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# FLUID MECHANICS I

Solution Manual 9
Question 1: Problem P5.71
x
z
h
D d
V
∆p = ∆p (ρ, V,
d
D
)
⇒C
p
=
∆p
1/2ρV
2
= C
p

d
D

model
C
pm
=
∆p
m
1/2 ρ
m
V
2
m
=
5000
0.5x998x4
2
= 0.626
geometric similarity
For
d
m
D
m
=
d
p
D
p
then
C
pp
= C
pm
1
prototype
C
pp
=
∆p
p
1/2ρ
p
V
2
p
=
∆p
p
1/2 ρ
p

Q
p
π
4
D
2
p

2
= 0.626
For best accuracy design system so that ∆p
p
= 15 kPa.
D
p
=
¸
8 C
pp
ρ
p
Q
2
p
∆p
p
π
2
¸
1/4
D
p
= 0.151 m
using ρ
p
= 680 kg/m
3
(Table A.3).
Question 2: Problem P5.75
Prototype
V
p
= 240 m/s
T
p
= 223 K
P
p
= 26.4 kPa
ρ
p
= 0.4125 kg/m
3
a
p
= 299.5 m/s
using Table A.6 (standard atmosphere).
Model
L
m
L
p
=
1
12
T
m
= 293 K
P
m
= unknown
V
m
= unknown
speed of sound for model
a
m
=

c
p
c
v
R
m
T
m
=

1.40x287x293 = 343 m/s
using Table A.4.
Mach number for prototype
Ma
p
=
V
p
a
p
= 0.801
Mach number for model
Ma
m
=
V
m
a
m
= Ma
p
⇒V
m
= 275 m/s
2
Viscosity (Assume only function of temperature, see Table A.2)
µ
m
= 1.8 10
−5
N.s.m
−2
µ
p
= 1.71 10
−5

T
m
273

0.7
= 1.48 10
−5
N.s.m
−2
(power law-Table A.2)
Reynolds number
Re
p
=
ρ
p
V
p
L
p
µ
p
= Re
m
=
ρ
m
V
m
L
m
µ
m
⇒ρ
m
= ρ
p
V
p
V
m
L
p
L
m
µ
m
µ
p
= 5.25 kg.m
−3
Pressure
p
m
= ρ
m
R T
m
p
m
= 4.42x10
5
Pa = 4.37 atm
Question 3: Problem P6.79
x
z
L = 10 m
d=0.015 m
H= 3 m
Ke = 0.5
Kv = f Le/d
Le = 200 d
1
2
Q = 2.010
−4
m
3
/s
Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2
V
2
1
2
+
p
1
ρ
+ gz
1
=
V
2
2
2
+
p
2
ρ
+ gz
2
+ gh
f1−2
Losses
gh
f12
= K
e
V
2
2
+ K
v
V
2
2
+ f
L
d
V
2
2
gh
f1−2
=
V
2
2
¸
K
e
+

L
e
d
+
L
d

f

Flow rate
˙
Q =
π d
2
4
V
⇒V = 1.13 m/s
3
with V
1
≈ 0 (large tank), p
1
= p
2
= p
atm
and z
2
= 0,
V
2
2
¸
1 + K
e
+

L
e
d
+
L
d

f

= gz
1
⇒f =

2gz
1
V
2
−1 −K
e

L
e
d
+
L
d
= 0.051
Using the Moody Diagram with f = 0.051 and Re =
ρV d
µ
= 1.7x10
4
,

d
= 0.02
= 0.3 mm
Question 4: Problem P6.103
1
CV
water
H = 13.7 m
2
z
x
L
A
= 6.10 m
d
A
= 0.0254 m
L
B
= 6.10 m
d
B
= 0.508 m
Assumptions:
• 1D velocity
• large reservoirs
• fully developed ﬂow
Conservation of mass for CV around expansion:
0 −ρ
πd
2
A
4
V
A
+ ρ
πd
2
B
4
V
B
V
B
= V
A
d
2
A
d
2
B
4
Bernoulli equation from 1 to 2
V
2
1
2
+ gz
1
+
p
1
ρ
=
V
2
2
2
+ gz
2
+
p
2
ρ
+ gh
f1−2
using z
2
=0, p
1
= p
2
= p
atm
and V
1
= V
2
≈ 0
gh
f1−2
=
V
2
A
2
¸
Kent + f
A
L
A
d
A
+ Kexp

+
V
2
B
2
¸
f
B
L
B
d
B
+ Kexit

= gH
K
ent
= 0.5 sharp edged entrance (see Fig. 6.21b).
K
exp
= (1 −d
2
A
/d
2
B
)
2
= 0.56 using Eq. 6.80.
K
exit
= 1 using Eq.6.80 with d/D →0.

A
=
B
= 0.26 mm (Table 6.1).

