Dear Students,
It's the question you dreamed about when you were ten years old. It's the
question our parents nagged you about during high school. It's the question that
stresses most of us out more and more the older we get. "What do you want to
be when you grow up?"
There are people who are studying political science but hate politics, nursing
majors who hate biology, and accounting majors who hate math. Obviously, a
lot of people are confused about what exactly it is that they want to spend their
life doing. Think about it. if you work for 10 hours each day, you're going to
end up spending over 50% of your awake life at work. Personally, I think it's
important that we spend that 50% of your awake life at work. Personally, I think
it's important that we spend that 50% wisely. But how can you make sure that
you do? Here are some cool tips for how to decide that you really want to be
when you grow up.
Relax and Keep an Open Mind: Contrary to popular belief, you don't have
to "choose a career" and stick with it for the rest of your life. You never
have to sign a contract that says, "I agree to force myself to do this for the
rest of my life" You're free to do whatever you want and the possibilities are
endless. So relax, dream big, and keep an open mind.
Notice Your Passions: Every one of us is born with an innate desire to do
something purposeful with our lives. We long to do something that we're
passionate about; something that will make a meaningful impact on the
world.
Figure Out How to Use Your Passions for a Larger Purpose: You notice that
this is one of your passions, so you decide to become a personal trainer.
Making a positive impact on the world will not only ensure that you are
successful financially, it will also make you feel wonderful. It's proven
principle: The more you give to the world, the more the world will give you
in return.
Figure Our How You Can Benefit: Once you've figured out what your
passions are and how you can use those passions to add value to the world
& to yourself, it's time to take the last step: figure out how you can make
great success doing it. my most important piece of advice about this last
step is to remember just that: It's the last part of the decision process. I feel
sorry for people who choose an occupation based on the average income for
that field. No amount of money can compensate for a life wasted at a job
that makes you miserable. However, that's not to say that the money isn't
important. Money is important, and I'm a firm believer in the concept that
no matter what it is that you love doing, there's at least one way to make
extraordinary money doing it. So be creative!
No matter how successful you become, how great your life is, or how beautiful
you happen to be... there will still be times when you simply feel like you're an
ugly mess. But when those times come, remember that all you need to get
yourself back on track is a positive outlook, a dash of self confidence, and the
willingness to make yourself feel better as soon as you know how.
Simply discover your passions, figure out how to use your passions to make an
impact on the world & to yourself.
Presenting forever positive ideas to your success.
Yours truly
Pramod Maheshwari,
B.Tech., IIT Delhi
Every effort has been made to avoid errors or
omission in this publication. In spite of this,
errors are possible. Any mistake, error or
discrepancy noted may be brought to our
notice which shall be taken care of in the
forthcoming edition, hence any suggestion is
welcome. It is notified that neither the
publisher nor the author or seller will be
responsible for any damage or loss of action to
any one, of any kind, in any manner, there from.
No Portion of the magazine can be
published/ reproduced without the
written permission of the publisher
All disputes are subject to the
exclusive jurisdiction of the Kota
Courts only.
Owned & Published by Pramod
Maheshwari, 112, Shakti Nagar,
Dadabari, Kota & Printed by Naval
Maheshwari, Published & Printed at 112,
Shakti Nagar, Dadabari, Kota.
Editor : Pramod Maheshwari
If you can't make a mistake,
you can't make anything.
Volume  6 Issue  8
February, 2011 (Monthly Magazine)
Editorial / Mailing Office :
112B, Shakti Nagar, Kota (Raj.)
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email : xtraedge@gmail.com
Editor :
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[B.Tech. IITDelhi]
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XtraEdge for IITJEE 2 FEBRUARY 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 3 FEBRUARY 2011
Volume6 Issue8
February, 2011 (Monthly Magazine)
NEXT MONTHS ATTRACTIONS
Much more IITJEE News.
Know IITJEE With 15 Best Questions of IITJEE
Challenging Problems in Physics,, Chemistry & Maths
Key Concepts & Problem Solving strategy for IITJEE.
IITJEE Mock Test Paper with Solution
AIEEE & BITSAT Mock Test Paper with Solution
S
Success Tips for the Months
"The way to succeed is to double your error
rate."
"Success is the ability to go from failure to
failure without losing your enthusiasm."
"Success is the maximum utilization of the
ability that you have."
We are all motivated by a keen desire for
praise, and the better a man is, the more he
is inspired to glory.
Along with success comes a reputation for
wisdom.
They can, because they think they can.
Nothing can stop the man with the right
mental attitude from achieving his goal;
nothing on earth can help the man with the
wrong mental attitude.
Keep steadily before you the fact that all
true success depends at last upon yourself.
CONTENTS
INDEX PAGE
NEWS ARTICLE 4
Dr. Abdul Kalam's Message to Every Indian
Two Mumbai CAT toppers are from IITBombay
IITian ON THE PATH OF SUCCESS 6
Mr. Vineet Buch
KNOW IITJEE 7
Previous IITJEE Question
XTRAEDGE TEST SERIES 50
Class XII IITJEE 2011 Paper
Class XI IITJEE 2012 Paper
Mock Test3 (CBSE Board Pattern) [Class # XII] 72
Solution of Mock Test2 (CBSE Pattern)
Solution of Mock Test3 (CBSE Pattern)
Regulars ..........
DYNAMIC PHYSICS 15
8Challenging Problems [Set# 9]
Students Forum
Physics Fundamentals
Matter Waves, Photoelectric Effect
Thermal Expansion, Thermodynamics
CATALYSE CHEMISTRY 31
Key Concept
Carbonyl Compounds
Coordination Compound &
Metallurgy
Understanding : Physical Chemistry
DICEY MATHS 38
Mathematical Challenges
Students Forum
Key Concept
Integration
Trigonometrical Equation
Study Time........
Test Time ..........
XtraEdge for IITJEE 4 FEBRUARY 2011
Dr. Abdul Kalams Message to
Every Indian
What does a system consist of? Very
conveniently for us it consists of our
neighbours, other households, other
cities, other communities and the
government. But definitely not me and
YOU. When it comes to us actually
making a positive contribution to the
system we lock ourselves along with
our families into a safe cocoon and
look into the distance at countries far
away and wait for a Mr.Clean to come
along & work miracles for us with a
majestic sweep of his hand or we
leave the country and run away.
ASK WHAT WE CAN DO FOR
INDIA AND DO WHAT HAS TO BE
DONE TO MAKE INDIA WHAT
AMERICA AND OTHER WESTERN
COUNTRIES ARE TODAY
Two Mumbai CAT toppers are
from IITBombay
Three people, who appeared for CAT
from the city, scored 100 percentile.
Two of them are from the computer
science department of the IITB. The
other is a faculty member of a city
based coaching institute.
Shashank Samant, 22, who scored
99.98 percentile on his last attempt in
2008, gave up the IIM seat to take up
a job. After a year and a half job in
an investment firm, I was finally
prepared to get in to an IIM. Though
the 100 percentile was unexpected.
After clearing the CAT, I spoke to
my peers and seniors at IITB and
decided that work experience would
be important before getting in to the
IIMs, said Samant. He also added
that IITs help in developing the
aptitude to clear any competitive
exams. Samant had graduated in
computer science from IITB in 2009.
About his choice of IIMs, Samant
said, I am ready to get in to any of
the IIMs though I prefer IIM
Ahmedabad and Bangalore over
others.
Gaurav Malpani, a fourthyear student
of computer science at IITB has
appeared for the entrance exam from
Mumbai, he is originally from Kolkata.
He managed to score100 percentile,
without any coaching.
I have never focused on developing
my technical knowledge. I was only
polishing my problem solving skills. I
also focused on my vocabulary, said
21yearold Malpani. He insisted that
he had never studied exclusively for
CAT during the year. I always knew
that I had the aptitude to score well, but
scoring 100 percentile was not
expected, he added.
I would love to join IIMAhmedabad
or Bangalore. Since I am from Kolkata,
I will also consider seeking admission
there. I am interested in pursuing an
MBA in either finance or human
resources, he added. The faculty
member of a citybased coaching
institute Jose DAbreu also got a
perfect score.
IIT Techfest 2011: The Robots
Raged
It was the perfect way to end a very
wellplanned event. On the first two
days of Techfest, IIT Bombay was
buzzing with exhibits of some cool
robots and a few other inventions as
well. On the final day, the robots
became restless and just wanted to have
a go at each other. What followed was a
lengthy battle fought hard and long.
Mars Manoeuvre This tournament had
two robots moving around a grid
collecting blocks. The team that
collected the most blocks won. The last
battle was between C2R and Black
Beast, from Thailand and Australia
respectively.
Black Beast: In all its glory
Black Beast was the creation of second
year students from the Department of
Electrical & Computer Science at
Swinburne University of Technology
in Melbourne. Plagued with exams
and other academic diseases, they
still managed to build this in about
two weeks.
Kids at Swinburne Uni, came
second with a smile
Their robots communicated through
radio frequency waves and
everything, right from the wheels to
the circuit boards was custom made.
One robot would go and measure the
dimensions of the grid. The second,
after getting the information would
start its mission of picking up blocks.
Can it say, "Thai, Robot"?
C2R was made by third year students
of the computer engineering
department of the Kasetsart
University in Kapmphaeng Saen,
Thailand. These kids spent two
months and about Rs. 1,47,000
(100,000 Thai Bath) to make these
robots.
Kasetsart University students with
the C2R
XtraEdge for IITJEE 5 FEBRUARY 2011
Unlike the kids of Oz, they chose to
use only one robot which would find
its way and collect blocks. These
robots also used radio frequency
technology to communicate and had
sensors, so that the robot never drifted
away from the grid lines. The battle
ensued and it was clear that spending
more time with your robot makes
them strong and obedient. In fact, they
can also win you competitions! C2R
won the Mars Manoeuvre competition
and prize money of Rs. 1,50,000. The
kids demonstrated how they won the
battle. Check out the video below.
IITBombay gets $3 million gift
More than 40 years ago a quiet
student named Victor Menezes
graduated from the Indian Institute of
Technology Bombay (IITB). He
went on to become, among other
things, the senior vicechairperson of
Citigroup Inc. His small way to say
thank you to the institute has
translated into a $3 million
(about Rs 13.5 crore) towards a state
oftheart convention centre on the
institutes Powai campus
I received priceless education from
IIT Bombay and this is a small way
to say thank you, said Menezes. I
hope the centre will help support the
exchange of ideas at IIT Bombay.
IITJEE candidates to get
performance cards now
Students appearing for the next Joint
Entrance Examination (JEE) for
admission to IITs will get
performance cards specifying marks
and the ranks secured by them in the
test. However, as per the new
provision, they cannot seek regrading
or retotalling.
For the first time, the JEE Board
would issue performance cards which
can be considered as certificates by
many other institutions wanting to
give admission to JEE candidates. The
board will also put out the answers of
the questions on its website to help
students make assessment of their
performance.
IIT Guwahati Director Prof Gautam
Baruah said the board had urged for
issuing such performance cards which
would serve as certificates for the
students. Many other institutes, which
want to take JEE candidates, can give
admission to students on the basis of
these performance cards, Baruah said.
Indian institute of Science will
start management course
Indian Institute of Science (IISc.) is
planning to start a twoyear Master
programme in management from this
academic session. The new courses will
be very advance as it will concentrate
more on technology management and
business analytics.
IISc registrar R Mohan Das said the
course would concentrate on synergies
between managing science and
technology. Das said, India, in recent
times, has emerged as one of the global
hubs of technology and research and
development (R&D) units. Such
technologybased and R&Dintensive
industries need executives with
exposure and training in technology
management and business analytics.
The program has been specially
designed to train students in technology
management and business analytics.
The course will be conducted by the
department of management studies,
which was established in the year 1848,
and is one of the oldest schools in the
country. An official at the dept. said
that application forms for the course
will be available from the month of
February. Candidates who have passed
the Joint Entrance Test (JMET) with
first class BE/B.Tech degree/equivalent
is eligible for the course. The
department will conduct group
discussion and personal interview
before selecting students for the course.
IIT Mandi to formulate plan for
solving technical problems
pertaining to agriculture in
Himachal Pradesh
Shimla: Shri Ram Subhag Singh,
Secretary, Agriculture and Information
and Public Relations said that H.P.
Agriculture Department and IIT Mandi
would formulate a long term scheme
for solving technical problems
pertaining to agriculture and a Joint
Working Group at State level would
be formed for solving the problems
relating to farm technology.
Star Donor of the Month  Mr.
Rajesh Achanta [1987/BT/ME]
I have been donating off and on as a
way of keeping the connection with
IITM going & also to express
gratitude for the many ways in which
the institute shaped me in my
formative years. I'll be transiting
through Chennai in early January  I
would like to stop by at IITM &
relive old memories for a little while!
Orissa CM confers award to
IITKanpur Prof. Dr Devi
Prasad Mishra
In recognition of his research work,
Dr. Mishra received Sir Rajendranath
Mookerjee Memorial and Aerospace
Engineering Division Prize from The
Institution of Engineers (India),
Kolkata, India. Dr. Mishra has more
than 15 years of teaching and
research experience. He has served
as Visiting Professor in 2002 at the
TokyoDenki University, Japan.
Presently, he is working as an
Associate Professor in the
Department of Aerospace
Engineering at Indian Institute of
Technology (IIT) Kanpur, Kanpur,
India where he was instrumental in
establishing a combustion laboratory.
His areas of research interest include
combustion, computational fluid
dynamics, atomization, nanomaterial
synthesis etc. He is an Associate
Editor, Journal of Natural Gas
Science and Engineering, Elsevier,
USA and Assistant Editor,
International Journal of Hydrogen
Energy, Elsevier, USA. Currently he
is serving as Editor, Asia Pacific
Conference on Combustion, 2010.
Dr. Mishra has four Indian patents
and more than 154 publications in
referred Journals and in conference
proceedings to his credit.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 6 FEBRUARY 2011
Vineet Buch still remembers 10 June 1987. Bhopal. The
Indian Institute of Technology All India Joint Entrance
Exam (IITJEE) results were announced. Buch, then a 15
yearold dabbling with career choices, scanned through the
rankholders list. Then he scanned it again. Soon he made
up his mind. He would try and finish No. 1 in the entrance
exam. It seemed like a cool thing to do.
Every year thousands of Indian students aspire to get into
an IIT. Close to 400,000 candidates lined up this year. One
in 65 made the cut. Twenty years ago, the number of
applicants wasnt as staggering but there were fewer seats.
Golfers will tell you that the odds of an amateur pulling off
a holeinone are 1 in 12,750. Still, thats a doddle
compared to what Buch was up against.
Hardly anyone in Bhopal even wrote the JEE, let alone
got in, says Buch, 37, a venture capitalist based in San
Francisco. I found it tough to get the right books, like a
Russian physics book by IE Irodov. My parents [who were
IAS officers] requested the Indian embassy in Moscow to
photocopy the book and send it across.
In June 1989, Buch was declared No. 1 in the IIT JEE
exam, arguably the most challenging and competitive
exam in the world. Only around 50 Indians have
experienced the feelingthe numbness, the ecstasy, the
dizziness.
Once every year, JEE toppers appear on television and
newspapers carry congratulatory messages. You see mug
shots of students, interviews with parents, and
advertisements for coaching centres. We spend a lot of
time celebrating their success, but rarely do we look
further.
What becomes of these brilliant 17yearolds? What are
the challenges they encounter? Do any of them pursue
unconventional careers? These were some of the questions
Open set out with while tracking down the very elite group
of JEE toppers.
IT HELPS TO BE NO. 1
During his days in IIT Kanpur, Buch was a longdistance
athlete, weightlifter and footballer. He competed in both
the 5,000 and 10,000 metres. But in August 1993, a doctor
at Delhis All India Institute of Medical Sciences
diagnosed the 20yearold with ankylosing spondylitis, a
progressively crippling disease without a cure.
Buch suffered inflammation of the eyes and internal
organs. Sometimes it was so hard for me to even sit, stand
or sleep, he recalls. Things got progressively worse over
his twoyear graduate program at Cornell University.
When I finished in 1995, I was immobilised throughout
much of my body. A doctor advised me to stop working
and apply for disability payments.
Buch refused. He moved to San Francisco and started a
selfdirected rehabilitation programme. He began with
long sessions of swimming and gradually started to walk,
bike and hike. In 2001, he successfully undertook the
Death Ride over five alpine passes on the Sierra Nevada
mountain range in California, US. But biking hurt his
knees. Searching for a sport that didnt tax his legs, he
discovered surf skiing, one that uses a long, narrow,
lightweight kayak with an open cockpit and a footpedal
controlled rudder. On 17 May, Buch took part in the 2009
Molokai Challenge in Hawaii, a 32mile surf ski race
between Molokai and Oahu, in rough waters swarming
with tiger sharks. He finished the race.
I thought being No 1 in JEE was tough, says Buch. But
overcoming this disease has been something else. The JEE
effort definitely helped with thisI knew the levels of
determination I was capable of and refused to give up.
Success Story
Success Story
This article contains storie/interviews of persons who succeed after graduation from different IITs
Mr. Vineet Buch
BTech from IITKanpur
(A venture capitalist based in san francisco)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 7 FEBRUARY 2011
PHYSICS
1. Two narrow cylindrical pipes A and B have the same
length. Pipe A is open at both ends and is filled with a
monoatomic gas of molar mass M
A
. Pipe B is open at
one end and closed at the other end, and is filled with a
diatomic gas of molar mass M
B
. Both gases are at the
same temperature. [IIT 2002]
(a) If the frequency of the second harmonic of the
fundamental mode in pipe A is equal to the frequecy of
the third harmonic of the fundamental mode in pipe B,
determine the value of M
A
/M
B
.
(b) Now the open end of pipe B is also closed (so that
the pipe is closed at bout ends). FInd the ratio of the
fundamental frequency in pipe A to that in pipe B.
Sol. (a) Second harmonic in pipe A = 2 [(v
0
)A] Third
harmonic of pipe B = 3 [(v
0
)B]
= 2
(
l 2
v
= 3
(
l 4
v
=
l
1
A
A
M
RT
=
l 4
3
B
B
M
RT
A
Gas (Monoatomic)
MA
l
B
Gas (Diatomic)
MB
l
Given that second harmonic in pipe A = Third
harmonic of pipe B
l
1
A
A
M
RT
=
l 4
3
B
B
M
RT
B
A
M
M
=
189
400
[
A
= 1.67 and
= 1.4]
(b) (v
0
)
A
=
A
A
M
RT
(v
0
)
B
=
B
B
M
RT
B
A
v
v
) (
) (
0
0
=
B
B
A
A
M
M
=
4
3
2. A nonconducting disc of radius a and uniform positive
surcface charge density is placed on the ground, with
its axis vertical. A particle of mass m and positive
charge q is dropped, along the axis of the disc, from a
height H with zero initial velocity. The particle has
q/m =
0
g/.
(a) Find the value of H if the particle just reaches the
disc.
(b) Sketch the potential energy of the particle as a
function of its height and find its equilibirum
position. [IIT 1999]
Sol. (a) Given that : a = radius of disc, = surface
charge density, q/m = 4
0
g/
The K.E. of the particle, when it reaches the disc can
be taken as zero.
Potential due to a charged disc at any axial point
situated at a distance x from 0.
V(x) =
0
2
] [
2 2
x x a + ]
Hence, V(H)
0
2
] [
2 2
H H a +
and V(O) =
0
2
a
According to law of conservation of energy, Loss of
gravitation potential energy = gain in electric
potential energy
H
(m,q)
a
O
H
mgH = qDV = q[V(0) V(H)]
mgH = g[a { ) (
2 2
H a + H}]
0
2
(1)
From the given relatuion :
0
2
q
= 2 mg (given)
Putting this is equation (1), we get,
MgH = 2mg[a { H H a ) (
2 2
+ }]
or H = 2[a + H ) (
2 2
H a + ]
or H = 2a + 2H 2 ) (
2 2
H a +
or 2 ) (
2 2
H a + = H + 2a
or 4a
2
+ 4H
2
= H
2
+ 4a
2
+ 4aH
or 3H
2
+ 4aH or H =
3
4a
[Q H = O is not valid]
KNOW IITJEE
By Previous Exam Questions
XtraEdge for IITJEE 8 FEBRUARY 2011
(b) Total potential energy of the particle at height h
U(x) = mgx + qV(x) = mgx + ) (
2
2 2
0
x x a
q
+
= mgx + 2mg ] [
2 2
x x a +
= mg ] ) 2 [
2 2
x x a + (2)
For equilibrium :
dx
dU
= 0
This gives : x =
3
a
From equation (2), graph between U(x) and x is as
shown above.
O
a /
3
H = 4a/3 X
U
2 mga
3
mga
3. A wheel of radius R having charge Q, uniformly
distributed on the rim of the wheel is free to rotate
about a light horizontal rod. The rod is suspended by
ligh inextensible strings and a magnetic field B is
applied as shown in the figure. The initial tensions in
the strings are T
0
. If the breaking tension of the stringas
are
2
3
0
T
, find the maximum angular velocity
0
with which the wheel can be rotated. [IIT2003]
T0 T0
d
B
0
Sol. From above figure, when the ring is not rotating wt.
of ring = Tension in string mg = 2T
0
T
0
=
2
mg
(1)
When the ring is rotating, we can treat it as a current
carrying loop. The magnetic mement of this loop
M = iA =
T
Q
r
2
=
2
Q
r
2
This current carrying loop will create its own
magnetic field which will interact with the given
vertical magnetic field in such a way that the
tensions in the strings will become unequal. Let the
tension in the string be T
1
and T
2
.
For translational equilibrium
T
1
+ T
2
= mg (2)
For rotational equilibrium
Torque acting on the ring about the centre of ring
B
t = M B sin 90
=
2
Q
r
2
B =
2
2
Br Q
For rotational equilibrium, the torque about the
centre of ring should be zero.
T
1
2
D
T
2
2
D
=
2
2
Br Q
T
1
T
2
=
D
Br Q
2
(3)
On solving (2) and (3) we get
T
1
=
2
mg
+
D
Br Q
2
2
But the maximam tension is
2
3
0
T
2
3
0
T
= T
0
+
D
Br Q
2
2
max
=
2
0
mg
T Q
max
=
2
0
BQr
DT
4. An object is moving with velocity 0.01 m/s towards a
convex lens of focal length 0.3 m. Find the magnitude
of rate of separation of image from the lens when the
object is at a distance of 0.4m From the lens. Also
calculated the magnitude of the rate of change of the
lateral magnification. [IIT2004]
Sol. f = 0.3 m, u = 0.4 m
Using lens formula
v
1
4 . 0
1
=
3 . 0
1
v = 1.2 m
XtraEdge for IITJEE 9 FEBRUARY 2011
Now we have
v
1
u
1
=
f
1
, differentiating w.r.t. t
we have
2
v
1
dt
dv
+
2
1
u dt
du
= 0
given
dt
du
= 0.01 m/s

