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Solution Manual 7

Question 1: Problem P3.158

Meriam red oil

H=8 cm

x

z

2

11

1

CO

2

D

1

= 10 cm

p

1

= 170 kPa

T

1

= 20 Deg. C

D

2

= 6 cm

Assumptions:

• ρ is constant ? -needs to be checked.

• 1D ﬂow at 11, 1 and 3

• steady-state

• Steady ﬂow

• neglect losses

Conservation of mass for a CV:

CV

∂ρ

∂t

dV ol +

CS

ρ(

V . ˆ n) dA = 0

0 = −ρ

π D

2

1

4

V

11

+ ρ

π D

2

2

4

V

2

0 = − ˙ m

1

+ ˙ m

2

1

Using the perfect gas law

ρ =

p

1

RT

1

= 3.07 kg/m

3

using R

CO

2

= 189 m

2

/s

2

K (see Table A.4).

Manometer

p

1

= p

2

+ ρ

water

SG gH

⇒p

2

= 169.4kPa

Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2

V

2

1

2

+ gz

1

+

p

1

ρ

=

V

2

2

2

+ gz

3

+

p

2

ρ

+ gh

f

V

1

≈ 0 this is the stagnation point

z

1

= z

2

and there is no loss, therefore

V

2

=

2(p

1

−p

2

)

ρ

V

2

= 20.5m/s Speed of sound, incompressibility OK.

ﬂow rate

˙

Q =

πD

2

2

4

V

2

= 0.058m

3

/s

Question 2: Problem P3.165

Assumptions:

• steady ﬂow

• steady state

• incompressible

• no losses

• 1D ﬂow at Points 1 and 2

Conservation of mass:

CV

∂ρ

∂t

dV ol +

CS

ρ(

V . ˆ n) dA = 0

0 − ˙ m

1

+ ˙ m

2

= 0

˙ m

1

= ˙ m

2

⇒V

1

= V

2

D

2

2

D

2

1

2

x

z

h

2

1

D

1

D

2

ﬂow rate

Q = V

2

πD

2

2

4

= V

2

A

2

Manometer

p

1

= p

2

+ (ρ

m

−ρ)gh

p

1

−p

2

= (ρ

m

−ρ)gh

Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2

V

2

1

2

+ gz

1

+

p

1

ρ

=

V

2

2

2

+ gz

2

+

p

2

ρ

+ gh

f

z

1

= z

2

(horizontal) and no losses

V

2

2

2

D

2

D

1

4

+

p

1

ρ

=

V

2

2

2

+

p

2

ρ

V

2

=

2(p

1

−p

2

)

ρ

(1 −

(D

2

D

1

)

4

)

Q = A

2

2(ρ

m

−ρ)gh

ρ

(1 −

(D

2

D

1

)

4

)

3

Question 3: Problem P3.172

x

H= 1.83 cm

s

at 35 Deg. C

water

1

2

3

p

x

patm

pv

sketch of p variation

D

1

= 0.025 m

patm = 1.01 10

5

Pa

D

2

= 0.075 m

D

3

= ?

Assumptions

• pseudo-steady state in tank

• steady ﬂow

• cavitation occurs at p

v

• p

v

= 5.809 10

3

Pa (linear interpolation in Table A.5)

Conservation of mass:

ρ

πD

2

1

4

V

1

= ρ

πD

2

3

4

V

3

= ρ

πD

2

2

4

V

2

D

2

1

V

1

= D

2

3

V

3

= D

2

2

V

2

⇒V

1

=

D

3

D

1

2

V

3

4

Bernoulli equation from s to 3

V

2

s

2

+ gz

s

+

p

s

ρ

=

V

2

3

2

+ gz

3

+

p

3

ρ

+ gh

fs−3

V

s

≈ 0, z

s

= H, p

s

= p

atm

= p

3

, z

3

= 0 and no losses

⇒V

3

=

2gH = 6.0m/s

Bernoulli equation from 1 to 3

V

2

1

2

+ gz

1

+

p

1

ρ

=

V

2

3

2

+ gz

3

+

p

3

ρ

+ gh

f1−3

Using z

1

= z

3

, p

3

= p

atm

, p

1

= p

v

and no losses,

D

2

3

D

2

1

2

V

2

3

2

+

p

v

ρ

=

V

2

3

2

+

p

atm

ρ

Solve for D

3

D

4

3

=

(p

atm

−p

v

)/ρ +

V

2

3

2

V

2

3

2D

4

1

D

3

= 0.040m

To avoid cavitation we need to increase p

1

(p

v

in above relationship) which

means that D

3

must be decreased, i.e.

D

3

< 0.040m

Question 4: Problem P3.161

Assumptions:

• steady ﬂow

• steady-state

• 1D exit ﬂow at 1 and 2

• a

z

≈ 0 for ﬂuid in tube at point of motion

• no losses (but once ﬂow starts up in tube there will be mixing losses.

