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GRAMMAR COURSES

Unit 1. Quantifiers - Much / Many / A Lot of Quantifiers are words that show how much there is of something - they show quantity. Much, many, and a lot of indicate a large quantity of something, for example "I have a lot of milk" means I have a large quantity of milk. Much Much is used with uncountable nouns, and is generally used in negative statements and questions. It's uncommon to use much in positive statements. For example: - I don't have much money. - Do you have much time? - "I have much time." This sounds unusual. Many Many is used with plural countable nouns, and is often used in negative statements and questions. It is also used in positive statements however. For example: - I don't have many apples. - Do you have many friends? - Many people come here in summer. Much and many can be used in affirmative statements, but give a more formal meaning. For example: - He has many good friends from Harvard University. Much and many often appear in short answers. For example: - Do you see your family much? - No, not much. A lot of A lot of is used with uncountable and countable nouns, and is generally used for affirmative statements. For example: - I have a lot of friends. - I have a lot of time. A lot of is also used in questions, especially when you expect a positive response. Although it is often said that much and many are used for questions, we usually use them for questions which expect a negative response. For example: - Do you want a lot of pizza? I expect you want to eat a lot. - Do you want much pizza? This sounds unusual, as though I expect you don't want to eat much. Lots of can be used in the same way as a lot of, often in informal speech. For example: - I have lots of time. - I have a lot of time. How much / many? How much is used to ask about the price of something. For example: - How much is it? - How much is that dog in the window?

How much and How many are used to ask about quantity. For example: - How much money do you have? - How many apples does he have? Grammar Exercises Complete the sentences.. Use much, many, a lot of or lots. Example: They eat a lot of apples. 1. We have oranges. 2. We don't have bananas, and we don't have fruit juice. 3. Do you have any cereal? Sure, there's in the kitchen. 4. How is this? It's ten dollars. 5. How do you want? Six, please. 6. He's very busy, he has work. 7. David has rice, but Tyler doesn't have . 8. London has beautiful buildings. ----------

much, many - Exercise 1


Explanation: much, many much or many? - Choose the correct answer. 1) pupils 2) time 3) money 4) dollars 5) milk 6) children 7) water 8) fun 9) dogs 10) people

Explanation: much, many

much or many? - Choose the correct answer. 1) CDs 2) music 3) cups 4) juice 5) time 6) pencils 7) cheese 8) cornflakes 9) pizzas 10) lemonade
exercise

some or any? - Choose the correct answer. 1) We need bananas. 2) You can't buy posters in this shop. 3) We haven't got oranges at the moment. 4) Peter has bought new books. 5) She always takes sugar with her coffee. 6) I have seen nice postcards in this souvenir shop. 7) There aren't folders in my bag. 8) I have magazines for you. 9) There are apples on the table. 10) Pam does not have pencils on her desk. some or any? - Choose the correct answer. 1) Have you got tomatoes? 2) There are exercise books on the floor. 3) Did you get the ketchup? No, they hadn't got . 4) You should eat fresh fruit. 5) We had to wait for minutes. 6) Is there lemonade left? 7) They didn't sing songs. 8) Here are cornflakes, but there isn't milk. 9) I'm looking for good music. 10) There is no butter in the fridge. Let's go and get .

Exercise
some or any - Choose the correct answer. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Can I have of these kiwis? We saw dolphins in the sea. They went to town without money. Buy some apples if you see . Would you like more tea? Come and see me time you want. He never does work. You can take bus to the city centre. Peter never gives his mother help.

10) There's hardly coffee left

Unit 1
A - Comparison with -er/-est

clean - cleaner - (the) cleanest


We use -er/-est with the following adjectives: 1) adjectives with one syllable clean new cheap cleaner newer cheaper cleanest newest cheapest

2) adjectives with two syllables and the following endings: 2 - 1) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -y dirty easy happy pretty dirtier easier happier prettier dirtiest easiest happiest prettiest

2 - 2) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -er clever cleverer cleverest

2 - 3) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le simple simpler simplest

2 - 4) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow narrow narrower narrowest

Spelling of the adjectives using the endings -er/-est

large big sad dirty

larger bigger sadder dirtier

largest biggest

leave out the silent -e

Double the consonant after short vowel saddest dirtiest Change -y to -i (consonant before -y) Here -y is not changed to -i. (although consonant before -y)

shy

shyer

shyest

B - Comparison with more - most

difficult - more difficult - (the) most difficult


all adjectives with more than one syllable (except some adjectives with two syllables see 2 - 1 to 2 - 4)

C - Irregular adjectives good bad much many little little better worse more more less smaller best worst most most least smallest uncountable nouns countable nouns

D - Special adjectives

Some ajdectives have two possible forms of comparison.


common likely pleasant polite commoner / more common likelier / more likely pleasanter / more pleasant politer / more polite commonest / most common likeliest / most likely pleasantest / most pleasant politest / most polite

simple stupid subtle sure

simpler / more simple stupider / more stupid subtler / more subtle surer / more sure

simplest / most simple stupidest / most stupid subtlest surest / most sure

Difference in meaning with adjectives: farther far further furthest farthest distance distance or time

later late latter x older old elder nearer near x

latest x last oldest eldest nearest next people and things people (family) distance order

A - Comparison with -er/-est

clean - cleaner - (the) cleanest


We use -er/-est with the following adjectives: 1) adjectives with one syllable clean new cheap cleaner newer cheaper cleanest newest cheapest

2) adjectives with two syllables and the following endings: 2 - 1) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -y dirty easy happy pretty dirtier easier happier prettier dirtiest easiest happiest prettiest