.

\

dt
dv
=
2
2
) 4 . 0 (
) 120 (
0.01 = 0.09 m/s
So, rate of seperation of the image (w.r.t. the lens) =
0.09 m/s
Now, m =
u
v
dt
dm
=
2
u
dt
vdu
dt
udv
2
) 4 . 0 (
) 01 . 0 )( 2 . 1 ( ) 09 . 0 )( 4 . 0 (
= 0.35
So magnitude of the rate of change of lateral
magnification = 0.35.
5. A particle of charge equal to that of an electron, e, and
mass 208 times the mass of the electron (called a nu
meson) moves in a circular orbit around a nucleus of
charge + 3e. (Take the mass of the nucleus to be
infinite). Assuming that the bohr model of the atom is
applicable to this system.
(i) Derive an expression for the radius of the nth Bohr
orbit.
(ii) Find the value of n for which the radius of the orbit
is approximately the same as that of the first Bohr
orbit for the hydrogen atom.
(iii) Find the wavelength of the radiation emitted when
the mumeson jumps from the third orbit of the first
orbit. [IIT1988]
Sol. (i) Let m be the mass of electron. Then the mass of
mumeson is 208 m. According to Bohr's
postualte, the angular momentum of mumeson
should be an integral multiple of h/2.
+3e
e
r
(208 m) vr =
2
nh
v =
mr
nh
208 2
=
mr
nh
416
(1)
Since mumeson is moving in a circular path
therefore it needs centripetal force which is
provided by the electrostatic force between the
nucleus and mumeson.
r
v ) m 208 (
2
=
0
4
1
2
3
r
e e
r =
2
0
2
mv 208 4
e 3
Substituting the value of v from (1) we get
r =
2 2
0
2
208 4
416 416 3
h n
mr mr e
r =
2
0
2 2
624 me
h n
(2)
(ii) The radius of the first orbit of the hydrogen atom
=
2
2
0
me
h
(3)
To find the value of n for which the radius of the
orbit is approximately the same as that of the
first Bohr orbit for hydrogen atom, we equate
equation (2) and (3)
2
0
2 2
624 me
h n
=
2
2
0
me
h
n = 624 25
(iii)
1
= 208 R z
2
(
(
2
2
2
1
1
1
n n
1
= 208 1.097 10
7
3
2
(
2 2
3
1
1
1
= 5.478 10
11
m
CHEMISTRY
6. A metallic element crystallizes into a lattice
containing a sequence of layers of ABABAB ..... Any
packing of spheres leaves out voids in the lattice.
What percentage by volume of this lattice is empty
space ? [IIT1996]
Sol. A unit cell of hcp structure is a hexagonal cell, which
is shown in fig. Three such cells form one hcp unit.
For hexagonal cell, a = b c; = = 90 and
= 120. It has 8 atoms at the corners and one inside,
hence
Number of atoms per unit cell =
8
8
+ 1 = 2
N b
a
O
60
Area of the base = b ON = b a sin 60 =
2
3
a
2
( Q b = a)
Volume of the hexagonal cell
= Area of the base height =
2
3
a
2
. c
XtraEdge for IITJEE 10 FEBRUARY 2011
But c =
3
2 2
a
c
b
a
Volume of the hexagonal cell
=
2
3
a
2
.
3
2 2
a = a
3
2
and radius of the atom,
r = a/2
Hence, fraction of total volume of atomic packing
factor =
cell hexagonal the of Volume
atoms 2 of Volume
=
2
3
4
2
3
3
a
r
=
2
2 3
4
2
3
3
a
a

.

\

=
2 3
= 0.74 = 74%
The percentage of void space = 100 74
= 26%
7. (The standard reduction potential of Ag
+
/Ag
electrode at 298 K is 0.799V. Given that for AgI,
K
sp
= 8.7 10
17
, evaluate the potential of Ag
+
/Ag
electrode in a saturated solution of AgI. Also
calculate the standard reduction potential of
I
electrode. [IIT1994]
Sol. In the saturated solution of AgI, the half cell
reactions are
At anode : Ag Ag
+
+ e
At cathode : AgI + e
Ag + I
Cell reaction AgI Ag
+
+ I
On applying Nernst equation
E
cell
= E
cell
n
0591 . 0
log [Ag
+
] [I
]
For electrode
Ag
+
+ e
Ag
Ag / Ag
E + =
Ag / Ag
E +
n
0591 . 0
log
] Ag [
1
+
K
sp
of AgI = [Ag
+
] [I
]
Q [Ag
+
] = [I
]
K
sp
of AgI = [Ag
+
]
2
[Ag
+
] of AgI =
sp
K of AgI
[Ag
+
] =
17
10 7 . 8
= 9.3 10
9
M
So
Ag / Ag
E + = 0.799
1
0591 . 0
log
9
10 3 . 9
1
= + 0.799 + 0.0591 log 9.3 0.0591 9 log 10
= + 0.799 + 0.0591 0.9785 0.0591 9
= 0.325 V
For above cell reaction
E
cell
= E
cell
n
0591 . 0
log [Ag
+
] [I
]
= E
cell
n
0591 . 0
log (K
sp
of AgI)
At equilibrium E
cell
= 0
E
cell
=
1
0591 . 0
log(8.7 10
17
) = 0.95 volt
E
cell
= E
cathode
+ E
anode
0.95 = 0.799 + E
Ag/AgI/I
(In form of cell reaction)
E
Ag/AgI/I
/AgI/Ag
= + 0.151 V
8. An organic compound A, C
6
H
10
O, on reaction with
CH
3
MgBr followed by acid treatment gives
compound B. The compound B on ozonolysis gives
compound C, which in presence of a base gives
1acetyl cyclopentene D. The compound B on
reaction with HBr gives compound E. Write the
structures of A, B, C and E. Show how D is formed
from C.
[IIT2000]
Sol. The given reactions are as follows.
O
CH3MgBr
OMgBr
CH
3
H
+
H2O
CH
3
HBr
CH
3
Br
(A)
(B) (E)
CH
3
O
O
COCH
3
O
Base
COCH
3
(D)
(C)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 11 FEBRUARY 2011
The conversion of C into D may involve the
following mechanism.
COCH
3
(C)
CH
2 O
BH
+
B
+
COCH
3
HC
O
COCH
3
HC
O
B
BH
+
COCH
3
OH
BH
+
+B
COCH
3
OH
OH
COCH
3
(D)
9. A colourless solid (A) on heating gives a white solid
(B) and a colourless gas (C). (B) gives off reddish
brown fumes on treating with H
2
SO
4
. On treating
with NH
4
Cl, (B) gives a colourless gas (D) and a
residue (E). The compound (A) on heating with
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
gives a colourless gas (F) and white
residue (G). Both (E) and (G) impart bright yellow
colour to Bunsen flame. The gas (C) forms white
powder with strongly heated Mg metal which on
hydrolysis produces Mg(OH)
2
. The gas (D) on
heating with Ca gives a compound which on
hydrolysis produces NH
3
. Identify compounds (A) to
(G) giving chemical equations involved.
Sol. The given information is as follows :
(i) A
Heat
B + C
Colourless Solid Colourless
Solid gas
(ii) B + H
2
SO
4
D + E
Colourless gas
(iv) A + (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
F + G
olourless gas White
Residue
(v) E and G imparts yellow colour to the flame.
(vi) C + Mg
Heat
White powder
O H
2
Mg(OH)
2
(vii) D + Ca
Heat
Compound
O H
2
NH
3
Information of (v) indicates that (E) and (G) and also
(A) are the salts of sodium because Na
+
ions give
yellow coloured flame. Observations of (ii) indicate
that the anion associated with Na
+
in (A) may be
NO
3
2NaNO
2
+ O
2
(A) (B) (C)
(ii) 2NaNO
2
+ H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ 2HNO
2
(B) Dil.
3HNO
2
HNO
3
+ H
2
O + 2NO
2NO + O
2
2NO
2
Reddish brown
Fumes
(iii) NaNO
2
+ NH
4
Cl NaCl + N
2
+ 2H
2
O
(B) (E) (D)
(iv) 2NaNO
3
+ (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ 2NH
3
(A) (G) (F)
2HNO
3
(v) O
2
+ 2Mg
2MgO
O H
2
Mg(OH)
2
(C)
(vi) N
2
+ 3Ca
Ca
3
N
2
(D)
Ca
3
N
2
+ 6H
2
O 3Ca(OH)
2
+ 2NH
3
Hence,
(A) is NaNO
3
,
(B) is NaNO
2
,
(C) is O
2
,
(D) is N
2
,
(E) is NaCl,
(F) is NH
3
and (G) is Na
2
SO
4
.
10. An alkyl halide X, of formula C
6
H
13
Cl on treatment
with potassium tbutoxide gives two isomeric alkenes
Y and Z(C
6
H
12
). Both alkenes on hydrogenation give
2, 3dimethyl butane. Predict the structures of X, Y
and Z. [IIT1996]
Sol. The alkyl halide X, on dehydrohalogenation gives
two isomeric alkenes.
X
13 6
Cl H C
HCl ;
butoxide t K
12 6
H C
Z Y+
Both, Y and Z have the same molecular formula
C
6
H
12
(C
n
H
2n
). Since, both Y and Z absorb one mol of
H
2
to give same alkane 2, 3dimethyl butane, hence
they should have the skeleton of this alkane.
Y and Z (C
6
H
12
)
Ni
H
2
CH
3
CH CH CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
2,3dimethyl butane
The above alkane can be prepared from two alkenes
CH
3
C = C CH
3
CH
3 CH
3
2,3dimethyl
butene2
(Y)
and CH
3
CH C = CH
2
CH
3
CH
3
2,3dimethyl
butene1
(Z)
The hydrogenation of Y and Z is shown below :
CH
3
C = C CH
3
CH
3 CH
3
(Y)
H2
Ni
CH
3
CH CH CH
3
CH
3 CH
3
CH
3
CH C = CH
2
CH
3 CH
3
(Z)
H2
Ni
CH
3
CH CH CH
3
CH
3 CH
3
Both, Y and Z can be obtained from following alkyl
halide :
XtraEdge for IITJEE 12 FEBRUARY 2011
CH
3
C CH CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
2chloro2,3dimethyl butane
(X)
Ktbutoxide
; HCl
CH
2
= C CH CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
Cl
+ CH
3
C = C CH
3
CH
3 CH
3
(Z) 20% (Y) 80%
Hence, X,
CH
3
C CH CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
Cl
Y,
CH
3
C = C CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
Z,
CH
3
CH C = CH
2
CH
3
CH
3
MATHEMATICS
11. The curve y = ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + 5, touches the xaxis at
P(2, 0) and cuts the y axis at a point Q, where its
gradient is 3. Find a, b, c. [IIT1994]
Sol. It is given that y = ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + 5 touches xaxis at
P(2, 0) which implies that xaxis is tangent at
(2, 0) and the curve is also passes through (2, 0).
The curve cuts yaxis at (0, 5) and gradient at this
point is given 3 therefore at (0, 5) slope of the tangent
is 3.
Now,
dx
dy
= 3ax
2
+ 2bx + c
since xaxis is tangent at (2, 0) therefore
2 = x
dx
dy
= 0
0 = 3a(2)
2
+ 2b(2) + c
0 = 12a 4b + c ...(1)
again slope of tangent at (0, 5) is 3
) 5 , 0 (
dx
dy
= 3
3 = 3a(0)
2
+ 2b(0) + c
3 = c ...(2)
Since, the curve passes through (2, 0), we get
0 = a(2)
3
+ b(2)
2
+ c(2) + 5
0 = 8a + 4b 2c + 5 ...(3)
from (1) and (2), we get
12a 4b = 3 ...(4)
from (3) and (2), we get
8a + 4b = 1 ...(5)
adding (4) and (5), we get
4a = 2
a = 1/2
Putting a = 1/2 in (4), we get
12(1/2) 4b = 3
6 4b = 3
3 = 4b
b = 3/4
Hence, a = 1/2, b = 3/4 and c = 3
12. In a triangle ABC, the median to the side BC is of
length
3 6 11
1
\

+
2 2
a a
cot =
2
a
cot 30
2
a
cot 45
cot =
2
1 3
Applying sine rule in ADC, we get
C
D a/2 a/2
B
A
45 30
) 45 sin(
AD
=
45 sin
DC
) 45 sin(
AD
+
=
2 / 1
2 / a
AD =
2
a
{sin 45 cos + cos45sin}
AD =


.

\
 +
2
sin cos
2
a
=
2
a
(cos + sin )
3 6 11
1
=


.

