DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

A

Project report on

CAR SAFETY SYSTEM
Submitted by

AMIT KISHOR POL MANOJ SURESH SHINDE
DHANKAWADI, PUNE 411043 2011-2012

T-3445 T-3450

PUNE INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & TELECOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING PUNE INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY DHANKAWADI, PUNE 411043 2011-2012

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled

CAR SAFETY SYSTEM
Submitted by

AMIT KISHOR POL MANOJ SURESH SHINDE

T-3445 T-3450

Is a bonafide work carried out by them under the supervision of and it is approved for the partial fulfillment of the requirement of ESD & MP Third Year of Engineering University of Pune.

Internal Guide (Prof. S.S. Dudam)
Place: Pune Date:

H.O.D,E&TC Dept. (Prof.Y.Ravinder)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our heartfelt gratitude to all the people who, in some way or the other have lent us a helping hand in the successful completion of the project. Their contribution to the project has made our task much simpler.

We thank our internal guide, Prof. S.S. Dudam for his guidance and assistance in times of need. Without their inspiration, the mammoth task of the completion of the project was impossible.

We extend a token of thanks to all our friends who have helped us to make this project a success. Last, but not the least, we thank the laboratory staff for providing us all the books we needed to refer.

LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NUMBER Fig 1 Fig 2 DESCRIPTION Block Diagram Circuit Diagram of gas and IR sensor PAGE NUMBER 8 10 Fig 3 Circuit Diagram of grip sensor 11 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 IR obstacle section IR sensor circuit Gas interface section Grip sensor Power supply Implementation of circuit on Bread board 12 13 14 15 17 21 Fig 10 Schematic of PCB of IR and Gas Sensor 22 Fig 11 Schematic of PCB of Grip Sensor 23 Fig 12 PCB Design 24 .

14 3.7 2 Block Diagram…………………………………………………………………...3Recent trends and developments in field……………………………………………………………….7 1.1Aim &Project definition……………………………………………………….5Power Supply…………………………………………………………………17 4 Circuit Operation…………………………………………………………..4 Grip sensor…………………………………………………………….………15 3....………………..…10 3...7 1..1 Block Diagram……………………………………………………………….…….2IR obstacle section…………………………………………………………….11 3..TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………7 1.....1 Understanding the system…………………………………………………….8 2...20 ..3 Gas interface………………………………………………………………...2 Block Diagram description…………………………………………………….2Brief History…………………………………………………………………….12 3.9 3 System Design …………………………………………………………………...8 2...

Testing And Debugging…………………………………………………………………….5 Implementation.25 8 Future enhancements………………………………………………………...1 First Phase……………………………………………………………….21 5.….22 5..21 5...26 9 Applications………………………………………………………………….23 6 List of Components…………………………………………………………...28 11 Datasheets……………………………………………………………………..……….27 10 References……………………………………………………………………..…24 7 Results and conclusion…………………………………………………….…...2 Second Phase………………………………………………………………...….……21 5...3 Third Phase………………………………………………………….…..…...29 .6 Final Phase………………………………………………………………….….

Which will leads to mishap. grip sensor alert . There are cameras which implanted on back of vehicle a through image processing technique driver will be able to park vehicle without seeing back. So there is need for equipment which can alert the driver well in advance audio indication for losing a control on vehicle. Also now a days as most of the vehicles are coming on LPG. while having a long drive. It will give more safety to car which will be useful for all those low priced vehicles which do not come fitted with gas leakage alert and grip control alert system. most of the accident and life lost are due to losing a control on steering-wheel of vehicles. the driver will come to sleep. Over the years.3 RECENT TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN FIELD: High end vehicles are equipped with much more advanced hardware in which “Distributed Sensor for Steering Wheel Grip Force Measurement in Driver Fatigue Detection” automatically alert driver. Also gas leakage sensors were implemented in vehicle. For low cost vehicles such system won’t be there to alert driver from sleep. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.To detect the gas leakage from such vehicle will avoids hazardous accidents. Considering the safety issue these low cost vehicles should be provided with low cost without altering the parts of the vehicle.1 AIM & PROJECT DEFINITON: The project is aimed to provide a circuit for gas leakage alert.parking sensor alert for which the input will be given to sensors. CNG . which avoids accidents But such equipment cost more and can’t be fitted in low cost vehicles.2 BRIEF HISTORY: Speed has been an important and dangerous issue in vehicles. This circuit with some slight modification can give more services in low cost. On highways. 1.1. 7 . so he will loosen the grip on steering-wheel.

