Immune Images | T Cell | Immune System

Immune System

• Immunity – the ability to resist…

• A functional system?

Innate Immunity
• Recognizes and destroys. • Response does not…

• Barriers

• Cells and chemicals

Adaptive Immunity
• Recognizes and destroys... • Response has no:
–S –M –I

Barriers – Skin
• Awesome • Stratified • Keratinized • Sweat • Sebum.

Barriers – Body Fluids
• Wash „em away.

• Lysozyme

Barriers – Mucosae
• Line • All are potential… • Mucus • Acid • Lysozyme

Specific Example Respiratory Mucosa
• Mucociliary escalator

• Other respiratory events

Neutrophils
• Small phagocytes. • Kill… • They‟re #1

Macrophages
• Large cells derived from…

• Specialize in…

• “Free” vs. “Fixed”

Phagocytosis
1 Phagocyte adheres to pathogens or debris. 2 Phagocyte forms pseudopods that eventually engulf the particles forming a phagosome. 3 Lysosome fuses with the phagocytic vesicle, forming a phagolysosome. Acid hydrolase enzymes 4 Lysosomal enzymes digest the particles, leaving a residual body. 5 Exocytosis of the vesicle removes indigestible and residual material.

Lysosome

Phagosome (phagocytic vesicle)

Opsonization
• Phagocytosis is more likely if the microbe is adorned.

Natural Killer Cells
• Specialized type of lymphocyte.

• Attack and kill…

• How do they know?

Interferons
• Proteins released by…

• Diffuse to…

• Function

Interferons
Virus Virus enters cell.
1

New viruses Antiviral proteins block viral reproduction.
5

Interferon genes switch on.

2

DNA Nucleus mRNA

Cell produces interferon molecules.

3

Interferon

Interferon binding stimulates cell to turn on genes for antiviral proteins.

4

Complement System
• Plasma proteins.

• Made by the…

• Inactive • Active

Effects of Activated Complement

Complement: Chemotaxis & Opsonization

Complement: Inflammation
Activated Complement Proteins

Bind to

Local resistance will…

Causes local vaso…

Releases …

Local blood flow will…

Inflammation

Complement: Lysis

Inflammation
• Occurs whenever…

• Benefits:
– Prevents… – Disposes... – Sets the stage...

• 4 classic signs

What body cells release inflammatory chemicals?

Inflammatory chemicals cause

Vessel diameter to

Capillary permeability to

Pain

Capillary blood flow and fluid loss to

Heat

Redness

Access to damaged area for cells, chemicals

Swelling Loss of function

Fever
• Systemic • Body T°… • When is it good? • When is it bad?

Why does body T° rise?

Adaptive Immune System
• Specific • Memory

• Systemic

• Improvement

Lymphocytes
• 2 main classes are…

• Both formed in the…

T Lymphocyte Education
• Immunocompetence • Self-Tolerance

• Receptors

B Lymphocyte Education
• Immunocompetence

• Self-Tolerance

• Receptors

• Editing

Clones
• Small groups of identical lymphocytes

• Each clone has many copies of…

• Why is this so important????

Lymphocytes
• More than a million different varieties of clones.

• Where do newly immunocompetent cells migrate?

Antigen-Presenting Cells
• Macrophages, Dendritic Cells, and B lymphocytes. • Function?

Antigen-Presenting Cells

2 Components of Adaptive Immunity
• Antibody-mediated immunity.

• Cell-mediated immunity.

Antibody-mediated Immunity
• Deals with extracellular pathogens.

• A.k.a. humoral immunity

• B lymphocytes and plasma cells

Cell-mediated Immunity
• Deals with intracellular pathogens.

• Killer T cells (Cytotoxic T cells)

Helper T Cells ―Control‖ Adaptive Immunity
• Where were helper T cells born?

• Where did they mature?

• What is on their surface?