\

3 2 8
2
3 2 8
1 3
2
a
a =
3 6 11 ) 1 3 (
3 2 8 2
+
a =
3 6 11 ) 1 3 (
3 2 8 2
2
+
XtraEdge for IITJEE 13 FEBRUARY 2011
a =
) 3 6 11 )( 3 2 4 (
3 2 8 2
+
a = 2
36 3 22 3 24 44
3 2 8
+
= 2
3 2 8
3 2 8
= 2
13. Without using tables, prove that
(sin 12) (sin 48) (sin 54) =
8
1
[IIT1982]
Sol. (sin 12) (sin 48) (sin 54)
=
2
1
(2 sin 12 sin 48) sin 54
=
2
1
{cos (36) cos (60)}sin 54
=
2
1
)
`
2
1
36 cos sin 54
=
4
1
{2 cos 36 sin 54 sin 54}
=
4
1
(sin 90 + sin 18 sin 54)
=
4
1
+
4
1 5
4
1 5
1
=
4
1
+
4
1 5 1 5
1
=
4
1
)
`
2
1
1 =
8
1
14. An unbiased die, with faces numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
is thrown n times and the list on n numbers showing
up is noted. What is the probability that among the
numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 only three numbers appear in
this list ? [IIT2001]
Sol. Let us define at onto function F from A : [r
1
, r
2
... r
n
]
to B : [1, 2, 3] where r
1
r
2
.... r
n
are the readings of n
throws and 1, 2, 3 are the numbers that appear in the
n throws.
Number of such functions,
M = N [n(1) n(2) + n(3)]
where N = total number of functions and
n(t) = number of function having exactly t elements
in the range.
Now, N = 3
n
, n(1) = 3.2
n
, n(2) = 3, n(3) = 0
M = 3
n
3.2
n
+ 3
Hence the total number of favourable cases
= (3
n
3.2
n
+ 3).
6
C
3
Required probability =
n
n n
C
6
) 3 2 . 3 3 (
3
6
+
15. Evaluate

.

\

+
+
3 /
3 /
3
3
  cos 2
4
x
x
dx [IIT2004]
Sol. Let,
I =

.

\

+
3 /
3 /
3
  cos 2 x
dx
+ 4

.

\

+
3 /
3 /
3
3
  cos 2 x
dx x
Using
a
a
x f ) ( dx =
(
(
=
=
) ( ) ( , ) ( 2
) ( ) ( , 0
0
x f x f dx x f
x f x f
a
I = 2

.

\

+
3 /
0
3
  cos 2 x
dx
+ 0

.

\

+
3 /
3 /
3
3
  cos 2
odd is
x
dx x
as
I = 2
+
3 /
0 ) 3 / cos( 2 x
dx
= 2
3 / 2
3 / cos 2 t
dt
, where x +
3
= t
= 2
+
3 / 2
3 /
2
2
2
tan 3 1
2
sec
t
dt
t
= 2
+
3
3 / 1
2
3 1
2
u
du
=
3
4
. { }
3
3 / 1
1
3 tan 3 u
=
3
4
(tan
1
3 tan
1
1) =
3
4
tan
1

.

\

2
1

.

\

+
+
3 /
3 /
3
3
  cos 2
4
x
x
dx =
3
4
tan
1

.

\

2
1
.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 14 FEBRUARY 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 15 FEBRUARY 2011
1. Two capacitors C
1
and C
2
, can be charged to a
potential V/2 each by having
V
S
1
S
2
R R
C
2
C
1
O
(A) S
1
closed and S
2
open
(B) S
1
open and S
2
closed
(C) S
1
and S
2
both closed
(D) cannot be charged at V/2
2. Energy liberated in the deexcitation of hydrogen
atom from 3
rd
level to 1
st
level falls on a photo
cathode. Later when the same photocathode is
exposed to a spectrum of some unknown hydrogen
like gas, excited to 2
nd
energy level, it is found that
the deBroglie wavelength of the fastest
photoelectrons, now ejected has decreased by a
factor of 3. For this new gas, difference of energies
of 2
nd
Lyman line and 1
st
Balmer line if found to be 3
times the ionization potential of the hydrogen atom.
Select the correct statement(s)
(A) The gas is lithium
(B) The gas is helium
(C) The work function of photocathode is 8.5eV
(D) The work function of photocathode is 5.5eV
3. In the figure shown there exists a uniform time
varying magnetic field B = [(4T/s) t + 0.3T] in a
cylindrical region of radius 4m. An equilateral
triangular conducting loop is placed in the magnetic
field with its centroide on the axis of the field and its
plane perpendicular to the field.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
A
C B
(A) e.m.f. induced in any one rod is 16V
(B) e.m.f. induced in the complete ABC is V 3 48
(C) e.m.f. induced in the complete ABC is 48V
(D) e.m.f. induced in any one rod is V 3 16
4. 6 parallel plates are arranged as shown. Each plate
has an area A and distance between them is as
shown. Plate 14 and plates 36 are connected
equivalent capacitance across 2 and 5 can be writted
as
d
nA
0
b
1
a
2
4
Q
0
(B)
(
b
1
a 8
11
4
Q
0
(C)
(
b
1
a
1
4
Q
0
(D) None of these
7. Work done by external agent in taking a charge q
slowly from inner surface of the shell to surface of
the sphericalball will be :
(A)
(
c
1
a
1
kQq
(B)
(
a
1
b
1
kQq
(C)
(
b
1
a
1
kQq
(D)
(
a
1
c
1
kQq
8. Now the outer shell is grounded, i.e., the outer
surface is fixed to be zero. Now the charge on the
inner ball will be :
(A) zero (B) Q
(C) 
.

\

+
b
1
c
1
a
1
C
Q
(D) 
.

\

+
b
1
c
1
a
1
b
Q
Regents Physics
You Should Know
Nuclear Physics :
Alpha particles are the same as helium nuclei and
have the symbol .
The atomic number is equal to the number of
protons (2 for alpha)
Deuterium ( ) is an isotope of hydrogen ( )
The number of nucleons is equal to protons +
neutrons (4 for alpha)
Only charged particles can be accelerated in a
particle accelerator such as a cyclotron or Van
Der Graaf generator.
Natural radiation is alpha ( ), beta ( ) and
gamma (high energy xrays)
A loss of a beta particle results in an increase in
atomic number.
All nuclei weigh less than their parts. This mass
defect is converted into binding energy. (E=mc
2
)
Isotopes have different neutron numbers and
atomic masses but the same number of protons
(atomic numbers).
Geiger counters, photographic plates, cloud and
bubble chambers are all used to detect or observe
radiation.
Rutherford discovered the positive nucleus using
his famous goldfoil experiment.
Fusion requires that hydrogen be combined to
make helium.
Fission requires that a neutron causes uranium to
be split into middle size atoms and produce extra
neutrons.
Radioactive halflives can not be changed by heat
or pressure.
One AMU of mass is equal to 931 meV of energy
(E = mc
2
).
Nuclear forces are strong and short ranged.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 17 FEBRUARY 2011
1. Option [C] is correct
Magnetic field due to infinite current carrying sheet
is given by ,
2
J
B
0
I IV
(b) (a)
2
J
0
2
J
0
2
J
0
Fig. (a) and (b) represent the direction of magnetic
field due to current carrying sheets. For x < a,
2
) J 4 (
2
) J 3 (
2
) J 2 ( J
2
J
B
0 0 0 0
t tan resul
=
For a < x < 2a,
J
2
) J 4 (
2
) J 3 (
2
) J 2 (
2
J
B
0
0 0 0 0
t tan resul
=
=
For 2a < x < 3a,
0
2
) J 4 (
2
) J 3 (
2
) J 2 (
2
J
B
0 0 0 0
t tan resul
=
=
So, the required curve is
2. A P,Q,S ; B P,Q,R,S
C P,Q,R,S ; D Q
i. Velocity of the particle may be constant, if forces
of electric and magnetic fields balance each other.
Then, path of particle will be straight line. Also,
path of particle may be helical if magnetic and
electric fields are in same direction. But path of
particle cannot be circular. Path can be circular if
only magnetic field is present, or if some other
forces is present which can cancel the effect of
electric field.
ii. Here, all the possibilities are possible depending
upon the combinations of the three fields.
iii. This situation is similar to part (i)
iv. In a uniform electric field, path can be only
straight line or parabolic.
3. A Q B R
C P D Q
i. At t = 1s, flux is increasing in the inward
direction, hence induced e.m.f. will be in
anticlockwise direction.
ii. At t = 5s, there is no change in flux, so induced
e.m.f. is zero
iii. At t = 9s, flux is increasing in upward direction
hence induced e.m.f. will be in clockwise
direction.
iv. At t = 15s, flux is decreasing in upward direction,
so induced e.m.f. will be in anticlockwise
direction.
4. Option [A,B,D] is correct
Rate of work done by external agent is
de/dt = BIL.dx/dt = BILv and thermal power
dissipated in resistor = eI = (BvL) I clearly both are
equal, hence (A).
If applied external force is doubled, the rod will
experience a net force and hence acceleration. As a
result velocity increase, hence (B).
Since, I = e/R
On doubling R, current and hence required power
become half.
Since, P = BILv
Hence (D)
5. Option [A] is correct
) j ( 2 ) j ( 5 . 1
2 1
=
] j ) j d i c [( 2 j ) j b i a ( 5 . 1
+ = +
= k c 2 k a 5 . 1
3
4
5 . 1
20
c
a
= =
Solution
Physics Challenging Problems
Set # 9
8
Quest i ons were Publ i shed i n January Issue
XtraEdge for IITJEE 18 FEBRUARY 2011
6. Option [A] is correct
f sin60
f
f cos60
I2
f
+
I2
x
u = f cos60
f = +f
60 cos f
1
v
1
f
1
=
f
2
v
1
f
1
+ =
v
1
f
2
f
1
=
v = f
60 cos
x
f
=
x
60 cos
f
=
x = 2f
final image will formed at optical centre of first
lens.
7. Option [C] is correct
C
v
= (3 + 2T)R
dQ = dU + PdV
adiabatic process dQ = 0
0 = Rn (3 + 2T)dT + PdV
dV
V
nRT
dT ) T 2 3 ( Rn 0 + + =

.

