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A Clear View

Of What Has Been Narrated Regarding


The Fitan And The Malahim At The End
Of Time

By

Muhammad at-Tayyib ibn Gary


[Abu 'Abdillah al-Maliki]
Contents
Chapter: The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] informed the Companions
of everything that would occur until the Day of Resurrection
Chapter: The Victorious Party [at-Ta'ifah al-Mansurah]
Chapter: The guidance of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] in times of fitnah
Chapter: The fitan of al-Ahlas, as-Sarra' and ad-Duhayma'
Chapter: The cutting off of trade to 'Iraq, Sham and Egypt, and the return of iman to al-
Madinah
Chapter: The fall of the Zionist State
Chapter: The fitan before the coming of the Mahdi
Chapter: The final phase of the age of the tyrants, and what has been narrated regarding
the Sufyani
Chapter: The coming of the black banners from the east that will prepare the way for the
Mahdi
Chapter: The Mahdi
Chapter: The one behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will pray: is he the
Mahdi, or someone else?
Chapter: What has been narrated regarding what will occur after the Mahdi
Chapter: The downfall of technology
Chapter: The causes of the downfall of technology
Chapter: The results of the downfall of technology
Chapter: What has been narrated regarding the desolation of the lands and the decline in
the world's population towards the end of time
Chapter: The desolation of al-Madinah
Chapter: Climate changes towards the end of time
Chapter: The Romans and the Malahim [the great battles]
Chapter: The Turks
Chapter: The revival of the "crusader mentality" among the Europeans
Chapter: Al-Malhamah al-Kubra [the greatest battle]
Chapter: The conquest of Constantinople and Rome
Chapter: The conquest of India
Chapter: The coming of the Dajjal and the descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam]
Chapter: The fitnah of the Dajjal
Chapter: The followers of the Dajjal
Chapter: The battle with the Jews [Armageddon]
Chapter: The hadith of an-Nawwas ibn Sam'an
Chapter: The hadith of Abu Umamah al-Bahili
Chapter: The hadith of Fatimah bint Qays
Chapter: Ya'juj and Ma'juj
Chapter: The life of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] after his descent
Chapter: The Hajj will continue to be made to the House after Ya'juj and Ma'juj
Chapter: The rising of the sun from the west and the coming of the Beast of the Earth
[dabbat al-ardh]
Chapter: The Abyssinians and the destruction of the Ka'bah
Chapter: The fire from the Yemen that will gather the people in Sham
In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate. Praise be to Allah, the Lord
of the worlds, and may blessings and peace be upon the Master of the Messengers,
our Prophet Muhammad, and upon his pure family and noble companions and all
who follow them in the way of righteousness until the Day of Judgement.

Chapter: The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] informed the


Companions of everything that would occur until the Day of Resurrection

Al-Bukhari narrated from 'Umar ibn al-Khattab [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"The Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] stood amongst us in his place, and informed
us of everything that would take place from the beginning of the creation until the people
of Paradise and the people of the Fire enter their respective abodes. Whoever
remembered it, remembered it; and whoever forgot it, forgot it."

And Abu Dawud narrated from Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he
said:

"The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] stood amongst us, and he did not
leave in that standing of him anything that would take place until the coming of the Hour
except that he related it. Whoever remembered it, remembered it; and whoever forgot it,
forgot it. These companions of his learnt it all. Some of it would come to pass, then I
would remember it as a man remembers the face of another man who is absent from him,
then when he sees him he recognizes him."

From these things are those that have already passed, those that have appeared and are
continuing and increasing, and those that have not yet occurred. I have not brought all of
the ahadith and athar mentioning them here, as this is not the main purpose of this book,
and in any case to do so would make it unnecessarily lengthy. For more details, the reader
may refer to Ibn Kathir's an-Nihayah fil-Fitan wal-Malahim.

Signs that have already passed:


The coming of the Seal of the Prophets [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], the splitting of the
moon, the spreading of Islam, the death of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], the
conquest of Bayt al-Maqdis, the plague of 'Amwas, the widespread abundance of wealth,
the conquest of the Arabian Peninsula, Sham, Persia, Egypt, India and Sind, the
martyrdom of 'Umar ibn al-Khattab and 'Uthman ibn 'Affan [radhiyallahu 'anhuma], the
battle of Siffin, the killing of 'Ammar [radhiyallahu 'anhu] by the wrongful party [al-fi'ah
al-baghiyah], the duration of the Rightly-Guided Khilafah for around thirty years and
then its replacement by a harsh kingdom, the coming of false prophets, the coming of the
sects such as the Khawarij and the Qadariyyah, the appearance of a fire out of the Hijaz
that would shed light on the necks of the camels at Busrah, the battles against the Tatars
and Mongols, and so on…
Signs that have appeared and are continuing and increasing:
Wine-drinking, playing musical instruments, adultery and so on becoming widespread
and considered as lawful, women who are dressed yet naked, an increase in the number
of women and a decrease in the number of men, usury becoming widespread, lying,
deceit and false witness becoming common, the coming to authority of those unworthy of
it, the death of the scholars, the disappearance of knowledge, and the spread of ignorance,
lowly people being honoured and placed in high positions, groups of the Ummah going
over to live with the mushrikun, abundant writing and printing, the pursuit of knowledge
by those of little understanding, slave-women giving birth to their mistresses, barefoot
and naked goat herders competing in the construction of tall buildings, the adornment and
decoration of the masajid, the neglect of the sunan, the coming true of the dreams of
believers, widespread killing and sudden death, large numbers of police and assistants to
the oppressors, the speeding up of time, the markets becoming close, abundance of trade,
increased earthquakes and other natural disasters, people wishing for death, and so on…

Signs that have not yet occurred:


The Euphrates' uncovering a mountain of gold, the Arabian Peninsula becoming
meadows and rivers, the transformation of people in this Ummah into apes and pigs due
to their considering major sins as lawful, the coming of the Mahdi, the rule of the
Qahtani, the rule of a mawla [a non-Arab Muslim] called al-Jahjah, al-Malhamah al-
Kubra [the greatest battle] between the Muslims and the Christians, the Muslims'
conquest of Constantinople and Rome after the Malhamah, the coming of al-Masih ad-
Dajjal [the false messiah], the descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] and his killing
of the Dajjal, the coming of Ya'juj and Ma'juj [Gog and Magog], the rising of the sun
from the west, the appearance of the Beast of the Earth, the wind that will take the souls
of the believers, the ruin of al-Madinah, the destruction of the Ka'bah by the Abyssinians,
and the fire that will come from the Yemen to gather the people in Sham before the
coming of the Hour.
Chapter: The Victorious Party [at-Ta'ifah al-Mansurah]

Whenever the Muslims turned away from the pure teachings of their religion and
followed the ways of the kuffar, Allah [subhanahu wa-ta'ala] sent humiliation and defeat
upon them. This is as true today as it was at many times throughout history.

Ahmad narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "I heard the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying to Thawban:

"O Thawban, how will you be when the nations call each other against you like people
calling each other to a table for a meal?" He said: "May my father and my mother be
sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah, will that be because of our small numbers?" He
said: "No, rather on that day you will be many, but Allah will put al-wahn [weakness] in
your hearts." They said: "What is al-wahn, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "Love of the
world and hatred of death."

And al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that
the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"You will follow the ways of those before you, step by step, until if they were to go down
into a lizard's hole, you would go down into it as well."

They said: "O Messenger of Allah, the Jews and the Christians?" He said: "Who else?"

And Ahmad narrated from Hudhayfah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger
of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Prophethood will remain among you as long as Allah wills, then Allah will raise it when
He wills. Then there will be a khilafah upon the way of Prophethood, and it will be as
long as Allah wills, then Allah will raise it when He wills. Then there will be a harsh
kingdom [mulkan 'adhdhan], and it will be for as long as Allah wills, then Allah will raise
it when He wills. Then there will be a tyrannical kingdom [mulkan jabriyyan], and it will
be for as long as Allah wills, then Allah will raise it when He wills. Then there will be a
khilafah upon the way of Prophethood." Then he was silent."

The khilafah upon the way of Prophethood was that of Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Uthman and
'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhum]. The khilafah of Mu'awiyah [radhiyallahu 'anhu], who is
mentioned by al-Qadhi 'Iyadh as the fifth of al-Khulafa' ar-Rashidun, represented a
transition period between the first phase and the second phase, that of the harsh kingdom
[al-mulk al-'adhdh] which began during the rule of Yazid ibn Mu'awiyah and continued
throughout much of the rule of Banu Umayyah and Banul-'Abbas after them, followed by
the various kingdoms that followed, until the decline in the last few centuries of the last
three major centers of Islamic rule: the 'Uthmani dawlah in Turkey, the kingdom of the
Mughals in India, and the kingdom of the Ashraf in the Maghrib. Then the tyrannical
kingdom [al-mulk al-jabri] began with the coming of secularism and the establishment of
puppet regimes largely subservient in one way or another to the kafir nations. This
situation has continued up to this day, and we ask Allah to relieve us of it soon, and to
allow us to witness the revival of the khilafah upon the way of Prophethood. Amin!

Whatever hardships and tribulations occur to this Ummah, they are in fact a mercy from
Allah in order to purify the Muslims of their sins, and to make them turn back in
repentance to Allah. Allah ['azza wa-jall] has promised that He will make His religion
predominant, and that He will give victory to His righteous slaves.

He said [ta'ala]: "It is He Who has sent His Messenger with Guidance and the
Religion of Truth, in order that He may make it victorious over all other religions,
even though the polytheists may detest it." [As-Saff: 9]

And He said [ta'ala]: "And We have written down in the Books, after adh-dhikr [i.e.
the writing of the decree in the Preseved Tablet], that My righteous slaves will
inherit the land." [Al-Anbiya': 105]

This is, however, conditional upon them doing their duty to Allah by obeying His orders,
avoiding what He has prohibited, commanding the good and forbidding the evil, and
making use of all prescribed means to elevate His religion. He said [ta'ala]: "O you who
believe! If you support Allah [i.e. Allah's Cause], He will support you, and make
your feet firm." [Muhammad: 7]

And He said [ta'ala]: "Allah has promised those of you who believe and do righteous
deeds that He will surely grant them succession in the land, as He granted
succession to those before them, and that He will surely establish for them their
religion that He has chosen for them, and that He will surely exchange for them,
after their fear, security. They worship Me and associate nothing with Me. But
whoever is ungrateful after this, then it is they who are the evil-doers." [An-Nur: 55]

And He said [ta'ala]: "And prepare against them all that you are able to of power and
warhorses, to strike fear into the enemy of Allah and your enemy." [Al-Anfal: 60]

And our Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] has given us the glad tidings that this
religion will reach wherever the day and night reach, and that there will always remain a
group of this Ummah who will be victorious on the way of Truth until the coming of the
Hour.

Muslim narrated from Tamim ad-Dari [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Allah unfolded the entire earth before me, so that I saw its eastern and western regions.
And the rule of my Ummah will reach to all of those regions of it that were unfolded
before me. And I have been given the two treasures: the red and the white [i.e. gold and
silver, or the Roman and Persian empires]. And I asked my Lord that He would not
destroy my Ummah with years of famine, and that He would not allow an enemy from
other than their own selves to overcome them and conquer all of their lands. And my
Lord said: "O Muhammad, when I have decided something, My decision will not be
revoked. I have given it to your Ummah that I will not destroy them with years of famine,
nor will I allow an enemy from other than their own selves to overcome them and
conquer all of their lands, even if they were to assemble from every land and come
against them, until it comes to pass that some of them will kill each other, and some of
them will take each other captive."

And in another narration:

"I only fear for my Ummah the misguiding leaders. And when the sword falls between
them, it will not be lifted until the Day of Resurrection. And the Hour will not come until
groups of my Ummah join the mushrikun, and until tribes from my Ummah worship
idols. And there will be in my Ummah thirty great liars, each of whom will claim that he
is a prophet, but I am the Seal of the Prophets, and there is no prophet after me. And there
will always remain a group from my Ummah upon the way of Truth, victorious and
unharmed by those who let them down, until the Command of Allah [tabaraka wa-ta'ala]
comes."

And al-Hakim narrated from Tamim ad-Dari [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "I heard
the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"Surely, this religion will reach to everywhere that the day and night reach, and Allah will
not leave a single house or tent without causing this religion enter it, either through the
honour of the honourable, or the abasement of the abased. He will be honoured by Allah's
honouring him with Islam, or humiliated by kufr."

And al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated in the Sahihayn from Mu'adh ibn Jabal
[radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]
said:

"There will always remain a group from my Ummah fighting upon the way of Truth,
victorious over all who oppose them, until the last of them fights al-Masih ad-Dajjal."

Mu'adh ibn Jabal said: "And they will be in Sham."

And in another narration:

"There will always remain a group from my Ummah, fighting upon the way of Truth,
victorious until the Day of Resurrection. 'Isa ibn Maryam will descend and their amir will
say: "Come and lead us in the prayer." So he will say: "No, for you have been made
leaders of each other, Allah's honour to this Ummah."

And in another narration:

"There will always remain a group from my Ummah, fighting at the gates of Damascus
and its surrounds, and at the gates of Bayt al-Maqdis and its surrounds, who will not be
harmed by those who let them down. They will be victorious upon the Truth until the
coming of the Hour."

This does not mean that they will only be present there and nowhere else, as other texts
indicate that they will be found in different lands at different times.

Abu Dawud narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Hawalah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Matters will run their course until you become three armies: an army in Sham, an army
in 'Iraq, and an army in the Yemen."

I said: "O Messenger of Allah, choose which one I should join." He said:

"You should go to Sham, for it is the best of Allah's lands, and the best of His slaves will
be drawn there. And if you refuse, then you should go to the Yemen and drink from its
wells. For Allah has guaranteed me that He will look after Sham and its people."

And Ibn Majah narrated from 'Abdullah ibn al-Harith ibn Juz' az-Zubaydi [radhiyallahu
'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"A people will come from the east who will prepare the way for the Mahdi."

And Ahmad narrated from Ibn 'Abbas [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There will come out of 'Adn Abyan twelve thousand supporting Allah and His
Messenger, who will be the best of people between my time and theirs."

But towards the end of time, in the days of the Malahim and the coming of the Dajjal,
they will assemble in the land of Sham.

And al-Hakim narrated from Abud-Darda' [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he heard the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"On the day of al-Malhamah al-Kubra, the stronghold of the Muslims will be in a land
called al-Ghutah, in which there is a city called Damascus, the best of the homes of the
Muslims on that day."
Chapter: The guidance of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] in times of
fitnah

The term "fitnah" in this context refers to fighting between different groups of Muslims,
as opposed to the term "malhamah" which refers to fighting between the Muslims and the
kuffar.

Muslim narrated from Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "I said:
"O Messenger of Allah, we were in a state of evil, then Allah brought us this good that we
are in now. Will there be evil after this good?" He said: "Yes."

I said: "Will there be good after this evil?" He said: "Yes."

I said: "Will there be evil after this good?" He said: "Yes."

I said: "How?" He said: "There will be after me leaders who do not adhere to my
guidance, and who do not follow my Sunnah. Men will rule who have the hearts of devils
in the bodies of men."

He said: "I said: "How should I act, O Messenger of Allah, if I live to see that?" He said:
"Hear and obey the ruler, even if he beats your back and takes your wealth, and then still
hear and obey."

And in the narration of Abu Dawud:

Hudhayfah said: "I said: "O Messenger of Allah, will there be evil after this good?"

He said: "A trial and evil." I said: "O Messenger of Allah, will there be good after this
evil?" He said: "O Hudhayfah, learn the Book of Allah and follow what it contains," three
times.

I said: "O Messenger of Allah! Will there be good after this evil?" He said: "A truce upon
differing desires, and a tainted unity."

I said: "O Messenger of Allah! The peace-treaty upon differing desires, what is that?" He
said: "People's hearts will not return to the condition they were upon before."

I said: "O Messenger of Allah, will there be evil after this good?" He said: "A trial, blind
and deaf, with callers standing at the gates of the Fire. If you were to die, O Hudhayfah,
biting on a tree-root, that would be better for you than to follow any of them."

And in the narration of al-Bukhari:

"I said: "O Messenger of Allah, will there be evil after this good?" He said: "Yes, callers
to the gates of Hell. Whoever answers their call, they will throw him into it."
"I said: "O Messenger of Allah! Describe them to us." So he said: "They are from our
people, and they will speak our language."

"I said: "So what do you order me to do if that reaches me?" He said: "Hold fast to the
jama'ah of the Muslims and their imam."

"I said: "And if there is no jama'ah, and no imam?" He said: "Then avoid all of those
groups, even if you have to bite on the root of a tree, and death reaches you in that state."

And al-Bukhari narrated from 'Ubadah ibn as-Samit [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"The Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] called us and we gave him the bay'ah that we
would listen and obey whether we were active or tired, in difficulty or in ease, and even if
others were preferred over us. And that we were not to rebel against those in command,
unless you see open kufr [kufran bawahan] for which you have a clear proof from Allah."

And he also narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Surely, Allah may support this religion by means of a sinful man."

And Muslim narrated from Ma'qil ibn Yasar [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Worship during times of mass-killing [al-harj] is like migration [al-hijrah] to me."

Al-harj refers to mass-killing that will occur between Muslims during times of trial.

And Abu Dawud narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There will be a fitnah that is deaf, dumb, and blind. Whoever involves himself in it will
be afflicted by it, and involvement in it with the tongue will be like smiting with a
sword."

And he also narrated from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There will be a fitnah that will tastandhifu [meaning either to destroy or to purify] the
Arabs, whose dead will be in the Fire. During it, the tongue will be more severe than
smiting with a sword."

And he also narrated from Abu Musa al-Ash'ari [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:
"Before the Hour there will be fitan like patches of a dark night, during which a man will
be a mu'min in the morning and become a kafir in the evening, or he will be a mu'min in
the evening and become a kafir in the morning. One who sits down during them will be
better than one who stands, and one who walks during them will be better than the one
who runs. When that occurs, break your bows, cut your bowstrings and strike your
swords with a rock, and if one of them enters in upon you, then be like the better of the
two sons of Adam."

And al-Hakim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"A time will come upon the people in which a man will be made to choose between
weakness [al-'ajz] or sin [al-fujur]. Whoever among you lives to see that time, then let
him choose weakness over sin."
Chapter: The fitan of al-Ahlas, as-Sarra' and ad-Duhayma'

Abu Dawud narrated from Ibn 'Umar [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "We were
sitting with the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], and he mentioned the
fitan, going into much detail in mentioning them, until he mentioned the fitnah of al-
Ahlas. So a person said: "O Messenger of Allah, and what is the fitnah of al-Ahlas?" He
said:

"It is fleeing and plunder. Then the fitnah of as-Sarra'; whose smoke will be under the feet
of a man from my household who claims to be from me, but who is not from me; my
allies are only the pious. Then the people will unite on a man like a hip-bone on a rib.
Then the fitnah of ad-Duhayma'; it will not leave a single one of this Ummah without
giving him a slap. When it is said that it has finished, it will be prolonged. During it, a
man will be a mu'min in the morning and become a kafir in the evening, until the people
have become two camps, a camp of iman [faith] without any nifaq [hypocrisy], and a
camp of nifaq without any iman. When that has occurred, then await the Dajjal on that
day or the next."

"Al-ahlas" is the plural of "al-hils", which is the blanket that is laid under the saddle. It is
called the fitnah of al-Ahlas either because it will remain for a long time, or because of its
darkness and blackness.

"It is fleeing and plunder." That is, people will flee from an enemy or a danger, and they
will be stripped of all of their wealth and possessions until they have nothing left.

The fitnah of as-Sarra' implies one that will be related to ease and luxury. And there are
other views regarding the meaning of the word.

