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# FLUID MECHANICS I

Solution 4
Question 1: Problem P2.139
Figure 1: Free surface for ﬂuid in solid body acceleration.
Since there is no acceleration in the y direction:
p
A
= p
B
+ ρgh
B
p
C
= p
D
+ ρgh
D
where p
B
= p
D
= p
atm
= 0[Pa gage]. From Table A.3 for glycerin ρ =
1260[kg/m
3
], so p
A
= 3460[Pa gage].
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For the solid body motion in the x direction:
ρa
x
= −
∂p
∂x
which can be integrated from point A to point C:

x=L
x=0
ρa
x
dx = −

x=L
x=0
∂p
∂x
dx
ρa
x
L = −(p
C
−p
A
)
ρa
x
L = −ρg(h
D
−h
B
)
Rearranging for a
x
gives:
a
x
= g
h
B
−h
D
L
= 1.27[m/s
2
]
Notice that the value of the acceleration because the density of the ﬂuid
aﬀects both the ﬂuid inertia and the variation of pressure with depth.
Question 2: Problem P2.156
Since pressure increases with increasing depth and pressure increases with in-
creasing radius for ﬂuid in solid body rotation, the minimum pressure in the U
tube is at point D. Notice also that p
B
−p
C
= p
A
−p
D
since the heights of each
leg of the U tube are identical.
The equation of motion in the radial direction is:
ρa
r
= −ρΩ
2
r = −
∂p
∂r
which can be integrated from point C to point B:

r=R
r=0
ρΩ
2
rdr = −

r=R
r=0
∂p
∂r
dr
−ρΩ
2
R
2
2
= −(p
B
−p
C
)
Rearranging for Ω gives:
Ω =

2(p
B
−p
C
)
ρR
2
=

2(p
A
−p
D
)
ρR
2
From Table A.5 for water at 50

C the vapour pressure is p
vp
= 12340[Pa].
Atmospheric pressure is p
atm
= 2116[psfa] = 101340[Pa]. Using the correlation
supplied in Table A.1 the density of water at 50

C is ρ = 988[kg/m
3
].
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Figure 2: U tube rotating about the DC axis.
Question 3
Figure 8.14b page 546 in the textbook shows the streamlines for the ﬂow of air
at 20[

C] in a corner. The velocity ﬁeld for this ﬂow is approximately:
u(x, y) =
V
0
L
x
v(x, y) = −
V
0
L
y
where V
0
= 10[m/s] is a velocity scale, L = 2[m] is a length scale, x is positive
to the right, and y is positive upwards. Gravity acts in the z direction. Friction
plays a negligible role in establishing the pressure ﬁeld of this ﬂow.
1. Show that the pressure ﬁeld for this approximately:
p(x, y) = p
0

ρV
2
0
2L
2

x
2
+ y
2

where p
0
is the pressure at (0[m], 0[m]).
3
If this is a valid pressure ﬁeld the x and y components of the equations of
motion must balance. For the x equation of motion:
Du
Dt

∂u
∂t
+ u
∂u
∂x
+ v
∂u
∂y
+ w
∂u
∂z
=
V
2
0
L
2
x
∂p
∂x
= −ρ
V
2
0
L
2
x
ρ
Du
Dt
?
....
= −
∂p
∂x
x Equation
Therefore ρ
V
2
0
L
2
x = ρ
V
2
0
L
2
x
Similarly for the y equation of motion:
Dv
Dt

∂v
∂t
+ u
∂v
∂x
+ v
∂v
∂y
+ w
∂v
∂z
=
V
2
0
L
2
y
∂p
∂y
= −ρ
V
2
0
L
2
y
ρ
Dv
Dt
?
....
= −
∂p
∂y
y Equation
Therefore ρ
V
2
0
L
2
y = ρ
V
2
0
L
2
y
2. If the pressure at (2[m], 0[m]) is atmospheric pressure (10
5
[Pa]), what is
p
0
.
p(2[m], 0[m]) = p
atm
= p
0

ρV
2
0
2(L = 2[m])
2

(2[m])
2
+ (0[m])
2

p
atm
= p
0

ρV
2
0
2
0
= p
atm
+
ρV
2
0
2
= p
a
tm + 60[Pa].
3. Estimate the net force due to pressure acting on the wall 0[m] < x < 2[m].
The wall has a unit depth in the z direction and atmospheric pressure acts
on the lower face of the wall.
δf
y
= −[p(x, 0) −p
atm
]dx · 1
F
y
= −

