8MeV
m(e) .C2 = 0,00055.931,5 = 0512325MeV 
m ((Np) .C2 = 239,12777.931,5 = 222747,51 MeV

:h@/‫א‬iC4‫א‬j C‫א‬$

∆E = −0,2 MeV 

((2& E‫א‬145)‫ א‬5‫"عو‬#BO"Q0!@‫א‬kKL 7:,  

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‫ﺍﻷﺳﺌﻠﺔ‬ 
7$$+,‫[د‬K‫وא‬

14
6

C ‫ ن‬O‫א‬:E‫ 
אא&א‬0 0@F4Q0!l‫אدא‬E‫א‬1 2 ,iBeK‫ نא‬O‫^ א‬$(1 
.β−‫א)"ع‬mF‫א‬A# 

Y $E‫א‬0A 0$O‫و!دא‬ZY‫دאא‬n،14‫ ن‬O‫*א‬$+$‫אو‬B!+$‫ دא‬1$2‫(א‬1.1 
 4 Be − 5 B − 6 C − 7 N − 8 O .Y$E‫אא‬o!(2.1 
t 0= 0 :Y0‫!دאא&!א‬N0،t:Y0‫א‬i.‫א‬$E‫א‬E‫ !دאא&א‬N (t ) 
 t1 / 2

=

ln 2

λ

= N 0 .e − λ .t @/‫א‬,(2 

@/‫א‬Z$$S‫א‬، !")‫אوא‬c ,p!6(1.2
3 

l!‫!   
د‬i‫د‬.E‫ نא‬O‫א‬0$2Lm 0 *2‫ذא‬#،t1/2 = 5,5.10 ans L14‫ ن‬O0!")‫(אوא‬2.2 
t1 = 2 t 1/2 :Y0‫!א‬l‫א א‬kKLi‫د‬.E‫ نא‬O‫א‬0$2m0 r.‫و‬6،t0 = 0 :Y0‫و!א‬q 

m
= 79 0 0 F4‫ن‬O,D,6i(3.2
m0 

j@.1e !,.‫ص‬d$ r‫אא‬KLc@$7, !‫و‬، ‫א‬t/u‫א‬i‫د‬.E‫ نא‬O‫&א; א‬,F‫א‬v$?(3 
‫؟‬1x‫!> א‬L .C @‫א‬i*$+,1350C4‫א‬0$O‫`א‬+w،7‫א‬1 @1e 
!,‫و‬C @‫א‬i*$+,197 

:‫ﺍﳊﻞ‬ 
W+Xr‫א‬o‫@א‬T F$-‫ وذ‬6 C → 7Y + −1 e :‫אو‬B!+$‫( دא‬1.1
14 



14
7

14

0

N :L‫و 
א ولא‬.A = 14 ‫و‬Z = 7 w$E‫אא‬ 

.&‫א‬0‫و‬z‫א א‬cd*$+$ ‫ز‬/‫א‬t ½ E‫א‬L!")‫(אوא‬2.1

N (2t1 / 2 ) = N 0 .e

 ln 2 
− 2 t1 / 2... .

 λ 

N (t ) = N 0 .e − λ .t

N
t = t1 / 2 ⇒ N = 0
N0
2
⇒ N (2t1 / 2 ) =
4 

a‫ن!دא‬O t = 2t1/2:Y0‫((!א‬2.2 1 
:
⇒ = e −λt1 / 2 ⇒ e −λ .t1 / 2 = 2
m0
N
m 1
2
=
= ⇔m=
4
N 0 m0 4
ln 2
⇒ t1 / 2 =

λ  

t

m
m0
m
N 
= ‫و‬
= 79 0 0 = 0,79 ⇒
= 0,79 *2‫ذא‬#(3.2
ln 2
m0
N0

t1 / 2 . ln

= 1873ans :‫!د‬.& t =  

a

= a 0 .e − λ .t :Z$$4Sz‫א‬v@$‫ و 
@نא‬a 0 = λ .N 0 Lt = 0:Y0‫א‬i!")‫نאطא‬6j0(3
t1 / 2 . ln 

t = 15275ans = ‫و‬a 0 = 1350 ‫و‬a =197 ‫ع‬.& t =

ln 2

a
a0 

cd‫!> א‬IF,
‫و‬C4‫@א‬/‫ 
א‬ 
S15275L1x‫ذن!> א‬# 

:‫ﺍﳊﻞ‬  

E‫א‬0 d+‫אدא& 
א‬$‫א‬p{E‫א‬ 
 239
92 U 238‫|وא م‬ 

!M‫‚>! 
אא&א‬L:E‫א‬0 d+‫( א‬1 

 E‫א‬0 d+‫א‬t ! (1 

&$$+$‫ 
א‬040S 0 z‫`אא‬+ 
&‫ زאא‬Z$$4= ‫و‬

Z +N
Z

X 

BO‫א‬i0%}B2q  , + O1$2‫( א‬2 
Y‫د‬5‫و‬ 

L‫א‬q  (2 

(1) ;(2) ,(3) m/%‫&א‬$$+$‫&א‬r‫ د‬1$2‫( א‬3

:p{E‫א‬i‫د‬.E‫א‬
210
82

210
206
206
Pb; 210
83 Bi; 84 Po; 82 Y ≡ 82 Pb 

‫~ل‬B2‫ل‬/eFE‫دאعא)"عא‬n 
–‫€ون‬O)،(3)*$+$‫! 
א‬M‫א@א‬145‫( א‬4 

:L&$$+$‫( א‬3

(eV) p^

β
210
0
(1):210
82 Pb → 83 Bi + −1 e 

 ( 2):

210
83

β−

Bi →

210
84

‫ م‬F‫نאوא)"!א‬6>0! (5
t ½ =138 jours

Po + e
0
−1

α
206
4
(3):210
→
84 Po 
82 Pb + 2 He

∆E = ∆m.C 2

[ 

‫  
! א‬7/8*$+$ ‫ز‬/‫א‬E‫دא‬5(1.5
Po

] 

:

210
2
∆E = m( He) + m( 206
82 Pb) − m( 84 Po) .C :M‫(א@א‬4

m(Y ) = 206,0385u

∆E = 5,4MeV
−3
−1 
 λ = 5.10 ( jours) = ‫و‬

ln 2 ‫ن‬6j0(1.5
λ=
t1/ 2 

2.5

N
t1/ 2.ln
N0
t=
ln2 

m( Po) = 210,0482u
1u = 9315MeV .C − 2

m(α ) = 4,0039u   

CS@/!

N/N0 =1/8 b
t = 415joursh