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FLUID MECHANICS I

Solution Manual 7
Question 1: Problem P3.158
Meriam red oil
H=8 cm
x
z
2
11
1
CO
2
D
1
= 10 cm
p
1
= 170 kPa
T
1
= 20 Deg. C
D
2
= 6 cm
Assumptions:
• ρ is constant ? -needs to be checked.
• 1D flow at 11, 1 and 3
• steady-state
• Steady flow
• neglect losses
Conservation of mass for a CV:

CV
∂ρ
∂t
dV ol +

CS
ρ(

V . ˆ n) dA = 0
0 = −ρ
π D
2
1
4
V
11
+ ρ
π D
2
2
4
V
2
0 = − ˙ m
1
+ ˙ m
2
1
Using the perfect gas law
ρ =
p
1
RT
1
= 3.07 kg/m
3
using R
CO
2
= 189 m
2
/s
2
K (see Table A.4).
Manometer
p
1
= p
2
+ ρ
water
SG gH
⇒p
2
= 169.4kPa
Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2
V
2
1
2
+ gz
1
+
p
1
ρ
=
V
2
2
2
+ gz
3
+
p
2
ρ
+ gh
f
V
1
≈ 0 this is the stagnation point
z
1
= z
2
and there is no loss, therefore
V
2
=

2(p
1
−p
2
)
ρ
V
2
= 20.5m/s Speed of sound, incompressibility OK.
flow rate
˙
Q =
πD
2
2
4
V
2
= 0.058m
3
/s
Question 2: Problem P3.165
Assumptions:
• steady flow
• steady state
• incompressible
• no losses
• 1D flow at Points 1 and 2
Conservation of mass:

CV
∂ρ
∂t
dV ol +

CS
ρ(

V . ˆ n) dA = 0
0 − ˙ m
1
+ ˙ m
2
= 0
˙ m
1
= ˙ m
2
⇒V
1
= V
2
D
2
2
D
2
1
2
x
z
h
2
1
D
1
D
2
flow rate
Q = V
2
πD
2
2
4
= V
2
A
2
Manometer
p
1
= p
2
+ (ρ
m
−ρ)gh
p
1
−p
2
= (ρ
m
−ρ)gh
Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2
V
2
1
2
+ gz
1
+
p
1
ρ
=
V
2
2
2
+ gz
2
+
p
2
ρ
+ gh
f
z
1
= z
2
(horizontal) and no losses
V
2
2
2

D
2
D
1

4
+
p
1
ρ
=
V
2
2
2
+
p
2
ρ
V
2
=

2(p
1
−p
2
)
ρ
(1 −
(D
2
D
1
)
4
)
Q = A
2

2(ρ
m
−ρ)gh
ρ
(1 −
(D
2
D
1
)
4
)
3
Question 3: Problem P3.172
x
H= 1.83 cm
s
at 35 Deg. C
water
1
2
3
p
x
patm
pv
sketch of p variation
D
1
= 0.025 m
patm = 1.01 10
5
Pa
D
2
= 0.075 m
D
3
= ?
Assumptions
• pseudo-steady state in tank
• steady flow
• cavitation occurs at p
v
• p
v
= 5.809 10
3
Pa (linear interpolation in Table A.5)
Conservation of mass:
ρ
πD
2
1
4
V
1
= ρ
πD
2
3
4
V
3
= ρ
πD
2
2
4
V
2
D
2
1
V
1
= D
2
3
V
3
= D
2
2
V
2
⇒V
1
=

D
3
D
1

2
V
3
4
Bernoulli equation from s to 3
V
2
s
2
+ gz
s
+
p
s
ρ
=
V
2
3
2
+ gz
3
+
p
3
ρ
+ gh
fs−3
V
s
≈ 0, z
s
= H, p
s
= p
atm
= p
3
, z
3
= 0 and no losses
⇒V
3
=

2gH = 6.0m/s
Bernoulli equation from 1 to 3
V
2
1
2
+ gz
1
+
p
1
ρ
=
V
2
3
2
+ gz
3
+
p
3
ρ
+ gh
f1−3
Using z
1
= z
3
, p
3
= p
atm
, p
1
= p
v
and no losses,

D
2
3
D
2
1

2
V
2
3
2
+
p
v
ρ
=
V
2
3
2
+
p
atm
ρ
Solve for D
3
D
4
3
=
(p
atm
−p
v
)/ρ +
V
2
3
2
V
2
3
2D
4
1
D
3
= 0.040m
To avoid cavitation we need to increase p
1
(p
v
in above relationship) which
means that D
3
must be decreased, i.e.
D
3
< 0.040m
Question 4: Problem P3.161
Assumptions:
• steady flow
• steady-state
• 1D exit flow at 1 and 2
• a
z
≈ 0 for fluid in tube at point of motion
• no losses (but once flow starts up in tube there will be mixing losses.
Conservation of mass:
0 −ρ
πD
2
1
4
V
1
+ ρ
πD
2
2
4
V
2
V
2
= V
1
D
2
1
D
2
2
5
water
1
h
2
x
z
water
V
2
V
1
p
2
= patm
D
2
tube
p
atm
= p
1
+ ρgh
Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2
V
2
1
2
+ gz
1
+
p
1
ρ
=
V
2
3
2
+ gz
2
+
p
2
ρ
+ gh
f2−3
sing z
1
= z
2
and no losses,
V
2
1
2
+
p
atm
−ρgh
ρ
=
V
2
1
2

