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CHAPTER ONE 1.

0 INTRODUCTION

Soybeans (Glyme max. L merill) is the worlds most valuable oiled seed legume or igniting from China about two thousand years before the birth of Christ, it is now internationally acclaimed as the miracle crop of China, the Cinderella crop of west and the pearls of the orient, all because of its versatile (Ogundipe and Osho 1990). These names accorded to soybeans by different races in the world depict the tremendous importance and qualities of the golden crop. Soybeans have tremendous potentials for alleviating malnutrition in Nigeria; it is an economical source of high quality protein of about 40%. Its protein content is greater than any of the common vegetable or animal food source in Nigeria. The 20% oil present in the beans is highly nutritions ( Ogundipe and Osho 1990). Soybeans production and utilization have been on the increase in Nigeria and this have been made possible by successful development of improved soybean varieties that can grow well in Nigeria by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and other Nigeria research institutions (Osho, 1993). Soybean and its various flour (full fat, defatted, extruded-defatted, soy residue flour, soy hull flours) have been successfully used to improved the protein content of traditional Nigerian food, some of which has sealed up to industrial level (Ogunsola 1993). Soybean is use to fortify traditional food in the northern, eastern, western and middle belt states of Nigeria for instance soy-vegetable soup, soy-kanuzaki, soy-okpa, soy-akpu. The analysis of these soybean-based products showed that they have more protein and minerals than the unfortified ones and the level of acceptance is quite high. Anti-nutritional factors (plytic and
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tannin, trypsin) were found to have been effectively eliminated by traditional processing. Some of the developed technologies have been transferred to home users and small scale industries (Osho, 1993). Soybean is much higher in protein contents than the black eyed beans and has high fat content which is easily digested; it is different from ordinary beans in its way of preparation. The starch content makes it impossible for it to bind easily. Another important problem that confronts many people on its preparation is its beany and bitter tastes, the cause of this unpleasant taste is largely due to various digestible products of lipoxidose attacking the fatty free acid. These digestible products and other element of taste are mostly small organic molecules which are soluble in water thus much of the beany taste and bitterness can be eliminated during processing (Ogunsola, 1983). Soybean is of great significance to the people of Nigeria as it can be used in preparation of cakes at home and in the catering industry (Ogunsola, 1983). 1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

There have been increase in the price of wheat because it is imported and this has led to high prices of commodities produced from wheat flour, therefore this research work tries to solve this problem by introducing soya beans flour in the production of cake, since soya bean is produce within the country. 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY 1) To supplement reasonably the nutritional requirements of the population. 2) To produce soya bean Flour.

3) To produce cake made from soya bean and wheat flour. 4) Evaluation of acceptability of soya bean cake. 1.3 HYPOTHESIS H1. The combination of soya bean flour and wheat flour will improve the nutritional

value in cake production. H2. To combine soya bean flour and wheat flour will not improve the nutritional value

in cake production. 1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

What is a cereal grain that is mostly imported from other countries therefore, since it is not cultivated in large quantities in Nigeria, the products made from wheat are costly hence this research work is intended to encourage the utilization of soya bean flour in the production of cake as its cultivation and consumption is very popular in Nigeria and Africa. 1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The research is to work within a particular ratio or gram of soya bean flour to wheat flour thus the study is limited to the production of cake from a blend of soya bean flour and wheat flour. More so, the taste panelist for the cakes will be limited only to students and staffs of the Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. 1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS 1) Baking: this is the principle of cooking inside an oven or cooking by dry closed heat (oven) e.g. cake baking.

2) Fortified wheat flour: wheat strengthened by adding some soya bean flour into it. 3) Composite flour: is combination of wheat flour with other cereal flour e.g. soya beans. 4) Greasing: to rub fat or groundnut oil in the pan to prevent the food from sticking to the pan. 5) Cake: soft, sweet food meal with sugar fat, egg and wheat or their composite flour.