"…whose smoke will be under the feet of a man from my household who claims to be
from me, but who is not from me; my allies are only the pious." This is a reference to a
person from the Ahl al-Bayt who will be responsible for the fitnah of as-Sarra', and whom
the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] himself has disowned and disassociated himself
from, due to his deviance or tyranny.

"Then the people will unite on a man like a hip-bone on a rib." This is a metaphor for a
weak rule without organization or firmness, as a hip-bone does not fit in place on a rib.

The fitnah of ad-Duhayma' implies one that is dark and ominous.

"…it will not leave a single one of this Ummah without giving him a slap. When it is said
that it has finished, it will be prolonged." That is, it will affect the entire Ummah, and it
will continue for such a long time that the people will eventually no longer realise it for
what it is.

"During it, a man will be a mu'min in the morning and become a kafir in the evening,
until the people have become two camps, a camp of iman [faith] without any nifaq
[hypocrisy], and a camp of nifaq without any iman." That is, great numbers of people will
fall into kufr due to the confusion and deviance that will abound during the fitnah of ad-
Duhayma'. The trials and tribulations will be the means by which the true mu'minun will
be sorted out from the munafiqun and kafirun.

"When that has occurred, then await the Dajjal on that day or the next." This is an
indication of how close, relatively speaking, that time will be to the time of the Dajjal. It
does not necessarily mean that the Dajjal will come out immediately at the end of the
fitnah of ad-Duhayma', as the other ahadith clarify that the Mahdi will come before the
Dajjal to fill the earth with justice and put an end to the trials.

Al-Hafidh Abu Muhammad al-Husayn narrated in Kitab al-Masabih from Abu Sa'id al-
Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-
sallam] said:

"There will be, after me, fitan. From them will be fitan of al-Ahlas, in which there will be
fleeing and plunder. Then, after them, will be fitan worse than them. Whenever it will be
said that they have finished, they will be prolonged, until no house of the Arabs will be
left without them entering it, and no Muslim except that they have reached him, until a
man comes from my descendents."

"…until a man comes from my descendents." This is a reference to the Mahdi, and if this
hadith is authentic, then it indicates that he will appear at the end of the fitnah of ad-
Duhayma', and Allah knows better.

The fitnah of al-Ahlas may be – and Allah knows better – the fitnah of Yazid ibn
Mu'awiyah, and the "fleeing and plunder" may refer to his invasion of al-Madinah al-
Munawwarah, in which the city was plundered for days. It was a terrible time during
which many of the Companions and the righteous Tabi'un were either killed or had to flee
with their religion from the oppression of Yazid and his governors.

If so, then the fitnah of as-Sarra' would then most likely refer to the fitnah of
Banul-'Abbas, whose leaders were from the Ahl al-Bayt, from the descendents of
al-'Abbas ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib [radhiyallahu 'anhu], yet whose actions were the actions of
evildoers. They misled the people through their propaganda of calling to the Family of
the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], and many false ahadith were fabricated in
order to deceive the people into supporting them. The description "as-Sarra'" is
appropriate to the time of Banul-'Abbas, during which the Ummah reached a high level of
material ease and luxury, and much evil came about as a result of that. Examples are the
widespread civil wars that occurred, the halting of jihad as a means to expand the Muslim
territories, the flourishing of the Mu'tazilah and other deviated sects, and the Mihnah
[Inquistion] regarding the question of the creation of the Qur'an, during which many
scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah underwent severe persecution, most notably the great Imam
Ahmad ibn Hanbal [rahimahullah].
"Then the people will unite on a man like a hip-bone on a rib." This is a metaphor for a
weak rule without organization or firmness, which reflects the general situation of the
Muslim world for much of the period that followed the beginning of the decline of the
'Abbasi rule.

As for the fitnah of ad-Duhayma', its description very closely resembles our situation for
the last hundred years until the present, and Allah knows better. The entire Ummah has
been affected to some degree by it, and jahiliyyah, deviation and kufr have become the
order of the day.
Chapter: The cutting off of trade to 'Iraq, Sham and Egypt, and the return of iman
to al-Madinah

Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger
of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"'Iraq will withhold its dirham and its qafiz, Sham will withhold its mudd and its dinar,
Egypt will withhold its irdabb and its dinar, and you will return to how you began, and
you will return to how you began, and you will return to how you began." And Abu
Hurayrah's flesh and blood bears witness to that."

And he also narrated from Jabir ibn 'Abdillah [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said:

"Soon, no dirham or qafiz will come to the people of 'Iraq."

They said: "Why will that be, O 'Abdullah?" He said: "Due to the 'Ajam [eastern non-
Arabs], they will withhold it."

Then he was silent for a while, then he said: "Soon, no dinar or mudd will come to the
people of Sham."

They said: "Why will that be?" He said: "Due to the Romans, they will withhold it."

Then he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There will be in my Ummah a khalifah who will give out wealth in heaps, without
counting it."

And in the narration of al-Hakim there is the following addition:

"Then he said: "By He in Whose Hand is my soul, the matter will return as it began. All
iman will return to al-Madinah, as it began from there, until all iman will be in al-
Madinah."

There are varying interpretations of the meaning of the "withholding" that is referred to in
these two hadiths. One group of scholars has said that it means that the People of the
Dhimmah in the lands mentioned will refuse to pay the jizyah. Another group has said
that they will all become Muslims and therefore they will no longer have to pay the
jizyah. Another group has said that it refers to trade being cut off to the Muslim lands by
the Romans and the 'Ajam, so that the people of Sham, 'Iraq and Egypt will fall into
poverty.

The first two sayings are both fair, in that those things did in fact occur. The majority of
the populations of those lands did indeed enter Islam, and today even those who have
remained on their Christianity no longer pay the jizyah. However, the saying that the
"withholding" refers to the cutting off of trade appears to be more correct, because after
describing these events, Jabir [radhiyallahu 'anhu] then brought the saying of the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]: "There will be in my Ummah a
khalifah who will give out wealth in heaps, without counting it." This indicates that prior
to the coming of the Mahdi, the Ummah will have been in hardship and poverty due to
both the oppression of their rulers and the cutting off of trade by the kuffar.

The Romans are the Christians of Europe. As for the 'Ajam, although the literal meaning
of the term is "non-Arab", it is generally used to refer in particular to the Persians and the
people of the eastern lands beyond them, such as central Asia, India and China.

As for his saying [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah: "And you
will return to how you began," the meaning of this may be explained by his saying in the
hadith of Jabir: "By He in Whose Hand is my soul, the matter will return as it began. All
iman will return to al-Madinah, as it began from there, until all iman will be in al-
Madinah."

The possible explanation may be that while Sham and 'Iraq are being thrashed by fitan
and hardships, the people of knowledge and righteousness will flee with their religion to
al-Madinah, and establish the religion there as it was established at the beginning, in the
time of the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] and his Companions
[radhiyallahu 'anhum ajma'in]. Other ahadith inform us that the Mahdi will be from the
people of al-Madinah, and he will flee from al-Madinah to Makkah due to his reluctance
to take the people's bay'ah.
Chapter: The fall of the Zionist State

Shaykh Safar al-Hawali of Makkah al-Mukarramah wrote a book called Yawm al-
Ghadhab, which was translated into English under the name The Day of Wrath. In this
book, the shaykh discusses what has been narrated in the books of the Prophets of Banu
Isra'il, and in particular the prophecies attributed to Daniel, regarding the establishment
of the Abomination of Desolation in Jerusalem and Allah's gathering of the Jews in the
Holy Land at the end of time for their punishment, and on the basis of many firm proofs
he argues that all of this refers to the establishment of the state of Israel and its
subsequent destruction.

We will not bring all of those texts here, but we will provide a summary of the
conclusions drawn by the shaykh from them. Those who wish for more detail may refer
to the shaykh's book Yawm al-Ghadhab.

After commenting on the contemporary situation in Palestine, the shaykh discusses the
various prophecies of the Bible mentioning the coming of the Seal of the Prophets
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], the changing of the Qiblah from Bayt al-Maqdis to the
Ka'bah, and the spreading of Islam all over the world. These events are described in the
Bible as the coming of the "Son of Man", the establishment of a "New Jerusalem", and
the coming of the everlasting "Kingdom of God" that will overtake all of the lands that
had been ruled by the previous kingdoms.

Then he discusses those that mention the establishment of the Abomination of Desolation
and its destruction, and he concluded that they refer to the establishment of the state of
Israel. They mention that its destruction will come at the hands of great armies that will
come mainly from the north and the east – the present-day lands of the Muslims – to kill
the Jews and take them captive.

The prophecies also contain indications that the powerful nation that supports the
Abomination of Desolation will fall before it is able to come to its rescue, that its fall will
be by both human means and divinely-caused ones such as earthquakes and floods, that
its economy and trade will collapse, and that all of the world's rulers and merchants will
lament over it. We will discuss the possible reasons for this, if Allah wills, in the chapters
regarding the downfall of technology.

They also mention of a remnant of Banu Isra'il who will continue to live in Palestine after
the Day of Wrath and who will become purified and holy, that is, they will enter Islam
and become Muslims. It is narrated in some weak athar that this last event will occur
during the rule of the Mahdi, and Allah knows better.

Abu 'Amr ad-Dani narrated from Ibn Shawdhab that he said:

"He is called the Mahdi because he will be guided to one of the mountains of Sham, from
which he will bring out some of the scrolls of the Tawrah, with which he will debate with
the Jews. So a group of the Jews on that day will become Muslims at his hands."
And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Sulayman ibn 'Isa that he said:

"It has reached me that at the hands of the Mahdi, the Tabut as-Sakinah [the Ark of the
Covenant] will appear from the lake of Tabariyyah, until it is carried and placed before
him in Bayt al-Maqdis. When the Jews look at it, they will all become Muslims except
for a small number of them. Then the Mahdi will die."

And he also narrated from Ka'b that he said:

"He is called the Mahdi because he will be guided to something that is hidden, and bring
out the Tawrah and the Injil from a land called Antioch."

Whether the liberation of Bayt al-Maqdis will be during the time of the Mahdi or before it
is unclear, as there is no reference to this in any hadith or athar. All that is narrated
linking the Mahdi to Bayt al-Maqdis is that he will settle there and make it the center of
his khilafah.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said regarding the
Mahdi:

"He will emigrate to Bayt al-Maqdis."

And according to another weak athar, his residence there will have already been prepared
for him by his supporters beforehand.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah that he said:

"A black banner will come, belonging to Banul-'Abbas. Then, from Khurasan will come
another one, also black. Their turbans will be black and their garments white. At the head
of their army will be a man called Shu'ayb ibn Salih ibn Shu'ayb, from Tamim. They will
defeat the companions of the Sufyani until he [i.e. Shu'ayb ibn Salih] settles in Bayt al-
Maqdis, preparing the way for the Mahdi's rule. Three hundred men from Sham will help
him. Between his coming and the handing over of the rule to the Mahdi will be seventy
months."
Chapter: The fitan before the coming of the Mahdi

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"The fourth fitnah is blind and dark, rolling like the ocean. It will not leave a single house
of the Arabs or the 'Ajam without filling it with humiliation and fear. It will go around
Sham, cover 'Iraq, and batter the Jazirah with its hand and foot. During it, the Ummah
will be torn by wars, and the tribulations will become so severe that right will be
considered as wrong, and wrong will be considered as right. No one will be able to voice
the least objection. Every time they resolve it in one place, it will afflict them with
division in another place. During it, a man will be a mu'min in the morning and become a
kafir in the evening, and no one will be saved from it except one who supplicates like a
person drowning in the ocean would supplicate. It will last for twelve years, then it will
end when it ends, and the Euphrates will have uncovered a mountain of gold. They will
fight over it until seven out of every nine are killed."

Sham refers to present-day Palestine, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Sinai. 'Iraq is the
southern area of the present-day state of Iraq. As for the Jazirah, this does not refer to the
Arabian Peninsula, but rather to the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the
northern area of present-day Iraq and Syria.

The description given of the fourth fitnah is very similar to the description of the fitnah of
ad-Duhayma' mentioned previously in the hadith of Ibn 'Umar, giving the impression that
the fourth fitnah will be the last phase of the fitnah of ad-Duhayma', immediately before
the coming of the Mahdi. The civil war currently unfolding in Iraq may be related to the
fourth fitnah, and Allah knows better.

As for the Euphrates uncovering a mountain of gold, this is mentioned in the authentic
ahadith in the Sahihayn:

Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Euphrates is about to uncover a treasure of gold, so whoever is present there, let
him not take any of it."

And in the narration of Muslim:

"The Hour will not come until the Euphrates uncovers a mountain of gold over which the
people will fight. Ninety-nine out of every hundred will be killed, but every one of them
will say: "Perhaps I will be the one who survives."

These ahadith are apparently referring to real gold that will be uncovered by the
Euphrates river, either due to it drying up or changing its course. As for what some
contemporary people claim regarding the gold being a metaphor for oil, this seems highly
unlikely, because oil has been discovered all over the region long ago, and not only near
the Euphrates. If the gold were indeed only a metaphor for oil, the mention of the
Euphrates would be futile and meaningless.

Ibn Majah narrated from Thawban [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Three men will fight at the place where your treasure is, each one of them the son of a
khalifah, but it will not go to any of them. Then, the black banners will come out of the
east and kill you as no people have ever been killed." Then he said something that I do
not remember, then he said: "So when you hear of him, then go to him and give the
bay'ah to him, even if you must crawl over ice. For he is Allah's khalifah, the Mahdi."

Ibn Kathir said that the treasure referred to in this hadith is the treasure of the Ka'bah,
over which three sons of the khulafa' will fight at the end of time. Allah knows better as
to why he said this, as he did not bring any evidence for it, and there do not appear to be
any well-known authentic texts indicating it.

However, there are other athar indicating that the treasure refers to the gold that will be
uncovered from the Euphrates.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Ka'b that he said:

"There will be on the banks of the Euphrates, in the direction of Sham of a little before it,
a great assembly. They will fight each other over wealth, and seven out of every nine will
be killed. And that will be after the blast [al-haddah] and the collapse [al-wahiyah] in the
month of Ramadhan, and after the appearance of three banners, each one of whom will
seek the kingdom for himself, among them a man whose name is 'Abdullah."

And al-Hakim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from the Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"There will be a blast [haddah] in Ramadhan that will awaken one who is asleep, and
terrify one who is awake. Then there will appear a group ['isabah] in Shawwal, then
bloodshed in Dhul-Hijjah, then the prohibitions will be violated in al-Muharram, then
there will be death in Safar, then the tribes will conflict with each other in Rabi', then the
most amazing thing will happen between Jumada and Rajab. Then a well-fed she-camel
will be better than a castle sheltering a thousand."

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from
the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"When there is a scream [sayhah] in Ramadhan, then there will be bloodshed in


Shawwal, and the tribes will form groups in Dhul-Qi'dah, and blood will be spilt in Dhul-
Hijjah, and al-Muharram! What will happen in al-Muharram?" saying it three times,
"Indeed, indeed! The people will be killed in a great massacre."
He said: "We said: "What is the scream, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "This will be in
the middle of Ramadhan, on a Friday morning. That will be when the month of
Ramadhan begins on a Friday night. There will be a blast [haddah] that will awaken one
who is asleep, and bring the young women out of their rooms, on a Friday night during a
year of many earthquakes and severe cold. So when Ramadhan begins on a Friday night
in that year, then when you have prayed Fajr on Friday in the middle of Ramadhan, then
enter your houses, close your doors, block your windows, cover yourselves, and block
your ears. When you sense the scream, fall down in prostration to Allah [ta'ala] and say:
"Subhanal-Quddus, subhanal-Quddus, rabbunal-Quddus [Glory be to the Most Holy,
glory be to the Most Holy, our Lord is the Most Holy]." For whoever does that will
survive, and whoever does not will be destroyed."

We may conclude from the above texts that the Euphrates' uncovering of gold will take
place at the end of the fourth fitnah, perhaps after the blast [if the texts concerning that
are authentic], and that this event will coincide with the rise of three rulers who will fight
over the gold in a great battle in which many will be killed, but none of them will get it.
Following that, the black banners will come forward from the east to give bay'ah to the
Mahdi in Makkah.
Chapter: The final phase of the age of the tyrants, and what has been narrated
regarding the Sufyani

The khilafah upon the way of Prophethood will be revived during the time of the Mahdi,
who will come at the end of the period of the tyrannical kingdom [al-mulk al-jabri],
during a time of great oppression and tribulation. This does not necessarily mean that no
khilafah will emerge in the Muslim lands before the Mahdi, rather all that it means is that
any khilafah that emerges before the Mahdi will not be on the level of a rightly-guided
khilafah upon the way of Prophethood.

Al-Hakim narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"At the end of time, a severe tribulation will descend upon my Ummah from their ruler. A
worse tribulation will not have been heard of before, until the earth's expanse is
constricted upon them, and until the earth is filled with tyranny and oppression, so that
the mu'min will find no refuge from the oppression. Then, Allah ['azza wa-jall] will send
a man from my descendents who will fill the earth with equity and justice as it had been
filled with oppression and tyranny. The inhabitants of the heavens and the earth will be
pleased with him. The earth will not withhold any of its growth, but will bring it out,
neither will the sky withhold a drop, but Allah will pour it out upon them in showers. He
will live among them for seven years, or eight, or nine. The living will wish that the dead
were brought to life again to witness the great good that Allah brought about for the
people of the earth."

And he also narrated from 'Ali ibn Abi Talib [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There will be at the end of time a trial that will sort out men as gold is sorted out from
metal. So do not revile the people of Sham, but revile their evil ones, for among them are
the Abdal [great righteous people]. A flood is about to be released upon the people of
Sham that will split their unity, so that even if foxes attacked them they would defeat
them. At that time, a man from my household will come out with three banners. The one
who estimates highly will say that they are fifteen thousand. And the one who estimates
lower will say that they are twelve thousand. Their sign will be: "Amit, amit [kill, kill]."
They will meet in battle seven banners, and under each of those banners will be a man
seeking the kingdom. Allah will kill all of them, and restore to the Muslims their unity
and bounty, and their far ones and near ones."

The authentic ahadith mention that one of the tyrants will sent an army against the Mahdi,
who will have taken refuge in the Haram in Makkah, and that Allah ['azza wa-jall] will
cause this army to be swallowed up in the desert between Makkah and al-Madinah.

Muslim narrated from 'A'ishah [radhiyallahu 'anha] that she said: "The Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] moved during his sleep. We said: "O Messenger of
Allah, you did something during your sleep that you have not done before."
So he said: "It is an amazing thing that a group of people from my Ummah will head
towards the House [i.e. the Ka'bah] in pursuit of a man from Quraysh who will have
taken refuge in the House. Then, while they are at al-Bayda', they will be swallowed up
by the earth."

We said: "O Messenger of Allah, there will be many people on the road." So he said:
"Yes, among them will be the one who knows what he is doing, the one who is forced,
and the wayfarer. All of them will be destroyed at once, even though they came for
different reasons, and Allah [ta'ala] will resurrect them according to their intentions."

And Abu Dawud narrated from Umm Salamah [radhiyallahu 'anha] from the Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"There will be conflict with the death of a khalifah. Then a man from the people of al-
Madinah will come out, fleeing to Makkah. A group of men from the people of Makkah
will come to him and bring him out by force, and give the bay'ah to him between the
Rukn and the Maqam. An army will be sent against him from Sham, but they will be
swallowed up by the earth al-Bayda' between Makkah and al-Madinah. So when the
people see that, the Abdal of Sham and the best of the people of 'Iraq will come to him,
and give him the bay'ah between the Rukn and the Maqam. Then a man from Quraysh
and his maternal relatives from Kalb will come and send an army against them, and they
[i.e. the Mahdi and his companions] will be victorious over them. That will be the battle
of Kalb, and what a loss for the one who did not witness the spoils of Kalb! So he [i.e. the
Mahdi] will distribute the wealth, and he will rule the people according to the Sunnah of
their Prophet, and Islam will be established in the land. He will remain for seven years,
then he will die and the Muslims will pray over him."