D
1
D
2

4
+
p
atm
ρ
V
2
1
2

1 −

D
1
D
2

4

= gh
V
1
=

2gh
(1 −D
4
1
/D
4
2
)
6
Question 4: P3.173
x
y
D
1
D
2
D
3
p
1
Q
1
Q
2
p
2
p
3
Q
3
F
x
F
y
Assumptions:
• steady flow
• steady-state
• 1D exit flow at 1, 2 and 3
• no losses
• no shear forces on CV
Mass flow rates:
V
i
=
˙
Q
i
πD
2
i
4
˙ m
i
= ρ
˙
Q
i
7
i
˙
Q
i
(m
3
/s) V
i
(m/s) ˙ m
i
(kg/s) A
i
(m
2
)
1 0.142 7.8 142 0.0181
2 0.071 15.2 71 0.0045
3 0.071 8.7 71 0.0082
conservation of momentum
x momentum
0 − ˙ m
1
V
1
+ ˙ m
2
V
2
sinθ
2
+ ˙ m
3
V
3
sinθ
3
= +p
1
πD
2
1
4
−p
2
πD
2
2
4
sinθ
2
−p
3
πD
2
3
4
sinθ
3
+ F
x
Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2
V
2
1
2
+ gz
1
+
p
1
ρ
=
V
2
3
2
+ gz
2
+
p
2
ρ
+ gh
f2−3
Using z
1
= z
2
and no losses,
p
2
= p
1
+
ρ
2
(V
2
1
−V
2
2
)
p
2
= 87.1 10
3
Pa(gage)
Bernoulli equation from 1 to 3 (similar to previous equations)
p
3
= p
1
+
ρ
2
(V
2
1
−V
2
3
)
p
2
= 165.0 10
3
Pa(gage)
back to x momentum
F
x
= ˙ m
2
V
2
sinθ
2
+ ˙ m
3
V
3
sinθ
3
− ˙ m
1
V
1
+ p
2
πD
2
1
4
sinθ
2
+ p
3
πD
2
3
4
sinθ
3
−p
1
πD
2
1
4
F
x
= 540 + 473 −1108 + 196 + 1036 −3113
F
x
= −1976 N
F
x
acts to the left.
y momentum
0 + ˙ m
1
(0) + ˙ m
2
V
2
cosθ
2
− ˙ m
3
V
3
cosθ
3
= 0 −p
2
πD
2
2
4
cosθ
2
+ p
3
πD
2
3
4
cosθ
3
+ F
y
F
y
= ˙ m
2
V
2
cosθ
2
− ˙ m
3
V
3
cosθ
3
+ p
2
πD
2
2
4
cosθ
2
−p
3
πD
2
3
4
cosθ
3
F
y
= 935 −397 + 339 −870
F
y
= 7.3 N
F
y
acts to the top.
8
1 2
3
4
CVB
CVA
x
z
F=425 N alcohol SG = 0.79
patm = 101 kPa
D
1
= 0.05 m
D
2
= 0.02 m
Question 6: P3.149
Assumptions:
• steady flow
• steady-state
• 1D exit flow at 1-4
• no losses
• no shear forces on CV
A
conservation of mass for CV
A
0 − ˙ m
2
+ ˙ m
3
+ ˙ m
4
x momentum for CV
A
0 − ˙ m
2
V
2
= −F
x
F
x
= ˙ m
2
V
2
= ˙ m
2

˙ m
2
ρA
2

ρ = rho
water
SG = 788kg/m
3
A
2
=
πD
2
2
4
= 3.1 10
−4
m
2
˙ m
2
=

ρA
2
F
x
= 10.3 kg/s
9
⇒V
2
= 42 m/s
conservation of mass for CV
B
0 − ˙ m
1
+ ˙ m
2
⇒ ˙ m
1
= ˙ m
2
V
1
=
˙ m
1
ρA
1
= 6.7 m/s
Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2
V
2
1
2
+ gz
1
+
p
1
ρ
=
V
2
2
2
+ gz
2
+
p
2
ρ
+ gh
f1−2
Using z
1
= z
2
, p
2
= p
atm
and no losses,
p
1
= p
atm
+
ρ
2
(V
2
2
−V
2
1
)
p
1
= 785 kPa
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