A
/d
A
= 0.01 and
B
/d
B
= 0.005.
V
A
=

2gH

K
ent
+ K
exp
+ f
A
L
A
d
A
+
d
4
A
d
4
B

f
B
L
B
d
B
+ K
exit
¸
⇒V
A
=

269
1.12 + 240f
A
+ 7.5f
B
Reynolds numbers
Re
A
=
ρV
A
d
A
µ
= 2.5x10
4
V
A
Re
B
=
ρV
B
d
B
µ
=
ρV
A
d
B
µ
.
d
2
A
d
2
B
= 1.27x10
4
V
A
Iterative process to calculate the friction factors.
Iteration Re
A
Re
B
f
A
( Moody diagram) f
B
(Moody diagram) V
A
(m/s
0 ∝ ∝ 0.038 0.03 5.1
1 1.3 10
5
6.5 10
4
0.038 0.031 5.1
V
A
= 5.1 m/s
Q =
V
A
π d
2
A
4
= 2.6x10
−3
m
3
/s
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question 5: Problem 6.108
1
2
Kv
Kf
Kelbow
Kelbow
Kexit
z
x
z=0
d= 0.102 m (Table 6.2)
L = 24.4 m
p
1
=44.8 kPag
ǫ = 0.046 mm (Table 6.1)
K
v
= 2.8 (Fig. 6.18b)
K
elbow
= 0.64 (Table 6.5)
K
exit
= 1.0 (exit loss Fig. 6.22)
Q = 1.13x10
−2
m
3
/s ⇒V = 1.39 m/s.
Re =
ρ V d
µ
= 1.4 10
5
using water at 20

C (Table A.3).
/d = 0.00045.
Using the Moody diagram f = 0.0193 (Fig. 6.13).
Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2
V
2
1
2
+ gz
1
+
p
1
ρ
=
V
2
2
2
+ gz
2
+
p
2
ρ
+ gh
f1−2
Losses
gh
f1−2
= K
v
V
2
2
+ K
f
V
2
2
+ 2 K
elbow
V
2
2
+ K
exit
V
2
2
+ f
L
d
V
2
2
using z
1
= 0, V
2
≈ 0 (large reservoir) and p
2
= p
atm
,
V
2
2
¸
K
v
+ 2K
elbow
+ K
exit
+
f L
d
−1 + K
f

=
p
1
ρ
−gH
K
f
=
2
V
2
¸
P
1
ρ
−gH

+ 1 −K
v
−2K
elbow
−K
exit
−f
L
d
K
f
= 9.9
6
Second part
K
f
= 7.0 and K
v
= 0.0 (see Fig. 6.18b)
In this case V (and f) are unknown). From Bernoulli equation,
V =

¸
2

p
1
ρ
−gH

K
v
+ 2K
elbow
+ K
f
+ K
exit
+ f
L
d
−1
¸

1/2
V =

36
8.28 + 239f
Reynolds number
Re = 1.02 10
5
V
iterative process: Start by guessing a value for f.
iteration Re f V (m/s)
0 / 0.0163 1.72
1 1.75x10
5
0.0195 1.67
2 1.70x10
5
0.0195 1.67
Q = V
πd
2
4
= 1.36x10
−2
m
3
/s
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question 6: Problem 6.110
1
2
Kent=0.5 (Fig. 6.21)
Kv = 4.0 (Fig. 6.18b)
z
x
H=40m
Turbine
p
2
= patm
p
1
=patm
Assumptions
• fully developed ﬂow
• large reservoir
Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2 (multiplied by the mass ﬂow rate) in W
˙ m
¸
V
2
1
2
+
p
1
ρ
+ gz
1

= ˙ m
¸
V
2
2
2
+
p
2
ρ
+ gz
2
+
V
2
2
2

Kent + f
L
d
+ Kv

+ Power
turbine
Using z
1
= H, z
2
= 0, V
1
≈ 0, p
1
= p
2
= p
atm
and V
2
= V,
Power
turbine
= ˙ m
¸
gH −
V
2
2
2

1 + Kent + f
L
d
+ Kv

Use Table A.3 (20

C)
V =
˙
Q
πd
2
/4
= 2.04 m/s
Re =
ρV d
µ
= 1.02x10
5

d
= 0.005 ⇒f(Re,

d
) = 0.031
˙ m = ρ Q = 3.99 kg/s
Power
turbine
= 877 W
Notice that no losses are assumed in the turbine; typical eﬃciencies are 85%-
95%.
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question 7: Problem 6.107
1
H=5
z
x
2
L = 2
d = 0.05 m
p
1
=patm
∆ = 0.06 m
p
2
= patm
K
v
galvanised iron ǫ=0.15 mm
Bernoulli equation between 1 and 2
V
2
1
2
+
p
1
ρ
+ gz
1
=
V
2
2
2
+
p
2
ρ
+ gz
2
+ gh
f12
Using V
1
≈ 0, p
1
= p
2
= p
atm
, z
2
= 0 and V = V
2
,
gh
f12
=
V
2
2

Kent + Kv + f
L
d

V =

2gH
1 + Kent + Kv + f
L
d
Some iteration are required to determine f. Use f = 0.0255 as initial guess.
Summary of results
Case Kent Kv f Re V (m/s) % increase
base 1.0 80 0.028 5.4x10
4
1.09 0
a 0.5 80 0.028 5.4x10
4
1.09 0
b 1.0 0.25 0.026 3.0x10
5
5.46 +444
For K
ent
in base use Fig. 6.21a, in a) use Fig.6.21b.
For K
v
in base and a) use Fig. 6.19 (30

), in b) use Fig.6.19 (90

).
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