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BOILING AND CONDENSATION 1


Boiling and condensation are also heat transfer process like conduction, convection and 2
radiation but main difference is that Boiling and condensation involves a phase change of the 3
substance. 4
In boiling, liquid phase of the substance changes into vapour phase while in 5
condensation, vapour phase changes into liquid phase. 6
These process takes place at CONSTANT TEMPERATURE. The heat transfer rate in 7
Boiling and condensation is very high as compared to other modes of heat transfer due to 8
latent heat associated with phase change of the substance. 9
A vapour is condensed when it reaches the saturation temperature at its existing pressure 10
and the vapour phase of the substance changes into liquid phase by releasing its latent heat 11
of vapourization (when the vapour comes into contact with any solid surface having 12
temperature lower than saturation temperature corresponding to the vapour pressure). 13
During condensation temperature does not change as the vapour is converting into 14
liquid by releasing its latent heat of vapourization. 15
During the process of condensation, the condensate formed on the surface flows 16
down the surface under the action of gravity. 17
If the liquid wets the surface, a smooth liquid film is formed which flows down along 18
the surface. This process is called filmwise condensation. 19
If the liquid does not wet the surface, droplets are formed which falls down the 20
surface in some random fashion. The process is called dropwise condensation. 21
In filmwise condensation, the vapour condensation takes place on the cold surface. 22
The condensation wets the surface and tries to spread out due to gravitational force. 23
Ultimately the condensate falls down from the surface on increasing thickness of the liquid 24
film due to gravity. 25
26
Filmwise condensation is not preffred as layer of liquid is deposited on the cold 27
surface having high resistance to heat flow which hinders the transfer of heat from the 28
vapour to cold surface. The filmwise condensation leads to low transfer of heat from the 29
2

vapour to the cold surface and hence formation of filmwise condensation is less effective 1
but preffred in most of applications as it can be easily achieved in application. 2
Filmwise condensation takes place on clean surface and when vapour having no 3
impurity (i.e. impurities like organic substance or fatty acid). 4
In dropwise condensation, condensate does not spread on the cold surface to form 5
liquid film. Instead condensate forms a liquid droplet which grows in size and ultimately 6
they break away from the cold surface. The condensation of vapour takes place most 7
effectively as the condensate does not form liquid film on the cold surface. The cold surface 8
remains continuously exposed to the vapour to facilitate effective condensation. 9
10
Such type of condensation takes place when cold surface is highly polished or has 11
coating of taflon or zink. Impurities (like organic substance or fatty acid) in vapour are also 12
helpful for dropwise condensation. 13
Although heat transfer rate in case of dropwise condensation is much higher than 14
what is possible in case of filmwise condensation, but it is difficult to achieve dropwise 15
condensation. Therefore, in spite of low heat transfer possible in filmwise condensation, 16
filmwise condensation is assumed for designing condensers. 17
LAMINAR FILMWISE CONDENSATION OVER A VERTICAL PLATE 18
Nusselts theory of film condensation is applied for vapour condensation occurring 19
on a vertical plate. Nusselts analysis of film condensation is based on following simplifying 20
assumptions: 21
(a) Vapour is pure, dry and saturated 22
(b) The flow of condensate is due to action of gravity and is laminar 23
(c) The liquid film has attained surface temperature at contact with the cold surface and 24
saturation temperature exist at liquid-vapour interface. 25
(d) Viscous, shear and gravitational forces act on the fluid in the film along the surface. 26
Normal viscous and inertia forces are neglected. 27
(e) No velocity gradient at liquid-vapour interface i.e. 0
y
u
y
o =
| | c
=
|
c
\ .
, where u is the 28
velocity, y is the distance from surface and . is film thickness o 29
(f) Heat transfer in the film is by conduction and temperature distribution in the film is 30
linear. 31
3

(g) Heat transfer is taking place under steady state. 1
Consider condensation of vapour on a vertical plate as shown in the figure. Take 2
origin o at upper end of the plate, x axis along vertical surface and y axis 3
perpendicular to it. 4
Take heigheat transfer of plate = L 5
Breadth of plate = b 6
Thickness of film = o at a distance x from the origin. 7
The fil thickness is zero at upper end of the plate and it increases gradually till 8
lower end of the plate where film thickness is maximum. 9
Consider an element having dimensions , x y and b A A at a distance x from the 10
plate surface. 11
12
Various forces acting the element are: 13
( ) ( )
L L L
Body forceactingindownward direction m g b x y g g b x y ( = = A A = A A

14
( ) ( )
L v v
Buoyancy forceacting in upward direction m g b x y g g b x y ( = = A A = A A

15
Let
Force F
Shear stress
Areaon which forceis acting upon A
t = = = 16
( ) ( )
y y y
F acting inupward direction Area b x t t = = A 17
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
y y y y y y
d d
F acting in downward direction y Area y b x
dy dy
t t t t
+A
| | | |
= + A = + A A
| |
\ . \ .
18
At equilibrium 19
4

( )
L v at y at y y
m g m g F F
+A
= 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
L v y y y
d
g b x y g b x y b x y b x
dy
t t t
(
| |
( A A A A = A + A A
( |

\ .