Abu Dawud said: "Some of them narrated from Hisham "nine years", and some of them
said "seven years"."

Many weaker texts identify this tyrant as a descendent of Abu Sufyan.

Al-Hakim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger
of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"A man called the Sufyani will come out of the depths of Damascus. Most of those who
follow him will be from Kalb. He will kill until he rips open women's bellies and kills
children. Qays will gather against him, but he will kill them until hardly any will remain.
A man from my household will come out at al-Harrah, and the news of this will reach the
Sufyani, who will send out to him one of his armies, and he will defeat them. Then the
Sufyani will send an army to him, until when they get to a desert part of the land, they
will be swallowed by the earth, and no one of them will escape except the one who will
tell of their news."
And he narrated from Ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said to us:

"I warn you of seven fitan that will be after me: a fitnah that will come from al-Madinah,
a fitnah in Makkah, a fitnah that will come from the Yemen, a fitnah that will come from
Sham, a fitnah that will come from the east, a fitnah that will come from the west, and a
fitnah from the depths of Damascus, which is the Sufyani."

Ibn Mas'ud said: "From you are those who will live to see the first of them, and from this
Ummah will be those who will live to see the last of them."

Al-Walid ibn 'Ayyash said: "The fitnah of al-Madinah was from Talhah and az-Zubayr,
the fitnah of Makkah was the fitnah of 'Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr, the fitnah of Sham was
from Banu Umayyah, and the fitnah of the east is from these people [i.e. Banul-'Abbas]."

The "fitnah from the west" may be a reference to the establishment of the dawlah of Banu
'Ubayd in North Africa, the so-called "Fatimi" dawlah. As for the "fitnah from the
Yemen", Allah knows better what it refers to, but some athar indicate that after the time
of the Mahdi, the people of the Yemen will rise up against the Quraysh and kill the
khalifah. We will deal with that in a later chapter, if Allah wills.
Chapter: The coming of the black banners from the east that will prepare the way
for the Mahdi

Ahmad narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Black banners will come out of Khurasan, and nothing will stop them, until they are
raised in Ayliya'."

Ayliya' [Aelia] is the ancient Roman name for Bayt al-Maqdis. Khurasan refers to the
area of present-day Afghanistan and eastern Persia.

Ibn Kathir said: "These banners are not those of Abu Muslim al-Khurasani who came and
overthrew the state of Banu Umayyah in the year 132. Rather, they are other banners that
will come in the future, accompanied by the Mahdi."

And Abu Dawud narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"A man will come out from Ma Wara' an-Nahr called al-Harith, a farmer. At the head of
his army will be a man called Mansur. He will establish the rule of the family of
Muhammad, as Quraysh did for the Messenger of Allah. It will be an obligation upon
every believer to help him" or he said: "to respond to him."

"Al-Harith, a farmer": A description of him. This is the wording in the majority of the
copies of Sunan Abi Dawud. Some copies have: "al-Harith ibn Harrath", with "Harrath"
being a name and not a description, and Allah knows better. Ma Wara' an-Nahr is the old
Arabic name for the area beyond the River Oxus, which covers present-day Uzbekistan
and Tajikstan.

And Ibn Majah narrated from 'Abdullah ibn al-Harith ibn Juz' az-Zubaydi [radhiyallahu
'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"A people will come from the east who will prepare the way for the Mahdi."

And he also narrated from Thawban [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Three men will fight at the place where your treasure is, each one of them the son of a
khalifah, but it will not go to any of them. Then, the black banners will come out of the
east and kill you as no people have ever been killed." Then he said something that I do
not remember, then he said: "So when you hear of him, then go to him and give the
bay'ah to him, even if you must crawl over ice. For he is Allah's khalifah, the Mahdi."

And he also narrated from Ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:
"Once we were with the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], when a group
of youths from Banu Hashim approached. When the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-
sallam] saw them, his eyes filled with tears and his colour changed.

He [i.e. Ibn Mas'ud] said: "I said: "We see in your face something that worries us." So he
said:

"We, the Ahl al-Bayt, are a people for whom Allah has chosen the hereafter over this
world. And my household after me will face trials, banishment and pursuit, until a people
from the east come with black banners, and they will ask for what is due, but not be given
it. So they will fight and be victorious, and be given what they asked for. But they will
not accept it from them until they hand it over to a man from my household, who will fill
the earth with equity, as they had filled it with tyranny. So whoever among you reaches
that time, then let him go to them, even if he must crawl over ice, for he is the Mahdi."

These are the more authentic ahadith that have come in this regard. Among the less
authentic texts that have been narrated are the following:

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah that he said:

"A black banner will come, belonging to Banul-'Abbas. Then, from Khurasan will come
another one, also black. Their turbans will be black and their garments white. At the head
of their army will be a man called Shu'ayb ibn Salih ibn Shu'ayb, from Tamim. They will
defeat the companions of the Sufyani until he [i.e. Shu'ayb ibn Salih] settles in Bayt al-
Maqdis, preparing the way for the Mahdi's rule. Three hundred men from Sham will help
him. Between his coming and the handing over of the rule to the Mahdi will be seventy
months."

And he also narrated from Sa'id ibn al-Musayyib that he said: "The Messenger of Allah
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Out of the east will come black banners belonging to Banul-'Abbas, then they will
remain as long as Allah wills, then small black banners will come out against a man from
the descendents of Abu Sufyan and his companions, from the east. They will give their
obedience to the Mahdi."

And he also narrated from al-Hasan that he said:

"A man will come out of ar-Rayy, sturdy and light-brown in complexion, a mawla [non-
Arab ally] of Banu Tamim, a man with a thin beard growing only on his chin, called
Shu'ayb ibn Salih, among four thousand with white clothes and black banners. At the
head of his army will be the Mahdi. All who meet him in battle will be struck down by
him."

Ar-Rayy is a city in Persia located near present-day Tehran.


And he also narrated from Abu Ja'far that he said:

"A youth from Banu Hashim will come, with a mole on his right hand, from Khurasan
with black banners. Before him will be Shu'ayb ibn Salih, who will fight the companions
of the Sufyani and defeat them."

And he also narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"The Sufyani will appear in Sham, and then there will be a battle between them at
Qirqisiya until the birds of the sky and the wild beasts of the land are satiated with their
corpses. Then there will be an attack against them from their rear, so a group of them will
go forward until they enter the land of Khurasan. The cavalry of the Sufyani will pursue
the people of Khurasan and kill the supporters of the family of Muhammad [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam]. Then the people of Khurasan will come out, looking for the Mahdi."

Qirqisiya is an ancient ruined city near Busra in Syria, on the banks of the Euphrates
river.

And he also narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"When the cavalry of the Sufyani comes to al-Kufah, he will send them in pursuit of the
people of Khurasan. The people of Khurasan will come out, looking for the Mahdi. Then
he and the Hashimi will meet with a group of people with black banners, at their head
Shu'ayb ibn Salih. Then he and the companions of the Sufyani will meet in battle at the
gate of Istakhar, and a terrible battle will be fought between them. The black banners will
be victorious, and the cavalry of the Sufyani will flee. When that happens, the people will
wish for the Mahdi and look for him."

Istakhar is an ancient ruined city in Persia.

And he also narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"A man will come before the Mahdi, from his household, in the east. He will carry the
sword on his shoulder for eight months, killing and maiming, and he will head towards
Bayt al-Maqdis, but he will not reach it until he dies."

And he also narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"A group of people will flee from al-Madinah to Makkah when they hear of the coming
of the Sufyani's army, among them will be three men from Quraysh who will be well-
known."

And he also narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"There will be a battle at al-Madinah in which Ahjar az-Zayt will be covered with blood.
The battle of al-Harrah, compared to it, will have been like a mere lash of a whip. They
will disperse from al-Madinah the distance of two barids, then the bay'ah will be given to
the Mahdi."
Chapter: The Mahdi

The description of the Mahdi:


The Mahdi is a khalifah who will rule this Ummah towards the end of time, and at whose
hands Allah ['azza wa-jall] will cause the fitan to come to an end. He will be from the
household of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], from the descendents of Fatimah
through her son al-Hasan [radhiyallahu 'anhuma]. His name will be like the name of the
Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], that is Muhammad or Ahmad, and the name of his
father like the name of his father, that is 'Abdullah. He will have a high forehead and a
prominent nose. He will resemble the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] in his
behaviour but not in his appearance. He will hand out wealth until everyone's needs are
met, and during his time there will be abundant rain and crops. He will rule for seven,
eight or nine years, and he will fill the earth with justice as it had been filled with tyranny.

Ahmad narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Mahdi is from us, the Ahl al-Bayt. Allah will rectify him in one night."

And he also narrated from Ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu] from the Prophet [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam]:

"The world will not pass away until the Arabs are ruled by a man from my household,
whose name is like my name."

And he also narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"I bring you good tidings of the Mahdi, a man from Quraysh, from my descendents, who
will be sent among my Ummah at a time of conflict between men and earthquakes. Then
he will fill the earth with equity and justice, as it had been filled with tyranny and
oppression. The inhabitants of the heavens and the earth will be pleased with him, and he
will distribute wealth "sihahan"."

So a man said to him: "What is "sihahan"?" He said: "Equitably between men." Then he
said:

"And Allah will fill the hearts of the Ummah of Muhammad with contentment. His
justice will cover them all, until he will order an announcer to call out: "Who has any
need of me?" And no one will come except for one man, so he will say: "Go to the
treasurer and he will give you what you need." So he will go to him and say: "I have been
sent by the Mahdi to you for you to give me some wealth." So he will say: "Take!" So he
will take until he cannot carry it all, so he will cast off some of it until it is enough for
him to carry, then he will go out with it and regret it, saying: "I was the greediest of the
Ummah of Muhammad. All of them were called to this wealth and they all left it except
me!" So he will return it to him, but he will say: "We do not take back anything that we
have given." So he will remain like that for six, seven, eight or nine years, and then there
will be no good in living after him."

And Abu Dawud narrated from Abu Sa'id [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Mahdi is from me, high of forehead with a prominent nose. He will fill the earth
with equity and justice, as it had been filled with tyranny and oppression. He will rule for
seven years."

And he also narrated from Umm Salamah [radhiyallahu 'anha] that she heard the Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"The Mahdi is from my descendents, from the children of Fatimah."

And he also narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu] from the Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"If but a single day remained for this world, Allah would prolong that day until He would
send in it a man from my household, whose name is like my name, and whose father's
name is like my father's name, and he will fill the earth with equity and justice, as it had
been filled with tyranny and oppression."

And he also narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he looked at his son al-Hasan
[radhiyallahu 'anhu] and said:

"This son of mine is a chief [sayyid], as the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] called
him, and from his loins will come a man with the same name as your Prophet [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam], who resembles him in his behaviour but not in his appearance."

Then he mentioned an account and added: "He will fill the earth with justice."

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"I said: "O Messenger of Allah, is the Mahdi from us, the family of Muhammad? Or from
other than us?"

He said: "No, rather he is from us. Allah will complete the religion through him, as He
began it through us. Through us, they will be saved from fitnah, as these have been saved
from shirk. And through us, Allah will unite their hearts after the enmity of fitnah, as He
united the hearts of these after the enmity of shirk. And through us, they will become
after the enmity of fitnah brothers, as these have become after the enmity of shirk
brothers in their religion."

And he also narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:


"He will emigrate to Bayt al-Maqdis. He will have a thick beard, dark eyelids, shining
teeth, with a mole on his face. He will have a high forehead, and on his shoulder will be
the mark of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam].

He will come out with the banner of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], made
from a folded, black rectangular cloth, which will not have been unfurled since the
passing away of the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], and which will not
be unfurled until the coming of the Mahdi. Allah will support him with three thousand
angels, striking the faces and backs of those who oppose them. And he will be between
thirty and forty."

And he also narrated from Abut-Tufayl [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] described the Mahdi and mentioned that he will have an
impediment in his speech, and that he will strike his left thigh with his right hand when
his speech becomes difficult.

And he also narrated from 'A'ishah [radhiyallahu 'anha], from the Prophet [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"He is a man from my descendents, who will fight according to my Sunnah, as I fought
according to the Revelation."

And Abu Nu'aym narrated from Hudhayfah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Mahdi is a man from my descendents; his face is like a shining star."

What will occur during the time of the Mahdi:


The Mahdi will appear in the Hijaz during the fitnah of the Sufyani. Before the Mahdi,
black banners will come from Khurasan in the east to prepare the way for him. The
Mahdi will flee from al-Madinah to Makkah, where he will be recognized by a group of
people who will have come looking for him. They will offer him their bay'ah, but he will
refuse it. At that time, he will not be aware that it is he who is the Mahdi. The situation
will be so desperate that they will threaten to kill him if he refuses them, so he will
reluctantly accept their bay'ah, which will be given to him by a number of people
between three hundred and thirteen and three hundred and fifteen in Makkah, in the
Haram between the Rukn and the Maqam.

The Sufyani will send an army to the Hijaz against the Mahdi, but it will be swallowed up
at al-Bayda' between Makkah and al-Madinah. This will be the sign that proves to all
people that the Mahdi has come. So the Abdal from Sham will join him, along with the
best of the people of 'Iraq and the noble people of Egypt. Then the Mahdi will come out
of Makkah with his army and go forward to Sham.

Then there will be a battle between the Mahdi and his companions on one side, and the
Sufyani and his allies from the tribe of Kalb on the other. The companions of the Mahdi
will be victorious, and they will win a great amount of war-booty. According to some
weak athar, the cause of this battle will be that the Sufyani will have previously given
bay'ah to the Mahdi and then broken it. So the Mahdi will fight him and his allies for
betraying him and violating their bay'ah.

Muslim narrated from 'A'ishah [radhiyallahu 'anha] that she said: "The Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] moved during his sleep. We said: "O Messenger of
Allah, you did something during your sleep that you have not done before."

So he said: "It is an amazing thing that a group of people from my Ummah will head
towards the House [i.e. the Ka'bah] in pursuit of a man from Quraysh who will have
taken refuge in the House. Then, while they are at al-Bayda', they will be swallowed up
by the earth."

We said: "O Messenger of Allah, there will be many people on the road." So he said:
"Yes, among them will be the one who knows what he is doing, the one who is forced,
and the wayfarer. All of them will be destroyed at once, even though they came for
different reasons, and Allah [ta'ala] will resurrect them according to their intentions."

And Abu Dawud narrated from Umm Salamah [radhiyallahu 'anha] from the Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"There will be conflict with the death of a khalifah. Then a man from the people of al-
Madinah will come out, fleeing to Makkah. A group of men from the people of Makkah
will come to him and bring him out by force, and give the bay'ah to him between the
Rukn and the Maqam. An army will be sent against him from Sham, but they will be
swallowed up by the earth al-Bayda' between Makkah and al-Madinah. So when the
people see that, the Abdal of Sham and the best of the people of 'Iraq will come to him,
and give him the bay'ah between the Rukn and the Maqam. Then a man from Quraysh
and his maternal relatives from Kalb will come and send an army against them, and they
[i.e. the Mahdi's companions] will be victorious over them. That will be the battle of
Kalb, and what a loss for the one who did not witness the spoils of Kalb! So he [i.e. the
Mahdi] will distribute the wealth, and he will rule the people according to the Sunnah of
their Prophet, and Islam will be established in the land. He will remain for seven years,
then he will die and the Muslims will pray over him."

Abu Dawud said: "Some of them narrated from Hisham "nine years", and some of them
said "seven years"."

And Muslim narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] from the Messenger
of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"There will be at the end of my Ummah a khalifah who will give out wealth in heaps
without counting it."
And al-Hakim narrated from 'Amr ibn Shu'ayb from his father, from his grandfather, that
he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"In Dhul-Qi'dah, the tribes will form groups. In that year the people performing the Hajj
will be looted, and the battle of Mina will take place. Many people will be killed and
much bloodshed will occur, until the blood flows over Jamrat al-'Aqabah, and until their
leader flees and they come to him between the Rukn and the Maqam, where they will
give bay'ah to him, but he will be unwilling. It will be said to him: "If you refuse, we will
cut off your head." So a number equal to that of the people of Badr will give bay'ah to
him. The inhabitants of the heavens and the earth will be pleased with him."
Chapter: The one behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will pray: is he
the Mahdi, or someone else?

It is widely believed that the Mahdi who will be given the bay'ah in the Haram is the one
in whose time the Malhamah will occur, and behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-
salam] will pray. However, this cannot be firmly proven, and every narration that has
been used to prove this is either authentic but unclear, or clear but inauthentic.

From the authentic narrations that they have used for proof are the following:

Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger
of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"How will you be, when 'Isa ibn Maryam will descend amongst you and your imam will
be from you?"

And he also narrated from Jabir [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi
wa-sallam] said:

"There will always remain a group from my Ummah, fighting upon the way of Truth,
victorious until the Day of Resurrection. 'Isa ibn Maryam will descend and their amir will
say: "Come and lead us in the prayer." So he will say: "No, for you have been made
leaders of each other, Allah's honour to this Ummah."

And Ibn Majah narrated in the long hadith of Abu Umamah al-Bahili [radhiyallahu
'anhu]:

"So Umm Shurayk bint Abil-'Akr said: "O Messenger of Allah, where will the Arabs be
on that day?" He said: "They will be, on that day, very few. Most of them will be in Bayt
al-Maqdis, and their imam will be a righteous man. So when their imam has gone
forward to pray the Subh prayer, 'Isa ibn Maryam will descend at dawn. So that man will
defer, walking backwards, so that 'Isa ibn Maryam can lead the people in the prayer. So
'Isa will place his hand between his shoulders and say: "Go forward and pray, for it was
begun for you." So their imam will lead them in the prayer."

And Abu Nu'aym narrated from Abu Sa'id [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"From us is he behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam will pray."

These ahadith prove that the man behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will
pray will be the imam of the Muslims, a righteous man, and from the descendents of the
Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]. However, no clear indication is given that he is the
Mahdi mentioned in the other ahadith.

Perhaps the strongest proof that they have is the following hadith:
Abu Nu'aym narrated from Abu Sa'id [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger
of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"'Isa ibn Maryam will descend, and their amir the Mahdi will say: "Come, lead us in the
prayer." So he will say: "Indeed, some of you are umara' over others, an honour for this
Ummah."

However, his saying: "their amir the Mahdi" [amiruhum al-mahdi] may also be
understood in the sense of a description of their amir, in that he will be one of the rightly-
guided khulafa' of this Ummah, as in the context of the hadith: "You must follow my
Sunnah, and the Sunnah of the rightly-guided khulafa' [al-khulafa' ar-rashidin al-
mahdiyyin] after me" narrated in the Sunan.

When we look into all of the authentic ahadith regarding the Mahdi, despite the detailed
descriptions given of events and places – the Mahdi's fleeing from al-Madinah to
Makkah, the bay'ah in the Haram, the army that will be swallowed up by the earth, the
black banners, the Abdal of Sham and the groups of the people of 'Iraq coming to join
him, the battle of Kalb, his handing out wealth in abundance, his ruling for seven, eight or
nine years, his death and the Muslims praying over him – despite all of these details of
the account of the Mahdi from his appearance until his death, we do not find in the same
ahadith any mention at all of the Malhamah, the conquest of Constantinople, or the
descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] and his praying behind the Mahdi. One
would expect that such major and critical events, if they indeed were to occur during the
time of the Mahdi, would be given more detail than other matters of lesser consequence,
and Allah knows better.