CHAPTER TWO 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW / BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is perhaps the most popular cereal grain for production of breads, cakes and pastries. Wheat produces a white four. In addition, the uniqueness of wheat protein alone can produce dough of good strength and elasticity required to produce pastries of desirable texture and flavor (Ngoddy and Ihekoronye, 1989). The grain of wheat consists of an outer fibrous covering, the pericarp and testa which is hard and indigestible and an inner lining ateurone layer which contains a higher proportion of protein than carbohydrate, and an embryo attached to a small structure. The lower end of the grain and the endosperm, comprising 85% of the whole grain from which the flour is derived (Ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1989). 2.1 NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF WHEAT

The composition of wheat varies with the variety of the seed, the soil and the climate for cultivation (Ihekoronye, Ngoddy, 1989). 2.2 HISTORY OF WHEAT

Wheat is one of the first cereals know to have been domesticated. Wheats ability to selfpollinate greatly facilitated the selection of many distinct domesticated varieties. The archaeological record suggests that this first occurred in the region known as the Fertile Crescent and the Nile; these include southeastern part of Turkey, Lebanon, Syria the Levant, Israel and Egypt. Recent findings narrow the first domestication of wheat down to a small region of southeastern Turkey and domesticated Einkorn wheat of Neville Cori 40 miles (64km)
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northwest of Gobekli Tepe in Turkey has been dated to 9,000 B.C. However, evidence for the exploitation of wild barely has been dated to 23,000 B.C; this is also true of pre domesticated wheat. Wheat was a key factor enabling the emergence of city based societies at the start of civilization because it was one of the first crops that could be easily cultivated on a large scale and also the additional advantage is its ability to yield a harvest that provides long-term storage of food. Wheat is a factor contributing to City States in the Fertile Crescent including the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. Wheat grain is a staple food used to make flour for leavened flat and steamed bread, biscuits, cookies, cakes, breakfast cereal, pasta, noodles, and couscous. What can also be and fermented to make beer and other alcoholic beverages, or produce biofuel (Lev Yadun, Gopher, Abbo 200). 2.3 HISTORY OF SOYABEAN

The soya bean is a species of legume (other legumes include actaita, lentils, lupins, carob and peanuts) native to East Asia. It is classed as a vegetable and has been used in China for over 5,000 years which makes one wonder why some corners talk about the health risks of soya because the Chinese are basically a healthy race. Soya plant are mostly grown in fields in East Asia, America, Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and China and are easily grown in a wide range of soils. The plants usually reach to around 3 feet high and take around 80 120 days from sowing to harvesting.

2.4

TYPES OF SOYABEANS

There are three types of soya bean; green soya beans, mature soya beans and dried soya beans. Green Soya Beans: also known as edamame bean are becoming ever more popular as a healthy snack option. Edamame beans are young soya beans which are picked just before they ripen. The pods are slightly boiled in salted water and are eaten by squeezing them out of the pod and consuming them immediately or saving for a later date while the pod is discarded. Edamame beans are sold frozen in bags in some supermarkets and most health food stores while fresh edamame bean can be found at many Asian markets. (Tiamiyu and idowu, 2001). Mature Soya Beans: are light brown in colour and are harvested when they have research maturity. These soya beans are sold both in and out of the pod and are available all year round. Asian markets sell them in both varieties, mature soya beans need to be used within a few days and kept refrigerated. To prepare this mature bean, boil them out of their pods until they are tender. Mature soya beans can be served as a side dish in a salad or as an ingredient to other dishes such as soups and casseroles. (Tiamiyu, Idowu and Misari 2001). Dried Soya Beans: are available at most health food shops and some supermarkets, the beans are pea sized and need to be soaked overnight before being cooked. To cook them, boil them slowly on the stove for a few hours, three hours is the average time it takes for these bean to become tender. (Tiamiyu, Idowu and Misari 2001).

2.5

NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF SOYABEAN

It contains all the essential acid (it is a complete protein) and is the closest vegetable protein to meat which is why it is popular with vegans and vegetarians alike soya beans are an excellent source of high quality protein containing all the amino acid found in milk and meat but unlike animal products, soya is low in saturated fats and its cholesterol free. It is also rich in soluble fiber and high in the essential omega 3 Fats. In its original form, soya is quite tasteless which make it so versatile. It can soak up different flavours and can be made to taste like almost anything you want it to. For example, a lot of vegan replacement product such as soya yoghurt, meat, cheeses products, cream and milk are made from soya bean. Obviously, these items have other ingredients added to make them what they are but the soya makes up the bulk of these food items in most cases (Igbedioh, 1990).

