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Solution Manual 9

Question 1: Problem P5.71

x

z

h

D d

V

∆p = ∆p (ρ, V,

d

D

)

⇒C

p

=

∆p

1/2ρV

2

= C

p

d

D

model

C

pm

=

∆p

m

1/2 ρ

m

V

2

m

=

5000

0.5x998x4

2

= 0.626

geometric similarity

For

d

m

D

m

=

d

p

D

p

then

C

pp

= C

pm

1

prototype

C

pp

=

∆p

p

1/2ρ

p

V

2

p

=

∆p

p

1/2 ρ

p

Q

p

π

4

D

2

p

2

= 0.626

For best accuracy design system so that ∆p

p

= 15 kPa.

D

p

=

¸

8 C

pp

ρ

p

Q

2

p

∆p

p

π

2

¸

1/4

D

p

= 0.151 m

using ρ

p

= 680 kg/m

3

(Table A.3).

Question 2: Problem P5.75

Prototype

V

p

= 240 m/s

T

p

= 223 K

P

p

= 26.4 kPa

ρ

p

= 0.4125 kg/m

3

a

p

= 299.5 m/s

using Table A.6 (standard atmosphere).

Model

L

m

L

p

=

1

12

T

m

= 293 K

P

m

= unknown

V

m

= unknown

speed of sound for model

a

m

=

c

p

c

v

R

m

T

m

=

√

1.40x287x293 = 343 m/s

using Table A.4.

Mach number for prototype

Ma

p

=

V

p

a

p

= 0.801

Mach number for model

Ma

m

=

V

m

a

m

= Ma

p

⇒V

m

= 275 m/s

2

Viscosity (Assume only function of temperature, see Table A.2)

µ

m

= 1.8 10

−5

N.s.m

−2

µ

p

= 1.71 10

−5

T

m

273

0.7

= 1.48 10

−5

N.s.m

−2

(power law-Table A.2)

Reynolds number

Re

p

=

ρ

p

V

p

L

p

µ

p

= Re

m

=

ρ

m

V

m

L

m

µ

m

⇒ρ

m

= ρ

p

V

p

V

m

L

p

L

m

µ

m

µ

p

= 5.25 kg.m

−3

Pressure

p

m

= ρ

m

R T

m

p

m

= 4.42x10

5

Pa = 4.37 atm

Question 3: Problem P6.79

x

z

L = 10 m

d=0.015 m

H= 3 m

Ke = 0.5

Kv = f Le/d

Le = 200 d

1

2

Q = 2.010

−4

m

3

/s

Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2

V

2

1

2

+

p

1

ρ

+ gz

1

=

V

2

2

2

+

p

2

ρ

+ gz

2

+ gh

f1−2

Losses

gh

f12

= K

e

V

2

2

+ K

v

V

2

2

+ f

L

d

V

2

2

gh

f1−2

=

V

2

2

¸

K

e

+

L

e

d

+

L

d

f

Flow rate

˙

Q =

π d

2

4

V

⇒V = 1.13 m/s

3

with V

1

≈ 0 (large tank), p

1

= p

2

= p

atm

and z

2

= 0,

V

2

2

¸

1 + K

e

+

L

e

d

+

L

d

f

= gz

1

⇒f =

2gz

1

V

2

−1 −K

e

L

e

d

+

L

d

= 0.051

Using the Moody Diagram with f = 0.051 and Re =

ρV d

µ

= 1.7x10

4

,

d

= 0.02

= 0.3 mm

Question 4: Problem P6.103

1

CV

water

H = 13.7 m

2

z

x

L

A

= 6.10 m

d

A

= 0.0254 m

L

B

= 6.10 m

d

B

= 0.508 m

Assumptions:

• steady ﬂow

• steady-state

• 1D velocity

• large reservoirs

• fully developed ﬂow

Conservation of mass for CV around expansion:

0 −ρ

πd

2

A

4

V

A

+ ρ

πd

2

B

4

V

B

V

B

= V

A

d

2

A

d

2

B

4

Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2

V

2

1

2

+ gz

1

+

p

1

ρ

=

V

2

2

2

+ gz

2

+

p

2

ρ

+ gh

f1−2

using z

2

=0, p

1

= p

2

= p

atm

and V

1

= V

2

≈ 0

gh

f1−2

=

V

2

A

2

¸

Kent + f

A

L

A

d

A

+ Kexp

+

V

2

B

2

¸

f

B

L

B

d

B

+ Kexit

= gH

K

ent

= 0.5 sharp edged entrance (see Fig. 6.21b).

K

exp

= (1 −d

2

A

/d

2

B

)

2

= 0.56 using Eq. 6.80.

K

exit

= 1 using Eq.6.80 with d/D →0.

A

=

B

= 0.26 mm (Table 6.1).

A

/d

A

= 0.01 and

B

/d

B

= 0.005.

V

A

=

2gH

K

ent

+ K

exp

+ f

A

L

A

d

A

+

d

4

A

d

4

B

f

B

L

B

d

B

+ K

exit

¸

⇒V

A

=

269

1.12 + 240f

A

+ 7.5f

B

Reynolds numbers

Re

A

=

ρV

A

d

A

µ

= 2.5x10

4

V

A

Re

B

=

ρV

B

d

B

µ

=

ρV

A

d

B

µ

.

d

2

A

d

2

B

= 1.27x10

4

V

A

Iterative process to calculate the friction factors.