Additionally, the texts make it quite clear that during the time of the Mahdi there will be
abundant rain and crops, and that people will be living in prosperity. This is inconsistent
with what has come regarding the state of the world in the years before the Dajjal.

Ibn Majah narrated in the long hadith of Abu Umamah al-Bahili [radhiyallahu 'anhu]:

"And before the Dajjal, there will be three years of hardship, during which the people will
be afflicted by severe hunger. Allah [ta'ala] will order the sky in the first year to withhold
a third of its rain, and He will order the earth to withhold a third of its crops. Then He
will order the sky in the second year to withhold two thirds of its rain, and He will order
the earth to withhold two thirds of its crops. Then He will order the sky in the third year
to withhold all of its rain so that not a drop falls, and He will order the earth to withhold
all of its crops so that not a green thing grows. No cloven-hoofed creature will remain
alive except for what Allah [ta'ala] wills."

So it was said: "How will the people live at that time?" He said: "By declaring Allah's
oneness [at-tahlil], magnifying Him [at-takbir], glorifying Him [at-tasbih] and praising
Him [at-tahmid]. That will fulfill the same function as food for them."
The ahadith inform us that the Dajjal will come out after the Malhamah and before the
descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam], and that his time on the earth will last for a
year and some months. If the Mahdi is the one behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-
salam] will pray, then according to the hadith of Abu Umamah, this would mean that
much of the second half of his rule will be a time of hardship and famine, followed by the
actual trial of the Dajjal itself, all of which is highly inconsistent with what we have
already mentioned regarding the abundant rains and crops that will be during the time of
the Mahdi.

During the time of the Mahdi, Islam will be strong and well-established. As we have
already mentioned, the khilafah upon the way of Prophethood will be revived during the
rule of the Mahdi. In contrast, the Dajjal will appear when the people have turned away
from the religion and followed their desires.

Ahmad narrated from Jabir ibn 'Abdillah [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Dajjal will appear at a time when religion is treated lightly and knowledge is turned
away from."

All of this indicates that there will be a long period between the time of the Mahdi and
the time during which the Malhamah, the coming of the Dajjal, and the descent of 'Isa ibn
Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will occur. This is supported by the following hadith:

Abu Nu'aym narrated from Ibn 'Abbas [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"That Ummah will not perish which I am at its beginning, 'Isa at its end, and the Mahdi in
its middle."

If the Mahdi were the one behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will pray, he
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] would have mentioned the Mahdi at the end of the Ummah
together with 'Isa, and not in the middle.

It is also supported by what has been narrated from a group of the Salaf, as we will see in
the next chapter, if Allah wills.
Chapter: What has been narrated regarding what will occur after the Mahdi

The settling of the khilafah in Bayt al-Maqdis:


Abu Dawud narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Hawalah al-Azdi [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he
said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] placed his hand over my
head and said:

"O Ibn Hawalah! When you see that the khilafah has settled in the Holy Land, then the
earthquakes, tribulations and great events will have drawn near. The Hour, on that day,
will be closer to the people than my hand is to your head."

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Yunus ibn Maysurah al-Jiblani that he said:
"The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"This matter will be in al-Madinah, then in Sham, then in the Jazirah, then in 'Iraq, then in
al-Madinah, then in Bayt al-Maqdis. And when it comes to Bayt al-Maqdis, then it will be
in its homeland. And it will never go away from a people and afterwards return to them."

The trials following the time of the Mahdi:


The following athar are all from Kitab al-Fitan by Nu'aym ibn Hammad, one of the
hafidh imams and the teacher of Imam al-Bukhari. Al-Imam al-Hafidh Jalal ad-Din as-
Suyuti included them in his book al-'Arf al-Wardi fi Akhbar al-Mahdi [The Rose-Scented
Perfume: On the Reports of the Mahdi].

All of them are weak, and none of their chains of narration is traced back to the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], or even any of the Companions
[radhiyallahu 'anhum]; rather they are all from the words of the Tabi'un and their
followers. They also apparently contain a number of problematic contradictions regarding
their details. Therefore, I have included them for information purposes only, and I
generally have not commented on them unless they are supported by more authentic
evidences.

The main reason that I have mentioned them here is to show that the question of the
Mahdi being the one who will fight in the Malhamah, and his being the one behind whom
'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will pray, was by no means unanimously agreed upon
by the people of knowledge. Anyhow, the proper approach towards narrations such as
these is to neither completely affirm them, nor to completely deny them.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Ka'b that he said:

"The Mahdi will die a normal death. Then the people will be ruled after him by a man
from his household who has both good and evil in him, but whose evil is more than his
good. He will make the people angry, and call them to division after their unity. He will
remain a short while, for a man from his household will rise up against him and kill him.
After him, the people will fight each other fiercely, and the one who killed him will
remain a short while and then die a normal death. Then they will be ruled by a man from
Mudhar, from the east. He will make the people commit kufr, and cause them to go out of
their religion. He will fight the people of the Yemen fiercely between the two rivers, but
Allah will defeat him and those who are with him."

And he also narrated from az-Zuhri that he said:

"The Mahdi will die a normal death, then after him the people will fall into fitnah. A man
from Banu Makhzum will come to them, be given the bay'ah, and he will remain for
some time. Then he will withhold peoples' livelihoods, and will find no-one daring to
object. Then he will withhold their pensions, and will again find no-one daring to object.

He will settle in Bayt al-Maqdis, and he and his companions will be very immoral and
disreputable. Their women will walk in sandals decorated with gold and in garments that
do not cover them, and no-one will dare object to it.

He will order the expulsion of the people of the Yemen: Qudha'ah, Mudhhaj, Hamdan,
Himyar, al-Azd, Ghassan, and everyone else who is said to be from the Yemen. He will
drive them out until they settle in the woods of Palestine, where groups from Judays,
Lakhm, Judham, and the people from those mountains will bring them food and drink,
and provide relief for them, as Yusuf was a means of relieving his brothers.

Then a caller from the sky, neither human nor jinn, will announce: "Give the bay'ah to so-
and-so, and do not turn back on your heels after emigrating." So they will look, but will
not know the man. He will announce it again three times. Then they will give the bay'ah
to al-Mansur, who will send a delegation of ten men to the Makhzumi, who will kill nine
of them and leave one. Then he [i.e. al-Mansur] will send five, and he [i.e. the
Makhzumi] will kill four and let one go. Then he will send three, and he will kill two and
leave one. Then he [i.e. al-Mansur] will go to him [i.e. the Makhzumi], and Allah will
make him victorious over him. Allah will kill him [i.e. the Makhzumi] and those with
him, and none will escape except those who flee. He [i.e. al-Mansur] will not leave a
single Qurashi without killing him, so that if one were to look for a single Qurashi he
would not find one, as today one might look for a man from Jurhum and similarly no find
him. Likewise will Quraysh be killed, until none of them are found afterwards."

I say: If this athar and others like it have any authentic basis, then they might be referring
to the fitnah of the Yemen mentioned previously at the end of the chapter regarding the
fitnah of the Sufyani, and Allah knows better.

And he also narrated from Ka'b that he said:

"He will fight the people of the Yemen very fiercely between the two rivers, but Allah
will defeat him and those with him. The people of the east [i.e. the followers of the
Makhzumi] and those with him will be terrified at the sight of all of the dead bodies
thrown into the river, and they will realize that they have been defeated.
So their [i.e. the people of the Yemen's] rider will go to the Yemen, while they are
camped between the two rivers, and Allah [ta'ala] will give victory to him and those with
him. So the people's affairs will be righted, and they will enjoy a happy unity. Then they
will go until they settle in Sham, where they will remain for a long time under a righteous
rule.

Then Qays will rise up against them, so the people of the Yemen will kill them until one
would think that no-one from Qays is left alive, then a man from the people of the Yemen
will stand up and say: "Fear Allah regarding your remaining brothers!"

Then the remnants of Qays will go until they settle between the two rivers, where they
will assemble a great gathering, and appoint as their ruler a man from Banu Makhzum.
Then the ruler of the Yemen will die, and Qays will rejoice at his death. The Makhzumi
will go forward, until when the last of them has crossed the Euphrates, the Makhzumi
will die.

So the Yemen will revert to its borders, and Qays to its borders. The mawali will be angry
about that, and on that day, they will be the majority of people. So they will say: "Come,
let us appoint as our ruler a man from the people of the religion." So they will send a
group from the people of the Yemen, a group from Mudhar, and a group from the mawali
to Bayt al-Maqdis, where they will recite the Book of Allah [ta'ala] and ask Him to guide
them to the correct choice. So that group will return, having appointed as their ruler a
man from the mawali, and woe to the people of Sham and its land from his rule!

So he will go to Mudhar, intending to fight them. Then he will send a man from the
people of the west, heavy-built with broad shoulders, who will kill whoever he meets in
battle, until he enters Bayt al-Maqdis. Then he will be injured by a horse and die. At that
time, the world will be in the worst state that it has ever been.

Then a man will rule after him from the people of Mudhar, who will kill the righteous
people, accursed and evil. Then, al-Mudhari al-'Umani al-Qahtani will rule. He will live
by the example of his brother the Mahdi, and at his hands the city of the Romans will be
conquered."

And he also narrated from Artah that he said:

"The Mahdi will settle in Bayt al-Maqdis, then after him will be khulafa' from his
household. They will rule for a long time and they will become oppressive, until the
people praise Banul-'Abbas and Banu Umayyah due to what they suffer."

Jarrah said: "Their time will last for two hundred years."

And he also narrated from Abu Qubayl that he said:

"After the Mahdi, no-one from his household will deal justly with the people. Their
tyranny will continue for a long time after the Mahdi, until the people praise
Banul-'Abbas, saying: "If only they were here in their place." So the people will continue
like that, until they invade Constantinople with their ruler, who will be a righteous man,
who will hand over the rule to 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam].

And the people will remain in ease as long as the kingdom of Banul-'Abbas has not been
undone, but when their kingdom is undone, they will remain in fitan until the rising of the
Mahdi."

And he also narrated from Sulayman ibn 'Isa, who was a man with great knowledge
regarding the fitan, that he said:

"It has reached me that the Mahdi will remain for fourteen years in Bayt al-Maqdis, then
he will die. Then, after him will be Sharif adh-Dhikr, from the people of Tubba', called
Mansur, in Bayt al-Maqdis for twenty-one years. Fifteen of them will be of justice,
followed by three years of tyranny, followed by three years of withholding wealth in
which he will not give anyone a single dirham. He will distribute the people of the
Dhimmah among his fighters. It is he who will expel the mawali to al-A'maq, and it is he
who will trample the children of Isma'il like the cattle trample the twigs, and it is he
against whom a mawla will rise up, whose name is the name of a Prophet, and whose
kunyah is the kunyah of a Prophet. He will go to him from al-A'maq until he meets
Mansur at the bottom of Ariha', where he will fight him and kill him.

Then the mawla will rule, and he will banish the children of Qahtan and the children of
Isma'il to the two cities of the treasures of the Arabs, al-Madinah and San'a'. It is he who
will allow the Turks and the Romans to come out until they control the whole area from
the depths of Antioch up to the mountain of al-Karmil in Palestine on the field of the city
of 'Akka.

The mawla will rule for three years, then he will be killed. Then after him, the second
Mahdi will come to power, and it is he who will fight the Romans and defeat them,
conquering Constantinople and staying there for three years, four months and ten days.
Then 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will descend, and he will hand over the rule to
him."

And he also narrated from Ka'b that he said:

"After the Mahdi, there will be a khalifah from the people of the Yemen, from Qahtan,
the brother of the Mahdi in his religion, who will act as the Mahdi did. It is he who will
conquer the city of the Romans and take its spoils."

And he also narrated from Artah that he said:

"There will be a peace-treaty between the Mahdi and the Romans. Then the Mahdi will
die, then a man from his household will come to power, who will rule justly for a little
while, then he will draw his sword against the people of Palestine, who will rise up
against him. So he will seek help from the people of Jordan, remaining among them for
two months. Then he will draw his sword against them, and they will rise up against him.
So he will leave, fleeing, until he settles in Damascus. Have you seen the door-posts at
the gate of al-Jabiyah at the place of the money-changers, five cubits from which there is
a circular stone? There he will be slaughtered, and the mention of his blood will not cease
until it is said: "The Romans have sent their army, and have landed between Sur and
'Akka!" This will be the beginning of the Malahim [the great battles]."

And he also narrated from Artah that he said:

"It has reached me that the Mahdi will live for forty years, then he will die on his bed.
Then a man from Qahtan will come, with pierced ears, who will live according to the
example of the Mahdi. He will remain for twenty years and then he will die, killed by the
sword. Then a man will come from the household of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-
sallam], rightly guided [literally: "a mahdi"] and of good example, who will conquer the
city of Caesar. He will be the last amir from the Ummah of Muhammad [sallallahu 'alayhi
wa-sallam]. During his time, the Dajjal will come out, and during his time, 'Isa ibn
Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will descend."

The rule of al-Jahjah:


Ahmad narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Day and night will not come to an end until a man from the mawali called Jahjah rules."

And in the narration of Muslim his name is given as al-Jahjah, with the definite article.
The authentic ahadith do not give any further details of al-Jahjah or what will occur
during his rule, however the fact that he is from the mawali may have some relevance to
what has come in the previously-mentioned athar regarding the rule of the mawali that
will follow the rule of the people of the Yemen.

The mawali [singular "mawla"] are the Muslims of non-Arab descent in general, whether
they are freed slaves or not. They are called the mawali because traditionally, the non-
Arab Muslims upon entering Islam would give their allegiance [wala'] to one of the Arab
tribes.

The rule of the Qahtani:


Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from the Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], that he said:

"The Hour will not come until a man comes from Qahtan, driving the people with his
staff."

His saying [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]: "driving the people with his staff" implies that
he will govern the people with a strong rule and keep them in order, as the shepherd
keeps his flock in line with his staff. Others have viewed that it implies a rule of violence
and force, however this is perhaps a far-fetched interpretation, and it is further weakened
by the athar describing the Qahtani as being similar to the Mahdi in his justice and
righteosness, and Allah knows better.

According to some weak ahadith and athar, the Qahtani will come after the Mahdi. This
is a problematic issue for those who believe that the descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-
salam] will occur during the time of the Mahdi, as they say that the Mahdi will pass the
rule to 'Isa ['alayhis-salam]. So some of them suggested that the rule of the Qahtani will
be after the death of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam], or that he will be a lesser governor
under the authority of either the Mahdi or 'Isa ['alayhis-salam].

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Qays ibn Jabir as-Sadafi
that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There will be, from my household, a man who will fill the earth with justice as it was
filled with tyranny. Then, after him will be the Qahtani, and by Him Who sent me with
the Truth, he is not lesser than him."

The other explanation, based on the position that I have given in this book, is that the
Qahtani will be one of the rulers of the Muslims who will live during the period of time
between the Mahdi and 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam]. This is supported by the athar
that have already preceded, which imply that the Malhamah will take place during the
rule of the Qahtani, which will follow the rule of the mawali.

Some athar narrated by Nu'aym ibn Hammad in Kitab al-Fitan also indicate that the
Qahtani will be killed as a martyr during the Malhamah along with seventy of his amirs,
and Allah knows better.
Chapter: The downfall of technology

The downfall of technology is an important topic that needs to be mentioned and clarified
in order to better understand what has been narrated regarding the events towards the end
of time. In brief, the authentic texts contain many indications that by the time of the
Malhamah, present-day high-level technology will be absent and the world will have
gone back to a situation resembling the pre-industrial age.

Muslim narrated from Yasir ibn Jabir that he said: "A red wind blew in al-Kufah. So a
man came who had nothing to say except: "O 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, the Hour has come."

He said: "So he sat up after he had been lying down, and said: "The Hour will not come
until inheritance is not distributed and spoils are not rejoiced over." Then he pointed his
hand towards Sham, saying: "An enemy with gather its forces against the people of
Islam, and the people of Islam will gather their forces against them."

I said: "The Romans, you mean?" He said: "Yes, and there will be during that battle a
massive retreat. The Muslims will send a detachment to fight to the death, and to not
return unless they are victorious. So they will fight until night intervenes between them,
and each side will come back without victory, and the whole detachment will have been
killed. Then the Muslims will send another detachment to fight to the death, and to not
return unless they are victorious. So they will fight until night intervenes between them,
and each side will come back without victory, and the whole detachment will have been
killed. Then the Muslims will send another detachment to fight to the death, and to not
return unless they are victorious. So they will fight until evening, and each side will come
back without victory, and the whole detachment will have been killed.

Then on the fourth day, the remainder of the people of Islam will face them in battle, and
Allah will cause them [i.e. the Romans] to be defeated, and they will be killed in such a
slaughter that will never have been seen before, until a bird will pass over them and
before it has left them it will drop dead. Brothers will search for each other, and will find
only one man remaining out of a family of a hundred, so what spoils could they enjoy,
and what inheritance could they distribute?

And while they are thus, they will hear of an even worse calamity than that. A person will
come and call out to them that the Dajjal has taken their places among their families. So
they will drop what is in their hands and go forward, sending ahead of them a detachment
of ten horsemen. The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "I know
their names, the names of their fathers, and the colours of their horses. They will be the
best horsemen on the face of the earth that day."

The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] has informed us that he even
knows the colours of their horses. Such details leave no room for those who interpret that
the horses are a metaphor for modern means of transport. Also, the question remains why
they would need to send ten horsemen to travel all the way from Constantinople to Sham
in order to confirm the news of the coming of the Dajjal if the conveniences of modern
communication technology were available to them.

Regarding his saying: "and they will be killed in such a slaughter that will never have
been seen before, until a bird will pass over them and before it has left them it will drop
dead," some people think that this is a reference to the effects of modern chemical
weapons of mass destruction. However, this opinion holds little weight because other
texts clarify that the reason for the birds dying will be due to the stench of the tens of
thousands of decaying corpses after the battle, rather than events during the actual
fighting itself, and Allah knows better.

And he also narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hour will not come until the Romans camp at al-A'maq or Dabiq. An army from al-
Madinah, from the best of the people on earth on that day, will go out to face them. When
they have lined up their ranks for battle, the Romans will say: "Do not stand between us
and those who were taken from us as prisoners, let us fight them." So the Muslims will
say: "No, by Allah, we will never abandon our brothers to you." So they will fight them,
and one third of them [i.e. the Muslims] will flee, and Allah will never forgive them. One
third will be killed, and they will be the best martyrs in Allah's sight. And one third will
be victorious, and they will never again be subjected to trials. They will conquer
Constantinople, and while they are distributing the spoils, having hung their swords on
the olive-trees, the Shaytan will call out to them: "The Masih has taken your places
among your families!"

In this hadith, clear mention is made of swords: "They will conquer Constantinople, and
while they are distributing the spoils, having hung their swords on the olive-trees, the
Shaytan will call out to them: "The Masih has taken your places among your families!"

If modern weaponry were in use, there would be no need for our Prophet [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam] to have mentioned swords in particular. He could have used a more
general term such as "aslihah", meaning simply "weapons", but he did not.

And he also narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Prophet [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "Have you heard of a city, one side of which is on the land, and
one side of which is on the sea?" They said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah."

He said: "The Hour will not come until seventy thousand men of Banu Ishaq invade it.
When they come to it they will settle around it, and they will not fight with a single
weapon or shoot a single arrow. They will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is
no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and the side that is on the sea will collapse.
Then they will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah
is the Greatest]," and its other side will collapse. Then they will say: "La ilaha illallahu
wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and it will be
opened up for them and they will enter it and take the spoils. Then, while they are
distributing the spoils, a person will come to them, calling out and saying that the Dajjal
has come out. So they will leave everything and go back."