PROXIMATE COMPOSITION / CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SOYABEANS (PER 100g) Water Energy Protein Fat (total lipid) Fatty acids, saturated Fatty acids, mono-unsaturated Fatty acid, poly-unsaturated Carbohydrate Fibre Ash Isof lavones Calcium, Ca Iron, Fe Magnesium, mg Phosphorus, mg Potassium, k Sodium, Na Zinc, Zn Copper, cu Manganese, mn 8.5kg 416keal 36.5g 19.9g 2.9g 4.4g 11.3g 30.2g 9.3g 4.9g 200mg 277mg 15.7mg 280mg 704mg 179mg 2.0mg 4.9mg 1.7mg 2.52mg

Selenium, se Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Thiamin (vitamin B1) Ribofiavin (vitamin B2) Niacin (vitamin B3) Panthotenic acid (vitamin BC) Vitamin B6 Folic acid Vitamin B12 Vitamin A2 Vitamin E

17.81up 60mg 0.874mg 0.87mg 1.62mg 6.79mg 0.38mg 37.5pug 0.0pug 0pug 1.95mg

(Kennedy ET, Alderman HR 1987) 2.6 SOYABEAN PRODUCTS Tofu: this is the most commonly used soya product and can be found easily in supermarkets and health food shops. The soya bean are soaked, crushed and heated to make soya milk. It is then thickened up to different degrees by calcium sulphate or calcium chloride. The most common types is firm which can be fried, deep fried sauted, roasted and stir-fried. The smoother tofu is called silken tofu and is used in sweet dishes, sauces, dips and spreads. (Worlds Healthiest Food (WHF) 2004) Textured Vegetable Protein: TVP isnt tofu but is also made from soya. This is one of the first replacement meat products to come into the market over 30years ago. It is a by10

product of the soya oil industry and is made from soya flour after the oil has been taken out. Very low in fat and a good source of fiber and protein, it comes in dried chunks, mince and flakes to which you add water before adding o a recipe. Unflavoured TVP is mostly fat-free as it is defatted during the manufacturing process. It has no flavor but because of its sponge like texture, it soaks up flavours well. (Worlds Healthiest Food (WHF 2004). Soya Dairy Products: soya milk is made by soaking soya beans in water which are then strained; the resulting fluid is the soya milk. Soya milk is lower in fat than cows milk and with no cholesterol. It is also low in carbohydrates and provides a good source of protein. Soya milk may also be fortified with calcium and vitamins D2, B12 and B2. It is an alternative choice for people who suffer from lactose intolerance. Soya cheese is made from soya beans and vegetable oils. There are many different varieties, from cheddar style to mozzarella to soft spreadable cheeses. (Worlds Healthiest Food (WHF) 2004). Soya yoghurt is made using soya milk (again originated from the good old soya bean), and bacteria such as lactobacillus bulgaricus and streptococcus thermophilus. Sometimes additional sweetener is added such as fructose, glucose or raw sugar. It is suitable for vegans, as the bacteria used, soy yogurt are usually not grown on a dairy base. (Worlds Healthiest Food (WHF) 2004). Miso: miso is a thick paste made from fermentated soya beans and barley or rice malt and is used as a condiment in Japanese cooking. Miso is made by combing soya beans with salt and sometimes rice and wheat. It is then placed in a mould and aged in cedar vats for one to three years. Different types of miso are produced depending on the ingredients and also the length of fermentation. Miso is very nutritious as it contains
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isoflavones and soya protein. The only reason to watch your intake of miso is the salt content. It can be bought in health-food shops or oriental supermarkets and it is great for adding flavor to sauces and soups. (Worlds Healthiest Food (WHF) 2004). 2.7 UTILIZATION OF SOYABEAN

Soybean has good nutritional value and is important to Nigeria as a community. Apart from cheapness, ease of cultivation and culinary, versatility, one of their advantages is the fact that they have a stared and used during the winter period when other pulses are in short supply. United State of America (USA), the highest producer of soybean has developed various food products and have been providing soybean for consumption outside USA, particularly in the developing countries. Soybeans has also recently been reported to be gaining ground in the diet of the population in Benue State where it is use to produce fermented paste for flavouring and thickening of local soup dishes (Onochie 1965). Many poultry keepers imports 20-30% of their food as concentrates, two of the important ingredient are soybean meal and fish meal both of which are in a position of being produce locally and be self-sufficient. Soybean is of great significance to the people of Nigeria as it can be used in making cakes both at home and in the catering industries for instance soybean flour, fritters, pan cake, queen cake, puff-puff, biscuit (cookies), doughnuts etc (Ofunsola, 1983 and Odebode, 2005).

