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1 p227

The solution is given in p227 of the textbook.

Question2

For a ﬂuid ﬂow with a velocity ﬁeld: ˆ V (x, y, z, t) = 2xˆ − 2yˆ + 0k[m/s] i j estimate the ﬂuid velocity and acceleration at the point (2, 1, 0)[m]. Calculation of the velocity: u(x, y, z, t) = 2x[m/s] u(2, 1, 0, t) = 4[m/s] or v(x, y, z, t) = −2y[m/s] v(2, 1, 0, t) = −2[m/s] w(x, y, z, t) = 0m/s w(2, 1, 0, t) = 0[m/s]

ˆ V (2, 1, 0, t) = 4ˆ − 2ˆ + 0k[m/s] i j Calculation of the acceleration: ax ay az Therefore ax (2, 1, 0, t) = 8[m/s2 ] ay (2, 1, 0, t) = 4[m/s2 ] az (2, 1, 0, t) = 0[m/s2 ] ≡ ≡ ≡ Du ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u = +u +v +w = 4x[m/s2 ] Dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v Dv = +u +v +w = 4y[m/s2 ] Dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z Dw ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w = +u +v +w = 0[m/s2 ] Dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

or

ˆ a(2, 1, 0, t) = 8ˆ + 4ˆ + 0k[m/s2 ] i j

Note that the plots were produced using a math package (Matlab) for illustration. However, use of such a package will not be required for the exams. 1

Velocity Field Plot 5

4

3

y [m]

2

1

0

−1 −6

−4

−2

0 x [m]

2

4

6

**Figure 1: Velocity ﬁeld plot
**

Acceleration Field Plot 6

5

4

3 y [m] 2 1 0 −1 −6

−4

−2

0 x [m]

2

4

6

Figure 2: Acceleration ﬁeld plot

2

Question 3: P4.5

V (x, y, z, t) = with Uo and L constants. a) Acceleration components ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u x Uo y +u +v +w = (0) + U0 + −Uo (0) + 0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z L L L U0 ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v x y − ay = +u +v +w = (0) + U0 (0) + −Uo +0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z L L L ∂w ∂w ∂w ∂w az = +u +v +w = 0 m.s−2 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ax = The resultant acceleration is a=

2 2 2 U0 ˆ U0 ˆ U0 x i+ 2 y j = 2 r L2 L L

Uo x ˆ Uo y ˆ ˆ i− j+0 k L L

(1) b) |a| = 25 = U0 = 6.3 m/s.

2 U0 1.52

12 + 12

Question 4: P4.6

x ˆ V = V0 (1 + 2 ) ˆ + 0 ˆ + 0k i j L a) The acceleration components are ax = ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u 2V 2 +u +v +w = 0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z L 1+ 2x L

ay = 0.0 m.s−2 az = 0.0 m.s−2 At x=L, the acceleration is a= 6V02 ˆ i L 3

Question 5: P4.7

V = u ˆ = U0 1 + i a) The acceleration components are ax = U0 1 + R3 x3 −3U0 R3 x4 R3 x3

ay = 0.0 m.s−2 az = 0.0 m.s−2 The maximum occurs where dax =0 dx i.e. at x = −(7R3 /4)1/3 ≈ −1.205 R.

**Question 6: Example 1.13 p41
**

The solution is given in p41 of the textbook.

Question 7: P1.81

ˆ V = Kxt ˆ − Kytˆ + 0 k i j The ﬂow is unsteady and two-dimensional. To ﬁnd the streamline equation use dx dy = u v dx dy = Kxt −Kyt The terms K and t both vanish and leave us with the same results as in Example 1.13 p41, that is,

x x0

dx = x

y y0

−dy y

x y0 = ln x0 y ⇒ xy = x0 y0 = Constant ⇒ ln Note that you integrate from x0 ,y0 to x,y which corresponds to the streamline passing through a point (x0 , y0 ). The streamlines have exactly the same shape as in Fig. 1.13 p 41. However the ﬂow is accelerating with increasing time. 4

Question 8: P1.82

ˆ V = V0 cosθ ˆ + V0 sinθ ˆ + 0 k i j where V0 and θ are constants. Streamline equation passing through point (x0 , y0 ) dx dy dx dy = = = u v V0 cosθ V0 sinθ dy ⇒ = tanθ dx Integrate such as

y x

dy =

y0 x0

tanθdx

⇒ y = (tanθ)x + y0 − (tanθ)x0 = (tanθ) x + Constant The streamlines are straight parallel lines which make an angle θ with the x axis. The velocity ﬁeld represents a uniform stream moving upward at angle θ.

Question 9

The ﬂuid ﬂow in the region above the two planes : y = x and y = −x can be approximated by the velocity ﬁeld: V (x, y, z, t) = −0.004 x ˆ y ˆ ˆ i − 0.004 2 j + 0k[m/s] x2 + y 2 x + y2

**1. Make a sketch of the region in which the ﬂuid ﬂows for 0[m] < y < 1.0[m], See Figure 3.
**

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 −0.2 −1 −0.5 0 x [m] 0.5 1

y [m]

Figure 3: Region of interest

5

2. Plot the streamlines in the ﬂow region ( 0[m] < y < 1.0[m]), Along any streamline that goes through the point (x0 , y0 ) in the ﬂow region: vdx − udy x y dx + 0.004 2 dy −0.004 2 x + y2 x + y2 dx dy − x y = = = 0 or 0 or 0

Now integrate from the point (x0 , y0 ) to another point (x, y) on the streamline: y x dy y x dx − =0⇒ = x y y0 x0 y0 x0 This is the equation of a straight line which goes through the origin and the point (x0 , y0 ). Figure 4 shows a set of streamlines obtained by varying the reference point (x0 , y0 ).

1.2

1

0.8

0.6 y [m] 0.4 0.2 0 −0.2 −1 −0.8 −0.6 −0.4 −0.2 0 x [m] 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Figure 4: Streamline plot 3. What is the ﬂuid acceleration at the points (0.0[m], 0.5[m]) and (0.1[m], 0.5[m])? ax = = ay = = ∂u ∂u ∂u ∂u +u +v +w ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z x 2 2 −(0.004) 2 [m/s ] (x2 + y 2 ) ∂v ∂v ∂v ∂v +u +v +w ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z y 2 2 −(0.004) 2 [m/s ] (x2 + y 2 ) 6

These expressions were evaluated with Maple. Therefore a(0.0[m], 0.5[m]) a(0.1[m], 0.5[m]) = = ˆ 0ˆ − 1.28 · 10−4 ˆ + 0k[m/s2 ] i j ˆ −2.37 · 10−5ˆ − 1.18 · 10−4 ˆ + 0k[m/s2 ] i j

Notice that the ﬂuid parcels accelerate towards the origin. 4. Is the velocity ﬁeld realistic in the region of the origin, (0.0[m], 0.0[m])? At the origin the ﬂuid velocity and acceleration approach ∞ so the velocity ﬁeld is NOT realistic in the region of the origin.

7

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