The city mentioned in this hadith is Constantinople, present-day Istanbul. This hadith,
along with many other texts, confirms to us that cities will be defended by walls in the
age of the Malahim. Obviously, modern military technology, such as planes and missiles,
renders defensive walls useless. It is interesting for me to note here that I was informed
by a brother who returned from a trip to Istanbul that they have recently rebuilt the
original walls of the city. Regarding the return of Constantinople to Christian rule, I will
deal with that in a later chapter, if Allah wills.

And al-Hakim narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "I
heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"Ya'juj and Ma'juj will open the barrier and come out against the people as Allah [ta'ala]
said: "from every slope, pouring down." [Al-Anbiya': 96] So they will wreak havoc on
the earth, and the Muslims will take cover in their cities and fortresses, taking their herds
with them."

Again, we find mention of cities and towns defended by walls.

And an-Nasa'i narrated from Salamah ibn Nufayl as-Sukuni [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "There will always remain in my
Ummah a group fighting on the way of Truth. Allah will turn peoples' hearts away from
the Truth for them so that they can fight them and He can provide for them from them,
until the coming of the Hour, and until the coming of Allah's Promise. And goodness will
be tied in with the forelocks of horses until the Day of Resurrection. And it has been
revealed to me that I will not remain among you, and that you will follow me in groups,
some of you striking the necks of others. And the abode of the believers will be in Sham."

And in his saying: "And goodness will be tied in with the forelocks of horses until the
Day of Resurrection" is an important message for us, and an indication that horses will
again be used in war at the end of time. If modern military technology were indeed to
remain in use until the end of time, then these words of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-
sallam] would be in vain and redundant, which can never be.

And Ibn Majah narrated in the hadith of Abu Umamah al-Bahili [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that
the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"So their imam will lead them in the prayer, then when he has finished, 'Isa will say:
"Open the door." So it will be opened, and behind it will be the Dajjal, accompanied by
seventy thousand Jews, all of them with ornamented swords and armour. So when the
Dajjal sees him, he will dissolve like salt dissolving in water, and run away fleeing."

Again, we find mention of swords.


These are only a few texts, whose authenticity is established, that contain unambiguous
references to the decline of modern technology and its absence at the end of time. There
are many weaker texts with similar indications, but I have only mentioned here the most
authentic ones, as they constitute a clear enough proof against those who dispute this
matter.
Chapter: The causes of the downfall of technology

Now, we must investigate a number of factors that may very likely interact with each
other in the near future to lead to the downfall of the axis of technology and the
international credit-based economy, around which the present world order revolves.

The decline of the oil industry:


The oil industry will soon be unable to manage the supply and demand ratios, and this
means that oil prices will rise to such a level that people can no longer afford it. This
phenomenon is called Peak Oil. The general public will gradually become deprived of oil,
and this affects not only transport, but also every form of technology that relies originally
on oil for energy, such as electricity. Therefore, imports and exports will reduce, and
amenities that have become necessities in the modern world will become less accessible.

Some people are optimistic that the world's leaders will be able to find and institute
alternative energy sources, and that the crisis will thus be averted. Realistically, however,
they will probably not have enough time to mass-produce such alternatives and
implement them on a global scale quickly enough, as a number of analysts have predicted
that the decline may begin less than ten years from now.

War over resources:


With much of the remaining oil in the hands of the financial elite and the governments,
then the powerful nations of the world such as America, Russia and China may end up
resorting to an option that is simpler in the immediate term but suicidal in the long term:
fighting each other for control of the world's remaining oil resources.

The massive destruction that would be brought about by a new world war, probably
involving nuclear weapons, would certainly mean the crippling and eventual
disintegration of the modern American-Zionist dominated world order.

Economic crises:
Any one of the above two factors would have a disastrous effect on the international
credit-based economies, which must inevitably fall one day in any case. In addition, the
decline of technology would make it more difficult for the people to make use of their
own money that is kept for them by the banks. It is natural that in such circumstances, the
artificial currencies of the world will gradually decrease in their value and their
circulation, and people will begin to return to a system based on the real currency of gold
and silver and other properties. Already, a few Muslim organizations are working on
preparing such a system. Many great works have been written on this subject in the west
by Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Murabit and his colleague Ibrahim 'Umar Vadillo, and I
recommend the reader to refer to them.

The return to the use of gold and silver as the main basis of currency at the end of time,
along with being logically inevitable, is indicated in many texts.
Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Euphrates is about to uncover a treasure of gold, so whoever is present there, let
him not take any of it."

And in the narration of Muslim:

"The Hour will not come until the Euphrates uncovers a mountain of gold over which the
people will fight. Ninety-nine out of every hundred will be killed, but every one of them
will say: "Perhaps I will be the one who survives."

And al-Hakim narrated from Ibn 'Abbas [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he mentioned the
story of the Mahdi, and said:

"And the earth will cast forth its precious valuables." It was said: "What are its precious
valuables?" He said: "Cylinders of gold and silver."

The fall of the credit-based economy and the re-institution of real wealth will mean the
end of the financial enslavement that has been imposed on the Muslim world by the
western financial elite that began during the final stages of the decline of the 'Uthmani
dawlah. Only with that – along with a return to the pristine purity of the original message
of Islam – can the Muslims expect to rise out of their current predicament and return to a
state of independence and power, in which they will be the victors and not the victims.

Environmental and natural disasters:


Many researchers have concluded that if modern technology continues on its current
path, the destruction that it will cause to the environment will make the planet
inhospitable for sustaining life within a few centuries. According to the western nihilistic
and atheistic worldview, which does not recognize the existence of any will higher than
that of man, nor of any Divine purpose, such a hypothesis is considered acceptable and
indeed inevitable.

However, the intelligent and wise Muslim looks at these things differently. The Book of
Allah is filled with examples of how Allah [subhanahu wa-ta'ala] dealt with the previous
nations who rejected Him and caused corruption in the land. It is perfectly consistent with
Allah's Sunan [ways of dealing] that He might bring about the destruction of the modern
powerful nations by depriving them of the very means by which they have spread
corruption and tyranny on the earth – their precious technology and usury-based
economy, upon which they are utterly dependent.

Perhaps the great devastation brought about by Hurricane Katrina in America recently is
only a glimpse of what would happen if greater disasters were to strike, such as the
eruption of the so-called "Supervolcano" in northwestern America, which would have a
similar effect to a nuclear winter across the whole of the North American continent, or
such as a major earthquake in a heavily populated area, or a tsunami such as the one that
occurred in the Indian ocean over a year ago. Any of these things would bring great
material and economic damage.
Chapter: The results of the downfall of technology

It would only take two or three of the above-mentioned factors to bring about a
fundamental change in the present-day world order. Powerful nations, along with those
who relied on them, would fall into decline. People living more traditional lifestyles
would likely fare much better, as they tend to rely less on technology and modern
amenities.

What is certain is that with the decline of the economy and the means of transport
required to import and export vital necessities such as food and medicine, large sections
of the world's population – both in poorer countries as well as some of those considered
to be more developed – will be at risk of death through starvation, disease, and the chaos
that would inevitably result from general social breakdown, and the powerful nations
would be unable to do much about it.

We could be looking at a major reduction of the world's population.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"The Mahdi will not come until one third die, one third are killed, and one third remain."

That is, one third will be killed due to fighting or plunder, and one third will die of other
means such as hunger and disease.

And Ibn Majah narrated in the hadith of Abu Umamah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] mentioned the fitnah of the Dajjal, and
he said:

"Then al-Madinah along with its people will be shaken by three tremors, and it will expel
its filth as the furnace expels the filth of the iron. And that day will be called the Day of
Purification [yawm al-khalas]."

So Umm Shurayk bint Abil-'Akr said: "O Messenger of Allah, where will the Arabs be on
that day?" He said: "They will be, on that day, very few. Most of them will be in Bayt al-
Maqdis, and their imam will be a righteous man. So when their imam has gone forward to
pray the Subh prayer, 'Isa ibn Maryam will descend at dawn."

Again, I refer to the example of the event of Hurricane Katrina in America in which we
saw the terrible results of the social breakdown that occurred on a local scale in one city.
Imagine a similar event happening on a much greater scale and affecting entire lands and
continents.
Chapter: What has been narrated regarding the desolation of the lands and the
decline in the world's population towards the end of time

A number of texts describe that large sections of the earth will suffer "kharab", meaning
"desolation" or "ruin", towards the end of time, apparently confirming what we have
suggested in the previous chapter, and Allah knows better.

Al-Hakim narrated from Ka'b that he said:

"The Jazirah will be safe from ruin until Armenia is made desolate, and Egypt will be
safe from desolation until the Jazirah is made desolate, and al-Kufah will be safe from
desolation until Egypt is made desolate, and the Malhamah will not occur until al-Kufah
is made desolate, and the City of Kufr will not be conquered until the Malhamah occurs,
and the Dajjal will not emerge until the City of Kufr is conquered."

The Jazirah, as we have said, is not the Arabian Peninsula, but rather it is the old name of
the area between the Tigris and Euphrates river. Today it covers the northern areas of
Syria and Iraq.

And al-Qurtubi narrated in at-Tadhkirah from Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman [radhiyallahu


'anhu], from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"Desolation will begin to overtake the lands of the earth until Egypt is made desolate, and
Egypt will be safe from desolation until al-Basrah is made desolate. The desolation of al-
Basrah will be from flooding, the desolation of Egypt from the drying up of the Nile, the
desolation of Makkah and the desolation of al-Madinah from hunger, the desolation of
Yemen from locusts, the desolation of al-Ubullah from siege, the desolation of Persia
from brigands, the desolation of the Turks from the Daylamites, the desolation of the
Daylamites from the Armenians, the desolation of the Armenians from the Khazars, the
desolation of the Khazars from the Turks, the desolation of the Turks from lightning
strikes, the desolation of Sind from India, the desolation of India from China, the
desolation of China from drought, the desolation of the Abyssinians from earthquakes,
the desolation of az-Zawra' from the Sufyani, the desolation of ar-Rawha' from being
swallowed by the earth, and the desolation of 'Iraq from killing."
Chapter: The desolation of al-Madinah

It is narrated that there will be two occasions in which al-Madinah will be emptied and
left desolate. The first will be due to evil rulers, and the second desolation will be at the
end of time, when Allah will send a pleasant wind that will take the soul of every
believer. And Allah knows better.

Abu Dawud narrated from Mu'adh ibn Jabal [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The flourishing of Bayt al-Maqdis will be followed by the desolation of Yathrib, and the
desolation of Yathrib will be followed by the coming of the Malhamah, and the coming of
the Malhamah will be followed by the conquest of Constantinople, and the conquest of
Constantinople will be followed by the emergence of the Dajjal."

Then he [i.e. Mu'adh] struck his hand on the shoulder of 'Umar and said: "By Allah, that
is as true as the fact that you are sitting here."

This does not necessarily mean that the Malhamah will immediately follow the desolation
of al-Madinah, because other texts mention that al-Madinah will be re-inhabited before
the coming of the Dajjal, and it is known that the Dajjal will come out shortly after the
Malhamah and the conquest of Constantinople.

Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallah 'anhu], from the Prophet [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"They will leave al-Madinah while it is in the best state that it was ever in, so that the
only inhabitants will be al-'awafi," meaning the scavenging birds and wild beasts, "then
two goatherds from Muzaynah will head towards al-Madinah, leading their goats, and
they will find it deserted. Then when they get to Thaniyyat al-Wada', they will fall down
on their faces."

This apparently refers to the second and final desolation of al-Madinah at the end of time,
and Allah knows better.

Ibn 'Abdil-Barr narrated in his Tamhid from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the
Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Al-Madinah will be left by its people in the best state that it was ever in."

"It was said: "Who will make them leave, O Abu Hurayrah?" He said: "The evil rulers."

And al-Qurtubi narrated from Jabir that he heard 'Umar ibn al-Khattab on the minbar
saying: "I heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:
"The people of al-Madinah will leave it. Then they will return to it and inhabit it until it is
full. Then they will leave it, and never return to it ever again."
Chapter: Climate changes towards the end of time

Contrary to what environmentalists are predicting about global warming and the ever-
rising sea level, the texts appear to indicate that at some point towards the end of time,
matters will take the opposite turn with severe winters, a lowering of the sea level, and a
decline in temperature that will change the climate and eventually cause the Arabian
Peninsula to become full of gardens and rivers.

Ahmad narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hour will not come until wealth flows in abundance, so that a man will come with
the zakah of his wealth and will find no-one to accept it; and until the land of the Arabs
goes back to being meadows and rivers; and until al-harj becomes widespread."

It was said: "And what is al-harj, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "Killing, killing."

A decline in temperature would eventually lead to temperate areas such as northern


Europe becoming arctic, and the tropical and subtropical areas that comprise much of the
Muslim lands becoming temperate. All of this would mean that the deserts of North
Africa and the Arabian Peninsula would become fertile again, as they would have been
thousands of years ago, during and after the last ice age.

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from
the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"When there is a scream [sayhah] in Ramadhan, then there will be bloodshed in


Shawwal, and the tribes will form groups in Dhul-Qi'dah, and blood will be spilt in Dhul-
Hijjah, and al-Muharram! What will happen in al-Muharram?" saying it three times,
"Indeed, indeed! The people will be killed in a great massacre."

He said: "We said: "What is the scream, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "This will be in
the middle of Ramadhan, on a Friday morning. That will be when the month of
Ramadhan begins on a Friday night. There will be a blast [haddah] that will awaken one
who is asleep, and bring the young women out of their rooms, on a Friday night during a
year of many earthquakes and severe cold. So when Ramadhan begins on a Friday night
in that year, then when you have prayed Fajr on Friday in the middle of Ramadhan, then
enter your houses, close your doors, block your windows, cover yourselves, and block
your ears. When you sense the scream, fall down in prostration to Allah [ta'ala] and say:
"Subhanal-Quddus, subhanal-Quddus, rabbunal-Quddus [Glory be to the Most Holy,
glory be to the Most Holy, our Lord is the Most Holy]." For whoever does that will
survive, and whoever does not will be destroyed."

Although this hadith is weak, it contains a number of interesting points. Notice his
saying: "during a year of many earthquakes and severe cold." If what is narrated about
the blast [al-haddah] is correct, the cause of the blast might be the impact of a small
meteorite with the earth, which would send clouds of dust into the atmosphere, reducing
the level of sunlight and causing the earth's temperature to drop.

And al-Hakim narrated from Khalid ibn Yazid that he said, describing the events of the
Malhamah: "On that day, Allah will strike with His sword and stab with His spear [i.e.
with the swords and spears of the Muslims], and the Muslims will follow them in pursuit
until they reach the gulf that is at Constantinople, and they will find that its water has
dried up. So they will cross over to the city and settle in front of it, and Allah will
demolish its walls with their saying: "Allahu akbar [Allah is the Greatest]." Then they
will enter it and distribute its spoils with their shields."

His saying: "until they reach the gulf that is at Constantinople, and they will find that its
water has dried up," indicates that the sea level will be much lower at that time than it is
today, the logical result of an increase in the size of the polar ice caps.
Chapter: The Romans and the Malahim [the great battles]

The Romans [ar-Rum] are the Christian nations of Europe in general, and they also
include the people of Asia Minor [present-day Turkey], which continued to be referred to
as "the land of the Romans" ["Bilad ar-Rum"] even after the Muslim Turks conquered it.

Muslim narrated from al-Mustawrid al-Qurashi that he said: "I heard the Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"The Hour will come when the Romans are the majority of people."

So 'Amr ibn al-'As said to him: "Watch what you say." He said: "I say what I heard from
the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]."

He said: "If you say that, it is because they have four qualities: they are the most able of
people to cope with tribulation, the quickest of them to recover after an affliction, the
readiest of them to return to battle after fleeing, and the best of them to the poor, the
orphan and the weak. And they have a fifth good quality: they are the strongest of them in
resisting the oppression of kings."

This hadith is perhaps relevant to what we have mentioned in the previous chapters
regarding the disastrous events that will very likely afflict the world in the near future.
The Romans' qualities of being the most able to cope with tribulations and the quickest to
recover after afflictions will cause them to come out relatively better-off than the other
nations.

The conflict between the Muslims and the Romans began with their initial rejection of the
call of the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], and it has lasted throughout
history and up to today. It will continue until the Malhamah, the final battle in which the
Muslims will defeat the Romans and conquer their lands, not long before the coming of
the Dajjal and the descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam], as we will see in the
coming chapters, if Allah wills.

During the early centuries of Islam, the two leading cities of the Europeans were Rome,
the home of the western Catholic church, and Constantinople, the home of the eastern
Orthodox church. Despite the fierce divisions that existed between these two churches,
they often joined forces to oppose the Muslim advances on their borders. The Muslims
had already conquered the Romans' territories in Sham, Egypt, North Africa, Andalusia,
and parts of Asia Minor.

Many wars were fought over the following centuries, with alternating victories and
defeats. The crusades that were waged in Palestine and Syria ultimately ended in failure
and defeat for the Christians, and their ranks were further divided when the crusaders
sacked Constantinople on their way back from the Holy Land.
In Andalusia, the Christians succeeded in conquering the entire peninsula, after it had
been ruled by the Muslims for eight centuries, and the Muslim and Jewish populations
were killed, enslaved, or driven out. At the same time as this was happening in the west,
the Muslim 'Uthmani Turks in the east finally conquered Constantinople, which had
never fully recovered after it had been sacked by the crusaders a few centuries before. It
became the capital city of the 'Uthmani dawlah and was renamed Islambul ["the City of
Islam"]. From there, the 'Uthmani sultans continued conquering the lands of eastern
Europe, until their defeat at Vienna, after which the borders of the 'Uthmani dawlah
began to recede.

The beginning of the decline of the 'Uthmani dawlah coincided with the rise of the
Industrial Revolution began in Europe. A now highly-advanced and secular-minded
Europe embarked on a new series of crusades under the name of colonialism, and the
Muslims were caught unprepared. The rule of the 'Uthmaniyyun in Asia Minor, the rule
of the Mughals in India and the rule of the Ashraf in the Maghrib were all undermined by
a mixture of foreign-hatched plots, conspiracies and military invasions, all of which
resulted in the downfall of Islamic rule and the establishment of secular, European-style
regimes in the Muslim world, subservient to the Christian nations and economically
dependant on them, and this unfortunate situation has continued up to the present day.

So as we can see, the Romans have evolved throughout history into many generations
and nations.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Ibn Muhayriz that he said: "The Messenger of Allah
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Persia will only take one or two thrusts, and then there will be no Persia after that. But
the Romans will have many generations: whenever one generation goes, another one will
take their place."

And their most recent manifestations are undoubtedly the United States of America, the
Russian Federation, and the European Union. With the inevitable decline of America, and
perhaps to a lesser degree that of Russia, the European Union will take on a more
prominent role, opening a new chapter in the age-old confrontation between the Muslims
and the Romans.
Chapter: The Turks

The Turks are a large group of peoples whose original homeland is central and eastern
Asia. They include the Tatars, the Mongols, and all of their descendents. As we have
already mentioned in the previous chapter, the present-day inhabitants of Turkey are
descendents of both the original Turkic Muslim invaders from the east, and the original
Byzantine Roman inhabitants of Asia Minor.