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CHAPTER THREE 3.0 3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MATERIAL FOR PROCESSING SOYABEAN FLOUR

The materials which were used for the processing of soya beans include the following: a) Plastic bowls: the soya beans were placed and washed in it. b) Strainer: it was used to drain out water from the soya beans after washing. c) Plastic trays: it was used in drying the washed soya beans in the sun. d) Sieve: it was used in sieving the soya beans flour after grinding. e) Transparent polythene bag: it was used in packaging both the dried and milled sample (soya bean). 3.2 MATERIAL FOR PRODUCTION OF SOYABEAN SNACKS (CAKE)

The materials which were used for the production of soya bean snack (cake) were: a) Plastic bowl: it was used for the cake mixing. b) Wooden spoon: it was used for creaming and mixing of the cake mixture. c) Oven: the cake was baked with the oven. d) Teaspoon: it was used for measurement of some of the cake ingredient (e.g. baking powder). e) Weighing scale: it was used to measure some of the cake ingredient (e.g. flour, sugar, butter etc). f) Whisker: this was used to mix/whisk the eggs together before addition to the cake mixture.
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3.3

METHOD OF PROCESSING SOYABEAN FLOUR

The method of soybean processing was adopted. This method includes removing of stones and dirt from the soya beans, soaking the soya bean seed in water for 8 hours to eliminate the antinutritional factor, washing and dehulling, sun drying for 3 days before grinding into flour. It was then sieved, packaged and stored (ready for use).

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FLOW CHART OF SOYBEAN FLOUR PRODUCTION SOYBEAN SEEDS

SORTING/CLEANING

SOAKING (8 HOURS)

WASHING/DEHULING (5 TIMES)

SUN DRYING (3 DAYS)

MILLING

SIEVING

PACKAGING/STORAGE

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3.4

RECIPE AND METHODS FOR CAKE PRODUCTION

Recipe can be defined as a statement of the ingredients and their various quantities required for preparing a cooked dish, while method is the procedure (steps) taken in the preparation of this dishes. The recipe used for the production of this snack (cake) were soya beans flour, wheat flour, butter, sugar, eggs, flavouring agent etc all these item were all purchased from a local market in Bida, Niger State of Nigeria. BASIC RECIPE FOR CAKE (CONTROL) 400gs flour (wheat) 200gs sugar 4 eggs 200gs butter 150ml milk to mix 2 teaspoon baking powder 2 cap of flavor

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METHODS 1) Cream sugar and fat together until soft white and creamy. Use a wooden spoon and work lightly in a circular motion. 2) Add the beaten eggs by degrees continuing the creaming between each addition, add the flavor. If mixture begins to curdle add a little flour to make it smooth again. 3) Using a metal spoon, fold in one-third of flour, adding a little milk if necessary. Repeat with the second one-third of the flour and a little milk. 4) Bake in a moderate oven, small cake for 20minutes at and a little longer for large cake. ACTUAL EXPERIMENT Recipe for 80 20% soybean cake 320gs wheat flour 80gs soybean flour 200gs sugar 200gs fat 4 eggs 150m/s milk to mix 2 teaspoon baking powder 2 caps of flavor

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METHODS 1) Cream sugar and fat together until soft, white and creamy. Use a wooden-spoon and work lightly in a circular motion. 2) Add the beaten eggs by degrees, continuing the creamy between each addition, add the flavour, if mixture begins to curdle, add a little flour to make it smooth again. 3) Using a metal spoon, fold in one-third of flour, adding a little milk if necessary. Repeat with the second one-third of the flour and a little milk. 4) Bake in a moderate oven, small cake for 20minutes and a little longer for large cake. Recipe for 50 50% soybean cake 200gs wheat flour 200gs soybean flour 200gs sugar 200gs fat 4 eggs150m/s milk to mix 2 teaspoon baking powder 2 caps of flavor

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METHODS 1) Cream sugar and fat together until soft, white and creamy. Use a wooden-spoon and work lightly in a circular motion. 2) Add the beaten eggs by degrees, continuing the creamy between each addition, add the flavour, if mixture begins to curdle, add a little flour to make it smooth again. 3) Using a metal spoon, fold in one-third of flour, adding a little milk if necessary. Repeat with the second one-third of the flour and a little milk. 4) Bake in a moderate oven, small cake for 20minutes and a little longer for large cake.