2[m]
0[m]
[p(x, 0) −p
atm
]dx · 1
= −

2[m]
0[m]
[p
0
−p
atm

ρV
2
0
2L
2

x
2
+ (0[m])
2

]dx
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Figure 3: Freebody diagram of pressure forces on the wall.
= − [p
0
−p
atm
]x|
2[m]
0[m]
+
ρV
2
0
6L
2
x
3

2[m]
0[m]
= −4
ρV
2
0
L
2
+
4
3
ρV
2
0
L
2
Final answer: The net force due to pressure on the wall is F
y
= −
8
3
ρV
2
0
L
2
=
−80[N/m] which acts downwards.
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Figure 4: Geometry of tank and coordinate system.
Question 4: Problem P2.141a,b
To calculate the acceleration consider the equations of motion, beginning with
the x equation of motion:
ρa
x
= −
∂p
∂x
−ρ|g
x
|
⇒p
A
= p
C
+ ρ(a
x
+|g
x
|)L
or a
x
=
p
A
−p
C
ρL
−|g
x
|
To estimate the pressure diﬀerence (p
A
−p
C
) use the y equation of motion:
0 = −
∂p
∂y
−ρ|g
y
| since v = 0
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⇒p
A
= p
atm
+ ρ|g
y
|h
A
and p
C
= p
atm
+ ρ|g
y
|h
C
⇒p
A
−p
C
= ρ|g
y
|(h
A
−h
C
)
Substituting gives:
a
x
=
p
A
−p
C
ρL
−|g
x
|
= |g
y
|
h
A
−h
C
L
−|g
x
|
= g cos θ
h
A
−h
C
L
−g sin θ
x
= −3.80[m/s
2
]. The tank is deaccelerating as it moves
up the ramp.
The tank contains water and is 50[cm] wide. What is the net force due to
pressure acting on the rear wall of the tank (the wall running from point A to
the free surface of the water). You may assume that water has stopped sloshing.
See the above ﬁgure for the freebody diagram of the rear wall.
δf
x
= [p
atm
−p(y)]w · dy
p(y) = p
atm
+ ρ|g
y
|(h
A
−y)
F
x
=

h
A
0[m]
[p
atm
−p(y)]w · dy
= −ρ|g
y
|w

h
A
0[m]
(h
A
−y)dy
= −ρ|g
y
|w
h
2
A
2
x
= −ρg cos θw
h
2
A
2
= −166N. The force due to pressure
acts to push the rear wall of the tank outwards.
Question 5
Figure 5: Schematic of laminar boundary layer on a ﬂat plate.
The sketch shows the laminar boundary layer region very close to a ﬂat plate
with ﬂow of air over the plate. The laminar velocity ﬁeld is approximately:
u(x, y) = u
0

2
y
δ

y
2
δ
2

7
v(x, y) = u
0
δ
x

y
2

2

y
3

3

where δ is the thickness of the region above the plate in which the ﬂow is inﬂu-
enced by the plate and u
0
is the ﬂuid speed far above the plate (also referred to as
the freestream speed). For laminar ﬂow, the thickness is a function of position
along the plate:
δ(x) = 5

ν
x
u
0
where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the air.
1. Derive an expression for the drag force that acts on the top side of the
plate. The plate has a length L and a width (into the page) of b.
τ
w
(x) ≡ µ
∂u
∂y

y=0
≈ µ2
u
0
δ(x)
=
1
2.5
µu
0
3/2
ν
1/2
x
1/2
dF
x
= τ
w
(x)bdx Elemental force due to air acting on plate
=
b
2.5
µu
0
3/2
ν
1/2
x
1/2
dx
D =

L
0
b
2.5
µu
0
3/2
ν
1/2
x
1/2
dx
⇒D =
2b
2.5
µu
0
3/2
ν
1/2
L
1/2
2. Estimate the drag force when air at 20[

C] ﬂows over a plate 0.5[m] long
and 2.0[m] wide. The freestream speed is 3[m/s].
From Table A.2 for air at 20 [

C] ρ = 1.20[kg/m
3
], µ = 1.80×10
−5
[Ns/m
2
],
and ν = 1.50 ×10
−5
[Ns/m
2
].
Final Answer: D = 0.031[N].
3. When the plate is ﬂipped so it is perpendicular to the ﬂow, the drag force
is due to pressure. In this case, a reasonable estimate of the drag force is
D = 0.6ρu
2
0
Lb
where ρ is the air density. Compare the size of the drag force in this case
to that which exists when the ﬂow is parallel to the plate.
4. Final Answer: D = 6.5[N] which is considerably greater than the drag
force on the plate when the ﬂow is parallel to the plate.
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