2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
L v y y y
d
g b x y y b x
dy
t t t
(
| |
A A = + A A
( |
\ .

3
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
L v y
d
g b x y y b x
dy
t
| |
A A = A A
|
\ .
4
( ) ( ) ( )( )
L v y
d
g b x y b x y
dy
t A A = A A 5
( ) ( )
L v y
d
g
dy
t = 6
Now
y
du
dy
t = 7
( )
L v
d du
g
dy dy

| |
=
|
\ .
8
( )
2
2 L v
d u
g
dy
= 9
( )
2
2
L v
g
d u
dy

= 10
Integrating 11
( )
1
L v
g
du
y C
dy

| |
= +
|
\ .
12
Integrating once again 13
( )
2
1 2
2
L v
g
y
u C y C

| |
= + +
|
\ .
14
Applying boundary conditions 15
0, 0 At y u = = 16
5

, 0
du
At y
dy
o = = 1
We get
( )
1
L v
g
C
o

= 2
2
0 C = 3
Therefore, velocity profile is given by 4
( ) ( )
2
2
L v L v
g g
y
u y
o

| | | |
= +
| |
\ . \ .
5
( )
2
2
L v
g
y
u y

o

| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
6
( )
2 2
1
2
L v
g
y y
u
o
o o
| |

| |
= |
|
|
\ .
\ .
7
The mean velocity in the liquid film at a distance y from the plate is given by 8
0
1
mean
u udy
o
o
=
}
9
( )
2 2
0
1 1
2
L v
mean
g
y y
u dy
o
o
o o o
| |
| |

| |
| = |
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .
}
10
( )
2
3
L v
mean
g
u
o

= 11
To find out change in mass flow rate 12
The mass flow through a section at distance x is given by 13
( )
x L mean
m Density Flow area Mean flowvelocity b u o = = 14
( )
( )
2
3
L v
x L
g
m b
o
o

| |
=
|
|
\ .
15
( )
3
3
L L v
x
gb
m
o

=

16
6

As the flow proceeds from ( ), x to x x +A the film thickness grows from 1
( ) to o o o +A because of additional condensation of the vapour on the cold surface. 2
( ) at x x x x
d
m m m x
dx
+A
| |
= + A
|
\ .

3
Therefore, increases in mass flow due to travel of condensate from ( ), x to x x +A is 4
given by 5
( ) ( ) x x x x x x x x x
d
m m m m m x m m is always m
dx
+A +A
| |
| | | |
A = = + A >
| |
|
\ . \ .
\ .
6

7
( )
3
3
L L v
x
gb
d d
m m x x
dx dx
o

| |
| |
A = A = A
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

8
( ) As f x and the function is linear o =

9
( )
2
3
3
L L v
gb
d
m x
dx
o
o

| |
A = A
|
|
\ .

10
( )
2
L L v
gb
d
m x
dx
o
o

| |
A = A
|
|
\ .
11
Since the film thickness is small and the motion of the fluid is slow, it is expected 12
that the mode of heat transfer through the film will be mainly the conduction. Therefore, 13
we can assume linear temperature profile with y within the liquid and we can write for the 14
local heat transfer rate as 15
( )
high low
sat s
T T
T T dT
dQ KA KA K b x
dy o o
| | | | | |
= = = A
| | |
\ .
\ . \ .

16
Since ,
sat s
T is T > the value of dQ is always negative, which shows that the heat is 17
flowing in a direction opposite to the positive direction of y. 18
Also, dQ = LH of vaporization x Change of mass flow rate 19
( )
2
L L v
fg fg
gb
d
dQ h m h x
dx
o
o

| |
| |
= A = A
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

20
( )
( )
2
L L v
sat s
fg
gb
T T d
K b x h x
dx
o
o
o
| |
| |
A = A
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

21
7

( )
2
L L v
sat s
fg
g
T T d
K h
dx
o
o
o
| |
| |
=
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

1
( )
( )
3
L L v
sat s fg
g
d
K T T h
dx
o
o

| |
=
|
|
\ .