Conservation of mass:

0 −ρ

πD

2

1

4

V

1

+ ρ

πD

2

2

4

V

2

V

2

= V

1

D

2

1

D

2

2

5

water

1

h

2

x

z

water

V

2

V

1

p

2

= patm

D

2

tube

p

atm

= p

1

+ ρgh

Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2

V

2

1

2

+ gz

1

+

p

1

ρ

=

V

2

3

2

+ gz

2

+

p

2

ρ

+ gh

f2−3

sing z

1

= z

2

and no losses,

V

2

1

2

+

p

atm

−ρgh

ρ

=

V

2

1

2

D

1

D

2

4

+

p

atm

ρ

V

2

1

2

1 −

D

1

D

2

4

= gh

V

1

=

2gh

(1 −D

4

1

/D

4

2

)

6

Question 4: P3.173

x

y

D

1

D

2

D

3

p

1

Q

1

Q

2

p

2

p

3

Q

3

F

x

F

y

Assumptions:

• steady ﬂow

• steady-state

• 1D exit ﬂow at 1, 2 and 3

• no losses

• no shear forces on CV

Mass ﬂow rates:

V

i

=

˙

Q

i

πD

2

i

4

˙ m

i

= ρ

˙

Q

i

7

i

˙

Q

i

(m

3

/s) V

i

(m/s) ˙ m

i

(kg/s) A

i

(m

2

)

1 0.142 7.8 142 0.0181

2 0.071 15.2 71 0.0045

3 0.071 8.7 71 0.0082

conservation of momentum

x momentum

0 − ˙ m

1

V

1

+ ˙ m

2

V

2

sinθ

2

+ ˙ m

3

V

3

sinθ

3

= +p

1

πD

2

1

4

−p

2

πD

2

2

4

sinθ

2

−p

3

πD

2

3

4

sinθ

3

+ F

x

Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2

V

2

1

2

+ gz

1

+

p

1

ρ

=

V

2

3

2

+ gz

2

+

p

2

ρ

+ gh

f2−3

Using z

1

= z

2

and no losses,

p

2

= p

1

+

ρ

2

(V

2

1

−V

2

2

)

p

2

= 87.1 10

3

Pa(gage)

Bernoulli equation from 1 to 3 (similar to previous equations)

p

3

= p

1

+

ρ

2

(V

2

1

−V

2

3

)

p

2

= 165.0 10

3

Pa(gage)

back to x momentum

F

x

= ˙ m

2

V

2

sinθ

2

+ ˙ m

3

V

3

sinθ

3

− ˙ m

1

V

1

+ p

2

πD

2

1

4

sinθ

2

+ p

3

πD

2

3

4

sinθ

3

−p

1

πD

2

1

4

F

x

= 540 + 473 −1108 + 196 + 1036 −3113

F

x

= −1976 N

F

x

acts to the left.

y momentum

0 + ˙ m

1

(0) + ˙ m

2

V

2

cosθ

2

− ˙ m

3

V

3

cosθ

3

= 0 −p

2

πD

2

2

4

cosθ

2

+ p

3

πD

2

3

4

cosθ

3

+ F

y

F

y

= ˙ m

2

V

2

cosθ

2

− ˙ m

3

V

3

cosθ

3

+ p

2

πD

2

2

4

cosθ

2

−p

3

πD

2

3

4

cosθ

3

F

y

= 935 −397 + 339 −870

F

y

= 7.3 N

F

y

acts to the top.

8

1 2

3

4

CVB

CVA

x

z

F=425 N alcohol SG = 0.79

patm = 101 kPa

D

1

= 0.05 m

D

2

= 0.02 m

Question 6: P3.149

Assumptions:

• steady ﬂow

• steady-state

• 1D exit ﬂow at 1-4

• no losses

• no shear forces on CV

A

conservation of mass for CV

A

0 − ˙ m

2

+ ˙ m

3

+ ˙ m

4

x momentum for CV

A

0 − ˙ m

2

V

2

= −F

x

F

x

= ˙ m

2

V

2

= ˙ m

2

˙ m

2

ρA

2

ρ = rho

water

SG = 788kg/m

3

A

2

=

πD

2

2

4

= 3.1 10

−4

m

2

˙ m

2

=

ρA

2

F

x

= 10.3 kg/s

9

⇒V

2

= 42 m/s

conservation of mass for CV

B

0 − ˙ m

1

+ ˙ m

2

⇒ ˙ m

1

= ˙ m

2

V

1

=

˙ m

1

ρA

1

= 6.7 m/s

Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2

V

2

1

2

+ gz

1

+

p

1

ρ

=

V

2

2

2

+ gz

2

+

p

2

ρ

+ gh

f1−2

Using z

1

= z

2

, p

2

= p

atm

and no losses,

p

1

= p

atm

+

ρ

2

(V

2

2

−V

2

1

)

p

1

= 785 kPa

10

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