1 Block Diagram 8 . BLOCK DIAGRAM GAS SENSOR OP-AMP COMPARATOR IR SENSOR BUZZER GRIP SENSOR LOGIC CIRCUIT Fig.2.

Then buzzer will get on in sink mode.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION: The block diagram shows operation of our system which we will be implementing.when all switches will be off then the buzzer will get on SENSORS USED:Gas : MQ6 Obstacle : IR sensor Grip : ON/OFF s/w 9 .then output of both sensor will be compare using op-amp comparator .2. For grip sensor . As shown in block diagram when the IR led will detect the obstacle and gas sensor will detect gas .

SYSTEM DESIGN Fig 2circuit dig of Gas and IR sensor 10 .3.

VCC 5V VCC U1A 1 U1B R3 100 4 R1 100 3 R2 100 74LS02N 74LS02N 5 6 U2 2 0 U1C BUZZER 200 Hz J1A Key = A J1B Key = B J1C Key = C 74LS02N 0 Fig 3 circuit dig of Grip sensor 3.1 UNDERSTANDING THE SYSTEM: Buzzer is in sink mode so Buzzer = ON when comparator output is 0 Buzzer = OFF when comparator output is 1 11 .

2 IR Obstacle section: Fig 4 IR sensor interface As shown in the circuit diagram the IR sensor is at 5v when there is no obstacle.3.5v So. So Initially Non inverting terminal has a voltage = 5v Inverting terminal has a voltage = 2. at the output we get 5v which turns off the buzzer As soon as the obstacle is detected. the voltage of non inverting drops to 0v Non inverting terminal has a voltage = 0v Inverting terminal has a voltage = 2.5v.5So. The IR sensor is connected to the non inverting terminal of OPAMP the inverting terminal is having a voltage of 2. at the output we get 0v which turns on the buzzer 12 .

On the receiver side we have connected the IR receiver in reverse bias. The 50 ohm resistor is for current limiting. the anode voltage increases and when the anode voltage is more than the cathode voltage then the LED is in forward bias mode and start conducting. So as soon as the light falls in the IR receiver. The current through the LED is 5v / 50 ohm = 100mamp.Fig 5 IR sensor Here we are connecting a IR based obstacle sensor. So when obstacle is: 13 . But to increase the range of the obstacle sensor we are using a lower range resistor (50 ohm). which is high for an LED.

at the output we get 0v which turns on the buzzer 14 . As shown in the circuit diagram the GAS sensor is at 0v when there is no GAS So Initially.3 Gas interface section: Fig 6 gas sensor interface The gas sensor is connected to the inverting terminal of OPAMP the inverting terminal is having a voltage of 2.5v Inverting terminal has a voltage = 5v So.5v So. the voltage of inverting goes to 5v Non inverting terminal has a voltage = 2. at the output we get 5v which turns off the buzzer As soon as the GAS is detected.3. Inverting terminal has a voltage = 0v Non Inverting terminal has a voltage = 2.5v via pot.

at the output we get 5v which turns off the buzzer As soon as the key is pressed. So Initially Non inverting terminal has a voltage = 5v Inverting terminal has a voltage = 2.4 Grip sensor VCC 5V VCC U1A 1 U1B R3 100 4 R1 100 3 R2 100 74LS02N 74LS02N 5 6 U2 2 0 U1C BUZZER 200 Hz J1A Key = A J1B Key = B J1C Key = C 74LS02N 0 Fig 7 grip sensor design As shown in the circuit diagram all the 3 switches are at 5v which is connected to the non inverting terminal of opamp the inverting terminal is having a voltage of 2.5v. the switches will be work as grip sensors.5v So. 15 . at the output we get 0v which turns on the buzzer Here we are using three switches as an input to circuit.5v So. the voltage of non inverting drops to 0v Non inverting terminal has a voltage = ov Inverting terminal has a voltage = 2.3.