2
( )
( )
3 sat s
L L v fg
K T T dx
d
gh

o o


3
Integrating by considering ' ' o with x 4
( )
( )
4
1
4
sat s
L L v fg
K T T
x C
gh

= +


5
gAt x = 0, 0 o = 6
Therefore C
1
=0 7
( )
( )
4
4
sat s
L L v fg
K T T x
gh

8
( )
( )
1
4
4
sat s
L L v fg
K T T x
gh

o

(

=
(

(

9
Therefore, film thickness increases as 4
th
root of distance from the top of the plate. 10
The increase is rather rapid at the upper end of the vertical surface and slows 11
thereafter. 12
FILM HEAT TRANSFER 13
The heat flow from the vapour to the surface is assumed to be taking 14
place by conduction only through the condensate film. Hence 15
( )
sat s
T T
dQ K b x
o
| |
= A
|
\ .
(i)
16
Now heat transfer at the surface due to only convection is
17
( )( )
x sat s
dQ h b x T T = A
(ii)
18
Equating (i) and (ii)
19
8

( ) ( )( )
sat s
x sat s
T T
K b x h b x T T
o
| |
A = A
|
\ .

1
x
K
h
o
=

2
( )
( )
1
4
4
x
sat s
L L v fg
K
h
K T T x
gh


=
(

(


3
( )
( )
1
3 4
4
L L v fg
x
sat s
K gh
h
T T x

(
=
(

(


4
( )
( )
( )
1
3 4
4
L L v fg
L at x L
sat s
K gh
h
T T L

=
(
=
(

(


5
Now
6
0
1
L
mean x
h h h dx
L

= =
}

7
( )
( )
1
3 4
0
1
4
L
L L v fg
sat s
K gh
h dx
L T T x

(
=
(

(

}

8
( )
( )
1
3 4
1
4
0
1
4
L
L L v fg
sat s
K gh
h x dx
L T T


(
=
(

(

}

9
( )
( )
1
3
3 4
4
0
1
3
4
4
L
L L v fg
sat s
K gh
x
h
L T T

(
(
(
=
(
(
(



10
( )
( )
1
3 4
4
3 4
L L v fg
sat s
K gh
h
L T T

(
=
(

(


11
( )
( )
1
3 4
4
3 4
L L v fg
sat s
K gh
h
L T T

(
=
(

(


12
4
1.13
3
L L
h h h

= = 13
9

If the surface is inclined at an angle u with the horizontal, then 1
( )
( )
1
3 4
4
3 4
L L v fg
sat s
K gh
h Sin
L T T

u

(
=
(

(

2
The value of
fg
h is evaluated at
sat
T and all liquid properties are evaluated at 3
2
sat s
T T | |
|
\ .
4
The total heat transfer to the surface is 5
( )
s sat s
Q hA T T =

6
The total condensation rate is 7
( )
s sat s
fg fg
hA T T
Q
m
h h

= =

8
TURBULENT FILM CONDENSATION 9
When the plate on which condensation occurs is quite long or when the liquid film 10
is vigorous enough, the condensate may become turbulent. 11
The turbulence results in higher heat transfer rates because heat is now 12
transferred not only by condensation but also by eddy diffusion. 13
The transition criterion may be expressed in terms of Reynolds number defined by 14
Re
L m h
L
u D

=

15
sectional
4 4
h
Cross area of flowing fluid A
Where D Hydraulic diameter
Wetted perimeter P
| |
= = =
|
\ .
16
4 4
Re
L m
L L
u A m
P P