APCs and MHC II Proteins
Cytoplasm of APC

Phagosome

Lysosome

Extracellular antigen

Plasma membrane of APC

Antigenic peptide

Activating Helper T Cells
Viral antigen Class lI MHC protein displaying processed viral antigen CD4 protein

Dendritic cell

T cell receptor (TCR) Clone formation

Immunocompetent CD4 T cell

Helper T memory cell

Activated helper T cells

B Cell Primary Response
Primary response Antigen

Activated B cells

Plasma cells (effector B cells) Secreted antibody molecules

Memory B cell— primed to respond to same antigen

B Cell Primary Response
Activated helper T cell T cell receptor (TCR)

MHC II protein of B cell displaying processed antigen

Antibodies
• Specific immune proteins.

• Synthesized and released by...

• Immunoglobulins, gamma globulins, or Ig‟s.

Antibodies
• 4 amino acid chains that form a Y-shaped structure. • 2 variable regions and 1 constant region .
Antigen-binding site

Stem region

Antibodies
• Each variable region contains an antigen-binding site. • Antibodies from the same plasma cell will have the same antigen-binding sites.
Antigen-binding site

Stem region

Antibodies
• Constant region binds to immune chemicals/cells. • Determines how antigens will be destroyed. • Determines the 5 different antibody classes.
Antigen-binding site

Stem region

Antibody Action
• 4 main ways in which antibodies deal with antigens:
1. 2. 3. 4. P L A N

Precipitation
• Antibodies bind soluble antigens into clumps. • How does this help macrophages?

Lysis
• Antibodies bound to a bacterium activate complement.

• Activated complement proteins form an MAC which…

Agglutination
• Antibodies bind cell surface antigens into clumps. •  the likelihood of…

Neutralization
• Antibodies bind to and mask toxins and dangerous portions of bacteria and viruses.

B Cell Primary Response
• Lag period of 3-6 days after exposure.
– What’s happening?

B Cell Secondary Response

Secondary response (can be years later)

Clone of cells identical to ancestral cells

Subsequent challenge by same antigen results in more rapid response

Plasma cells

Secreted antibody molecules

Memory B cells

B Cell Secondary Response
• Lag time that is...

• Plasma cells that last...
• Antibody levels that are…

B Cell Immunity
• Classified in 2 separate ways. 1. Natural or Artificial. 2. Active or Passive.
• Total of 4 types of immunity: a. b. c. d.

The black particles are Staphylococcus aureus.

Production of memory cells due to infection with them creates what type of immunity?

Exchange of antibodies at this structure would result in what type of immunity?

Injection of antibodies as a means of treating a bite by this spider would result in what type of immunity?

This is the rubella virus.

Suppose a weakened version of it was injected and memory cells were produced in response, what type of immunity would that be?

Cell-Mediated Immunity
• What is the big limitation of antibodies?

• Cell-mediated immunity will deal with intracellular pathogens (as well as cancerous cells).

• Killer T cells

Activating Killer T Lymphocytes
Helper T cell Class II MHC protein APC (dendritic cell) IL-2

Class I MHC protein

CD8 T cell

Body Cells and MHC I Proteins
Cytoplasm of any tissue cell

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Self-protein or foreign (viral or cancer) protein

Plasma membrane of a tissue cell
Extracellular fluid

Killer T Cell Killing

Perforin TC cell membrane

Granule

Target cell membrane Perforin pore Granzymes

Adaptive defenses

Cellular immunity Immature lymphocyte Red bone marrow

T cell receptor Class II MHC protein CD4 cell Activation APC (dendritic cell) CD4

Maturation Thymus

T cell receptor CD8 cell Activation Class I MHC protein

Memory cells CD8 Lymphoid tissues and organs

APC (dendritic cell)

Helper T cells (or regulatory T cells)

Effector cells Blood plasma

Cytotoxic T cells

T Lymphocyte Memory
• How would the response of a memory Helper T cell or a memory Killer T cell differ from the primary response?

Regulatory T Cells
• Release cytokines that… • What could happen if they weren’t around?

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