\
 +
= dT
T
T 2 3
V
dV
log V = 3 logT + 2T + C
logV logT
3
= 2T + C
log VT
3
= 2T + C
VT
3
= e
2T
VT
3
e
2T
= C
8. Option [A] is correct
2
0
V P P =
PV = RT
2
0
V P
V
RT
=
R
V
R
V P
T
3
0
=
0
dV
dT
=
0
R
V 3
R
P
2
0
=
=
3
P
V
0
Now put V in T.
WHAT ARE EARTHQUAKES?
Earthquakes like hurricanes are not only super
destructive forces but continue to remain a mystery
in terms of how to predict and anticipate them. To
understand the level of destruction associated with
earthquakes you really need to look at some
examples of the past.
If we go back to the 27th July 1976 in Tangshan,
China, a huge earthquake racked up an official
death toll of 255,000 people. In addition to this an
estimated 690,000 were also injured, whole
families, industries and areas were wiped out in the
blink of a second. The scale of destruction is hard to
imagine but earthquakes of all scales continue to
happen all the time.
So what exactly are they ? Well the earths outer
layer is made up of a thin crust divided into a
number of plates. The edges of these plates are
referred to as boundaries and its at these
boundaries that the plates collide, slide and rub
against each other. Over time when the pressure at
the plate edges gets too much, something has to
give which results in the sudden and often violent
tremblings we know as earthquakes.
The strength of an earthquake is measured using a
machine called a seismograph. It records the
trembling of the ground and scientists are able to
measure the exact power of the quake via a scale
known as the richter scale. The numbers range from
110 with 1 being a minor earthquake (happen
multiple times per day and in most case we dont
even feel them) and 710 being the stronger quakes
(happen around once every 1020 years). Theres a
lot to learn about earthquakes so hopefully well
release some more cool facts in the coming months.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 19 FEBRUARY 2011
1. A trolley initially at rest with a solid cylinder placed
on its bed such that cylinder axis makes angle with
direction of motion of trolley as shown in Figure
starts to move forward with constant acceleration a.
If initial distance of mid point of cylinder axis from
rear edge of trolley bed is d, calculate the distance s
which the trolley goes before the cylinder rolls off the
edge of its horizontal bed. Assume dimensions of
cylinder to be very small in comparison to other
dimensions. Neglect slipping.
d
Calculate also, frictional force acting on the cylinder.
Sol. Since, axis of cylinder is inclined at angle with the
direction of motion of trolley, therefore components
of acceleration a of trolley are acos along axis of
cylinder and asin normal to axis of the cylinder.
Cylinder rolls backward due to this normal
component asin.
Let mass and radius of cylinder be m and r
respectively and let angular acceleration of cylinder
be .
Due to angular acceleration, cylinder axis has
acceleration relative to trolley bed, which will be
equal to r normal to cylinder axis. But component
of acceleration of trolley normal to cylinder axis is
asin. Therefore, net acceleration of cylinder axis is
(asin r) normal to axis.
Consider free body diagram of the cylinder as shown
figure
Note : There are two components of friction (i) F
1
(normal to cylinder axis) and
(ii) F
2
(along cylinder axis). F
2
prevents cylinder
from sliding along axis or acos component of
acceleration of cylinder along axis is due to F
2
.
mg
l.
F1
N
m(a.sin r)
F
2
= ma cos
F
2
is not shown in the free body diagram because in
this diagram forces action normal to cylinder axis are
shown.
For horizontal forces,
F
1
= m (a sin r) (1)
F
1
r = I where I =
2
2
mr
F
1
=
2
1
mr (2)
Form equation (1) and (2),
r =
3
2
a sin
The cylinder will roll off the edge of trolley bed
when its centre of mass reaches the edge. Since.
cylinder axis is inclined at an angle '' with direction
of motion of trolley, therefore, its centre of mass
follows a straight line path relative to the trolley bed,
and that straight line is normal to cylinder axis.
Hence, displacement of centre of mass of the cylinde,
relative to trolley is equal to (d. cosec ).
considereing motion of cylinder relative to the
trolley,
u = 0, acceleration = r =
3
2
a sin , s = d cosec ,
t = ?
Using, s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, or t =
2
sin
3
a
d
Now considering motion of trolley during this
interval ofd time,
u = 0, acceleration a , t =
2
sin
3
a
d
, s = ?
Using, s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, s =
2
3
d cosec
2
Ans.
F
1
=
2
1
m. r =
3
1
ma sin
Total frictional force acting on the cylinder is
F =
2
2
2
1
F F +
=
3
1
ma +
2 2
cos 9 sin Ans.
Experts Solution for Question asked by IITJEE Aspirants
Students' Forum
PHYSI CS
XtraEdge for IITJEE 20 FEBRUARY 2011
2. A particle of mass m is placed on centre of curvature
of a fixed, uniform semicircular ring of radius R and
M as shown in Figure. Claculate
m
M
R
(i) interaction force between the ring and the particle
and
(ii) work required to displace the particle from centre
of curvature to infinity.
Sol. To calculate, interaction force, consider two equal are
lengths R d each of the semicircular ring as shown
in figure
Rd
x
d
d
Rd
Mass of each arc, dM =
R
M
Rd =
md
Gravitational force exerted by each arc on the
particle,
dF =
2
R
GmdM
=
2
R
GMm
d
Since, force exerted by each arc is directly
towards the arc, therefore, resultant of these two
forces is along negative xaxis and the resultant force
= dF
1
cos
=
2
2
R
GMm
cos d
Total force on the particle is
F =
2
2
R
GMm
=
=
2 /
0
cos d
or F =
2
2
R
GMm
Ans. (i)
Work done during displacement of particle from
centre of the curvature to infinity is used to increase
gravitational potential energy of the system.
Initial gravitational potential energy of particle with
each arc is
dU =
R
dM Gm.
=
R
GMm
d
Total initial potential energy,
U
1
=
R
GMm
2 /
2 /
d
or U
1
=
R
GMm
When separation between particle and semicircular
ring becomes large, potential energy becomes U
2
= 0
Work done = U
2
U
1
=
R
GMm
Ans.(ii)
3. A long round conductor of radius a is made of a
material whose thermal conductivity depends on
distance r from axis of the conductor as K = cr
2
,
where c is a constant. Calculate
(i) thermal resistance per unit length of such a
conductor and
(ii) temperature gradient if rate of heat flow through
the rod is H.
Sol. Since, thermal conductivity of material of the
conductor depends upon distance from its axis,
therefore, conductivity at every point of a coaxial
cylindrical surface will be the same. To calculate
thermal resistance of the given conductor, it may be
assumed to be composed of thin coaxial cylindrical
shells which are in parallel combination with each
other.
Consider a thin coaxial cylindrical shell of radius x,
radial thickness dx and of unit length as shown in
figure
Its cross sectional area, A = 2x.dx
Thermal conductivity K = cx
2
and length l = 1 m
Its thermal resistance, dR =
KA
l
=
dx . x 2 ) cx (
2
l
or dR =
dx cx . 2
1
3
Since, such cylindrical shells are in parallel with each
other, therefore, equivalent resistance R per unit
length is given by
R
1
=
dR
1
=
=
=
a x
x
dx cx
0
3
. 2
or R =
4
2
ca
Ans.(i)
Since, temperature gradient is temperature difference
per unit length, therefore, temperature gradient = rate
of heat flow resistance per unit length
or
dt
d
= H R =
4
2
ca
H
Ans. (ii)
4. Switch S of circuit shown in Figure is in position 1
for a long time. At instant t = 0, it is thrown from
position 1 to 2. Calculate thermal power P
1
(t) and
P
2
(t) generated across resistance R
1
and R
2
respectively.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 21 FEBRUARY 2011
C
R2
R1
2
S
1
+
E
Sol. Since, initially the switch was in position 1 for a long
time, therefore, initially the capacitor was fully
charged or potential difference across capacitor at
t = 0 was equal to emf E fo the battery.
Initial charge on capacitor, q
0
= CE
When switch is thrown to position 2, capacitor starts
to discharge through resistance R
1
and R
2
. To
calculate thermal power P
1
(t) and P
2
(t) generated
across R
1
and R
2
respectively, current I at time t
through the circuit must be known.
Let at instant t, charge remaining on the capacitor be
q and let current through the circuit be I.
Applying Kirchhoff's voltage law on the mesh in the
circuit of figure
C
R2
R1
I
q
+
I
C
q
IR
2
IR
1
= 0
or I =
C R R
q
) (
2 1
+
...(1)
Since, the capacitor is discharging, therfore,
I =
dt
dq
From equation (1),
q
dq
=
C R R
dt
) (
2 1
+
...(2)
Knowing that at t = 0, q = q
0
= CE, integrating
equation (2),
=
=
? q
CE q
q
dq
=
=
+
t
t
C R R
dt
0
2 1
) (
log
CE
q
=
C R R
t
) (
2 1
+
or
C R R t
CEe q
) /(
2 1
+
=
But I =
dt
dq
,
therefore, I =
) (
2 1
R R
E
+
C R R t
e
) /(
2 1
+
...(3)
Hence, thermal power across R
1
is
P
1
= I
2
R
1
or P
1
=
C R R
R E
) (
2 1
1
2
+
C R R t
e
) /( 2
2 1
+
Ans.
Similarly, thermal power across R
2
, P
2
= I
2
R
2
or P
2
=
C R R t
e
R R
R E
) /( 2
2
2 1
2
2
2 1
) (
+
+
Ans.
5. Two plane mirrors, a source S of light, emitting
monochromatic rays of wavelength and a screen
are arranged as shown in figure. If angle is very
small, calculate fringe width of interference pattern
formed on screen by reflected rays.
b a
S
Screen
Sol. Since, interference is due to reflected rays, therefore,
images S
1
and S
2
of the source S behave like two
coherent sources as shown in figure
b a
S
O
M
N
R d
D
Distance of source S from each mirror = a cos
SS
1
= SS
2
= 2 a cos
Distance between S
1
and S
2
, d = SS
1
sin + SS
2
sin
= 4a cos sin
But is very small, therefore cos 1 and sin
d = 4a
Distance RS = SS
1
cos = 2a.cos
2
2a
Distance of screen from two coherent sources S
1
and S
2
is
D = RO = RS + SO
or D = (2a + b)
Now the arrangement is similar to Young's double
slit arrangement.
Fringe width, =
d
D
=
+
a
b a
4
) 2 (
Ans.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 22 FEBRUARY 2011
Matter Waves :
Planck's quantum theory : Waveparticle duality 
Planck gave quantum theory while explaining the
radiation spectrum of a black body. According to
Planck's theory, energy is always exchanged in
integral multiples of a quanta of light or photon.
Each photon has an energy E that depends only
on the frequency of electromagnetic radiation
and is given by :
E = h .....(1)
where h = 6.6 10
34
joulesec, is Planck's
constant. In any interaction, the photon either
gives up all of its energy or none of it.
From Einstein's massenergy equivalence
principle, we have
E = mc
2
.....(2)
Using equations (1) and (2), we get ;
mc
2
= h or m =
2
c
h
.....(3)
where m represents the mass of a photon in
motion. The velocity v of a photon is equal to
that of light, i.e., v = c.
According to theory of relativity, the rest mass m
0
of a photon is given by :
m
0
=
2
2
c
v
1 m
Here, m =
2
c
h
and v = c
Hence, m
0
= 0 ....(4)
i.e., rest mass of photon is zero, i.e., energy of
photon is totally kinetic.
The momentum p of each photon is given by :
p = mc =
2
c
h
c =
c
h
=
/ c
h
=
h
......(5)
The left hand side of the above equation involves
the particle aspect of photons (momentum) while
the right hand side involves the wave aspect
(wavelength) and the Planck's constant is the
bridge between the two sides. This shows that
electromagnetic radiation exhibits a wave
particle duality. In certain circumstances, it
behaves like a wave, while in other circumstances
it behaves like a particle.
The waveparticle is not the sole monopoly of
e.m. waves. Even a material particle in motion
according to de Broglie will have a wavelength.
The de Broglie wavelength of the matter waves
is also given by :
=
mv
h
=
p
h
=
mK
h
2
where K is the kinetic energy of the particle.
If a particle of mass m kg and charge q coulomb
is accelerated from rest through a potential
difference of V volt. Then
2
1
mv
2
= qV or mv = mqV 2
Hence, =
mqV
h
2
=
V
34 . 12
Photoelectric effect :
When light of suitable frequency (electromagnetic
radiation) is allowed to fall on a metal surface,
electrons are emitted from the surface. These
electrons are known as photoelectrons and the effect
is known as photoelectric effect. Photoelectric
effect, light energy is converted into electrical
energy.
Laws of photolectric effect :
The kinetic energy of the emitted electron is
independent of intensity of incident radiation.
But the photoelectric current increases with the
increase of intensity of incident radiation.
The kinetic energy of the emitted electron
depends on the frequency of the incident
radiation. It increases with the increase of
frequency of incident radiation.
If the frequency of the incident radiation is less
than a certain value, then photoelectric emission
is not possible. This frequency is known as
threshold frequency. This threshold frequency
varies from emitter to emitter, i.e., depends on
the material.
There is no time lag between the arrival of light
and the emission of photoelectrons, i.e., it is an
instantaneous phenomenon.
Matter Waves, Photoelectric Effect
PHYSICS FUNDAMENTAL FOR IITJEE
KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY
XtraEdge for IITJEE 23 FEBRUARY 2011
Failure of wave theory :
Wave theory of light could not explain the laws of
photoelectric effect.
According to wave theory, the kinetic energy of
the emitted electrons should increase with the
increase of intensity of incident radiation.
Kinetic energy of the emitted electron does not
depend on the frequency of incident radiation
according to wave theory.
Wave theory failed to explain the existence of
threshold frequency.
According to wave theory there must be a time
lag between the arrival of light and emission of
photoelectrons.
Einstein's theory of photoelectric effect :
Einstein explained the laws of photoelectric effect
on the basis of Planck's quantum theory of
radiation.
Einstein treated photoelectric effect as a collision
between a photon and an atom in which photon is
absorbed by the atom and an electron is emitted.
According to law of conservation of energy,
h = h
0
+
2
1
mv
2
where h is the energy of the incident photon; hv
0
is the minimum energy required to detach the
electron from the atom (work function or
ionisation energy) and (1/2) mv
2
is the kinetic
energy of the emitted electron.
The above equation is known as Einstein's
photoelectric equation. Kinetic energy of the
emitted electron,
=
2
1
mv
2
= h(
0
) = h W
Explanation of laws of photoelectric effect :
(a) The KE of the emitted electron increases with the
increase of frequency of incident radiation since
W (work function) is constant for a given emitter.
KE is directly proportional to (
0
)
(b) Keeping the frequency of incident radiation
constant if the intensity of incident light is
increased, more photons collide with more atoms
and more photoelectrons are emitted. The KE of
the emitted electron remains constant since the
same photon collides with the same atom (i.e., the
nature of the collision does not change). With the
increase in the intensity of incident light
photoelectric current increases.
(c) According to Einstein's equation, if the frequency
of incident radiation is less than certain minimum
value, the photoelectric emission is not possible.
This frequency is known as threshold frequency.
Hence, the frequency of incident radiation below
which photoelectric emission is not possible is
known as threshold frequency or cutoff
frequency. It is given by :
0
=
h
mv ) 2 / 1 ( h
2
On the other hand, if the wavelength of the
incident radiation is more than certain critical
value, then photoelectric emission is not possible.
This wavelength is known as threshold
wavelength of cutoff wavelength. It is given by :
0
=
] mv ) 2 / 1 ( h [
hc
2
(d) Since Einstein treated photoelectric effect as a
collision between a photon and an atom, he
explained the instantaneous nature of
photoelectric effect.
Some other important points :
Stopping potential : The negative potential
applied to the collector in order to prevent the
electron from reaching the collector (i.e., to
reduce the photoelectric current to zero) is known
as stopping potential.
eV
0
=
2
. max
mv
2
1
= h W = h(
0
)
Millikan measured K.E. of emitted electrons or
stopping potentials for different frequencies of
incident radiation for a given emitter. He plotted a
graph with the frequency on xaxis and stopping
potential on yaxis. The graph so obtained was a
straight line as shown in figure.
0
Frequency of incident light
V
0
(
s
t
o
p
p
i
n
g
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
)
Millikan measured the slope of the straight line
(=h/e) and calculated the value of Planck's constant.
I
Full intensity
75% intensity
50% intensity
25% intensity
V
0
+
Potential difference
XtraEdge for IITJEE 24 FEBRUARY 2011
The intercept of V
0
versus graph on frequency
axis is equal to threshold frequency (
0
). From
this, the work function (h
0
) can be calculated.
Graphs in photoelectric effect :
(a) Photoelectric current versus potential difference
graphs for varying intensity (keeping same metal
plate and same frequency of incident light) :
These graphs indicate that stopping potential is
independent of the intensity and saturation current
is directly proportional to the intensity of light.
I
(V
0
)
1
+
Potential difference
(V
0
)
2
2
>
1
(b) Photoelectric current versus potential difference
graphs for varying frequency (keeping same
metal plate and same intensity of incident light) :
These graphs indicate that the stopping potential
is constant for a given frequency. The stopping
potential increases with increase of frequency.
The KE of the emitted electrons is proportional to
the frequency of incident light.
A1 A2 A3
0
B
1
B
2
B
3
Frequency
S
t
o
p
p
i
n
g
p
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
(c) Stopping potential versus frequency graphs for
different metals : These graphs indicate that the
stops is same for all metal, since they are parallel
straight lines. The slope is a universal constant
(=h/e). Further, the threshold frequency varies
with emitter since the intercepts on frequency axis
are different for different metals.
1. (i) A stopping potential of 0.82 V is required to stop
the emission of photoelectrons from the surface
of a metal by light of wavelength 4000 . For
light of wavelength 3000 , the stopping
potential is 1.85 V. Find the value of Planck's
constant.
(ii) At stopping potential, if the wavelength of the
incident light is kept at 4000 but the intensity
of light is increased two times, will photoelectric
current be obtained? Give reasons for your
answer.
Sol. (i) We have
1
hc
= eV
1
+ W
and
2
hc
= eV
2
+ W


.

\

1 2
1 1
hc = e(V
2
V
1
)
or h =


.

\

1 2
1 2
1 1
) (
e
V V e
=


.

\

7 7
8
19
10 4
1
10 3
1
10 3
) 82 . 0 85 . 1 ( 10 6 . 1
= 6.592 10
34
Js
(ii) No, because the stopping potential depends only
on the wavelength of light and not on its intensity.
2. A small plate of a metal (work function = 1.17 eV) is
plated at a distance of 2m from a monochromatic
light source of wavelength 4.8 10
7
m and power
1.0 watt. The light falls normally on the plate. Find
the number of photons striking the metal plate per
square metre per second. If a constant magnetic field
of strength 10
4
tesla is parallel to the metal surface,
find the radius of the largest circular path followed by
the emitted photoelectrons.
Sol. Energy of one photon =
hc
=
7
8 34
10 8 . 4
10 3 10 6 . 6
= 4.125 10
19
J
Number of photons emitted per second
=
19
10 125 . 4
0 . 1
= 2.424 10
18
Number of photons striking the plate per square
metre per second
=
2
18
) 2 ( 14 . 3 4
10 424 . 2
= 4.82 10
16
Maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons emitted
from the plate
E
max
=
hc
W
= 4.125 10
19
1.17 1.6 10
19
= 2.253 10
19
J
Solved Examples
XtraEdge for IITJEE 25 FEBRUARY 2011
3. A monochromatic light source of frequency
illuminates a metallic surface and ejects
photoelectrons. The photoelectrons having maximum
energy are just able to ionize the hydrogen atom in
ground state. When the whole experiment is repeated
with an incident radiation of frequency (5/6) , the
photoelectrons so emitted are able to excite the
hydrogen atom beam which then emits a radiation of
wavelength 1215 . Find the work function of the
metal and the frequency .
Sol. In the first case,
E
max
= Ionization energy = 13.6 eV
= 21.76 10
19
J
So, h = 21.76 10
19
J ....(1)
In the second case,
E'
max
=
hc
=
10
8 34
10 1215
10 3 10 6 . 6
=16.310
19
J
So,
6
5 h
= 16.3 10
19
+ W ...(2)
Dividing Eq.(1) by Eq.(2)
5
6
=
W 10 3 . 16
W 10 76 . 21
19
19
+
+
Solving, we get
W = 11.0 10 19 J = 6.875 eV
From Eq.(1) =
34
19 19
10 6 . 6
10 0 . 11 10 76 . 21
+
= 5 10
15
Hz
4. The radiation, emitted when an electron jumps from
n = 3 to n = 2 orbit in a hydrogen atom, falls on a
metal to produce photoelectrons. The electrons from
the metal surface with maximum kinetic energy are
made to move perpendicular to a magnetic field of
1/320 T in a radius of 10
3
m. Find (i) the kinetic
energy of electrons, (ii) wavelength of radiation and
(iii) the work function of metal.
Sol. (i) Speed of an electron in the magnetic field,
v =
m
Ber
Kinetic energy of electrons
E
max
=
2
1
mv
2
=
m
r e B
2
2 2 2
=
2
320
1

.