= =

17
Reynolds number may also be related to heat transfer coefficient as
18
( )
s sat s fg
Q h A T T mh

= =

19
( )
s sat s
fg fg
h A T T
Q
m
h h

= =

20
10

( ) 4
4
Re
s sat s
L L fg
h A T T
m
P P h

= = 1
BOILING HEAT TRANSFER 2
Boiling is a convective heat transfer process and it differs from other modes of heat transfer 3
as it involves a change from liquid to vapour. As the phase change from liquid to vapour 4
requires a large quantity of heat as latent heat of vaporization, possible heat transfer by 5
boiling is large as compared to what can be transferred by other modes of Heat transfer. 6
Boling occurs when a liquid comes into contact with a hot surface whose 7
temperature is higher than the saturation temperature of the liquid. 8
Heat transferred to the liquid is 9
( )
s sat
Q hA T T = 10
The boiling heat transfer phenomenon may occurs in the following terms 11
1. POOL BOILING : Pool boiling Occurs when the liquid above the hot surface is stagnant 12
and liquid motion above the hot surface occurs due to free convention currents resulting 13
from density variations on the heating of the liquid. The liquid particles in contract with hot 14
surface evaporate and form bubbles. 15
On detachment, these bubbles tend to move up to the free surface. The hot surface 16
is now exposed to fresh particles of the liquid which get heated and form bubbles on 17
transfer of heat from the hot surface. Pool boiling occurs in steam boilers which are 18
designed on natural convention. 19
FORCED CONVECTION BOILING 20
Forced convection boiling occurs when the liquid is made to flow over the hot 21
surface by external means. The liquid is pumped and forced to flow over the hot surface, 22
thereby creating forced convective currents. This type of boiling takes place in water tube 23
boilers involving forced convection. 24
SUB-COOLED ON LOACAL BOILING 25
Local boiling occurs when the liquid is below saturatiioy temprature and boiling 26
takes place only near the hot surface. The vapour bubbles formed on hot surface can travel 27
a short distance in the liquid before collapsing and Vanishing. The energy gained by the 28
bubbles is insufficient to take them to the free surface. 29
SATURATED BOILING 30
11

In saturated boiling, the temperature of the liquid exceeds the saturation 1
temperature. Vapour bubbles are formed at hot surface and these bubbles have sufficient 2
energy to move to the surface and finally leave the free surface (Liquid-vapour interface). 3
BOILING REGIMES 4
The process of boiling depends upon the nature of surface, thermophysical 5
properties of the fluid and vapour bubble dynamics. Due to involvement of large number of 6
variables, general equations describing the boiling process are not available. Nonetheless, 7
considerable progress has been made in arriving at physical understanding of the boiling 8
mechanism. 9
There is a sharp decline in the liquid temperature close to the solid surface, but 10
temperature through most of the liquid remains slightly above saturation temperature. 11
Consequently, bubbles generated at liquid-solid interface rises to and are transported across 12
the liquid-vapour interface. 13
Whether the boiling phenomenon corresponds to pool boiling or forced circulation 14
boiling, there are three definite regimes of boiling (Interface evaporation, Nuclear boiling 15
and film boiling) associated with progressively increasing heat flux, as shown in the 16
following figure. 17
18
19
1. Interface evaporation or free convective boiling (O to A): 20
When the excess temperature( )
e
T A is very less
( )
0
5 C s , the formation of vapour is 21
insufficient to cause a real boiling process. Free convection currents are responsible for the 22
fluid motion near the surface where the liquid is in a slight superheated metastable state 23
and subsequently evaporates when it rises to the surface. 24
12

1
Nuclear Boiling: When the excess temperature ( )
e
T A exceeds 5C, the process of 2
boiling starts with the generation of considerable vapour and is referred to as nucleate 3
boiling. 4
In regime II, temperature is not so high
( )
0
10
e
T C A < resulting into formation of 5
isolated bubbles at few nucleation sites. These bubbles are detached with insufficient 6
energy, thereby collapsing and disappearing in the liquid With out reaching free surface. 7
Regime II is called unstable nucleate boiling (Curve A-B). 8
On further increase of excess temperature, the bubble formation is rapid and 9
bubbles have sufficient energy to reach to the free surface. Bubbles formation and motion 10
results into liquid agitation and mixing. The agitation and mixing promotes considerable 11
heat transfer from source to liquid resulting into high boiling heat transfer coefficient. 12
The maximum heat flux at point C is called critical heat flux or burnt out point. 13
The trend of increase of heat flux with increase in excess temperature observed up 14
to region III is reversed in region IV (Called film boiling region). This is due to the fact that 15
the bubble formation is very rapid and the bubbles blanket the heating surface and prevent 16
the incoming fresh liquid from taking their place. Eventually, the bubbles coalesce and 17
found a vapour film which covers the surface completely. Since the thermal conductivities of 18
the vapour film is much less than that of the liquid the heat flux drops with the growth of 19
( )
e
T A . 20
Within the temperature range
0 0
50 150
e
T C < A < conditions oscillates between 21
Nucleate and film boiling and the phase is referred to as Transition boiling, unstable boiling 22
or partial film boiling (region IV). 23
With further increase in ( )
e
T A , the vapour film is stabilized and the heating surface 24
is completely covered by a vapour blanket and the heat flux is lowest as shown is region V. 25
FILM BOILING WITH RADIATION (Curve D-E) 26
In regime VI, film boiling continues but heat transfer increases due to a large amount 27
of heat lost by the heat source due to radiation. The temperature of the heat source 28
becomes very high at point E which may result into melting of the heat source (Surface). 29
The surface temperatures required to maintain a stable film are high and under 30
these conditions a sizeable amount of heat is lost by the surface due to radiation, as 31
indicated in the region VI. 32
Therefore Nucleate boiling is preferred instead of stable film boiling with radiation in 33
pool boiling. 34
13