as buzzer is used in normal mode. so buzzer will get ON. So above all the conditions will be understood by given logic table. For all other cases buzzer will off. When driver loses his grip. buzzer will off Even if one of the switch will be ON that is driver will drive using one hand output of logic circuit will be 0 hence buzzer will remains off. then all the switches will be off that is input to logic circuit will be 0. when all inputs are zero then and then only buzzer will get on. Logic Table: INPUT FROM SWITCH 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Therefore.Initially all the switches will be on as driver will hold the grip that is input to logic circuit will be logical 1 so output is 0. Hence output will be logic 1. 16 .

POWER SUPPLY The basic step in the designing of any system is to design the power supply required for that system.As the minimum dropout voltage is 2v for IC 7805. the minimum DV voltage across the capacitor C1 should be equal to 7volts (atleast). 17 . 2) Determine the voltage rating required for the different components. the voltage applied at the input terminal should be at least 7 volts . The steps involved in the designing of the power supply are as follows.power supply design The bridge rectifier and capacitor i/p filter produce an unregulated DC voltage which is applied at the I/P of 7805. Fig 8. Assuming the drop out voltage to be 2 volts.1 pf) is to be connected across the regulator to improve the transient response of the regulator. 1) Determine the total current that the system sinks from the supply.C1 (1000 µf / 65v)is the filter capacitor and C2 and C3 (0.

2 Vm=19.4421 =13.5 volts Hence the RMS secondary Voltage Vrms = vm / √2 = 19. f=50hHz 19 = Vm – 0. Load current.Power supply design of the Project : The average voltage at the output of a bridge rectifier capacitor filter combination is given by Vin(DC) = Vm – Idc / 4 f C1 Where.5 / 1.1 / 0.5 volts So we can select a 15v secondary Voltage 18 . say 100mA C = 1000 Gf / 65v.1 / 4*50*1000*10¯6 19= Vm – 0. Vm=√2 Vs and Vs = rms secondary voltage Assuming Idc to be equal to max.5 / √2 =19.

MCT2E etc. 19 .The minimum input voltage required for the 7805 is near about 7 v. We have used Regulator IC 7805 that gives output voltage of 5V. We preferred to choose capacitor filters since it is cost effective. To remove these ripples we have used capacitive filter. MAX 232.812 as compared the full wave rectifier.In our system most of the components used require 5 V as operating voltage such as micro controller. The output of the transformer is 12 V AC. which our circuit Sinks from the power supply. not 2Vm as in the two diode rectifier Output of the bridge rectifier is not pure DC and contains some AC some AC ripples in it. The total current. readily available and not too bulky. Therefore we have used the transformer with the voltage rating 230v-10v and current rating 500 mA. This Ac voltage is converted into 12 V DC by Bridge rectifier circuit. which smoothens the rippled out put that we apply to 7805 regulators IC that gives 5V DC. The reasons for choosing the bridge rectifier are: The TUF is increased to 0. The PIV across each diode is the peak voltage across the load =Vm. is not more than 100 mA.

When obstacle is detected by IR sensor. the coil inside the gas sensor will get heated and the output voltage of gas sensor will increase. CIRCUIT OPERATION Grip Sensor: When all switches of the grip sensor are off then the output of first NOR gate will be 1. It is compared by threshold voltage of comparator and if it is more than that output of comparator will be zero and Buzzer will get on in sink mode. it is inverted by NOT gate and given to input of second NOR gate. It is compared by threshold voltage of comparator and if it is more than that output of comparator will be zero and Buzzer will get on in sink mode. Gas Sensor: Initially output of comparator is high. the output voltage of IR sensor will increase. Then the output of second NOR gate will be 1 and Buzzer will get on. 20 .1.When gas or alcohol is sensed by MQ6 Gas sensor. Because threshold voltage is greater than the output voltage of the gas sensor . Because threshold voltage is greater than the output voltage of the gas sensor . IR Sensor: Initially output of comparator is high.