\

31
2 3 2 19
10 1 . 9 2
) 10 ( ) 10 6 . 1 (
= 1.374 10
19
J
= 0.8588 eV
(ii) Energy of the photon emitted from a hydrogen
atom
h =
hc
=
(
2 2
3
1
2
1
= 1.888 eV
Wavelength of radiation,
=
19
8 34
10 6 . 1 888 . 1
10 3 10 62 . 6
= 6.572 10
7
m
= 6572
(iii) Work function of metal W = h E
max
= 1.8888 0.8588
= 1.03 eV
5. Xrays are produced in an Xray tube by electrons
accelerated through a potential difference of 50.0 kV.
An electron makes three collisions in the target
before coming to rest and loses half of its kinetic
energy in each of the first two collisions. Determine
the wavelengths of the resulting photons. Neglect the
recoil of the heavy target atoms.
Sol. Initial kinetic energy of the electron = 50.0 keV
Kinetic energy after first collision = 25.0 keV
Energy of the photon produced in the first collision,
E
1
= 50.0 25.0 = 25.0 keV
Wavelength of this photon
1
=
1
E
hc
=
3 19
8 34
10 0 . 25 10 6 . 1
10 3 10 6 . 6
= 0.495 10
10
m = 0.495
Kinetic energy of the electron after second collision
= 12.5 eV
Energy of the photon produced in the second
collision, E
2
= 25.0 12.5 = 12.5 keV
Wavelength of this photon
2
=
2
E
hc
=
3 19
8 34
10 5 . 12 10 6 . 1
10 3 10 6 . 6
= 0.99 10
10
m
= 0.99
Kinetic energy of the electron after third collision = 0
Energy of the photon produced in the third collision,
E
3
= 12.5 0 = 12.5 keV
This is same as E
2
. Therefore, wavelength of this
photon,
3
=
2
= 0.99 .
XtraEdge for IITJEE 26 FEBRUARY 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 27 FEBRUARY 2011
Thermal Expansion :
.(a) When the temperature of a substance is increased,
it expands. The heat energy which is supplied to
the substance is gained by the constituent
particles of the substance as its kinetic energy.
Because of this the collisions between the
constituents particles are accompanied with
greater force which increase the distance between
the constituent particles.
l = lT ; A = AT ; V = VT
or l' = l (1 + T) ; A' = A(1 + T) ;
V' = V(1 + T)
(b) Also = '(1 + T) where ' is the density at
higher temperature clearly ' < for substances
which have positive value of
* = 2 and = 3
Water has negative value of for certain temperature
range (0 to 4C). This means that for that
temperature range the volume decreases with
increase in temperature. In other words the density
increases with increase in temperature.
0 ml
5 ml
10 ml
15 ml
20 ml
25 ml
30 ml
If a liquid is kept in a container and the temperature
of the system is increased then the volume of the
liquid as well as the container increases. The
apparent change in volume of the liquid as shown by
the scale is
V
app
= V( 3) T
Where V is the volume of liquid at lower temperature
V
app
is the apparent change in volume
is the coefficient of cubical expansion of liquid
is the coefficients of linear expansion of the
container.
Loss or gain in time by a pendulum clock with
change in temperature is t =
2
1
(T) t
Where t is the loss or gain in time in a time interval t
T is change in temperature and d is coefficient of
linear expansion.
If a rod is heated or cooled but not allowed to expand
or contract then the thermal stresses developed
A
F
= T.
If a scale is calibrated at a temperature T
1
but used at
a temperature T
2
, then the observed reading will be
wrong. In this case the actual reading is given by
R = R
0
(1 + T)
Where R
0
is the observed reading, R is the actual
reading.
For difference between two rods to the same at all
temperatures l
1
1
= l
2
2
.
Thermodynamics
According to first law of thermodynamics
q = U + W
For an isothermal process (for a gaseous system)
(a) The pressure volume relationship is V = constt.
(b) U = 0
(c) q = W
(d) W = 2.303 nRT log
10
i
f
V
V
= 2.303 nRT log
10
f
i
p
p
(e) Graphs T
2
> T
1
T
2
T
1
P
V
P
T
V
T
These lines are called isotherms (parameters at
constant temperature)
For an adiabatic process (for a gaseous system)
(a) The pressurevolume relationship is PV
= constt.
(b) The pressurevolumetemperature relationship is
T
PV
= constt.
(c) From (a) and (b) TV
I
= constt.
(d) q = 0
(e) W = U
Thermal Expansion, Thermodynamics
PHYSICS FUNDAMENTAL FOR IITJEE
KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY
XtraEdge for IITJEE 28 FEBRUARY 2011
(f) U = nc
v
T where c
v
=
1
R
(g) W =
1
f f i i
V p V p
=
1
) (
f i
T T nR
(h) Graphs
V
P
P
T
V
T
Please note that PV graph line (isotherm) is
steeper.
For isochoric process
(a) P T
(b) W = 0
(c) q = U
(d) U = nC
v
T where C
v
=
1
R
(e) Graphs
P
V
P
T
V
T
For isobaric process
(a) V T
(b) W = PV = P(V
f
V
i
) = nR(T
f
T
i
)
(c) U = nC
v
T
(d) q = nC
p
T
(e) Graphs
P
V
P
T
V
T
For a cyclic process
(a) U = 0 q = W
(b) Work done is the area enclosed in pV graph.
For any process depicted by PV diagram, area under
the graph represents the word done.
Kirchoff's law states that good absorbers are good
emitters also.
Problem solving Strategy : Thermal Expansion
Step 1: Identify the relevant concepts: Decide
whether the problem involves changes in length
(linear thermal expansion) or in volume (volume
thermal expansion)
Step 2: Set up the problem using the following steps:
Eq. L = L
0
T for linear expansion and
Eq. V = V
0
T for volume expansion.
Identify which quantities in Eq. L = L
0
T or
V = V
0
T are known and which are the
unknown target variables.
Step 3: Execute the solution as follows:
Solve for the target variables. Often you will be
given two temperatures and asked to compute T.
Or you may be given an initial temperature T
0
and
asked to find a final temperature corresponding to
a given length or volume change. In this case,
plan to find T first; then the final temperature is
T
0
+ T.
Unit consistency is crucial, as always. L
0
and L
(or V
0
V) must have the same units, and if you
use a value or or in K
1
or (C)
1
, then T
must be in kelvins or Celsius degrees (C). But
you can use K and C interchangeably.
Step 4: Evaluate your answer: Check whether your
results make sense. Remember that the sizes of holes
in a material expand with temperature just as the
same way as any other linear dimension, and the
volume of a hole (such as the volume of a container)
expands the same way as the corresponding solid
shape.
Problem solving strategy : Thermodynamics I
st
Law
Step 1: Identify the relevant concepts : The first law
of thermodynamics is the statement of the law of
conservation of energy in its most general form. You
can apply it to any situation in which you are
concerned with changes in the internal energy of a
system, with heat flow into or out of a system, and/or
with work done by or on a system.
Step 2: Set up the problem using the following steps
Carefully define what the thermodynamics system is.
The first law of thermodynamics focuses on
systems that go through thermodynamic
processes. Some problems involve processes
with more than one step. so make sure that you
identify the initial and final state for each step.
Identify the known quantities and the target
variables.
Check whether you have enough equations. The
first law, U = Q W, can be applied just once to
each step in a thermodynamic process, so you will
often need additional equations. These often
include Eq.
=
2
1
V
V
dV p W for the work done in a
volume change and the equation of state of the
material that makes up the thermodynamic system
(for an ideal gas, pV = nRT).
Step 3: Execute the solution as follows :
You shouldn't be surprised to be told that
consistent units are essential. If p is a Pa and V in
m
3
, then W is in joules. Otherwise, you may want
to convert the pressure and volume units into
units of Pa and m
3
. If a heat capacity is given in
terms of calories, usually the simplest procedure
is to convert it to joules. Be especially careful
with moles. When you use n = m
tot
/M to convert
XtraEdge for IITJEE 29 FEBRUARY 2011
between total mass and number of moles,
remember that if m
tot
is in kilograms, M must be
in kilograms per mole. The usual units for M are
grams per mole; be careful !
The internal energy change U in any
thermodynamic process or series of processes in
independent of the path, whether the substance is
an ideal gas or not. This point is of the utmost
importance in the problems in this topic.
Sometimes you will be given enough information
about one path between the given initial and final
states to calculate U for that path. Since U is
the same for every possible path between the
same two states, you can then relate the various
energy quantities for other paths.
When a process consists of several distinct steps,
it often helps to make a chart showing Q, W, and
U for each step. Put these quantities for each
step on a different line, and arrange them so the
Q's, W's, and U's form columns. Then you can
apply the first law to each line ; in addition, you
can add each column and apply the first law to the
sums. Do you see why ?
Using above steps, solve for the target variables.
Step 4: Evaluate your answer : Check your results for
reasonableness. In particular, make sure that each of
your answers has the correct algebraic sign.
Remember that a positive Q means that heat flows
into the system, and that a negative Q means that heat
flows into the system, and that a negative Q means
that heat flows out of the system. A positive W
means that work is done by the system on its
environment, while a negative W means that work is
done on the system by its environment.
1. A metallic bob weighs 50 g in air. It it is immersed
in a liquid at a temperature of 25C, it weighs 45 g.
When the temperature of the liquid is raised to 100C,
it weighs 45.1 g. Calculate the coefficient of cubical
expansion of the liquid given that the coefficient of
linear expansion of the metal is 2 10
6
(C)
1
.
Sol. Loss in weight in liquid at 25C = (50 45) = 5 gm
Weight of liquid displaced at 25C = V
25
25
g
5 = V
25
25
g ...(1)
Similarly, V
100
100
g = 50 45.1 = 4.9 gm ...(2)
From eq.(1) & (2) we get,
9 . 4
5
=
100
25
100
25
.
V
V
Now, V
100
= V
25
(1 +
metal
75)= V
25
(1 + 3
metal
75)
= V
25
(1 + 3 12 10
6
75)
or V
100
= V
25
(1 + 0.0027) = V
25
1.0027
Also,
25
=
100
(1 + 75)
where, = Required coefficient of expansion of the liquid
9 . 4
5
=
100
100
25
25
) 75 1 (
0027 . 1
+
V
V
=
0027 . 1
75 1 +
or = 3.1 10
4
(C)
1
2. A one litre flask contains some mercury. It is found
that at different temperature the volume of air inside
the flask remains the same. What is the volume of
mercury in flask ? Given that the coefficient of linear
expansion of glass = 9 10
6
(C)
1
and coefficient of
volume expansion of mercury = 1.8 10
4
(C
1
).
Sol. Let V = Volume of the vessel
V' = Volume of mercury
For unoccupied volume to remain constant increase
in volume of mercury should be equal to increase in
volume of vessel.
V'
m
T = V
g
T or V' =
m
g
V
V' =
4
6
10 8 . 1
10 27 1000
= 150 cm
3
3. A clock with a metallic pendulum gains 6 seconds
each day when the temperature is 20C and loses 12
seconds each day when the temperature is 40C. Find
the coefficient of linear expansion of the metal.
Sol. Time taken for one oscillation of the pendulum is
T =
g
L
2 or T
2
= 4
2
g
L
.....(1)
Partially differentiating, we get
2Tt = 4
2
g
L
.....(2)
Dividing (2) by (1), we get
T
T
=
L
L
2
=
L
t L
2
= t
2
1
where t is the change in temperature. Now,
One day = 24 hours = 86400 sec
Let t be the temperature at which the clock keeps
correct time.
At 20C, the gain in time is
6 =
2
1
(t 20) 86400 ....(3)
At 40C, the loss in time is
12 =
2
1
(40 t) 86400 ...(4)
Dividing (4) by (3), we have
6
12
=
20
40
t
t
which gives t =
3
80
C.
Using the value in equation(3), we have
6 =
2
1

.

\

20
3
80
86400
which gives = 2.1 10
5
perC
Solved Examples
XtraEdge for IITJEE 30 FEBRUARY 2011
4. A piston can freely move inside a horizontal cylinder
closed from both ends. Initially, the piston separates
the inside space of the cylinder into two equal parts
each of volume V
0
, in which an ideal gas is contained
under the same pressure p
0
and at the same
temperature. What work has to be performed in order
to increase isothermally the volume of one part of gas
times compared to that of the other by slowly
moving the piston ?
Sol. Let volume of chambers changes by V. According
to the problem, the final volume of left chamber is
times final volume of right chamber.
V
0
+ V = (V
0
V)
or V =
0
1
1
V


.

\

+
P
0
,v
0
,T
0
P
0
,v
0
,T
0
As piston is moved slowly therefore, change in
kinetic energy is zero. By workenergy theorem, we
can write
W
gas in right chamber
+ W
gas in left chamber
+
ext
Agent
W = KE
ext
Agent
W = (W
gas(R)
+ W
gas(L)
)
We know that in isothermal process, work done is
given by
W = nRT ln


.

\

i
f
V
V
Work done by gas in left chamber (W
L
)
= P
0
V
0
ln


.

\
 +
0
0
V
V V
= P
0
V
0
ln


.

\

+
1
2
Similarly, work done by gas in right chamber (W
R
)
= P
0
V
0
ln


.

\

0
0
V
V V
= P
0
V
0
ln


.

\

+
1
2
ext
Agent
W = P
0
V
0
ln


.

\

+
1
2
P
0
V
0
ln


.

\

+
1
2
= P
0
V
0
ln
2
4
1


.

\

+
5. A smooth vertical tube having two different sections
is open from both ends equipped with two pistons of
different areas figure. Each piston slides within a
respective tube section. One mole of ideal gas is
enclosed between the pistons tied with a non
stretchable thread. The crosssectional area of the
upper piston is S greater than that of the lower one.
The combined mass of the two pistons is equal to m.
The outside air pressure is P
0
. By how many kelvins
must the gas between the pistons be heated to shift
the pistons through l.
P
0
P
0
Sol. Let A
1
= Cross section of upper piston
A
2
= Cross section of lower piston
T = Tension in the string
P = Gas pressure
m
1
= Mass of upper piston
m
2
= Mass of lower piston
Now, consider FBD of upper piston
PA
1
m
1
g
P
0
A
1
From equilibrium consideration of upper piston
we get, P
0
A
1
+ T + m
1
g = PA
1
Similarly, consider FBD of lower piston
PA
2
m
2
g P
0
A
2
T
P
0
A
2
+ T = m
2
g + PA
2
Eliminating T, we get
P = P
0
+
2 1
2 1
) (
A A
g m m
+
According to problem
m = m
1
+ m
2
and S = A
1
A
2
P = P
0
+
S
mg
Now, PV = RT
or PV = RT or T =
R
V P
But V = (A
1
A
2
)l = S. l
T = 
.

\

+
S
mg
P
0
S.l
l l
l
XtraEdge for IITJEE 31 FEBRUARY 2011
Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones by Hydride
Transfer :
H
3
B H + C = O
R
R
H C O
R
R
H C O H
R
R
H OH
+
Hydride transfer Alkoxide ion Alcohol
These steps are repeated until all hydrogen atoms
attached to boron have been transferred.
Sodium borohydride is a less powerful reducing
agent than lithium aluminum hydride. Lithium
aluminum hydride reduces acids, aldehydes, and
ketones but sodium borohydride reduces only
aldehydes and ketones :
O
C
O R
O
C
OR R
O
C
R R
O
C
H R
<
<
<
Reduced by LiAlH
4
Reduced by NaBH
4
Ease of reduction
Lithium aluminum hydride reacts violently with
water, and therefore reductions with lithium
aluminum hydride must be carried out in anhydrous
solutions, usually in anhydrous ether. (Ethyl acetate
is added cautiously after the reaction is over to
decompose excess LiAlH
4
; then water is added to
decompose the aluminum complex.) Sodium
borohydride reductions, by contrast, can be carried
out in water or alcohol solutions.
The Addition of Ylides : The Wittig reaction :
Aldehydes and ketones react with phosphorus ylides
to yield alkenes and triphenylphosphine oxide. (An
ylide is a neutral molecule having a negative carbon
adjacent to a positive heteroatom.) Phosphorus ylides
are also called phosphoranes :
C = O + (C
6
H
5
)
3
P C
R
R
.. + R
R
C = C
R
R
R
R
+ O =P(C
6
H
5
)
3
Aldehyde or
ketone
Phosphorus ylide
or phosphorane
Alkene
[(E) and(Z) isomers]
Triphenyl phosphine
oxide
This reaction, known as the Wittig reaction, has
proved to be a valuable method for synthesizing
alkenes. The Wittig reaction is applicable to a wide
variety of compounds, and although a mixture of (E)
and (Z) isomers may result, the Wittig reaction offers
a great advantage over most other alkene syntheses in
that no ambiguity exists as to the location of the
double bond in the product. (This is in contrast to E1
eliminations, which may yield multiple alkene
products by rearrangement to more stable carbocation
intermediates, and both E1 and E2 elimination
reactions, which may produce multiple products
when different hydrogens are available for
removal.)
Phosphorus ylides are easily prepared from
triphenylphosphine and primary or secondary alkyl
halides. Their preparation involves two reactions :
General Reaction
Reaction 1
(C
6
H
5
)
3
P : + CH X (C
6
H
5
)
3
P CH X
R
R
+
Triphenylphosphine
R
R
An alkyltriphenylphosphonium
halide
Reaction 2
(C
6
H
5
)
3
P C H : B
(C
6
H
5
)
3
P C :
+ H:B
R
R
+
R
R
A phosphorus ylide
+
Specific Example
Reaction 1
(C
6
H
5
)
3
P : + CH
3
Br (C
6
H
5
)
3
P CH
3
Br
C6H6
+
Methyltriphenylphosphonium
bromide (89%)
Organic
Chemistry
Fundamentals
CARBONYL
COMPOUNDS
KEY CONCEPT
XtraEdge for IITJEE 32 FEBRUARY 2011
Reaction 2
(C
6
H
5
)
3
P CH
3
+ C
6
H
5
Li
(C
6
H
5
)
3
P CH
2
:
+ C
6
H
6
+ LiBr
+
+
Br
The first reaction is a nucleophilic substitution
reaction. Triphenylphosphine is an excellent
nucleophile and a weak base. It reacts readily with 1
and 2 alkyl halide by an S
N
2 mechanism to displace
a halide ion from the alkyl halide to give an
alkyltriphenylphosphonium salt. The second reaction
is an acidbase reaction. A strong base (usually an
alkyllithium or phenyllithium) removes a proton from
the carbon that is attached to phosphorus to give the
ylide.
Phosphorus ylides can be represented as a hybrid of
the two resonance structures shown here. Quantum
mechanical calculations indicate that the contribution
made by the first structure is relatively unimportant.
(C
6
H
5
)
3
P = C
R
R
(C
6
H
5
)
3
P C :
R
R
+
The mechanism of the Wittig reaction has been the
subject of considerable study. An early mechanistic
proposal suggested that the ylide, acting as a
carbanion, attacks the carbonyl carbon of the
aldehyde or ketone to form an unstable intermediate
with separated charges called a betaine. In the next
step, the betaine is envisioned as becoming an
unstable fourmembered cyclic system called an
oxaphosphetane, which then spontaneously loses
triphenylphosphine oxide to become an alkene.
However, studies by E. Vedejs and others suggest
that the betaine is not an intermediate and that the
oxaphosphetane is formed directly by a cycloaddition
reaction. The driving force for the Wittig reaction is
the formation of the very strong (H = 540 kJ mol
1
)
phosphorus oxygen bond in triphenylphosphine
oxide.
RC +
:CR R C C R
R
:O:
R
P(C
6
H
5
)
3
..
+
R C C R
R
:O
R
P(C
6
H
5
)
3
..
Aldehyde
or ketone
R R
P(C
6
H
5
)
3
+
:O:
Ylide Betaine
(may not be formed)
Oxaphosphetane
C = C + O = P(C
6
H
5
)3
R
R
R
R
Alkene
(+diastereomer)
Triphenylphosphine
oxide
Specific Example :
O + :CH
2
P(C
6
H
5
)
3
CH
2
O P(C
6
H
5
)
3
+
CH
2
O P(C
6
H
5
)
3
CH
2
+ O=P(C
6
H
5
)
3
Methylenecyclohexane
(86%)
+
Michael Additions :
Conjugate additions of enolate anions to
unsaturated carbonyl compound are known
generally as Michael additions. An example is the
addition of cyclohexanone to C
6
H
5
CH=CHCOC
6
H
5
:
O O
O
C6H5CH=CHCC6H5
O
O
CH
C
6
H
5
CH
CO
C
6
H
5
O
CH
C
6
H
5
C
C = O
C
6
H
5
H
H
+H
3
O
+
OH
The sequence that follows illustrates how a conjugate
aldol addition (Michael addition) followed by a
simple aldol condensation may be used to build one
ring onto another. This procedure is known as the
Robinson anulation (ringforming) reaction (after the
English chemist, Sir Robert Robinon, who won the
Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1947 for his research on
naturally occurring compounds) :
O
+ CH
2
= CHCCH
3
O
CH
2
CH
3
CH
2
C
H
3
C
O
2Methylcyclo
hexane1, 3dione
CH
3
O
O
O
O
CH
3
O
(65%)
OH
CH3OH
(conjugate
addition)
Methyl vinyl
ketone
aldol
condensation
base
(H2O)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 33 FEBRUARY 2011
Inorganic
Chemistry
Fundamentals
Tetragonal distortion of octahedral complexes (Jahn
Teller distortion) :
The shape of transition metal complexes are affected
by whether the d orbitals are symmetrically or
asymmetrically filled.
Repulsion by six ligands in an octahedral complex
splits the d orbitals on the central metal into t
2g
and e
g
levels. It follows that there is a corresponding
repulsion between the d electrons and the ligands. If
the d electrons are symmetrically arranged, they will
repel all six ligands equally. Thus the structure will
be a completely regular octahedron. The symmetrical
arrangements of d electrons are shown in Table.
Symmetrical electronic arrangements :
Electronic
configuration
t
2g
e
g
d
5
d
6
d
8
d
10
All other arrangements have an asymmetrical
arrangement of d electrons. If the d electrons are
asymmetrically arranged, they will repel some
ligands in the complex more than others. Thus the
structure is distorted because some ligands are
prevented from approaching the metal.
as closely as others. The e
g
orbitals point directly at
the ligands. Thus asymmetric filling of the e
g
orbitals
in some ligands being repelled more than others. This
causes a significant distortion of the octahedral
shape. In contrast the t
2g
orbitals do not point directly
at the ligands, but point in between the ligand
directions. Thus asymmetric filling of the t
2g
orbitals
has only a very small effect on the stereochemistry.
Distortion caused by asymmetric filling of the t
2g
orbitals is usually too small to measure. The
electronic arrangements which will produce a large
distortion are shown in Table.
The two e
g
orbitals
2 2
y x
d
and
2
z
d are normally
degenerate. However, if they are asymmetrically
filled then this degeneracy is destroyed, and the two
orbitals are no longer equal in energy. If the
2
z
d
orbital contains one.
Asymmetrical electronic arrangements :
Electronic
configuration
t
2g
e
g
d
4
d
7
d
9
more electron than the
2 2
y x
d
. Given a
solution made by dissolving 11.4 g of
KA1(SO
4
)
2
.12H
2
O in enough water to make 0.10 dm
3
of solution, calculate its [H
3
O
+
] :
(a) Considering the hydrolysis
Al
3+
+ 2H
2
O Al(OH)
2+
+ H
3
O
+
with K
h
= 1.4 10
5
M
(b) Allowing also for the equilibrium
HSO
4
+ H
2
O H
3
O
+
+ SO
4
2
with K
2
= 1.26 10
2
M
Sol. (a) Amount of alum =
1
mol g 38 . 474
g 4 . 11
= 0.024 mol
Molarity of the prepared solution =
3
dm 1 . 0
mol 024 . 0
= 0.24 M
Hydrolysis of Al
3+
is
Al
3+
+ 2H
2
O Al(OH)
2+
+ H
3
O
+
K
h
=
] Al [
] O H ][ ) OH ( Al [
3
3
2
+
+ +
If x is the concentration of Al
3+
that has hydrolyzed,
we have
K
h
=
x M 24 . 0
) x )( x (
= 1.4 10
5
M
Solving for x, we get
[H
3
O
+
] = x = 1.82 10
3
M
(b) We will have to consider the following equilibria.
Al
3+
+ 2H
2
O Al(OH)
2+
+ H
3
O
+
H
3
O
+
+ SO
4
2
HSO
4
+ H
2
O
Let z be the concentration of SO
4
2
that combines
with H
3
O
+
and y be the net concentration of H
3
O
+
that is present in the solution. Since the concentration
z of SO
4
2
combines with the concentration z of
H
3
O
+
, it is obvious that the net concentration of H
3
O
+
produced in the hydrolysis reaction of Al
3+
is (y + z).
Thus, the concentration (y + z) of Al
3+
out of 0.24 M
hydrolyzes in the solution. With these, the
concentrations of various species in the solution are
z y M 24 . 0
3
Al
+
+ 2H
2
O
z y
2
) OH ( Al
+
+
+
y
3
O H
+
y
3
O H
+
+
z M 48 . 0
2
4
SO
z
4
HSO
+ H
2
O
Thus, K
h
=
) z y M 24 . 0 (
) y )( z y (
+
= 1.4 10
5
M ...(i)
K
2
=
) z M 48 . 0 ( y
z
=
M 10 26 . 1
1
2
...(ii)
From Eq. (ii), we get
z =
y ) M 10 26 . 1 (
y ) M 48 . 0 (
2
+
Substituting this in Eq. (i), we get
UNDERSTANDING
Physical Chemistry
XtraEdge for IITJEE 36 FEBRUARY 2011