The current situation involving Turkey and the European Union may have some long-
term relevance to what has been narrated regarding the events at the end of time. A
number of weak athar indicate an alliance between the Romans and the Turks that will
take place before the coming of the Mahdi.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Ammar ibn Yasir [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he
said:

"There will be signs for the household of your Prophet, so stay in whatever land you are
until: the Turks will sweep down against a weak khalifah, who will then be deposed two
years after his bay'ah, and the Turks make an alliance with the Romans, and the western
part of the masjid of Damascus will collapse into the earth, and three people will arise in
Sham, and the Turks' border will be up to the Jazirah and that of the Romans up to
Palestine, and 'Abdullah will pursue 'Abdullah until their armies meet in battle at
Qirqisiya."

Regardless of the question of the authenticity of this athar and others like it, the events
that have taken place over the last century since the time of Ataturk have confirmed the
truth of the alliance between the secular government of Turkey and the Europeans.
Turkey has long been a member of NATO, and now it is on the doorstep of entering the
European Union.

It appears that in the near future, the secularists will have the final word in Turkey, and
that all of the necessary compromises will be made allowing Turkey to join the banner of
a united, secular, majority nominally Christian Europe. Due among other things to its
geographical location, it would then serve as the perfect "guard dog" on the frontiers of
Europe, and it would play a very important role in any future confrontation between the
Muslims and the Europeans. All of this appears to be indicated in the authentic ahadith
regarding the Malhamah and the conquest of Constantinople at the end of time.

Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hour will not come until the Romans camp at al-A'maq or Dabiq. An army from al-
Madinah, from the best of the people on earth on that day, will go out to face them. When
they have lined up their ranks for battle, the Romans will say: "Do not stand between us
and those who were taken from us as prisoners, let us fight them." So the Muslims will
say: "No, by Allah, we will never abandon our brothers to you." So they will fight them,
and one third of them [i.e. the Muslims] will flee, and Allah will never forgive them. One
third will be killed, and they will be the best martyrs in Allah's sight. And one third will
be victorious, and they will never again be subjected to trials. They will conquer
Constantinople, and while they are distributing the spoils, having hung their swords on
the olive-trees, the Shaytan will call out to them: "The Masih has taken your places
among your families!"

This hadith describes the events of al-Malhamah al-Kubra, the final battle between the
Muslims and the Christians at the end of time. In the majority of narrations of this hadith,
the wording is: "Do not stand between us and those who were taken from us as prisoners
[alladhina subu minna], let us fight them." The meaning of this wording is supported by
many athar narrated by Nu'aym ibn Hammad in Kitab al-Fitan regarding the role that the
mawali, or the non-Arab Muslims, will play during the Malhamah. It also contains an
indication that there will be a division between the Romans at the time of the Malhamah,
and that a group of them will have been taken captive by the Muslims and then
themselves entered into Islam. It is narrated that the Mahdi will fight the Turks – after
their alliance with the Romans – and that he will take a number of them captive and then
free them.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Artah that he said:

"The first flag sent by the Mahdi will be against the Turks. He will defeat them, and take
what they have of captives and wealth. Then he will go to Sham and conquer it, then he
will set free every slave that is with him, and pay his companions their value."

It is possible that those freed Turk slaves or their descendents will be the ex-captives
referred to in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah mentioned above, and that the Malhamah will
be fought between the Romans – meaning the Christian Europeans and their allies from
the secular Turks – on one side, and Muslims – who will include Arabs, Turks and others
– on the other side, and Allah knows better.

In some narrations it is: "Who took prisoners from amongst us [alladhina sabaw minna],
let us fight them." That is, let us fight the Muslims who took our people prisoner. Imam
an-Nawawi [rahimahullah] mentioned in his Sharh of Sahih Muslim that both wordings
may in fact be correct, in that the Muslims might have taken a number of the Romans
captive in war, who later entered Islam, joined the Muslim army, and that these Muslim
Romans will then take the Christian Romans captive. An-Nawawi then mentioned that
this was quite a common phenomenon during the wars that took place in his time
between the Muslims and the Romans.

And Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "Have you heard of a city, one side of which is on the
land, and one side of which is on the sea?" They said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah."

He said: "The Hour will not come until seventy thousand men of Banu Ishaq invade it.
When they come to it they will settle around it, and they will not fight with a single
weapon or shoot a single arrow. They will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is
no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and the side that is on the sea will collapse.
Then they will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah
is the Greatest]," and its other side will collapse. Then they will say: "La ilaha illallahu
wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and it will be
opened up for them and they will enter it and take the spoils. Then, while they are
distributing the spoils, a person will come to them, calling out and saying that the Dajjal
has come out. So they will leave everything and go back."

The city mentioned in this hadith is Constantinople, present-day Istanbul. This hadith
clearly informs us that Constantinople will be conquered a second time, and that the first
conquest by the Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih [rahimahullah] was not the conquest
mentioned in this hadith. Al-'Allamah Ahmad Shakir [rahimahullah] confirmed this when
he said:

"The conquest of Constantinople whose tidings are given in the hadith will be in the near
or distant future at a time known only to Allah ['azza wa-jall], and this will be the true
conquest of it, when the Muslims return to their religion, which they have now turned
away from. As for its conquest by the Turks that occurred before our time, then this was
but the preparation for the greater conquest. Then afterwards it went out of the hands of
the Muslims, from the time that their government there announced that they were a non-
Islamic, non-religious government, allied themselves with the kafir enemies of Islam, and
legislated man-made laws of shirk and kufr. And the Islamic conquest will return to it, if
Allah [ta'ala] wills, as the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] gave tidings of it."

As for Banu Ishaq [the descendents of Ishaq], al-Hafidh Ibn Kathir [rahimahullah] said
that they are the Romans who will have become Muslims at the end of time. Ishaq
['alayhis-salam] had two sons, Ya'qub and al-'Is. Ya'qub was also called Isra'il, so his
descendents are Banu Isra'il. As for al-'Is, it is said that his descendents are the inhabitants
of Asia Minor, from whom the Romans are descended, and Allah knows better.

It is narrated in some athar that a group of Jews will become Muslims at the hands of the
Mahdi.

Ad-Dani narrated from Ibn Shawdhab that he said:

"He is called the Mahdi because he will be guided to one of the mountains of Sham, from
which he will bring out some of the scrolls of the Tawrah, with which he will debate with
the Jews. So a group of the Jews on that day will become Muslims at his hands."

If this is correct, then it is not unreasonable to suggest that both groups, that is the
Muslim Romans and the Muslims of Banu Isra'il, may also be part of the army that
conquers Constantinople, and Allah knows better.
Chapter: The revival of the "crusader mentality" among the Europeans

The more technologically advanced western society became after the Industrial
Revolution, the more atheistic and materialistic it became in its outlook. Religion
gradually became less important and less relevant in their lives to the point that today, the
majority of Europeans and Americans are effectively Christians in name only, neither
practicing their religion nor believing in it.

People are largely influenced by the cultures and habits of the powerful nations that
dominate them. The great Muslim historian 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Khaldun [rahimahullah]
observed that whenever the Muslims were dominated by other people, the Muslims
would imitate their habits and culture, but whenever the Muslims were dominant over
other people, those people would imitate the Muslims.

This has proven to be especially true in the past century. Many Muslims all over the
world, as a result of their weakness and defeatism, have been dazzled by the mirage of
the secularism of the kafir west and its perceived successes, and have blindly and
unquestioningly embraced it. The majority of the governments in the Muslim lands have
embraced secularism, and in many places the people have turned away from their religion
en masse.

Ibn Khaldun also observed that history moves in cycles, and that for everything there is a
rise and fall. This is in contrast to the superficial and short-sighted opinion of many
modern western historians that history is in a process of constant advancement and
evolution, a view no doubt influenced by the atheistic Darwinian theory of evolution.

Over the past few centuries, many so-called intellectuals and visionaries have appeared in
the west who viewed their own ideal conception of the society – whether communist,
socialist, capitalist, or today, liberal democratic – as the ultimate point of human
evolution, and simply could not even imagine that their ideology could possibly fail or
become obsolete. All of them were proven wrong. Is it not then time for these people,
who continue to recklessly apply Darwin's highly disputed theory to their own ideals and
fancies, to learn from the mistakes of those before them, and to wake up from this
illusion?

Any return of the Muslims to their religion and the rise of a powerful Islamic rule in the
Muslim lands – which must certainly occur – will result in a corresponding weakening
and decline in the western countries. Such has always been the push-and-pull nature of
the great powers throughout history. Logically, this would lead to many Christians in the
west becoming influenced by the great importance that the Muslims give to religion, with
the result that those Christians – if they do not become Muslims – will most likely return
to their own religion with a renewed fervour. Many people have in fact witnessed this
phenomenon becoming more common in our own time.

The increasing hardships and the threat of the disintegration of society after the fall of the
credit-based economy and the decline of technology would also be a major factor in the
return of the Christians to their religion, as many people tend to take refuge in religion
when everything else that they had put their faith in fails.

Al-Hakim narrated from Dhu Mikhbar, the brother of an-Najashi [radhiyallahu 'anhuma],
that he heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"You will make a truce with the Romans, and you and them will fight together against an
enemy beyond them. You will be victorious and win many spoils, and you will come back
and settle on a hilly field. So one of the men from the Romans will say: "The cross has
triumphed!" and a man from the Muslims will say: "Rather it is Allah Who triumphed."
So they will argue with each other, and the Muslim will rush upon their cross, which will
not be far away, and knock it down. The Romans will rush upon the breaker of their cross
and kill him. The Muslims will rush for their weapons, but they will be killed, and Allah
will honour that group of the Muslims with martyrdom.

So the Romans will say to their ruler: "We have sufficed you the strength of the Arabs."
They will then break the truce and gather for the Malhamah, coming to you under eighty
banners, under each banner twelve thousand men."

Regardless of whatever cultural and religious changes that the Europeans have undergone
over the centuries, this "crusader mentality" – evident in the above hadith in their saying:
"The cross has triumphed!" – is deeply ingrained within the European psychology,
perhaps moreso than in that of the American people. A look at their history and their
general attitude towards Islam and the Muslims today will clearly reveal that the
"crusader mentality" has indeed been inherited and passed down over generations,
however much they might like to claim to the contrary. And the hadith of Dhu Mikhbar
indicates that this mentality will continue among the European Christians until the end,
and Allah knows better.
Chapter: Al-Malhamah al-Kubra [the greatest battle]

The truce with the Romans:


Al-Hakim narrated from Dhu Mikhbar, the brother of an-Najashi [radhiyallahu 'anhuma],
that he heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"You will make a truce with the Romans, and you and them will fight together against an
enemy beyond them. You will be victorious and win many spoils, and you will come back
and settle on a hilly field. So one of the men from the Romans will say: "The cross has
triumphed!" and a man from the Muslims will say: "Rather it is Allah Who triumphed."
So they will argue with each other, and the Muslim will rush upon their cross, which will
not be far away, and knock it down. The Romans will rush upon the breaker of their cross
and kill him. The Muslims will rush for their weapons, but they will be killed, and Allah
will honour that group of the Muslims with martyrdom.

So the Romans will say to their ruler: "We have sufficed you the strength of the Arabs."
They will then break the truce and gather for the Malhamah, coming to you under eighty
banners, under each banner twelve thousand men."

And in the narration of Nu'aym ibn Hammad:

"So he will gather his forces against you for the duration of a woman's pregnancy, then
they will come against you with eighty banners, under each banner twelve thousand
men."

The Malhamah:
Muslim narrated from Yasir ibn Jabir that he said: "A red wind blew in al-Kufah. So a
man came who had nothing to say except: "O 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, the Hour has come."

He said: "So he sat up after he had been lying down, and said: "The Hour will not come
until inheritance is not distributed and spoils are not rejoiced over." Then he pointed his
hand towards Sham, saying: "An enemy with gather its forces against the people of
Islam, and the people of Islam will gather their forces against them."

I said: "The Romans, you mean?" He said: "Yes, and there will be during that battle a
massive retreat. The Muslims will send a detachment to fight to the death, and to not
return unless they are victorious. So they will fight until night intervenes between them,
and each side will come back without victory, and the whole detachment will have been
killed. Then the Muslims will send another detachment to fight to the death, and to not
return unless they are victorious. So they will fight until night intervenes between them,
and each side will come back without victory, and the whole detachment will have been
killed. Then the Muslims will send another detachment to fight to the death, and to not
return unless they are victorious. So they will fight until evening, and each side will come
back without victory, and the whole detachment will have been killed.
Then on the fourth day, the remainder of the people of Islam will face them in battle, and
Allah will cause them [i.e. the Romans] to be defeated, and they will be killed in such a
slaughter that will never have been seen before, until a bird will pass over them and
before it has left them it will drop dead. Brothers will search for each other, and will find
only one man remaining out of a family of a hundred, so what spoils could they enjoy,
and what inheritance could they distribute?

And while they are thus, they will hear of an even worse calamity than that. A person will
come and call out to them that the Dajjal has taken their places among their families. So
they will drop what is in their hands and go forward, sending ahead of them a detachment
of ten horsemen. The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "I know
their names, the names of their fathers, and the colours of their horses. They will be the
best horsemen on the face of the earth that day."

And he also narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hour will not come until the Romans camp at al-A'maq or Dabiq. An army from al-
Madinah, from the best of the people on earth on that day, will go out to face them. When
they have lined up their ranks for battle, the Romans will say: "Do not stand between us
and those who were taken from us as prisoners, let us fight them." So the Muslims will
say: "No, by Allah, we will never abandon our brothers to you." So they will fight them,
and one third of them [i.e. the Muslims] will flee, and Allah will never forgive them. One
third will be killed, and they will be the best martyrs in Allah's sight. And one third will
be victorious, and they will never again be subjected to trials. They will conquer
Constantinople, and while they are distributing the spoils, having hung their swords on
the olive-trees, the Shaytan will call out to them: "The Masih has taken your places
among your families!"

Weaker athar describing the events of the Malhamah:


Al-Hakim narrated from the hadith of 'Awf ibn Malik al-Ashja'i [radhiyallahu 'anhu] from
the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"There will be born among Banul-Asfar a boy from the descendents of kings, who will
age in a day as a child ages in a week, and who will age in a week as a child ages in a
month, and who will age in a month as a child ages in a year. When he reaches the age of
twelve years, they will make him their king. So he will stand up among them and say:
"For how long will these people conquer us in our best lands? I think I should go to them
and drive them out." So the speakers will stand up and agree with his idea. So he will
send out to the islands and the lands, ordering them to build ships, then he will sail in
them with his armies until he lands between Antioch and al-'Arish."

Ibn Shurayh said: "I have heard someone saying that they will be twelve banners, with
twelve thousand under each banner. So the Muslims will assemble with their ruler in Bayt
al-Maqdis, and they will agree to go to the City of the Messenger [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-
sallam], until their furthest outpost will be at as-Sarh and Khaybar."
Ibn Abi Ja'far said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "My
Ummah will go out from Manabit ash-Shih."

He or al-Harith ibn Yazid said: "They will stay there in that place, then one third will flee
and one third will be killed, then Allah ['azza wa-jall] will defeat them with the third who
had remained patient."

Khalid ibn Yazid said: "On that day, Allah will strike with His sword and stab with His
spear [i.e. with the swords and spears of the Muslims], and the Muslims will follow them
in pursuit until they reach the gulf that is at Constantinople, and they will find that its
water has dried up. So they will cross over to the city and settle in front of it, and Allah
will demolish its walls with their saying: "Allahu akbar [Allah is the Greatest]." Then
they will enter it and distribute its spoils with their shields."

Abu Qubayl al-Ma'afiri said: "While they are like that, a rider will come to them and say:
"You are here, but the Dajjal has taken your places among your families!" But it will be
false. So whoever listens to the scholars regarding that, then he will stay there along with
the spoils that he won, and as for the others, they will depart. And the Muslims will build
masajid in Constantinople and invade the lands beyond it, until the Dajjal comes out in
the sixth [i.e. the sixth year or the sixth month]."

And he also narrated from Ibn 'Umar [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that the Messenger of Allah
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Soon the Muslims will be besieged in al-Madinah, until their furthest outpost will be
Silah."

And he also narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "I heard the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"When the Malahim occur, a detachment of the mawali will come out from Damascus,
who will have the best horses and finest weapons of all the Arabs, through whom Allah
will aid the religion."

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that
he said:

"When the two old men rule: the old man of the Arabs, and the old man of the Romans,
then at their hands will be the Malahim."

And he also narrated from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said:

"A boy will appear among the Romans who will age in a year as a boy would age in ten
years. He will live in the lands of the Romans, and the Romans will make him their king.
So he will say: "For how long will we allow these people to overcome us in part of our
own land? I will certainly go out and fight them until I overcome them in the lands they
have taken, or they overcome me in what remains under my feet."

So he will go out with seventy thousand ships until he lands between 'Akka and al-'Arish,
then he will set his ships on fire. The people of Egypt will leave Egypt, and the people of
Sham will leave Sham, and they will all go to the Arabian Peninsula. That is the day
about which Abu Hurayrah used to say: "Woe to the Arabs from an evil that has
approached." A rope and a well-fed riding animal will be dearer to a man on that day than
his family and his wealth.

So the Arabs will seek help from the bedouins, then they will go until they reach al-'Umq,
at Antioch. There will be the greatest of battles, until the horses are soaked in blood up to
their flanks. Allah will withhold victory from them all, until the angels will say: "O Lord,
will You not help Your believing slaves?" So He will say: "Not until they have had many
martyrs."

So one third will be killed, one third will retreat, and one third will remain patient. And
Allah will cause the retreating third to be swallowed by the earth.

The Romans will say: "We will not cease fighting you until you bring out to us every one
among you whose origin is not from you." So the non-Arabs will come out and say:
"Allah forbid that we should go back to unbelief after al-Islam!" That is when Allah
['azza wa-jall] will send down His wrath, strike with His sword and stab with His spear.
None of them will remain alive to tell about it, but they will all be killed and left lying on
their faces.

And they [i.e. the Muslims] will not pass any city without conquering it by declaring
Allah's greatness [at-takbir], until they come to the City of the Romans, and they will find
that its gulf has dried up. So Allah [ta'ala] will make them conquer it, and on that day so
many virgins will be taken captive, and the spoils will be distributed in large containers.

Then the news will come to them that the Masih has come out. So they will go forward
until they meet him in battle at Bayt Ayliya', and they will find present there eight
thousand women and twelve thousand fighting men, who are the best of those who
remain, like the righteous ones of the past. So while they are there under a foggy cloud,
the fog will dissipate at dawn and they will find 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] among
them."
Chapter: The conquest of Constantinople and Rome

Muslim narrated from Nafi' ibn 'Utbah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "I heard the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"You will attack the Arabian Peninsula, and Allah will make you conquer it. Then you
will attack Persia, and Allah will make you conquer it. Then you will attack the Romans,
and Allah will make you conquer them. Then you will attack the Dajjal, and Allah will
make you conquer him."

And he also narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Prophet [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "Have you heard of a city, one side of which is on the land, and
one side of which is on the sea?" They said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah."

He said: "The Hour will not come until seventy thousand men of Banu Ishaq invade it.
When they come to it they will settle around it, and they will not fight with a single
weapon or shoot a single arrow. They will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is
no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and the side that is on the sea will collapse.
Then they will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah
is the Greatest]," and its other side will collapse. Then they will say: "La ilaha illallahu
wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and it will be
opened up for them and they will enter it and take the spoils. Then, while they are
distributing the spoils, a person will come to them, calling out and saying that the Dajjal
has come out. So they will leave everything and go back."

This hadith proves that with exceptionally strong iman and certainty, the very mention of
Allah's Name may become a deadly weapon on the battlefield.

And Abu Dawud narrated from Mu'adh ibn Jabal [radhiyallahu 'anhu, from the Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"The greatest Malhamah, the conquest of Constantinople, and the coming of the Dajjal
will all occur within seven months."

And he also narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Busr [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Between the Malhamah and the conquest of Constantinople will be six years, and the
Dajjal will come out in the seventh."