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CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

The objective of the research work was to investigate if homemade soybean flour could be used as a composite for wheat flour in preparation of baked products (cake) using subjective test, which was carried out by panels of ten judges. The result from respondents is discussed below. The table I shows the average mean score of cake taste from soybean composite flour. The control (100% of wheat flour) i.e. sample C had the highest value of 4.00, sample A (80% wheat flour to 20% soy flour) had the value of 3.9, sample B (50% to 50% of wheat flour to soy flour) had a value of 3.70. The taste of cake made from sample A, B, C flour wad reported to be very sweet, this could attributed to equal amount sugar used for the three samples and also the fact that soya bean flour has no unpleasant taste.

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TABLE I

TASTE

AVERAGE MEAN X SCORE OF SOYBEAN CAKE Treatment Periods 1 2 Total Mean x A 4.5 3.3 7.8 3.9 B 4.9 2.5 7.5 3.7 Samples C 4.0 4.1 8.1 4.0

KEY A Cake made from 80% wheat flour 20% soy flour B Cake made from 50% wheat flour 50% soy flour C - Cake made from 100% wheat flour (control) TASTE From the table above (1) sample B has more mean value than sample A and C which implies that sample B is more preferred in taste than sample A and C.

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TABLE II

COLOUR

AVERAGE MEAN X SCORE OF SOYBEAN CAKE Treatment Periods 1 2 Total Mean x A 4.2 3.4 7.6 3.8 B 2.4 2.8 5.2 2.6 Samples C 3.3 3.5 6.8 3.4

KEY A Cake made from 80% wheat flour 20% soy flour B Cake made from 50% wheat flour 50% soy flour C - Cake made from 100% wheat flour (control) COLOUR The value obtained for colour is similar for the various proportions, this reveals uneven brown colour as shown in table II. This could be attributed to equal temperature or heat the products were exposed to.

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TABLE III

TEXTURE

AVERAGE MEAN X SCORE OF SOYBEAN CAKE Treatment Periods 1 2 Total Mean x A 4.2 3.3 7.5 3.8 B 2.4 3.1 5.5 2.8 Samples C 3.3 3.5 6.8 3.4

KEY A Cake made from 80% wheat flour 20% soy flour B Cake made from 50% wheat flour 50% soy flour C - Cake made from 100% wheat flour (control) TEXTURE Wheat flour cake (sample c) was reported to have distinct texture which was reported as very fluffy. While other combination, i.e. sample A & B were slightly hard and hard. This could be due to lack of gluteine in soy flour as compared with sample C.

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TABLE IV

FLAVOUR

AVERAGE MEAN X SCORE OF SOYBEAN CAKE Treatment Periods 1 2 Total Mean x A 2.2 3.1 5.3 2.7 B 4.5 3.1 7.6 3.8 Samples C 3.3 4.0 7.9 4.0

KEY A Cake made from 80% wheat flour 20% soy flour B Cake made from 50% wheat flour 50% soy flour C - Cake made from 100% wheat flour (control) FLAVOUR Soybean has a very strong beany flavor which is reduced by adequate processing techniques. The organic molecules in soybean seed are soluble in water. Thus the ant- nutritional factor, trypsin that inhibits protein absorption is eliminated during soaking. The higher the proportion of soybean flour in the baked products as shown in table IV, the more satisfactory and pleasant it was to the penatists. This could be attributed to the elimination of the beany flavor peculiar to soybean during processing.

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TABLE V

GENERAL ACCEPTABILITY

AVERAGE MEAN X SCORE OF SOYBEAN CAKE Treatment Periods 1 2 Total Mean x A 4.6 3.7 8.3 4.1 B 4.7 3.8 8.5 4.3 Samples C 4.8 4.7 8.7 4.4

KEY A Cake made from 80% wheat flour 20% soy flour B Cake made from 50% wheat flour 50% soy flour C - Cake made from 100% wheat flour (control) GENERAL ACCEPTABILITY Table V shows the values obtained for general acceptability of the three samples where the control sample C had the highest average mean score of 4.4 followed by sample A (4.1) and sample B (4.3) respectively. The products were generally acceptable to the penalists.