.

\

+


.

\

+
+
y ) M 10 26 . 1 (
y ) M 48 . 0 (
y 24 . 0
y
y ) M 10 26 . 1 (
y ) M 48 . 0 (
y
2
2
= 1.4 10
5
Making an assumption that y <<1.26 10
2
M, and
then solving for y, we get
[H
3
O
+
] = y = 2.932 10
4
M
3. A solution contains Na
2
CO
3
and NaHCO
3
.10 ml of
this requires 2.0 ml of 0.1 M H
2
SO
4
for neutralization
using phenolphthalein as indicator. Methyl orange is
then added when a further 2.5 ml of 0.2 M H
2
SO
4
was required. Calculate the strength of Na
2
CO
3
and
NaHCO
3
in solution. [IIT1978]
Sol. Step 1.
Equivalent mass of Na
2
CO
3
=
2
mass Molecular
=
2
106
= 53
Meq. of Na
2
CO
3
in solution =
53
m
1
1000
Step 2.
Equivalent mass of NaHCO
3
=
1
mass Molecular
= 84
Meq. of NaHCO
3
in solution =
84
m
2
1000
Step 3.
Meq. of H
2
SO
4
used with phenolphthalein
= Valency factor Molarity Volume (ml)
= 2 0.1 2.0 = 0.4
2Na
2
CO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
2NaHCO
3
+ Na
2
SO
4
Meq. of H
2
SO
4
used with phenolphthalein
=
2
1
Meq. of Na
2
CO
3
2
1
Meq. of Na
2
CO
3
= 0.4
Step 4.
Meq. of H
2
SO
4
used with methyl orange
= Valency factor molarity volume(ml)
= 2 0.2 2.5 = 1
Meq. of H
2
SO
4
used with methyl orange
= Meq. of NaHCO
3
+
2
1
Meq. of Na
2
CO
3
Meq. of NaHCO
3
+
2
1
Meq. of Na
2
CO
3
= 1
Meq. of NaHCO
3
= 1 0.4 = 0.6
and Meq. of Na
2
CO
3
= 2 0.4 = 0.8
Step 5.
53
m
1
1000 = 0.8 or m
1
=
1000
53 8 . 0
= 0.0424
Strength of Na
2
CO
3
solution =
10
1000 0424 . 0
= 4.24 g L
1
Step 6.
84
m
2
1000 = 0.6 or m
2
=
1000
84 6 . 0
= 0.0504
Strength of NaHCO
3
solution =
10
1000 0504 . 0
= 5.04 g L
1
4. From the standard potentials shown in the following
diagram, calculate the potentials
1
E and
2
E .
BrO
3
0.54 V
BrO
0.45 V
2
1
Br
2
1.07 V
Br
0.17 V
E
2
E
1
Sol. The reaction corresponding to the potential E
1
is
BrO
3
+ 3H
2
O + 5e
=
2
1
Br
2
+ 6OH
...(1)
This reaction can be obtained by adding the
following two reduction reactions:
BrO
3
+ 2H
2
O + 4e
= BrO
+ 4OH
...(2)
BrO
+ H
2
O + e
=
2
1
Br
2
+ 2OH
...(3)
Hence the free energy change of reaction (1) will be
) 1 ( reaction
G =
) 2 ( reaction
G +
) 3 ( reaction
G
Replacing Gs in terms of potentials, we get
5FE
1
= 4F(0.54 V) 1F (0.45 V)
= (2.61 V) F
Hence E
1
=
5
V 61 . 2
= 0.52 V
Now the reaction corresponding to the potential E
2
is
BrO
3
+ 2H
2
O + 6e
= Br
+ 6OH
...(4)
This reaction can be obtained by adding the
following three reactions.
BrO
3
+ 2H
2
O + 4e
= BrO
+ 4OH
(Eq.2)
BrO
+ H
2
O + e
=
2
1
Br
2
+ 2OH
(Eq.3)
2
1
Br
2
+ e
= Br
...(5)
Hence
) 4 ( reaction
G =
) 2 ( reaction
G +
) 3 ( reaction
G
+
) 5 ( reaction
G
or 6F(E
2
) = 4F(0.54 V) 1F(0.45 V)
1F (1.07 V)
= ( 3.68 V) F
or E
2
=
6
68 . 3
= 0.61 V.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 37 FEBRUARY 2011
5. The freezing point of an aqueous solution of KCN
containing 0.189 mol kg
1
was 0.704 C. On adding
0.095 mol of Hg(CN)
2
, the freezing point of the
solution became 0.530C. Assuming that the
complex is formed according to the equation
Hg(CN)
2
+ x CN
x
2 x
) CN ( Hg
+
Find the formula of the complex.
Sol. Molality of the solution containing only KCN is
m =
f
f
K
) T (
=
) mol kg K 86 . 1 (
) K 704 . 0 (
1
= 0.379 mol kg
1
This is just double of the given molality
( = 0.189 mol kg
1
) of KCN, indicating complete
dissociation of KCN. Molality of the solution after
the formation of the complex
m =
f
f
K
) T (
=
) mol kg K 86 . 1 (
) K 530 . 0 (
1
= 0.285 mol kg
1
If it be assumed that the whole of Hg(CN)
2
is
converted into complex, the amounts of various
species in 1 kg of solvent after the formation of the
complex will be
n(K
+
) = 0.189 mol,
n(CN
) = (0.189 x) mol
) ) CN ( Hg ( n
x
2 x+
= 0.095 mol
Total amount of species in 1 kg solvent becomes
n
total
= [0.189 + (0.189 x) + 0.095] mol
= (0.473 x) mol Equating this to 0.285 mol,
we get
(0.473 x) mol = 0.285 mol
i.e. x = (0.473 0.285) = 0.188
Number of CN
units combined =
mol 095 . 0
mol 188 . 0
= 2
Thus, the formula of the complex is
2
4
) CN ( Hg .
TRUE OR FALSE
1. The magnitude of charge on one gram of
electrons is 1.60 10
19
coulomb.
2. Chromyl chloride test of Cl
R
+
+ OH
Fast
ROH
5. [False] In metamerism isomers differ in structure
due to difference in distribution of carbon atoms
about the functional group.
For example :
CH
3
CH
2
OCH
2
CH
3
and CH
3
OCH
2
CH
2
CH
3
Conditions mentioned in the statement are
associated with phenomenon of trautomerism.
6. [False]
H C = O + H
+
CN
H
H C = OH
H
CN
7. [True]
MEMORABLE POINTS
Parsec is the unit of Distance
Estimated radius of universe is 10
25
m
Estimated age of Sun is 10
18
s
18/5 km h
1
equal to 1 ms
1
1 femtometre (1 fm) is equal to 10
15
m
Dot product of force and velocity is Power
Moment of momentum is equal to
Angular momentum
Rocket propulision is based on the principle of
Conservation of linear momentum
The largest of astronomical unit, light year and
parsec is Parsec
XtraEdge for IITJEE 38 FEBRUARY 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 39 FEBRUARY 2011
WHAT MAKES A STAR?
So you're out one night and you look up into the
sky. Assuming you aren't in a city with tons of
smog or clouds, you will probably see a sky
filled with little dots of light. Those dots (this
should not be a surprise) are stars. Some are only
a few hundred light years away and some are
thousands of light years away. They all have
some things in common. You see, stars are huge
balls of fire. They aren't just any fire. That fire is
from a constant number of nuclear reactions.
1. Let f(x) = sinx and
g(x) =
>
x x
x for x t t f
; 2 / sin
0 ; 0 ); ( {max
2
Discuss the continuity and differentiability of g(x) in
(0, )
2. Is the inequality sin
2
x
< x sin(sin x) true for
0 < x < /2 ? Justify your answer.
3. A shop sells 6 different flavours of icecream. In how
many ways can a customer choose 4 icecream cones
if
(i) they are all of different flavours;
(ii) they are not necessarily of different flavours;
(iii) they contain only 3 different flavoures;
(iv) they contain only 2 or 3 different flavoures ?
4. Using vector method, show that the internal
(external) bisector of any angle of a triangle divides
the opposite side internally (externally) in the ratio of
the other two sides containing the triangle.
5. Prove that
(a) cos x +
n
C
1
cos 2x +
n
C
2
cos 3x + ............
...... +
n
C
n
cos(n + 1)x = 2
n
. cos
n
x/2. cos 
.

\
 +
x
n
2
2
(b) sin x +
n
C
1
sin 2x +
n
C
2
sin 3x + ...............
....... +
n
C
n
sin(n + 1)x = 2
n
. cos
n
x/2 . sin

.

\
 +
x
n
2
2
6. In a town with a population of n, a person sands two
letters to two sperate people, each of whom is asked
to repeat the procedure. Thus, for each letter
received, two letters are sent to separate persons
chosen at random (irrespective of what happened in
the past). What is the probability that in the first k
stages, the person who started the chain will not
receive a letter ?
7. Prove the identity :
x
z zx
e
0
2
dz =
x
z x
e e
0
4 4
2 2
dz, deriving for the
function f(x) =
x
z zx
e
0
2
dz a differential equation
and solving it.
8. Prove that
sec sin n d
=
1
) 1 cos( 2
n
n
d n sec ) 2 sin( d.
Hence or otherwise evaluate
2 /
0 cos
3 sin 5 cos
d.
9. Find the latus rectum of parabola
9x
2
24 xy + 16y
2
18x 101y + 19 = 0.
10. A circle of radius 1 unit touches positive xaxis and
positive yaxis at A and B respectively. A variable
line passing through origin intersects the circle in two
points in two points D and E. Find the equation of the
lines for which area of DEB is maximum.
`t{xtvt V{txzx
This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety
of possible twists and turns of problems in mathematics that would be very helpful in facing
IIT JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and
we hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and
enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.
By : Shailendra Maheshwari
Joint Director Academics, Career Point, Kota Sol ut i ons wi l l be publ i shed i n next i ssue
10
Set
XtraEdge for IITJEE 40 FEBRUARY 2011
1. as (a) = (b) = (c)
so by Rolles theorem there must exist at least a point
x = & x = each of intervals (a, c) & (c, b) such
that () = 0 & () = 0. Again by Rolles theorem,
there must exist at least a point x = such that
< < where () = 0
so
) ( ) (
) ( 2
c a b a
a f
+
) ( ) (
) ( 2
a b c b
b f
+
) ( ) (
) ( 2
b c a c
c f
f () = 0
so
) ( ) (
) (
c a b a
a f
+
) ( ) (
) (
a b c b
b f
+
) ( ) (
) (
b c a c
c f
=
2
1
f ()
where a < < b.
2. Required probability
1 .
6
5
.
6
5
.
6
5
........
6
5
.
6
1
=
2 r
6
5

.

\

.
6
1
(r 2) times
Note : any number in 1st loss
same no. does not in 2nd (any other comes).
Now 3rd is also diff. (and in same r 2 times)
Now (r 1)
th
& r
th
must be same.
3. 2s = a + b + c
ON = BN + BO
Let BN = x
2BN + 2CN + 2AR = 2s
x + (a x) + (b a + x) = s
x = s b
R
O
C
N
B
M
A
r
I (h,k)
so h = ON =
2
a
(s b)
=
2
2 2 b a s + +
=
2
c b
& r = k.
so r = k =
s
=
s
c s b s a s s ) )( )( (
r = k =
s
c s b s a s s ) )( )( (
2sk = ) )( )( ( c b a c b a a s s + +
= ) 2 )( 2 )( ( x a x a a s s +
2sk = ) 4 )( (
2 2
h a a s s
required locus is
4s
2
y
2
= A(a
2
4x
2
)
s
2
y
2
+ Ax
2
=
4
2
Aa
where A is = s (s a)
here h
2
< as so it is an ellipse
4. f (0) = c
f (1) = a + b + c & f (1) = a b + c
solving these,
a =
2
1
[f (1) + f (1) 2 f (0)] ,
b =
2
1
[f (1) f (1)] & c = f (0)
so f (x) =
2
) 1 ( + x x
f (1) + (1 x
2
) f (0) +
2
) 1 ( x x
f(1)
2  f (x)  <  x   x + 1  + 2 1 x
2
 +  x   x 1 ;
as  f (1)  ,  f (0) ,  f (1)  1.
2  f (x)   x  (x + 1) + 2 (1 x
2
) +  x  (1 x) as
x [1, 1]
so 2  f (x)  2 (x + 1 x
2
) 2 .
4
5
so  f (x) 
4
5
Now as g (x) = x
2
f (1/x) =
2
1
(1 + x) f (1)
+ (x
2
1) f (0) +
2
1
(1 x) f (1)
so 2  g (x)   x + 1  + 2  1 x
2
 +  1 x
2  g (x)  x + 1 + 2 (1 x
2
)  + 1 x ;
as x [1, 1]
2  g (x)  < 2x
2
+ 4 4.
g (x)  2.
5. Oil bed is being shown by the plane A PQ. be the
angle between the planes A PQ & A B C. Let A B
C be the x y plane with xaxis along A C and
origin at A. The P.V.s of the various points are
defined as follows
MATHEMATICAL CHALLENGES
SOLUTION FOR JANUARY ISSUE (SET # 9)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 41 FEBRUARY 2011
B
A C
B
A
P
Q
C
point C : b i
, point B : cos Ai
+ c sin A j
,
point Q : b i
z k
, point P : cos Ai
+ c sin A j
y k
normal vector to the plane A B C
=
1
n
r
= bc sin Ak
normal vector to the plane A'PQ =
2
n
r
= cz sin Ai
+ (by cz cos A) j
+ bc sin Ak
so cos =
  
.
1 1
2 1
n n
n n
r r
r r
=
2 / 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
] sin ) cos ( sin [
sin
A c b A cz by A z c
A bc
+ +
cos =
2 / 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
)] cos 2 ( sin [
sin
A bycz y b z c A c b
A c b
+ +
so tan =
A bc
A bycz y b z c
sin
] cos 2 [
2 / 1 2 2 2 2
+
so tan . sin A = A
bc
yz
c
y
b
z
cos
2
2
2
2
2
+
6.
x
x x
5 cos 2 1
7 cos 8 cos
.
x
x
5 sin 2
5 sin 2
dx
=
+
+
) 10 sin 5 (sin 2
2 sin 12 sin 3 sin 13 sin
x x
x x x x
dx
=
+
+
) 10 sin 5 (sin 2
12 sin 3 sin 2 sin 13 sin
x x
x x x x
dx
=
2
5
cos
2
15
sin . 2 . 2
2
9
cos
2
15
sin 2
2
11
cos
2
15
sin 2
x x
x x x x
dx
=
2
5
cos 2
2
9
cos
2
11
cos
x
x x
dx
=
2
5
cos 2
2
sin 5 sin 2
x
x
x
dx
= 2

.

\

2
sin
2
5
sin
x x
dx
=

.

\

2
4
cos
2
6
cos
x x
dx
=
dx x x ) 2 cos 3 (cos
=
3
3 sin x
2
2 sin x
+ C
7.
2
2
dx
y d
= 2
x
dt t f
0
) (
integrate using by parts method
dx
dy
= 2
(
(
x x
dx x f x dt t f x
0 0
) ( . ) (
= 2
(
(
x
dt t f t x
0
) ( ) (
again integrating,
y = 2
(
(


.