And Abu Dawud said: "This hadith is more authentic than the one before it," i.e. the
hadith of Mu'adh.

The hadith of 'Abdullah ibn Busr may be referring to the beginning of the Malahim,
while the hadith of Mu'adh mentions the greatest and final Malhamah, indicating that the
Malahim will last for six years, and that al-Malhamah al-Kubra and the conquest of
Constantinople will be in the final few months of that period, to be followed in the
seventh year by the coming of the Dajjal. According to this, any apparent contradiction
between the two hadiths may be resolved, and Allah knows better.

And al-Hakim narrated from Kathir ibn 'Abdillah, from his father, from his grandfather
[radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-
sallam] saying:

"The world will not come to an end, O 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, until…" 'Ali said: "At your
service, O Messenger of Allah!"

He said: "Know that you will fight Banul-Asfar, and the mu'minun after you will fight
them. The best of the mu'minun, the people of the Hijaz who will perform jihad in the
Cause of Allah and who will not fear the blame of the blamer, will go out to fight them
until Allah ['azza wa-jall] allows them to conquer Constantinople and Rome by glorifying
Allah [at-tasbih] and declaring His greatness [at-takbir], then their fortifications will
collapse, and they will win a great amount of spoils that they never won before, until they
will distribute it in their shields.

Then a person will call out: "O people of Islam! Al-Masih ad-Dajjal has come out in your
lands and among your families." So the people will disperse from the wealth, some of
them taking and some of them leaving. Both the one who took and the one who left will
regret it. They will say: "Who was it that called out?" for they will not know who it was.
So they will say: "Send a detachment to Ludd, and if the Masih has indeed come out, they
will come back to you will the news."

So they will go and look, but they will see nothing. They will see that the people are in
doubt, and they will say: "That person would not have called out unless he had sure news.
So make a decision, and make it wisely." So they will decide: "Let us go altogether to
Ludd, and if al-Masih ad-Dajjal is there, then we will fight him until Allah decides
between us and him, and He is the Best Decider. And if he is not there, then at least you
will have returned to your lands, your families, and your camps."

And he also narrated from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "We
were with the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], when he was asked
which of the two cities will be conquered first, Constantinople or Rome? So he said:

"The city of Heraclius will be first," meaning Constantinople."

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from the
Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"Allah will cause Constantinople to be conquered at the hands of a people who are the
allies [awliya'] of Allah [ta'ala]. Allah will preserve them from death, illness and disease
until 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] descends, and they will fight alongside him against
the Dajjal."
Chapter: The conquest of India

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Artah that he said: "At the hands of that khalifah,
who will be from Yemen, will be the invasion of India that Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu
'anhu] narrated from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"A group of people from my Ummah will invade India, and Allah will cause them to
conquer it, until they come to the kings of India and bind them in chains. Allah will
forgive all of their sins. Then they will turn towards Sham, and they will find 'Isa ibn
Maryam in Sham."
Chapter: The coming of the Dajjal and the descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-
salam]

Al-Bukhari narrated from 'Abdullah ibn 'Umar [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"I was shown a dream last night while I was sleeping near the Ka'bah. There was a man
of dark complexion, the best dark complexioned man that one might see, with hair
touching his shoulders. His hair hung down, and water was dripping from his head. He
was placing his hands on the shoulders of two men while he was circumambulating the
House. So I said: "Who is this?" So they said: "This is the Masih, 'Isa ibn Maryam."

Then I saw a man behind him, with short and curly hair, blind in his right eye. He most
resembled Ibn Qatan out of all the people I have seen. He was placing his hands on the
shoulders of a man who was circumambulating the House. So I said: "Who is this?" They
said: "Al-Masih ad-Dajjal."

And Muslim narrated from Jabir [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi
wa-sallam] said:

"There will always remain a group from my Ummah, fighting upon the way of Truth,
victorious until the Day of Resurrection. 'Isa ibn Maryam will descend and their amir will
say: "Come and lead us in the prayer." So he will say: "No, for you have been made
leaders of each other, Allah's honour to this Ummah."
Chapter: The fitnah of the Dajjal

Al-Bukhari narrated from Anas ibn Malik [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There was no Prophet who did not warn his nation of the one-eyed liar. Indeed, he is
one-eyed, and your Lord is not one-eyed. And it will be written between his eyes "kafir
[infidel]"."

And Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There will never be, from the creation of Adam until the coming of the Hour, a matter of
greater enormity than the Dajjal."

And he also narrated from Hudhayfah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger
of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"I know more about what the Dajjal will have with him even than he himself knows. He
will have with him two flowing rivers, one of them will appear to the sight to be clear
water, and the other will appear to the sight to be a blazing fire. So if anyone lives to
witness them, then let him go to the river that he sees to be fire and close his eyes, then
let him lower his head and drink from it, and he will find it to be cool water. And the
Dajjal will be blind in one eye, which will have a thick covering over it. It will be written
between his eyes "kafir", which every believer whether literate or illiterate will be able to
read."

And he also narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Dajjal will come out, and a man from the believers will go towards him. So the
bodyguards of the Dajjal will meet him and say to him: "Where are you going?" So he
will say: "I am going to this man who has come out."

He said: "So they will say to him: "Do you not believe in our lord?" So he will say: "Our
Lord needs no intermediaries."

So they will say: "Kill him." Then one of them will say to the other: "Has your lord not
forbidden you to kill anyone without his leave?"

He said: "So they will take him to the Dajjal, and when the believer sees him, he will say:
"O people, this is the Dajjal that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]
mentioned."

He said: "So the Dajjal will order him to be slashed, saying: "Seize him, and slash him."
So they will beat his back and his stomach painfully."
He said: "So he will say: "Do you not believe in me?" He said: "So he will ordered him to
be brought, and he will cut him in half with a saw, from the top of his head to his legs."

He said: "Then the Dajjal will walk between the two pieces, then he will say to him:
"Stand up!" And he will stand up straight. Then he will say to him: "Do you believe in
me?" So he will say: "I am only the more certain about you [i.e. that you are the Dajjal]."

He said: "Then he will say: "O people! This one will not be able to do this again to
anyone after me."

He said: "So the Dajjal will seize him in order to slaughter him, but the area between his
shoulders will be turned into copper, so he will be able to harm him."

He said: "So he will seize him by his hands and feet, and throw him away. The people
will think that he threw him into the Hell-fire, however he in fact threw him into
Paradise."

Then the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "This man will win the
greatest martyrdom of all people in the sight of the Lord of the Worlds."

Abu Ishaq said: "It is said that this man will be al-Khidhr."

And he also narrated from Umm Shurayk [radhiyallahu 'anha] that she heard the Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"The people will flee from the Dajjal to the mountains."

And Ahmad narrated from Jabir ibn 'Abdillah [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Dajjal will appear at a time when religion is treated lightly and knowledge is turned
away from. He will have forty nights to pass over the earth: one of those days like a year,
one of those days like a month, one of those days like a week, and the rest of his days will
be like these days of yours. He will have a donkey on which he will ride; the distance
between its ears will be forty cubits.

So he will say to the people: "I am your lord." And he is one-eyed, but your Lord is not
one-eyed. It will be written between his eyes "kafir," and every believer, whether literate
or illiterate, will be able to read it. He will come to every place that there is water, except
for Makkah and al-Madinah, which Allah [ta'ala] has forbidden to him, and at whose
gates the angels stand guard.

With him will be mountains of bread, and all of the people will be in great hardship
except for whoever follows him. And with him will be two rivers, and I know better than
him as to what they contain: a river that he calls Paradise, and a river that he calls Hell-
fire. So whoever enters that which he calls Paradise, then it will be Hell-fire, and whoever
enters that which he calls Hell-fire, then it will be Paradise.

With him will be devils, who will speak to the people. And with him will be a great
fitnah: he will give an order to the sky and it will appear to the people to rain, and he will
kill a person and then it will appear to the people that he will bring him back to life. And
the people will say: "Can anyone do this except the Lord?"

He said: "So the Muslims will flee to Jabal ad-Dukhan in Sham, and he will come to
them and besiege them, and he will intensify the siege and inflict a severe hardship on
them. Then 'Isa ibn Maryam will descend and call out at dawn, saying: "O people! What
prevented you from going out to face the filthy liar?" So they will say: "This is surely a
man with life in him." So they will go out, and they will find themselves with 'Isa ibn
Maryam, and the prayer will be begun. So it will be said to him: "Come forward, O Spirit
of Allah." So he will say: "Let your imam come forward and lead you in the prayer." So
when they have prayed the Subh prayer they will go out to face him."

He said: "So when the liar sees him, he will dissolve like salt dissolving in water. So he
[i.e. 'Isa] will go to him and kill him, until the trees and the rocks will call out: "O Spirit
of Allah, here is a Jew!" So he will not leave a single one who followed him [i.e. the
Dajjal] without killing him."

And he also narrated from Mihjan ibn al-Adra' that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam] gave a sermon to the people one day and said:

"The Day of Purification, and what is the Day of Purification?" He said it three times. So
it was said: "And what is the Day of Purification?"

He said: "The Dajjal will come and go up to Uhud. So he will look at al-Madinah and say
to his companions: "Do you see that white palace?" That is the masjid of Ahmad."

Then he will come to al-Madinah and find on every path leading to it an angel
brandishing his sword. So he will come to the salt-marsh of al-Jurf and strike its outskirts,
then al-Madinah will be shaken by three tremors, and no hypocrite or sinner, male of
female, will remain ecept that they will go out to him. That will be the Day of
Purification."

And he also narrated from Ibn 'Umar [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "The Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Dajjal will come to this marsh at Mirqanah," a marsh in al-Madinah, "and most of
those who go out to him will be the women, until a man will go to his wife, and to his
mother, his daughter, his sister and his aunt, and tie them up for fear that they will go out
to him."
Chapter: The followers of the Dajjal

The majority of the followers of the Dajjal will be from the Jews, the Turkic peoples of
central Asia, the munafiqun of this Ummah, and women in general.

Muslim narrated from Anas [radhiyallahu' anhu] that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Dajjal will be followed by seventy thousand Jews from Asbahan, wearing shawls
[at-tayalisah]."

Asbahan is a city in Persia that throughout history has had a large Jewish population.

And Ahmad narrated from Anas [radhiyallahu' anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Dajjal will come out of the Jewish quarter of Asbahan, accompanied by seventy
thousand Jews."

And Ibn Majah narrated from Abu Bakr as-Siddiq [radhiyallahu 'anhu] who said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Dajjal will come out from a land in the east called Khurasan, followed by people
with faces like hammered shields."
Chapter: The battle with the Jews [Armageddon]

Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hour will not come until the Muslims fight the Jews, until a Jew will hide behind
the stones and the trees, so the stones and trees will say: "O Muslim! O slave of Allah!
There is a Jew behind me, come and kill him!" Except for the Gharqad, for it is of the
trees of the Jews."

This is probably the battle referred to by the Christians as the Battle of Armageddon that
will be fought in Palestine. It is apparent that it does not refer to the current battles
between the Muslims and the Jews in Palestine, as the texts clearly indicate that the
Muslims will have recaptured Bayt al-Maqdis from the Jews long before the appearance
of the Dajjal.

Perhaps the goal of the Jewish followers of the Dajjal will be to conquer the Holy Land
for themselves again after the destruction of the state of Israel, and Allah knows better.
Chapter: The hadith of an-Nawwas ibn Sam'an

Muslim narrated from an-Nawwas ibn Sam'an [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] mentioned the Dajjal one
morning. Sometimes he described him as insignificant, and other times as dangerous,
until we thought that he was in the corner of the date-palms near us. So when we went to
him in the afternoon, he noticed that we were disturbed by that, so he said: "What is
wrong?" We said: "O Messenger of Allah, you mentioned the Dajjal this morning, and
you sometimes described him as insignificant, and other times as dangerous, until we
thought that he was in the corner of the date-palms near us."

So he said: "I fear for you other things than the Dajjal. If he comes out while I am among
you, then I will contend with him for you. And if he comes out and I am not among you,
then every man will contend with him himself, and Allah will look after every Muslim
after me.

He is a young man with short curly hair, with one of his eyes floating. I liken him in
appearance to 'Abd al-'Uzza ibn Qatan. So whoever of you lives to see him, then let him
recite the opening of Surat al-Kahf. He will come out from a road between Sham and
'Iraq, and he will spread evil right and left. O slaves of Allah, be firm!"

We said: "O Messenger of Allah, how long will he remain on earth?" He said: "Forty
days: a day like a year, a day like a month, a day like a week, and the rest of his days will
be like your days."

We said: "O Messenger of Allah, the one that will be like a year: will the prayers of one
day suffice us?" He said: "No, you must calculate for them."

We said: "O Messenger of Allah, how quickly will he travel through the earth?" He said:
"Like the rain driven by the wind. He will come to a people and call them, and they will
believe in him and respond to him. So he will give an order to the sky and it will rain, and
to the earth and it will bring forth crops. So their livestock will graze on them and they
will come back with longer horns, fuller udders, and wider flanks than they ever had
before.

Then he will come to a people and call them, and they will reject his saying. So they will
wake up in famine, without any wealth.

Then he will pass by the empty land and say: "Bring out your treasures!" So its treasures
will follow him like swarms of bees. Then he will call a young man in the fullness of his
youth and strike him with a sword, cutting him into two halves, which he will place the
distance of a bowshot from each other. Then he will call him, and he will come forward
running, with his face shining and laughing.
So while he is like that, Allah [ta'ala] will send the Masih, 'Isa ibn Maryam, who will
descend near the white tower east of Damascus, wearing two saffron-coloured garments
and placing his hands on the wings of two angels. When he lowers his head, water will
drip from it, and when he raises it, drops like pearls will scatter from it. No infidel will
come within the scent of his breath without dying, and his breath will extend as far as the
eye can see.

So he [i.e. 'Isa] will pursue him [i.e. the Dajjal] until he catches him at the gate of Ludd,
and he will kill him. Then 'Isa will come to a people whom Allah ['azza wa-jall] has
protected, and he will wipe their faces and inform them of their degrees in Paradise.

Then, while they are like that, Allah [ta'ala] will reveal to 'Isa: "I have brought out slaves
of Mine, against whom no-one has the ability to fight. So take My slaves to safety on at-
Tur."

And Allah [ta'ala] will send Ya'juj and Ma'juj, and they will pour down from every slope.
The first of them will pass by the Lake of Tabariyyah, and they will drink all of the water
in it, and the last of them will pass by it and say: "There was once water here."

And the Prophet of Allah, 'Isa [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] and his companions will be
besieged until a bull's head will be more valuable to one of them than a hundred dinars
are to one of you today. So the Prophet of Allah, 'Isa ['alayhis-salam] and his companions
will pray to Allah, so Allah will send upon them an-naghf [a worm that affects the noses
of camels and goats] that will eat into their necks, and in the morning they will all be
lying dead, like the death of a single person.

Then the Prophet of Allah, 'Isa ['alayhis-salam] and his companions will come down to
the ground, and they will not find even the space of a hand-span on the earth but that it is
filled with their bones and their rotting flesh. So the Prophet of Allah, 'Isa ['alayhis-
salam] and his companions will pray to Allah, so Allah ['azza wa-jall] will send birds like
the necks of camels, which will carry them and cast them wherever Allah [ta'ala] wills.

Then Allah ['azza wa-jall] will send rain that no house or tent will be able to keep out, so
that the earth will be washed clean until it becomes like a mirror. Then it will be said to
the earth: "Make your fruits grow, and bring back your blessings." So on that day, a group
of people will eat from a single pomegranate, and they will be able to shade themselves
with its skin. And the milk will be abundantly blessed until one milking of a camel will
suffice a great host of people, and one milking of a cow will suffice a tribe of people, and
one milking of a sheep will suffice a family of people.

Then while they are like that, Allah will send a pleasant wind which will take them under
their armpits, and which will cause the soul of every believer, male and female, to pass
away. The worst of people will remain and they will mate openly like donkeys, and it is
upon them that the Hour will come."
Chapter: The hadith of Abu Umamah al-Bahili

Ibn Majah narrated from Abu Umamah al-Bahili [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] gave a sermon in which he mostly
talked to us about the Dajjal. He warned us about him, and part of what he said was:

"There will never have been a fitnah on earth, from the time that Allah [ta'ala] created the
descendents of Adam ['alayhis-salam], greater than the Fitnah of the Dajjal. And Allah
[ta'ala] never sent any Prophet who did not warn his nation of the Dajjal, and I am the last
of the Prophets, and you are the last of the nations, and he will come out among you
without any doubt. So if he comes out while I am among you, then I will contend with
him for you. And if he comes out and I am not among you, then every man will contend
with him himself, and Allah will look after every Muslim after me. He will come out
from a road between Sham and 'Iraq, and he will spread evil right and left. O slaves of
Allah, O people, be firm!

I will describe him to you as no prophet has described him before me. He will begin by
saying: "I am a prophet," but there is no prophet after me. Then he will say afterwards: "I
am your lord," but you will not see your Lord until you die. And he is one-eyed, and your
Lord is not one-eyed. And it is written between his eyes "kafir," which every believer,
literate or illiterate, will read. And from his fitnah is that he will have with him a garden
and a fire, but his fire a Paradise and his garden is a Hell-fire. So whoever is tried by his
fire, then let him seek Allah's help and recite the opening of Surat al-Kahf, and it will
become coolness and safety for him, as the fire became for Ibrahim.

And from his fitnah is that he will say to a Bedouin: "What do you think, if I were to
resurrect for you your father and your mother, would you bear witness that I am your
lord?" So he will say: "Yes."

So two devils will take the form of his father and his mother, and they will say: "O my
son, follow him for he is your lord."

And from his fitnah is that he will be given power over one person, whom he will kill and
cut in half with a saw, until he throws the two pieces apart. Then he will say: "Look at
this slave of mine, I will resurrect him now! And he claims that he has a Lord other than
me!" So Allah [ta'ala] will resurrect him, and then the wicked man will say to him: "Who
is your Lord?"

So he will say: "My Lord is Allah, and you are the enemy of Allah. You are the Dajjal. By
Allah, I was never more certain about you than I am today."

Abu Sa'id said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"That man will have the highest degree in Paradise."


Abu Sa'id said: "By Allah, we did not think that that man would be anyone other than
'Umar ibn al-Khattab, until he passed away."

Al-Muharibi said: "Then we came back to the hadith of Abu Rafi'. He said:

"And from his fitnah is that he will pass by a tribe and they will deny him, so not a single
one of their livestock will remain alive. And from his fitnah is that he will pass by a tribe
and they will believe in him, so he will order the sky to rain and it will rain, and he will
order the earth to bring forth crops, and it will bring forth crops, so that their livestock
will from that day forward come fatter and bigger than they ever were, with wider flanks
and fuller udders.

He will leave no part of the earth without passing over it and overcoming it except for
Makkah and al-Madinah. He will not come to any of the pathways leading to them but
that he will be met by angels brandishing swords, until he comes to adh-Dharib al-Ahmar
near the endge of the salt-marsh. Then al-Madinah along with its people will be shaken
by three tremors, and it will expel its filth as the furnace expels the filth of the iron. And
that day will be called the Day of Purification [yawm al-khalas]."

So Umm Shurayk bint Abil-'Akr said: "O Messenger of Allah, where will the Arabs be on
that day?" He said: "They will be, on that day, very few. Most of them will be in Bayt al-
Maqdis, and their imam will be a righteous man. So when their imam has gone forward to
pray the Subh prayer, 'Isa ibn Maryam will descend at dawn. So that man will defer,
walking backwards, so that 'Isa ibn Maryam can lead the people in the prayer. So 'Isa will
place his hand between his shoulders and say: "Go forward and pray, for it was begun for
you." So their imam will lead them in the prayer.