Iteration Re

A

Re

B

f

A

( Moody diagram) f

B

(Moody diagram) V

A

(m/s

0 ∝ ∝ 0.038 0.03 5.1

1 1.3 10

5

6.5 10

4

0.038 0.031 5.1

V

A

= 5.1 m/s

Q =

V

A

π d

2

A

4

= 2.6x10

−3

m

3

/s

5

question 5: Problem 6.108

1

2

Kv

Kf

Kelbow

Kelbow

Kexit

z

x

z=0

d= 0.102 m (Table 6.2)

L = 24.4 m

p

1

=44.8 kPag

ǫ = 0.046 mm (Table 6.1)

K

v

= 2.8 (Fig. 6.18b)

K

elbow

= 0.64 (Table 6.5)

K

exit

= 1.0 (exit loss Fig. 6.22)

Q = 1.13x10

−2

m

3

/s ⇒V = 1.39 m/s.

Re =

ρ V d

µ

= 1.4 10

5

using water at 20

◦

C (Table A.3).

/d = 0.00045.

Using the Moody diagram f = 0.0193 (Fig. 6.13).

Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2

V

2

1

2

+ gz

1

+

p

1

ρ

=

V

2

2

2

+ gz

2

+

p

2

ρ

+ gh

f1−2

Losses

gh

f1−2

= K

v

V

2

2

+ K

f

V

2

2

+ 2 K

elbow

V

2

2

+ K

exit

V

2

2

+ f

L

d

V

2

2

using z

1

= 0, V

2

≈ 0 (large reservoir) and p

2

= p

atm

,

V

2

2

¸

K

v

+ 2K

elbow

+ K

exit

+

f L

d

−1 + K

f

=

p

1

ρ

−gH

K

f

=

2

V

2

¸

P

1

ρ

−gH

+ 1 −K

v

−2K

elbow

−K

exit

−f

L

d

K

f

= 9.9

6

Second part

K

f

= 7.0 and K

v

= 0.0 (see Fig. 6.18b)

In this case V (and f) are unknown). From Bernoulli equation,

V =

¸

2

p

1

ρ

−gH

K

v

+ 2K

elbow

+ K

f

+ K

exit

+ f

L

d

−1

¸

1/2

V =

36

8.28 + 239f

Reynolds number

Re = 1.02 10

5

V

iterative process: Start by guessing a value for f.

iteration Re f V (m/s)

0 / 0.0163 1.72

1 1.75x10

5

0.0195 1.67

2 1.70x10

5

0.0195 1.67

Q = V

πd

2

4

= 1.36x10

−2

m

3

/s

7

question 6: Problem 6.110

1

2

Kent=0.5 (Fig. 6.21)

Kv = 4.0 (Fig. 6.18b)

z

x

H=40m

Turbine

p

2

= patm

p

1

=patm

Assumptions

• fully developed ﬂow

• steady ﬂow

• steady state

• large reservoir

Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2 (multiplied by the mass ﬂow rate) in W

˙ m

¸

V

2

1

2

+

p

1

ρ

+ gz

1

= ˙ m

¸

V

2

2

2

+

p

2

ρ

+ gz

2

+

V

2

2

2

Kent + f

L

d

+ Kv

+ Power

turbine

Using z

1

= H, z

2

= 0, V

1

≈ 0, p

1

= p

2

= p

atm

and V

2

= V,

Power

turbine

= ˙ m

¸

gH −

V

2

2

2

1 + Kent + f

L

d

+ Kv

Use Table A.3 (20

◦

C)

V =

˙

Q

πd

2

/4

= 2.04 m/s

Re =

ρV d

µ

= 1.02x10

5

d

= 0.005 ⇒f(Re,

d

) = 0.031

˙ m = ρ Q = 3.99 kg/s

Power

turbine

= 877 W

Notice that no losses are assumed in the turbine; typical eﬃciencies are 85%-

95%.

8

question 7: Problem 6.107

1

H=5

z

x

2

L = 2

d = 0.05 m

p

1

=patm

∆ = 0.06 m

p

2

= patm

K

v

galvanised iron ǫ=0.15 mm

Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2

V

2

1

2

+

p

1

ρ

+ gz

1

=

V

2

2

2

+

p

2

ρ

+ gz

2

+ gh

f12

Using V

1

≈ 0, p

1

= p

2

= p

atm

, z

2

= 0 and V = V

2

,

gh

f12

=

V

2

2

Kent + Kv + f

L

d

V =

2gH

1 + Kent + Kv + f

L

d

Some iteration are required to determine f. Use f = 0.0255 as initial guess.

Summary of results

Case Kent Kv f Re V (m/s) % increase

base 1.0 80 0.028 5.4x10

4

1.09 0

a 0.5 80 0.028 5.4x10

4

1.09 0

b 1.0 0.25 0.026 3.0x10

5

5.46 +444

For K

ent

in base use Fig. 6.21a, in a) use Fig.6.21b.

For K

v

in base and a) use Fig. 6.19 (30

◦

), in b) use Fig.6.19 (90

◦

).

9

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