\

dx dt t f x dt t f t x x
x x x
0 0 0
0 ) ( ) ( ) (
=2
(
(
+
dx x f
x
dt t f
x
dt t f t x x
x x x
0
2
0
2
0
) (
2
) (
2
) ( ) (
=
x
dt t f xt x
0
2
) ( ) ( 2
x
dt t f x
0
2
) ( +
x
dt t f t
0
2
) (
y =
+
x
dt t f t xt x
0
2 2
) ( ) 2 ( =
x
dt t f t x
0
2
) ( ) (
8. To prove that


.

\

+ 
.

\

/ 1
1
b
a
<


.

\

+ 
.

\

/ 1
1
b
a
Let
b
a
= c > 0
so (c
+ 1)
1/
< (c
+ 1)
1/
.
Let f (x) = (c
x
+ 1)
1/x
; x > 0
f (x) = (c
x
+ 1)
1/x
ln (c
x
+ 1) 
.

\

2
1
x
+
x
1
(c
x
+ 1) x
1
1
. c
x
ln c
=
2
1
1
) 1 (
x
c
x
x
+
] ) 1 ( ) 1 ( [
x x x x
c n c c n c l l + + + < 0
so f (x) is decreasing function
so f () < f (). Hence proved.
9. Point P (x, 1/2) under the given condition are length
PB = OB
XtraEdge for IITJEE 42 FEBRUARY 2011
B (t, 1)
A
(t 1)
C
O
P
r = t ; so = t
from PAB :
2
PB
= PA sin
2
PB = 2 sin
2
t
........(1)
Now PBC =
2
=
2
t
;
so from PCB ;
2
=
2
t
so from PCB ;
PB
2 / 1
= sin
2
t
........(2)
from (1) & (2) PB = 1 ; so = t = /3
thus  PB 
2
= (t x)
2
+
4
1
= 1.
 t x  =
2
3
; t x =
2
3
; as t > x
so x =
3
2
3
10. Let x
n
= 1 n + 1 + n be rational, then
n
x
1
=
1 1
1
+ + n n
is also rational
n
x
1
=
2
1 1 + n n
is also rational
1 + n 1 n is also rational
as 1 + n + 1 n & 1 + n 1 n are rational
so 1 + n + 1 n must be rational
i.e. (n + 1) & (n 1) are perfect squares.
This is not possible as any two perfect squares differe
at least by 3. Hence there is not positive integer n for
which 1 n + 1 + n is a rational.
1. Emeralds have been produced synthetically in
labs since 1848 and can be virtually
indistinguishable from the genuine article.
2. In the last 200 years the use of metals has
increased as scientists have discovered new
ones: until the 17th Century only 12 metals
were known  there are now 86.
3. The only person to have an element named
after him while still alive was Glenn Seaborg,
the most prolific of all the element hunters.
4. Traffic lights with red and green gas lights were
first introduced in London in 1868.
Unfortunately, they exploded and killed a
policeman. The first successful system was
installed in Cleveland, Ohio in 1914.
5. In 1998, design student Damini Kumar at South
Bank University patented a teapot with a
special grooved spout, which she claims
virtually rules out dribbling.
6. Even though most items in the home today are
technologically up to date, most of us are still
using the standard light bulb designed in 1928!
7. A chest xray is comprised of 90,000 to
130,000 electron volts.
8. The strength of early lasers was measured in
Gillettes, the number of blue razor blades a
given beam could puncture.
9. The first commercial radio station in the United
States, KDKA Pittsburgh, began broadcasting
in November 1920.
10. A British rocket attack on US soldiers is
celebrated in the lyrics of the US National
Anthem.
11. Until the late 1800s, it was forbidden for
women in the United States to obtain a patent,
so if a woman had invented something she
would file for a patent under her husband or
father's name. For this reason, the number of
early female inventors remains a mystery.
12. Milt Garland, a 102 year old engineer, invented
a technology that forms ice on the exterior of a
casing instead of inside it, which is used to
create indoor ice rinks.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 43 FEBRUARY 2011
1. Evaluate
+
1
0
) 1 (
n
x tx dx where n I
+
and t is a
parameter independent of x. Hence show that
1
0
) 1 (
k n k
x x = [
n
C
k
(n + 1)]
1
Sol.
+
1
0
] 1 ) 1 [(
n
x t =
) 1 )( 1 (
1
1
+
+
n t
t
n
=
1
1
+ n
[1 + t + t
2
+ t
3
+ ..... + t
k
+ .... + t
n
] ...(1)
Also
+
1
0
)] 1 ( [
n
x tx dx =
+
1
0
] ) 1 [(
n
tx x dx
=
1
0
0
) 1 ( dx x C
n n
+ t
1
0
1
1
) 1 ( dx x x C
n n
+ .... + t
k
n
C
k
1
0
) 1 (
k n
x x
k
dx ...... ...(2)
As R.H.S of (1) = R.H.S. of (2) compare equ. of t
k
on
both sides
1
1
+ n
=
n
C
k
1
0
) 1 (
k n
x x
k
dx
1
0
) 1 (
k n
x x
k
dx =
) 1 (
1
+ n C
k
n
Hence proved.
2. Let point A describes a curve C such that the
difference between its distances from the points (0, 0)
and (3, 4) is 5. Then find the no. of points at which
the circle x
2
+ y
2
= 4 and c intersect.
Sol. Locus of the point A is curve C which is satisfying
AB AP = PB
where P : (0, 0), B : (3, 4) curve C represents two
rays BA or PA and it is clear from diagram that
curve C and given circle are intersecting at only one
point.
A
P(0, 0)
B(3, 4)
A
3. Let [x] stands for the greatest integer function find
the derivative of f(x) =
x x
x x
sin 3
2
]) 1 [ (
+
+ + , where it
exists in (1, 1.5). Indicate the point(s) where it does
not exist. Give reason(s) for your conclusion.
Sol. The greatest integer [x
3
+ 1] takes jump from 2 to 3 at
3
2 and again from 3 to 4 at
3
3 in [1, 1.5] and
therefore it is discontinuous at these two points. As a
result the given function is discontinuous at
3
2 and
hence not differentiable.
To find the derivative at other points we write :
in (1,
3
2 ), f(x) =
x x
x
sin
2
) 2 (
+
+
f (x) =
1 sin
2
) 2 (
+
+
x x
x
{x
2
+ sin x + (x + 2) (2x + cos x) log (x + 2)}
in (
3
2 ,
3
3 ), f(x) =
x x
x
sin
2
) 3 (
+
+ ,
f (x) =
1 sin
2
) 3 (
+
+
x x
x {x
2
+ sin x
+ (2x + cos x) (x + 3) log
e
(x + 3)}
in (
3
5 , 1.5), f(x) =
x x
x
sin
2
) 4 (
+
+ ,
f (x) =
1 sin
2
) 4 (
+
+
x x
x , {x
2
+ sin x + (2x + cos x)
(x + 4) log
e
(x + 4)}
4. For three unit vectors a , b
and a b
= c a . Show
that cos + cos + cos = 3/2, where , and are
the angles between a and b
, b
( a + b
) c =
0
c is collinear with a + b
a + b
= c for
same R
Similarly b
= c a + b
+ c = ( + 1)
c
Similarly a + b
+ c = ( + 1) a
Hence ( + 1) c = ( + 1) a ,
either + 1 = + 1 = 0 or c is collinear with a .
But c can not be collinear to a other wise a c = 0
b c
= 0
b
is collinear to with c
Experts Solution for Question asked by IITJEE Aspirants
Students' Forum
MATHS
XtraEdge for IITJEE 44 FEBRUARY 2011
a b
+c = a
a + b
+ c =
0
( a + b
+ c ) . ( a + b
+ c ) = 0
1 + 1 + 1 + 2 ( a . b
+ b
. c + c . a) = 0
a . b
+ b
. c + c . a =
2
3
cos + cos + cos =
2
3
5. Let S be the coefficients of x
49
in given expression
f(x) and if P be product of roots of the equation
f(x) = 0, then find the value of
P
S
, given that :
f(x) = (x 1)
2

.

\

2
2
x

.

\

2
1
x 
.

\

3
3
x

.

\

3
1
x ,
......... 
.

\

25
25
x

.

\

25
1
x
Sol. Here we can write f(x) as :
f(x) =
)
`

.

\


.

\


.

\

25
25
... 3
3
2
2
) 1 (
x x x
x
)
`

.

\


.

\


.

\

25
1
...
3
1
2
1
) 1 ( x x x x
Now roots of f(x) = 0 are;
1
2
, 2
2
, 3
2
, ..... , 25
2
and 1,
2
1
,
3
1
, .....,
25
1
Now f(x) is the polynomial of degree 50,
So coefficient of x
49
will be :
S = (sum of roots)
= (1
2
+ 2
2
+ ... + 25
2
) 
.

\

+ + + +
25
1
....
3
1
2
1
1
=
)
`
+
K
6
51 26 25
where, K =
=
25
1
1
n
n
S = (K + 5525).
Product of roots :
1
2
. 2
2
. 3
2
.... 25
2
. 1 .
2
1
.
3
1
....
25
1
= 1 . 2 . 3 ...25
P = 25 !
Hence
P
S
=
! 25
) 5525 K ( +
, where K =
=
25
1
1
n
n
6. A man standing at a distance 5m in front of the base
of a building 10m high on which a flagstaff is
mounted observes that the top of the building and the
top of a mountain behind the building are along the
same straight line. When he recedes by a distance of
48 m he observes that now the top of the flagstaff and
the top of the mountain are along the same straight
line. If at both the locations, the flagstaff subtends the
same angle at the mans eye, find the height of
mountain.
Sol. CD : Flagstaf
DE : Building
KF : Mountain (height = h say)
The figure illustrates the situation.
Since, CBD = CAD = say, points A, B, C and
D are concyclic.
ABD = ACD = 90 ( + )
ABC = 90 ( + ) + = 90 = KCH
K
H
G
F
E A 5 48
B
90
10
D
C
90
Now, h = KH + HF
= (CH) tan (90 ) + (BE) tan(90 )
(Q HF = CE)
= [DG + (BA + AE) cot
= [KG cot + (48 + 5)] cot
h = [(h 10)cot + 53] cot
(Q KG = KF GF)
Putting cot =
10
5
=
2
1
, we get
h = 
.

\

+
53
2
10 h
2
1
4h = h 10 + 106
3h = 96
h = 32 m
XtraEdge for IITJEE 45 FEBRUARY 2011
Integration :
If
dx
d
f(x) = F(x), then
) (x F dx = f(x) + c, where c
is an arbitrary constant called constant of integration.
1.
dx x
n
=
1
1
+
+
n
x
n
(n 1)
2.
dx
x
1
= log x
3.
dx e
x
= e
x
4.
dx a
x
=
a
a
e
x
log
5.
dx x sin = cos x
6.
dx x cos = sin x
7.
dx x
2
sec = tan x
8.
dx x ec
2
cos = cot x
9.
\

+
4 2
x
12.
\

2
x
13.
2 2
x a
dx
= sin
1
a
x
= cos
1
a
x
16.
+
2 2
x a
dx
=
a
1
tan
1
a
x
=
a
1
cot
1

.

\

a
x
17.
2 2
a x x
dx
=
a
1
sec
1
a
x
=
a
1
cosec
1

.

\

a
x
18.
2 2
1
a x
=
a 2
1
log
a x
a x
+
, when x > a
19.
2 2
1
x a
dx =
a 2
1
log
x a
x a
+
, when x < a
20.
2 2
a x
dx
= log
)
`
+
2 2
a x x = cos h
1

.

\

a
x
21.
+
2 2
a x
dx
= log
)
`
+ +
2 2
a x x = sin h
1

.

\

a
x
22.
2 2
x a dx =
2
1
x
2 2
x a +
2
1
a
2
sin
1

.

\

a
x
23.
2 2
a x dx =
2
1
x
2 2
a x
2
1
a
2
log
)
`
+
2 2
a x x
24.
+
2 2
a x dx =
2
1
x
2 2
a x +
+
2
1
a
2
log
)
`
+ +
2 2
a x x
25.
) (
) (
x f
x f
dx = log f(x)
26.
) (
) (
x f
x f
dx = 2 ) (x f
Integration by Decomposition into Sum :
1. Trigonometrical transformations : For the
integrations of the trigonometrical products such as
sin
2
x, cos
2
x, sin
3
x, cos
3
x, sin ax cos bx, etc., they are
expressed as the sum or difference of the sines and
cosines of multiples of angles.
2. Partial fractions : If the given function is in the
form of fractions of two polynomials, then for its
integration, decompose it into partial fractions (if
possible).
Integration of some special integrals :
(i)
+ + c bx ax
dx
2
This may be reduced to one of the forms of the above
formulae (16), (18) or (19).
INTEGRATION
Mathematics Fundamentals
M
A
T
H
S
XtraEdge for IITJEE 46 FEBRUARY 2011
(ii)
+ + c bx ax
dx
2
This can be reduced to one of the forms of the above
formulae (15), (20) or (21).
(iii)
+ + c bx ax
2
dx
This can be reduced to one of the forms of the above
formulae (22), (23) or (24).
(iv)
+ +
+
c bx ax
dx q px
2
) (
,
+ +
+
c bx ax
dx q px
2
) (
For the evaluation of any of these integrals, put
px + q = A {differentiation of (ax
2
+ bx + c)} + B
Find A and B by comparing the coefficients of like
powers of x on the two sides.
1. If k is a constant, then
dx k = kx and
dx x f k ) ( = k
dx x f ) (
2.
dx x f x f )} ( ) ( {
2 1
=
dx x f ) (
1
dx x f ) (
2
Some Proper Substitutions :
1.
f(ax + b) dx, ax + b = t
2.
f(ax
n
+ b)x
n1
dx, ax
n
+ b = t
3.
dx
x f
x f
) (
) (
, f(x) = t
5.
2 2
x a dx, x = a sin or a cos
6.
+
2 2
x a dx, x = a tan
7.
2 2
2 2
x a
x a
dx, x
2
= a
2
cos 2
8.
x a dx, a x = t
2
9.
x a
x a
dx, x = a cos 2
10.
2
2 x ax dx, x = a(1 cos )
11.
2 2
a x dx, x = a sec
Substitution for Some irrational Functions :
1.
+ + b ax q px
dx
) (
, ax + b = t
2
2.
+ + + c bx ax q px
dx
2
) (
, px + q =
t
1
3.
+ + + b ax r qx px
dx
) (
2
, ax + b = t
2
4.
+ + c ax r px
dx
2 2
) (
, at first x =
t
1
and then a + ct
2
= z
2
Some Important Integrals :
1. To evaluate
) )( ( x x
dx
,


.

\

x
x
dx,
+ x b a
dx
cos
,
+ x b a
dx
sin
,
+ + x c x b a
dx
sin cos
Replace sin x =

.

\

+

.

\

2
tan 1
2
tan 2
2
x
x
and cos x =

.

\

+

.

\

2
tan 1
2
tan 1
2
2
x
x
Then put tan
2
x
= t.
3. To evaluate
+ +
+
x c x b a
x q x p
sin cos
sin cos
dx
Put p cos x + q sin x = A(a + b cos x + c sin x)
+ B. diff. of (a + b cos x + c sin x) + C
A, B and C can be calculated by equating the
coefficients of cos x, sin x and the constant terms.
4. To evaluate
+ + x c x x b x a
dx
2 2
sin cos sin 2 cos
,
+ b x a
dx
2
cos
,
+ x b a
dx
2
sin
In the above type of questions divide N
r
and D
r
by
cos
2
x. The numerator will become sec
2
x and in the
denominator we will have a quadratic equation in tan
x (change sec
2
x into 1 + tan
2
x).
Putting tan x = t the question will reduce to the form
+ + c bt at
dt
2
5. Integration of rational function of the given form
(i)
+ +
+
4 2 4
2 2
a kx x
a x
dx, (ii)
+ +
4 2 4
2 2
a kx x
a x
dx, where
k is a constant, positive, negative or zero.
These integrals can be obtained by dividing
numerator and denominator by x
2
, then putting
x
x
a
2
= t and x +
x
a
2
= t respectively.
Integration of Product of Two Functions :
1.
f
1
(x) f
2
(x) dx = f
1
(x)
f
2
(x) dx  
dx x f x f ) ( ) ( (
2
'
1
dx
Proper choice of the first and second functions :
Integration with the help of the above rule is called
XtraEdge for IITJEE 47 FEBRUARY 2011
integration by parts, In the above rule, there are two
terms on R.H.S. and in both the terms integral of the
second function is involve. Therefore in the product
of two functions if one of the two functions is not
directly integrable (e.g. log x, sin
1
x, cos
1
x, tan
1
x
etc.) we take it as the first function and the remaining
function is taken as the second function. If there is no
other function, then unity is taken as the second
function. If in the integral both the functions are
easily integrable, then the first function is chosen in
such a way that the derivative of the function is a
simple functions and the function thus obtained under
the integral sign is easily integrable than the original
function.
2.
+ ) sin( c bx e
ax
dx
=
2 2
b a
e
ax
+
[a sin (bx + c) b cos (bx + c)]
=
2 2
b a
e
ax
+
sin
(
a
b
c bx
1
tan
3.
+ ) cos( c bx e
ax
dx
=
2 2
b a
e
ax
+
[a cos (bx + c) + b sin(bx + c)]
=
2 2
b a
e
ax
+
cos
(
a
b
c bx
1
tan
4.
e
kx
{kf(x) + f '(x)} dx = e
kx
f(x)
5.
x
e
log = x(log
e
x 1) = x log
e 
.