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CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

The importance of soybean in alleviating malnutrition among the old and young cannot be overemphasized previous work have shown the possibility of substituting soybean and its derivatives with cereal crops to improve protein content of food. More so, part from being available, soybean is inexpensive. In the present research findings, it can be concluded that soybean can successfully serve as a composite of wheat flour with respect to the percentage of 80% (wheat flour) to 20% (soy flour) and 50% (soy f lour) the production of cake as revealed from data collected. The various parameters tested using different proportions of soybean flour in combination with wheat flour revealed that the products were acceptable when compared with cake made from 100 percent of wheat flour. It therefore means that, if soybean, a locally grown, staple crop is adequately processed it can be incorporated in baked products especially at home and commercial level nutritionally balanced snacks will be achieved., RECOMMENDATION 1. There is need to create more awareness on the nutritional importance of soy flour in the catering industry since its a good source of protein, readily available and inexpensive. 2. Catering and hotel production industry should introduce and encourage the use of composite flour (e.g. soy- wheat flour) in the preparation of some flour dishes most especially baked products. 3. Cultivation of soybean on a large scale should be encouraged.

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5.1

REFERENCES
Igbedion S. O (1990) Macro Economic Adjustment, Food Availability And Nutritional Status in Nigeria: A look at the 1990s food pol. 16 (40): 518-524. Kennedu E.T, Aiderman H.R; (1989). Comparative Analysis of Nutritional Effectiveness of Food Subsidies and other Food Related Interventions Washington D.C int. food pol. Res inst., 169-179. Lev-yadunis, S., Gorpher A. Abbo, S., (2000). The cradle of Agriculture science 288 (5471). 1602-3 doi:10. 11261 Science. 288.5471. 1602. PMID 10858140. Ogundipe H.O and Osho (1990), Development and Introduction of Improved Soybean Utilization. Technology for use households and Small Scale Processing Enterprises in rural Nigeria. A final report of IDRC soybean project phase (IITA publication). Ogunsola V., (1983) food preparation recipe for Nigeria schools. Osho S.M (1993) developed soybean technologies for small scale and Industrial levels. A national work shop on small scale and industrial Levels processing of soybeans.IITA publications IDRC/IITA. Soybeans utilization project phase II pg. 9. Tiamiyu S.A., Idown A.A; Misaro S.N., (2000), Determination of soybean adoption in Niger State, Nigeria, Nig Agric .J. 32: 152-161

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Words Healtheiest food (WHF) (2004). SOYBEAN INTERNA: file: IIF: II New folder/ the worlds Healthiest foods. Htm .PP. 1-6 Retrieval on April 14th, 2006.

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5.2

APPENDIX (i) QUESTIONAIRE


SENSORY EVALUATION

Production and sensory evaluation of cake produced from composite flour of soybeans and wheat sample were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, colour, texture and general acceptability in the department of Hospitality, Leisure and Tourism Management. A five (5) points hedonic scale was used in determining the acceptability, five as maximum and one as the minimum (5-1). A ten (10) panel judges were invited including the staff and student of FPB to evaluate the differences in the sample provided. Below indicate your answer by ticking ( ) in the boxes and tables. SEX AGE (a) male ( ) (b) female ( ) (c) 40-50 ( )

(a) 20-30 ( ) (b) 30-40 ( )

DEPARTMENT PARAMETERS 1 Taste Colour Texture Flavour G.A OTHER COMMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 2 A 3 4 5 1 2 B 3 4 5

TASTE 5- sweet 4- sweet 3- Slightly sweet 2- Neither bitter nor sweet


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1- Bitter COLOUR 5- Evenly golden brown 4- Uneven brown 3- Pale brown 2- Slightly 1- Burnt TEXTURE 5- Very fluffy 4- Fluffy 3- Slightly fluffy 2- Slightly hard 1- Hard FLAVOUR 5- Very pleasant 4- Slightly pleasant 3- Satisfactory 2- Slightly off flavor 1- Off flavor GENERAL ACCEPTTBILITY 5- like extremely 4- Like moderately 3- Like slightly 2- Slightly dislike 1- Dislike
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5.2 APPENDIX (ii)

Fig 1: Cake prepared from composite flour (soybean and wheat).

Fig 2: Sensory Evaluation by Panel of Judges

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