1
CRITICAL HEAT FLUX 2
The critical heat flux or burn out point is the point of maximum heat flux on the boiling 3
curve at which transition from nucleate to film boiling initiates. This point is also called the 4
boiling crisis because the boiling process beyond that point is unstable unless of course, 5
point E is reached. The temperature at E is extremely high and normally above the melting 6
point of the solid. So, if the heating of the metallic surface is not limited to point C, it is 7
possible that the metal may get damaged or it may even melt. Thus we may be interested to 8
operate the equipment close to this value and is not beyond it. 9
BUBBLE SHAPE AND SIZE 10
The heat transfer rate in nucleate boiling is greatly influenced by 11
- The nature and condition of the heating surface and 12
- Surface tension at the solid-liquid interface 13
The surface tension signifies wetting capability of the surface with the liquid (i.e. low 14
surface tension, highly wetted surface) and that influences the angle of contact between the 15
bubble and the solid surface. F the surface is contaminated; its wetting characteristics are 16
affected which eventually influence the size and shape of the vapour bubbles. 17
If the surface tension of the liquid is low, it tends to wet the surface, so that the 18
bubble is readily pushed by the liquid and rises. 19
20
21
Addition of agents for reducing the surface tension was found to have the same effect 22
as providing of wetted surface and to give increased rates of heat transfer. 23
24
BUBBLE GROWTH AND COLLAPSE 25
It has been observed that the bubbles are not always in thermodynamic equilibrium 26
with surrounding liquid. 27
14

1
The vapour inside the bubble is not necessarily at the same temperature as the liquid. 2
Consider the forces acting on a spherical vapour bubble. 3
The pressure forces on the bubble must be balanced by the surface tension at vapour- 4
liquid interface. Thus 5
( )
2
2
v L
r p p r t t o = 6
( )
2
v L
p p
r
o
= (1) 7
Where
v
p is the vapour pressure inside the bubble 8
L
p is the liquid pressure over the surface of bubble 9
o is the surface tension of vapour-liquid interface 10
The vapour may be considered as a perfect gas for which the Clayperon equation may 11
be used. 12
2
fg
g
h
dp
dT
p R T
= (2) 13
2
fg
g
ph
dp
dT R T
= 14
From perfect gas law 15
g
pV mR T = 16
g v g
m
p R T R T
V

| |
= =
|
\ .
17
v
g
p
Density of vapour formed
R T
= = 18
2
fg
g
ph
dp
becomes
dT R T
= 19
fg v
h
dp
dT T

= 20
2
fg v fg
v L
v sat sat g
h ph
p p
T T T R T

= =

(3) 21
Where
v
T is the vapour temperature inside the bubble 22
sat
T is the saturation temperature of vapour inside the bubble at
v
p 23
15

From (1) and (3) 1
( )
2
2
fg
v sat g sat
ph
r T T R T
o
=

2
( )
2
2
g sat
v sat
fg
R T
T T
r ph
o
| |
=
|
|
\ .
3
The above equation suggests that if 4
( ) ( )
L sat v sat
T T T T > 5
The bubble of radius r will grow otherwise it will collapse. 6
Here
L
T is the temperature surrounding the bubble 7
8
CRITICAL DIAMETER OF BUBBLE 9
10
The maximum diameter of the bubble formed on the heating surface depends on the 11
following parameters 12
Lv
o = Tension between liquid and vapour 13
Ls
o = Tension between liquid and solid surface 14
vs
o = Tension between vapour and solid surface 15
| = Angle formed by the bubble 16
( )
L v
g Bouyancy force = 17
c
d = Maximum or critical diameter of the bubble 18
( ) , , ,
Lv
c Lv L v
Ls
d f g
o
| o
o
| |
=
|
\ .
19
By using Dimensional analysis techniques (Buchinghm pie theorem), we get 20
( )
Lv Lv
c
Ls L v
d C
g
o o
|
o
| |
=
|

\ .
21
Where C is constant which is generally calculated by experimental results. 22
C = 0.0148 for water bubble 23
24
BOILING CORRELATIONS 25
In boiling heat transfer, a driving force is the excess temperature, which is given by 26
e s sat
T T T A =

27
And for boiling process, the governing equation is
28
16

( )
e s sat
Q hA T hA T T = A =

1
Where h is the boiling film coefficient.
2
No analytical solution is available for boiling heat transfer due to difficult fluid
3
behaviour, empirical relations are used for engineering calculations.
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

19

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22
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