9 Implementation of circuit on Bread board 21 .1 FIRST PHASE: First we implemented the 1st phase of our circuit in which we tested each sensor individually to know actual working of the sensors. So we decided to move on Bread Board to check the response of circuit. TESTING AND DEBUGGING 5. IMPLEMENTATION .2.2 SECOND PHASE: In this phase of our project we purchased the components and implemented it on Bread Board and check the output with the help of Buzzer. 5. The way we implemented is as shown below: Fig. We also implemented circuit on MULTISIM and we get desired outputs.

Our PCB schematic layout looked like this: VCC R1 Res JP1 3 2 1 Gas Sensor 4. the software which we used to create PCB layout.7K 2 3 8 U?A LM358N 1 VCC 1 4 LS1 VCC 8 R2 RPot 10K 6 Buzzer JP2 3 2 1 IR Sensor U?B LM358N 7 5 2 Fig 10 Schematic of PCB of IR and Gas Sensor 4 22 .5.3 THIRD PHASE: After confirming the necessary result we decided to move on PCB designing. We started to build schematic of the circuit on Protel 2004.

11 Schematic of PCB of Grip Sensor 23 .VCC R1 Res1 100 JP1 3 2 1 2 1 Header 2 switch1 JP2 3 2 1 switch2 R2 Res1 100 R3 Res1 100 U1B 5 4 6 3 DM7402N DM7402N U1C 8 10 9 DM7402N Buzzer U1A 2 1 JP6 LS2 JP3 3 2 1 switch3 JP4 1 2 LED Fig.

5.4 FINAL PHASE: Here we designed the PCB layout with the help of above schematic Fig 12 PCB Design 24 .

D7 D8 diode___________________________________________________1N4007 Heat sink_______________________________________________________ To220 C5_____________________________________________________________1000uf` C6______________________________________________________________0.SW2. SW3___________________________________________µ S/W GAS Sensor _______________________________________________ MQ6 Buzzer_____________________________________________________J211 IR led_____________________________________________________MXB79D D5. R3__________________________________________________ 100Ω 1/4W Resistors R4______________________________________________________50 Ω 1/4W R5______________________________________________________10K Ω 1/4W R11 ____________________________________________________4.D6.7K POT R22_____________________________________________________10K POT R8______________________________________________________50K 1/2W IC1___________________________________________________________LM358 Opamp IC IC2______________________________________________________74LS02 IC IC3______________________________________________________ Regulator7805 SW1. LIST OF COMPONENTS R1.1uf 25 .3. R2.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The system we have designed and implemented which can be used in any of the car without using pressure sensors. 26 . it can be implemented by simple logic circuit without using controller. Both alcohol and gas can be detected using MQ6 effectively.4. IR sensor can be used as a parking sensor to some extent in very low cost.

   We can use a gsm to send the messages to the remote locations in case of emergency.  We can also use an ultrasonic sensor to increase a range of obstacle detector and control speed accordingly with the help of microcontroller.  With microcontroller interface we can start or stop the engine of the vehicle if driver is drunk or gas is leaked. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS  We can use a controller to add a delay in output of grip sensor. We can also use a radar system to increase the range. 27 .5. so it will work effectively. We are also exploring and thinking for any other future scope and any suggestion will be appreciated too.

6. We can use IR sensor as parking sensor.     28 . APPLICATIONS  Main advantage of our project is that we can implement it with very less cost. We can use Grip sensor on steering of the car to alert the driver from drowsiness. Now a day’s many of cars are on LPG or CNG so we can use gas sensor in it to detect leakage of the gas. It can also be used in commercial cars to check whether driver is drunk or not. In its current form our project can be use in low budget cars.

http://www. Electronics for you–5th edition INTERNET: 1. Google 2.com 29 .discovercircuits.Christos C Halkias MAGZINES: 1.7. Integrated electronics–Jacob milliman. Op-amps and linear integrated circuits –Ramakant A Gaikwad 3. Circuits –A Bruce Carlson 4. Analog Integrated circuits and design by U A Bakshi and A P Godse 2. Electronic circuit analysis and design–Donald Neamen 5. http://www. REFERENCES BOOKS: 1.com 3.alldatasheets.

APPENDIX 1 .

30 APPENDIX 2 31 .

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