Then when he has finished, 'Isa will say: "Open the door." So it will be opened, and
behind it will be the Dajjal, accompanied by seventy thousand Jews, all of them with
ornamented swords and armour. So when the Dajjal sees him, he will dissolve like salt
dissolving in water, and run away fleeing.

So 'Isa will say: "I have one blow for you that you will not escape." So he will catch up
with him at the eastern gate of Ludd and kill him. And Allah will cause the Jews to be
defeated, and there is nothing that Allah has created behind which a Jew will hide except
that Allah will cause it to speak, not a rock, or a tree, or a wall – except the Gharqadah,
for it is from their trees – except that it will say: "O Muslim slave of Allah! Here is a Jew,
so come and kill him!"

The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "And the number of his days
will be forty years: a year like half a year, a year like a month, a month like a week, and
the rest of his days will be so quick that one of you will come in the morning to the gate
of al-Madinah and he will not reach the other gate before evening has come."
So it was said to him: "O Messenger of Allah, how will we pray in those short days?" He
said: "Calculate the times of the prayers as you calculate them in these long days, then
pray."

He said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "So 'Isa ibn
Maryam will be in my Ummah, a just judge, and an equitable leader. He will break the
cross, slaughter the pigs, abolish the jizyah and the zakah, so that he will not take a single
goat or camel. Ill-will and hatred will be lifted, and the venom of every venomous
creature will be removed, so that a little boy will put his hand in a snake's mouth and it
will not harm him, and a little girl will chase a lion away and it will not harm her, and a
wolf will be among sheep as if it were a sheepdog. The earth will be filled with peace like
a container is filled with water. There will be unity among people, and none but Allah
['azza wa-jall] will be worshipped. War will cease, the authority of Quraysh will be taken
away, and the earth will be like a silver basin, bringing forth its crops as they were in the
time of Adam, until a large group of people will gather to eat a single bunch of grapes and
it will satiate them, and an ox will be worth such-and-such amount of money, while a
horse will be only a few dirhams."

It was said: "O Messenger of Allah, why will the horse be cheap?" He said: "Because it
will never again be ridden in war."

It was said: "O Messenger of Allah, why will the ox be expensive?" He said: "Because it
will plough the whole earth. And before the Dajjal, there will be three years of hardship,
during which the people will be afflicted by severe hunger. Allah [ta'ala] will order the
sky in the first year to withhold a third of its rain, and He will order the earth to withhold
a third of its crops. Then He will order the sky in the second year to withhold two thirds
of its rain, and He will order the earth to withhold two thirds of its crops. Then He will
order the sky in the third year to withhold all of its rain so that not a drop falls, and He
will order the earth to withhold all of its crops so that not a green thing grows. No cloven-
hoofed creature will remain alive except for what Allah [ta'ala] wills."

So it was said: "How will the people live at that time?" He said: "By declaring Allah's
oneness [at-tahlil], magnifying Him [at-takbir], glorifying Him [at-tasbih] and praising
Him [at-tahmid]. That will fulfill the same function as food for them."
Chapter: The hadith of Fatimah bint Qays

Muslim narrated from Fatimah bint Qays [radhiyallahu 'anha] that the Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] gathered the people for the prayer one day and said:

"Do you know why I have gathered you?" They said: "Allah and His Messenger know
better."

He said: "By Allah, I have not gathered you for an exhortation or a warning, rather I have
gathered you because Tamim ad-Dari, who was a Christian man who came and gave the
bay'ah and became a Muslim, has told me something that agrees with what I was telling
you about al-Masih ad-Dajjal. He told me that he sailed in a ship at sea along with thirty
men from Lakhm and Judham. The waves tossed them around for a month, then they
came within sight of an island in the sea. They waited until sunset, then they got into the
ship's rowboats and entered the island. Then they were met by a shaggy beast with a lot
of hair; they could not tell its front from its back.

So they said: "Woe to you, what are you?" It said: "I am al-Jassasah." They said: "And
what is al-Jassasah?"

It said: "O people, go to this man in the monastery, because he is longing to hear your
news." He said: "When it named the man to us, we feared that it was a devil."

He said: "So we went quickly until we entered the monastery, and in there we found the
largest man we had ever seen, bound in the heaviest chains with his hands tied to his
neck, and shackled from his knees to his ankles with iron. We said: "Woe to you! Who
are you?" He said: "You will soon be able to find out about me. But tell me about you,
who are you?"

They said: "We are a group of people from the Arabs. We sailed in a ship at sea, and we
became lost and the waves tossed us around for a month, then we came within sight of
this island of yours, so we got into the rowboats and entered the island. Then we were
met by a shaggy beast with a lot of hair; we could not tell its front from its back because
of the amount of its hair. So we said: "Woe to you, what are you?" It said: "I am al-
Jassasah." We said: "And what is al-Jassasah?" It said: "Go to this man in the monastery,
because he is longing to hear your news." So we came to you quickly, and we feared that
it was a devil."

So he said: "Tell me about the date-palms of Baysan." We said: "What do you want to
know about them?" He said: "I am asking you if the date-palms bear fruit." We said to
him: "Yes." He said: "Soon they will not."

He said: "Tell me about the Lake of Tabariyyah." We said: "What do you want to know
about it?" He said: "Does it have water?" We said: "It has plenty of water." He said:
"Indeed, but soon its water will dry up."
He said: "Tell me about the spring of Zughar." We said: "What do you want to know
about it?" He said: "Is there water in the spring? And do its owners use that spring water
to irrigate their crops?" We said to him: "Yes, plenty of water and its owners irrigate from
its water."

He said: "Tell me about the Prophet of the unlettered people, what has he done?" We said:
"He has come out of Makkah and settled at Yathrib." He said: "Have the Arabs fought
against him?" We said: "Yes." He said: "How did he deal with them?" So we told him that
he had overcome the Arabs around him and that they had obeyed him.

He said: "Has it really happened?" We said: "Yes."

He said: "Indeed, that is better for them, that they obey him. Now I will tell you about
myself. I am the Masih, and soon I will be permitted to come out. So when I come out I
will travel in the earth, not leaving a single town without entering it, for forty days,
except for Makkah and Taybah; they are both forbidden to me. Every time I try to enter
one of them, an angel brandishing a sword will face me and block my way, and on every
one of its pathways are angels protecting it."

She said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said, striking the minbar
with his staff: "This is Taybah, this is Taybah," meaning al-Madinah. "Indeed, did I not
inform you of this before?" So the people said: "Yes."

He said: "I liked what Tamim told me, because it agreed with what I was telling you
about, and about al-Madinah and Makkah. Indeed, he [i.e. the Dajjal] is in the sea of
Sham, or the sea of the Yemen… No! Rather, in the east is where he is. In the east is
where he is." And he pointed with his hand towards the east."

She said: "I memorized this from the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]."
Chapter: Ya'juj and Ma'juj

Ya'juj and Ma'juj are tribes of the children of Adam and Hawwa'. They are descendents of
Nuh ['alayhis-salam] through his son Yafith, therefore they are related to the Turkic
people of central and eastern Asia. Dhul-Qarnayn, a righteous king of ancient times,
constructed a great barrier in the mountains and confined them behind it.

As for the whereabouts of this barrier and the Ya'juj and Ma'juj peoples, this is known
only to Allah [ta'ala] alone. Before the Hour, the barrier will be destroyed and Ya'juj and
Ma'juj will be let loose, to wreak havoc and destruction on the earth. This will occur
during the time of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam], after his killing of the Dajjal, as has
come in the authentic ahadith.

Allah [ta'ala] said: "Then he followed a way, until when he reached between the two
barriers, he found near them a people who barely understood any speech. They
said: "O Dhul-Qarnayn, Ya'juj and Ma'juj are doing evil in the land. May we give
you a tax in order that you make between us and them a barrier?" He said: "That
with which my Lord has established me is better. So help me with your strength and
I will make between you and them a barrier. Bring me bars of iron." Until when he
had leveled between the two cliffs, he said: "Blow!" Until he had made it red-hot, he
said: "Bring it to me, I will pour molten copper over it." So they could not climb
over it nor could they dig through it. He said: "This is a mercy from my Lord, but
when the Promise of my Lord comes, He will level it to dust. And the Promise of my
Lord is always true." And on that day, We will leave them to surge like waves on top
of each other. And the Horn will be blown, and We will assemble them all together."
[Al-Kahf: 92-99]

And Ahmad narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from the Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"Ya'juj and Ma'juj dig into the barrier every day, until when they almost see the light of
the sun, the one in charge of them says: "Go back home and dig again tomorrow." So they
go home, and it returns to being as thick as it was before.

Then when their time has come, and Allah ['azza wa-jall] wishes to send them upon the
people, they will dig until when they almost see the light of the sun, the one in charge of
them will make an exception by saying: "Go back home and dig again tomorrow, if Allah
wills." Then they will come back to it and find it as they had left it. So they will dig
through it, and come out upon the people. They will drink all the water, and the people
will go for protection to their fortresses.

So they [i.e. Ya'juj and Ma'juj] will shoot their arrows into the sky, and they will come
back with the appearance of having blood on them. So they will say: "We have overcome
the inhabitants of the earth, and conquered the inhabitants of the heaven." Then Allah will
send down upon them an-naghf in their necks which will kill them."
Then the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "By He in Whose Hand
is my soul, the beasts of the earth will be fattened and nourished from their flesh and
blood."

And al-Hakim narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "I
heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"Ya'juj and Ma'juj will open the barrier and come out against the people as Allah [ta'ala]
said: "from every slope, pouring down." [Al-Anbiya': 96] So they will wreak havoc on
the earth, and the Muslims will take cover in their cities and fortresses, taking their herds
with them.

And they [i.e. Ya'juj and Ma'juj] will drink the waters of the earth until one of them will
pass by a river, then they will all drink from it until they leave it dry, until one who comes
after them will pass that river and say: "There was once water here."

Then when there is no one from the people remaining except that he has gone to a
fortress or a city, one of them will say: "We have finished with the inhabitants of the
earth, now only the inhabitants of the heavens are left."

He said: "Then one of them will shake his spear and hurl it into the sky, and it will fall
back down again soaked with blood, as a trial and test for them. So while they are like
that, Allah will send a worm in their necks like an-naghf, which will eat its way out of
their necks, so that they will all fall dead, and no sound will be heard from them.

So the Muslims will say: "Is there any man who will risk his life for us to see what this
enemy is doing?"

He said: "So a man will stand up to do that, seeking Allah's reward, feeling that he will
surely be a dead man. So he will go down and find them all dead, lying on top of each
other. So he will call out: "O assembly of Muslims! Receive the good tidings that Allah
has sufficed you against your enemy!" So they will come out of their cities and fortresses,
and they will let their herds loose. They will find nothing for them to graze upon except
their flesh [i.e. of Ya'juj and Ma'juj], but they will be nourished from it just as well as
they had ever been nourished from any vegetation."
Chapter: The life of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] after his descent

Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"By He in Whose Hand is my soul, soon the son of Maryam will descend among you as a
just judge. He will break the cross, kill the pigs, and abolish the jizyah. Wealth will flow
in abundance until no-one will need to accept it, and a single prostration will be better
than the world and everything in it."

Then Abu Hurayrah said: "And if you wish, recite: "And there is none of the people of
the Book except that he must believe in him before his death. And on the Day of
Resurrection, he will be a witness against them." [An-Nisa': 159]

And Abu Dawud narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Prophet
[sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There will be no Prophet between me and 'Isa, and surely he will descend. So when you
see him, then recognise him: a medium-sized man of reddish-white complexion, who will
descend wearing two garments lightly coloured with yellow, as if drops are falling from
his head even though no wetness has touched it. So he will fight the people in the cause
of al-Islam, then he will break the cross, kill the pigs, and abolish the jizyah. During his
time, Allah will destroy all of the religions except al-Islam, and he will kill al-Masih ad-
Dajjal. Then he will remain on earth for forty years, then he will pass away and the
Muslims will pray over him."

And at-Tirmidhi narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Salam [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from his father,
from his grandfather, that he said: "The description of Muhammad is written in the
Tawrah, and also that 'Isa ibn Maryam will be buried alongside him."

Then Abu Mawdud said: "And there has remained in the house space for one more
grave."

And al-Qurtubi mentioned in at-Tadhkirah that he will pass away in al-Madinah an-
Nabawiyyah, and that he will be prayed over there and buried in the Prophetic chamber.
Chapter: The Hajj will continue to be made to the House after Ya'juj and Ma'juj

Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Sa'id [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hajj and 'Umrah to this House will certainly continue after the coming of Ya'juj and
Ma'juj."
Chapter: The rising of the sun from the west and the coming of the Beast of the
Earth [dabbat al-ardh]

Allah [ta'ala] said: "On the Day that some of the Signs of your Lord come, no soul's
faith will benefit it if it had not believed before, or earned from its faith any good."
[Al-Ma'idah: 158]

And al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hour will not come until the sun rises from its setting-place. So when it rises and
the people see it, they will all believe together, but that will be the time when "no soul's
faith will benefit it if it had not believed before, or earned from its faith any good."
[Al-Ma'idah: 158]

And Muslim narrated from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The first of the Signs is the rising of the sun from its setting-place, and the emergence of
the Beast among the people in the morning. Whichever of the two comes first, the other
will follow it immediately."

And Ibn Majah narrated from Abu Hurayrah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that the
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Beast will emerge, and with it will be the Seal of Sulayman ibn Dawud and the Staff
of Musa ibn 'Imran ['alayhimas-salam]. It will brighten the face of the believer will the
Staff, and it will blacken the nose of the infidel with the Seal, until the people will
assemble together, and this one will say: "O believer!" And that one will say: "O infidel!"

And al-Hakim narrated from Abu Sarihah al-Ansari [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from the
Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"There will be three times that the Beast will emerge. Its first emergence will be in the
furthest part of Yemen, and its mention will spread around the desert, but it will not enter
the town," meaning Makkah. "Then it will remain hidden for a long while after that, then
it will emerge again near Makkah, so its mention will spread around the desert and in
Makkah. Then it will conceal itself for a long time. Then, while the people are in the
greatest of the masajid in sanctity, and the most beloved and honoured of them to Allah
[ta'ala], al-Masjid al-Haram, it will suddenly appear before them in the corner of the
masjid, drawing nearer and breathing loudly, between ar-Rukn al-Aswad and the Gate of
Banu Makhzum, a fair distance to the right side of the exit.

So the people will run away from in in groups and individually, and a group of the
Muslims who realise that they cannot escape from Allah will stay where they are. So it
will come out to them, shaking the dust from its head, and it will begin with them,
touching their faces and leaving them like shining stars. Then it will turn and go around
the earth, and no one will be able to catch up to it or flee from it. A man will seek refuge
from it in his prayer, but it will come to him from behind and say: "O so-and-so! Only
now you are praying?" So he will turn to look at it, and it will mark him on his face, then
it will go.

So the people will talk to each other in their homes, accompany each other in their
travels, and share their wealth, and the believer will know who is an infidel, until the
infidel will say: "O believer, pay back what you owe me." And the believer will say: "O
infidel, pay back what you owe me."

And he also narrated from Ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from the Prophet [sallallahu
'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"The coming out of the Beast will be after the rising of the sun from the west. When it
comes out, it will slap Iblis whilst he is in prostration. The believers will enjoy life on the
earth after that for forty years. They will not wish for anything except that they will be
given it or find it. There will be no tyranny and no injustice, and everything will have
submitted to the Lord of the worlds, willingly or unwillingly, until the predatory animal
will not harm a beast or a bird, and the believer will beget children and they will not die
until the passing of forty years after the coming out of the Beast of the Earth.

Then death will return to them, and they will remain like that for as long as Allah wills.
Then death will rapidly increase among the believers, until no believer is left. So the
unbeliever will say: "We were frightened of the believers before, but now there is not a
single one of them left! And no repentance will be accepted from us!" So they will mate
openly in the streets like animals, and one of them will go to his mother or his sister or
his daughter and have sexual intercourse with her in the middle of the street. He will
stand up from her, then another will get on top of her; no one will object to it or prevent
it. The best of them on that day will be the one who says: "If only you moved away from
the street it would be better."

So things will remain like that until there are no more children born out of marriage, and
all of the people on earth will be children of adultery. So they will remain like that for as
long as Allah wills, then Allah will cause all of the women's wombs to become barren for
thirty years; no woman will give birth, and there will not be a single child on earth. And
all of them will be children of fornication, and they will be the worst of people. It is upon
them that the Hour will come."
Chapter: The Abyssinians and the destruction of the Ka'bah

Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger
of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Dhus-Suwayqatayn from Abyssinia will destroy the Ka'bah."

And Abu Dawud narrated from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr [radhiyallahu 'anhuma], from the
Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"Leave the Abyssinians alone as long as they leave you laone, for none will bring out the
treasure of the Ka'bah except Dhus-Suwayqatayn from Abyssinia."

And Ahmad narrated from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "I
heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"Dhus-Suwayqatayn from Abyssinia will destroy the Ka'bah, take its treasure, and strip it
of its covering. It is as if I can see him: a small man with a bald head and distorted wrists,
striking it with his spade and pick-axe."
Chapter: The fire from the Yemen that will gather the people in Sham

Al-Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from the
Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"The people will be gathered in three groups: One group coming in hope and fear; one
group riding two on a camel, three on a camel and four on a camel; and the rest of them
will be gathered by a fire that will rest when they rest in the middle of the day and at
night, and follow them when they are awake in the mornings and afternoons."

And Ahmad narrated from Ibn 'Umar [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "The
Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"A fire will come out from Hadhramawt, or from the sea of Hadhramawt, before the Day
of Resurrection, that will gather the people together."

And al-Hakim narrated from 'Abdullah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he
said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"There will be migration after migration, and the best of people are those closest to the
place of Ibrahim's migration. The worst of the earth's people will remain, cast out by their
own lands and repelled by Allah's wind. Then the fire will gather them together along
with the apes and the pigs."
Chapter: The state of the people upon whom the Hour will come

Al-Bukhari narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "I heard
the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"From among the worst of people are those upon whom the Hour will come while they
are alive."

And he also narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of
Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hour will come when two men have spread out a garment between them, but they
will not be able to sell it or fold it up. And the Hour will come when a man will have
come from milking his she-camel, but he will not be able to taste from it. And the Hour
will come while he is repairing his watering-tank, but he will not be able to water his
animals from it. And the Hour will come when he will have lifted his food to his mouth,
but he will not be able to taste it."

And al-Hakim narrated in the hadith of Ibn Mas'ud from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi
wa-sallam] that he said:

"…Then death will rapidly increase among the believers, until no believer is left. So the
unbeliever will say: "We were frightened of the believers before, but now there is not a
single one of them left! And no repentance will be accepted from us!" So they will mate
openly in the streets like animals, and one of them will go to his mother or his sister or
his daughter and have sexual intercourse with her in the middle of the street. He will
stand up from her, then another will get on top of her; no one will object to it or prevent
it. The best of them on that day will be the one who says: "If only you moved away from
the street it would be better."

So things will remain like that until there are no more children born out of marriage, and
all of the people on earth will be children of adultery. So they will remain like that for as
long as Allah wills, then Allah will cause all of the women's wombs to become barren for
thirty years; no woman will give birth, and there will not be a single child on earth. And
all of them will be children of fornication, and they will be the worst of people. It is upon
them that the Hour will come."

Completed on the night of the 22nd of Jumada al-Ula, in the year 1427 after the
Hijrah of the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], written by
Muhammad at-Tayyib ibn Gary, Abu 'Abdillah al-Maliki, may Allah forgive him.

And praise be to Allah, at the beginning and at the end.