2 - 2) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -er clever cleverer cleverest

2 - 3) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -le simple simpler simplest

2 - 4) adjectives with two syllables, ending in -ow narrow narrower narrowest

Spelling of the adjectives using the endings -er/-est


large big sad dirty larger bigger sadder dirtier largest biggest Double the consonant after short vowel saddest dirtiest Change -y to -i (consonant before -y) Here -y is not changed to -i. (although consonant before -y) leave out the silent -e

shy

shyer

shyest

B - Comparison with more - most

difficult - more difficult - (the) most difficult


all adjectives with more than one syllable (except some adjectives with two syllables see 2 - 1 to 2 - 4)

C - Irregular adjectives good bad much many little little better worse more more less smaller best worst most most least smallest uncountable nouns countable nouns

D - Special adjectives

Some ajdectives have two possible forms of comparison.


common likely pleasant polite simple stupid subtle sure commoner / more common likelier / more likely pleasanter / more pleasant politer / more polite simpler / more simple stupider / more stupid subtler / more subtle surer / more sure commonest / most common likeliest / most likely pleasantest / most pleasant politest / most polite simplest / most simple stupidest / most stupid subtlest surest / most sure

Difference in meaning with adjectives: farther far further furthest farthest distance distance or time

later late latter x

latest x last

older old elder near nearer x

oldest eldest nearest next

people and things people (family) distance order

Fill in the comparative and superlative forms of the adjectives. Example: new - _____ - _______ Answer: new - newer - newest

1) old - 2) bad - 3) difficult - 4) large - 5) good - 6) big - 7) easy - 8) much - 9) little - 10) interesting

Fill in all the gaps with the correct forms of the adjectives. Example: ____ - newer - _______ Answer: new - newer - newest 1) - longer 2) - - worst 3) modern - 4) - - nicest 5) - - nearest 6) - - flattest 7) popular - 8) - happier 9) many - 10) - - cleverest

Fill in the missing words into the gaps. Mind the first two words in each task. 1) strong - stronger; good 2) coldest - colder; happiest -

3) nice - nicer; bad 4) angry - angrier; much 5) more boring - boring; sunnier 6) more interesting - most interesting; worse 7) hard - hardest; new 8) most expensive - expensive; cleanest 9) fast - fastest; old 10) shortest - short; most difficult -

Put in the adjective in bold from the first sentence into the second sentence in its correct form (comparative or superlative). Example: I have a fast car, but my friend has a ______ car. Answer: I have a fast car, but my friend has a faster car.

1) This is a nice cat. It's much than my friend's cat. 2) Here is Emily. She's six years old. Her brother is nine, so he is . 3) This is a difficult exercise. But the exercise with an asterisk (*) is the exercise on the worksheet. 4) He has an interesting hobby, but my sister has the hobby in the world. 5) In the last holidays I read a good book, but father gave me an even one last weekend. 6) School is boring, but homework is than school. 7) Skateboarding is a dangerous hobby. Bungee jumping is than skateboarding. 8) This magazine is cheap, but that one is . 9) We live in a small house, but my grandparents' house is even than ours. 10) Yesterday John told me a funny joke. This joke was the joke I've ever heard.

Correction
) This is a nice cat. It's much nicer than my friend's cat. 2) Here is Emily. She's six years old. Her brother is nine, so he is older. 3) This is a difficult exercise. But the exercise with an asterisk (*) is the most difficult exercise on the worksheet. 4) He has an interesting hobby, but my sister has the most interesting hobby in the world. 5) In the last holidays I read a good book, but father gave me an even better one last weekend. 6) School is boring, but homework is more boring than school. 7) Skateboarding is a dangerous hobby. Bungee jumping is more dangerous than skateboarding. 8) This magazine is cheap, but that one is cheaper. 9) We live in a small house, but my grandparents' house is even smaller than ours. 10) Yesterday John told me a funny joke. This joke was the funniest joke I've ever heard.

Exercise
Put in the adjective from the first sentences into the second sentence in its correct form (comparative or superlative). Example: I have a fast car, but my friend has a ______ car. Answer: I have a fast car, but my friend has a faster car.

1) My father is heavy. My uncle is much than my father. 2) The test in Geography was easy, but the test in Biology was . 3) Florida is sunny. Do you know the place in the USA? 4) Stan is a successful sportsman, but his sister is than Stan. 5) My mother has a soft voice, but my teacher's voice is than my mother's. 6) Amy has a beautiful baby, but my daughter has the baby on earth. 7) I live in a large family, but my grandfather lived in a family. 8) We have only little time for this exercise, but in the examination we'll have even time. 9) Lucy is clever, but Carol is than Lucy. 10) Have you visited the old castle? It was the castle we visited during our holidays.

Correction
1) My father is heavy. My uncle is much heavier than my father. 2) The test in Geography was easy, but the test in Biology was easier. 3) Florida is sunny. Do you know the sunniest place in the USA? 4) Stan is a successful sportsman, but his sister is more successful than Stan. 5) My mother has a soft voice, but my teacher's voice is softer than my mother's. 6) Amy has a beautiful baby, but my daughter has the most beautiful baby on earth. 7) I live in a large family, but my grandfather lived in a larger family. 8) We have only little time for this exercise, but in the examination we'll have even less time. 9) Lucy is clever, but Carol is cleverer than Lucy. 10) Have you visited the old castle? It was the oldest castle we visited during our holidays.

Exercise
Fill in the missing words into the gaps.

Positive sweet cheap difficult hard long modern large brave dark near

Comparative

Superlative