\

e
x
Integration of Trigonometric Functions :
1. To evaluate the integrals of the form
I =
sin
m
x cos
n
x dx, where m and n are rational
numbers.
(i) Substitute sin x = t, if n is odd;
(ii) Substitute cos x = t, if m is odd;
(iii) Substitute tan x = t, if m + n is a negative even
integer; and
(iv) Substitute cot x = t, if
2
1
(m + 1) +
2
1
(n 1) is an
integer.
2. Integrals of the form
+ x b a
dx
cos
=
2 2
2
b a
tan
1
(
(
2
tan
x
b a
b a
+ c
2. (When a < b)
+ x b a
dx
cos
=
2 2
1
a b
log
b a
a
x
a b
b a
a
x
a b
+ +
+
tan
tan
3. (when a = b)
+ x b a
dx
cos
=
a
1
tan
2
x
+ c
4. (When a > b)
+ x b a
dx
sin
=
2 2
2
b a
tan
1
+ 
.

\

2 2
2
tan
b a
b
x
a
+ c
5. (When a < b)
+ x b a
dx
sin
=
2 2
1
a b
log
2 2
2 2
2
tan
2
tan
a b b
x
a
a b b
x
a
+ + 
.

\

+ 
.

\

+ c
6. (When a = b)
+ x b a
dx
sin
=
a
1
[tan x sec x] + c
XtraEdge for IITJEE 48 FEBRUARY 2011
Functions with their Periods :
Function Period
sin (ax + b), cos (ax + b), sec (ax + b),
cosec (ax + b)
2/a
tan(ax + b), cot (ax + b) /a
sin (ax + b), cos (ax + b), sec (ax + b),
cosec (ax + b)
/a
tan (ax + b), cot (ax + b) /2a
Trigonometrical Equations with their General
Solution:
Trgonometrical equation General Solution
sin = 0 = n
cos = 0 = n + /2
tan = 0 = n
sin = 1 = 2n + /2
cos = 1 = 2n
sin = sin = n + (1)
n
cos = cos = 2n
tan = tan = n +
sin
2
= sin
2
= n
tan
2
= tan
2
= n
cos
2
= cos
2
= n
*
cos cos
sin sin
=
=
= 2n +
*
tan tan
sin sin
=
=
= 2n +
*
cos cos
tan tan
=
=
= 2n +
* If be the least positive value of which satisfy
two given trigonometrical equations, then the general
value of will be 2n + .
Note :
1. If while solving an equation we have to square it,
then the roots found after squaring must be
checked whether they satisfy the original equation
or not. e.g. Let x = 3. Squaring, we get x
2
= 9,
x = 3 and 3 but x = 3 does not satisfy the
original equation x = 3.
2. Any value of x which makes both R.H.S. and
L.H.S. equal will be a root but the value of x for
which = will not be a solution as it is an
indeterminate form.
3. If xy = xz, then x(y z) = 0 either x = 0 or
y = z or both. But
x
y
=
x
z
y = z only and not
x = 0, as it will make = . Similarly, if ay = az,
then it will also imply y = z only as a 0 being a
constant.
Similarly, x + y = x + z y = z and x y = x z
y = z. Here we do not take x = 0 as in the
above because x is an additive factor and not
multiplicative factor.
4. When cos = 0, then sin = 1 or 1. We have to
verify which value of sin is to be chosen which
satisfies the equation cos = 0 = 
.

\

+
2
1
n
If sin = 1, then obviously n = even. But if
sin = 1, then n = odd.
Similarly, when sin = 0, then = n and cos = 1
or 1.
If cos = 1, then n is even and if cos = 1, then
n is odd.
5. The equations a cos b sin = c are solved as
follows :
Put a = r cos , b = r sin so that r =
2 2
b a +
and = tan
1
b/a.
The given equation becomes
r[cos cos sin sin ] = c ;
cos ( ) =
r
c
provided
r
c
1.
TRIGONOMETRICAL
EQUATION
Mathematics Fundamentals
M
A
T
H
S
XtraEdge for IITJEE 49 FEBRUARY 2011
Relation between the sides and the angle of a triangle:
1. Sine formula :
a
A sin
=
b
B sin
=
c
C sin
=
R 2
1
Where R is the radius of circumcircle of triangle
ABC.
2. Cosine formulae :
cos A =
bc
a c b
2
2 2 2
+
, cos B =
ac
b c a
2
2 2 2
+
,
cos C =
ab
c b a
2
2 2 2
+
It should be remembered that, in a triangle ABC
If A = 60, then b
2
+ c
2
a
2
= bc
If B = 60, then a
2
+ c
2
b
2
= ac
If C = 60, then a
2
+ b
2
c
2
= ab
3. Projection formulae :
a = b cos C + c cos B, b = c cos A + a cos C
c = a cos B + b cos A
Trigonometrical Ratios of the Half Angles of a Triangle:
If s =
2
c b a + +
in triangle ABC, where a, b and c are
the lengths of sides of ABC, then
(a) cos
2
A
=
bc
a s s ) (
, cos
2
B
=
ac
b s s ) (
,
cos
2
C
=
ab
c s s ) (
(b) sin
2
A
=
bc
c s b s ) )( (
, sin
2
B
=
ac
c s a s ) )( (
,
sin
2
C
=
ab
b s a s ) )( (
(c) tan
2
A
=
) (
) )( (
a s s
c s b s
,
tan
2
B
=
) (
) )( (
b s s
c s a s
, tan
2
C
) (
) )( (
c s s
b s a s
Napier's Analogy :
tan
2
C B
=
c b
c b
+
cot
2
A
, tan
2
A C
=
a c
a c
+
cot
2
B
tan
2
B A
=
b a
b a
+
cot
2
C
Area of Triangle :
=
2
1
bc sin A=
2
1
ca sin B =
2
1
ab sin C
=
) sin(
sin sin
2
1
2
C B
C B a
+
=
) sin(
sin sin
2
1
2
A C
A C b
+
=
) sin(
sin sin
2
1
2
B A
B A c
+
sin A =
bc
2
) )( )( ( c s b s a s s =
bc
2
Similarly sin B =
ca
2
& sin C =
ab
2
Some Important Results :
1. tan
2
A
tan
2
B
=
s
c s
cot
2
A
cot
2
B
=
c s
s
2. tan
2
A
+ tan
2
B
=
s
c
cot
2
C
=
c
(s c)
3. tan
2
A
tan
2
B
=
b a
(s c)
4. cot
2
A
+ cot
2
B
=
2
tan
2
tan
2
tan
2
tan
B A
B A
+
=
c s
c
cot
2
C
5. Also note the following identities :
(p q) = (p q) + (q r) + (r p) = 0
p(q r) = p(q r) + q(r p) + r(p q) = 0
(p + a)(q r) = p(q r) + a(q r) = 0
Solution of Triangles :
1. Introduction : In a triangle, there are six
elements viz. three sides and three angles. In
plane geometry we have done that if three of the
elements are given, at least one of which must be
a side, then the other three elements can be
uniquely determined. The procedure of
determining unknown elements from the known
elements is called solving a triangle.
2. Solution of a right angled triangle :
Case I. When two sides are given : Let the
triangle be right angled at C. Then we can
determine the remaining elements as given in the
following table.
Given Required
(i) a, b
tanA =
b
a
, B = 90 A, c =
A
a
sin
(ii) a, c
sinA =
c
a
, b = c cos A, B = 90 A
Case II. When a side and an acute angle are given
In this case, we can determine
Given Required
(i) a, A
B = 90 A, b = a cot A, c =
A
a
sin
(ii) c, A B = 90 A, a = c sin A, b = c cos A
XtraEdge for IITJEE 50 FEBRUARY 2011
a
PHYSICS
Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
1. Two men B and C are watching man A. B watches A
to be stationary and C watches A moving. Then 
(A) Man A may be at absolute rest
(B) Man B may be at absolute rest
(C) Man C may be at absolute rest
(D) None of these
2. A particle of mass m is placed on the centre of a fixed
uniform semicircular ring of radius R and mass M as
shown. Then work required to displace the particle
slowly from centre of ring to infinity is : (Assume
only gravitational interaction of ring and particle)
R
M
m
(A)
R
GMm
(B)
R
GMm
(C)
R
GMm
(D)
R
GMm
3. A ideal diatomic gas occupies a volume V
1
at a
pressure P
1
. The gas undergoes process in which the
pressure is proportional to the volume. At the end of
process the rms sped of the gas molecules has double
from its initial value then the heat supplied to the gas
in the given process is 
(A) 7 P
1
V
1
(B) 8 P
1
V
1
(C) 9 P
1
V
1
(D) 10 P
1
V
1
4. An electron gum T emits electron accelerated by a
potential difference U in a vacuum in the direction of
the line a as shown in figure. Target M is placed at a
distance d as shown in figure. Find the magnetic field
perpendicular to the plane determine by line a and
the point M in order that electron hit the target M
a
Electron gun
d
M
Target
(A)
d e
Um
e
sin 2
2 (B)
d e
Um
e
2
sin 2
(C)
d e
Um
e
sin 2
(D)
d e
Um
e
sin 2
8
5. When 24.8 KeV xrays strike a material, the
photoelectrons emitted from K shell are abserved to
move in a circle of radius 23 mm in a magnetic field
of 2 10
2
T. The binding energy of Kshell
electrons is 
(A) 6.2 KeV (B) 5.4 KeV
(C) 7.4 KeV (D) 8.6 KeV
IITJEE 2011
XtraEdge Test Series # 10
Based on New Pattern
Time : 3 Hours
Syllabus :
Physics : Full Syllabus, Chemistry : Full Syllabus, Mathematics : Full syllabus
Instructions :
Section  I
Question 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions with only one correct answer. +3 marks will be awarded for correct
answer and 1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 10 to 14 are multiple choice questions with one or more than one correct asnwer. +4 marks will be
awarded for correct answer and 1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 15 to 20 are passage based single correct type questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and
1 mark for wrong answer..
Section  II
Question 21 to 22 are Column Matching type questions. +6 marks will be awarded for the complete correctly
matched answer and No Negative marks for wrong answer. However, +1 mark will be given for a correctly
marked answer in any row.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 51 FEBRUARY 2011
6. In the circuit shown the cell is ideal. The coil has an
inductance of 4H ans zero resistance. F is a fuse of
zero resistance and will blow when the current
through it reaches 5A. The switch is closed at t = 0.
The fuse will blow 
F
L = 4H
2V
S
+
(A) after 5 sec (B) after 2 sec
(C) after 10 sec (D) almost at once
7. In an insulating medium (K = 1) volumetric charge
density varies with ycoordinates according the law
= a. y. A particle of mass m having positive charge
q is at point A(0, y
0
) and projected with velocity
v
r
=
^
0
i v as shown in figure. At y = 0 electric field is
zero. Neglect the gravity and fractional resistance,
the slope of trajectory of the particle as a function of
y(E is only along yaxis) is
y
A v0
x
(0,y0)
(A) ) y y (
v m
qa
3
0
3
2
0 0
(B) ) y y (
v m 3
qa
3
0
3
2
0 0
(C)
2
0 0
3
0
3
v m 5
) y y ( qa
(D)
2
0 0
3
0
3
v m 2
) y y ( qa
8. If E denotes electric field in a uniform conductor, I
corresponding current through it, v
d
drift velocity of
electrons and P denotes thermal power produced in
the conductor, then which of the following graph is
incorrect 
(A)
vd
E
(B)
P
E
(C)
P
vd
(D)
P
I
9. Find the de Broglie wavelength of Earth. Mass of
Earth is 6 10
24
kg. Mean orbital radius of Earth
around Sun is 150 10
6
km 
(A) 3.7 m (B) 3.7 10
63
(C) 3.7 10
63
m (D) 3.7 10
63
cm
Questions 10 to 14 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE THAN ONE) is
correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against the
question number of that question. + 4 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
10. A pendulum of length l is suspended on a flat car that
is moving with a velocity u on the horizontal road. If
the car is suddenly stopped, then : (Assume bob of
pendulum does not collide anywhere)
u
l
(A) the maximum angle with the initial vertical line
through which the pendulum swing is
(
(
l g 2
u
sin
1
(B) the maximum angle with the initial vertical line
through which the pendulum swing is
(
(
l g 2
u
sin 2
1
(C) If maximum angle is 60, l = 5 m and
g = 9.8 m/s
2
then the initial speed of car u is
7 m/s
(D) If maximum angle 60, l = 5 m and g = 9.8 m/s
2
,
then the initial speed of car u is 6 m/s
11. A parallel plate air capacitor is connected to a
battery. If plates of the capacitor are pulled further
apart, then which of the following statements are
correct?
(A) Strength of electric field inside the capacitor
remain unchanged, if battery is disconnected
before pulling the plate
(B) During the process, work is done by an external
force applied to pull the plates whether battery is
disconnected or it remains connected
(C) Potential energy in the capacitor decreases if the
battery remains connected during pulling plates
apart
(D) None of the above
12.
12 2
2
6
2H
6V
(A) Its time constant is
4
1
sec
(B) Its time constant is 4 sec
(C) In steady state current through battery will be
equal to 0.75 A
(D) In steady state current through inductance will be
equal to 0.75 A
XtraEdge for IITJEE 52 FEBRUARY 2011
13. In passing through a boundary refraction will not take
place if 
(A) light is incident normally on the boundary
(B) the indices of refraction of the two media are
same
(C) the boundary is not visible
(D) angle of incidence is lesser than angle of
refraction but greater then


.

\

D
R 1
sin
14. A body moves in a circular path of radius R with
deceleration so that at any moment of time its
tangential and normal acceleration are equal in
magnitude. At the initial moment t = 0, the velocity
of body is v
0
then the velocity of body will be 
(A) v =

.

\

+
R
t v
1
v
0
0
at time.t
(B) v =
R / S
0
e v after it has moved S meter
(C) v =
SR
0
e v after it has moved S meter
(D) None of these
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has
3 multiple choice questions. (Questions 15 to 20) Each
question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which
ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR
sheet against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
A narrow tube is bent in the form of circle of radius R
as shown. Two small holes S and D are made in the
tube at the positions right angles to each other. A
source placed at S generates a wave of intensity I
0
which is equally divided into two parts. One part
travels along the longer path, while the other travels
along the shorter path. Both the part waves meet at
point D where a detector is placed.
D
R
S
15. Maximum intensity produced at D is given by 
(A) 4I
0
(B) 2I
0
(C) 3I
0
(D) I
0
16. The maximum value of wavelength to produce a
maximum at D its given by 
(A) R (B) 2R
(C)
2
R
(D)
2
3 R
17. The maximum value of wavelength to produce a
minimum at D is given by 
(A) R (B) 2R
(C)
2
R
(D)
2
3 R
Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
A metal sphere of radius R, carrying charge q
1
is
surrounded by a thick concentric metal shell (inner
radius a, outer radius b). The shell carries no net
charge.
R
a
b
18. Find the surface charge density at r = R, r = a, r = b 
(A)
R
=
2
4 R
q
,
a
=
2
4 a
q
,
b
=
2
4 b
q
(B)
R
=
2
4 R
q
,
a
=
2
4
a
q
,
b
=
2
4 b
q
(C)
R
=
2
4
R
q
,
a
=
2
4 a
q
,
b
=
2
4 b
q
(D)
R
=
2
4 R
q
,
a
=
2
4 a
q
,
b
=
2
4
b
q
19. The potential at the centre, using infinity at the
reference point : (potential is zero at infinity)
(A)
(
a
q
R
q
4
1
0
(B)
(
+ +
b
q
a
q
R
q
0
4
1
(C)
(
R
q
0
4
1
(D)
(
+
R
q
a
q
b
q
4
1
0
20. Now the outer surface is touched to a grounding wire,
which lowers its potential to zero. Now the potential
at the centre : (Assume at infinity also potential is
zero)
(A)
(
a
q
R
q
4
1
0
(B)
(
+ +
b
q
a
q
R
q
0
4
1
(C)
(
R
q
0
4
1
(D)
(
+
R
q
a
q
b
q
4
1
0
This section contains 2 questions (Questions 21, 22).
Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,
C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements
(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these
questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are AP, AS, BQ, BR, CP, CQ and DS,
then the correctly bubbled 4 4 matrix should be as
follows :
XtraEdge for IITJEE 53 FEBRUARY 2011
A
B
C
D
P
Q R S
S
P
P
P Q R
R
R
Q
Q
S
S
P Q R S
Mark your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question in sectionII. + 6 marks will be
given for complete correct answer and No Negative
marks for wrong answer. However, 1 mark will be
given for a correctly marked answer in any row.
21. Match ColumnI with ColumnII in the light of
possibility of occurrence of phenomena listed in
ColumnI using the systems in ColumnII
ColumnI ColumnII
(A) Interference (P) Nonmechanical waves
(B) Diffraction (Q) Electromagnetic waves
(C) Polarisation (R) Visible light waves
(D) Reflection (S) Sound waves
22. A satellite is revolving around earth in a circular orbit
of m radius r
0
with velocity v
0
. a particle of mass is
projected from satellite in forward direction with
relative velocity v =
(
(
1
4
5
v
0
. During subsequent
motion of particle match the following (assume M =
mass of earth)
ColumnI ColumnII
(A) Magnitude of total energy of (P)
0
8
3
r
GMm
Patrticle
(B) Minimum distance of particle (Q) r
0
from earth
(C) Maximum distance of particle (R)
5
3
r
0
from eath
(D) Minimum kinetic energy of (S)
0
r 8
GMm 5
particle
CHEMISTRY
Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
1. The equilibrium constant for the reaction in aqueous
solution
H
3
BO
3
+ glycerin
(H
3
BO
3
glycerin) is 0.90.
How many moles of glycerin should be added per
litre of 0.10 M H
3
BO
3
so that 80% of the H
3
BO
3
is
converted to the boric acid glycerin complex ?
(A) 0.08 (B) 4.44 (C) 4.52 (D) 3.6
2. If optical rotation produced by the compound (i) is
30, then rotation produced by compound (ii) is
(i)
CH
3
H OH
HO H
CH
3
(ii)
CH
3
H OH
H OH
CH
3
(A) + 30 (B) 30
(C) zero (D) unpredictable
3. A mixture of CO and CO
2
having a volume of 20 ml
is mixed with x ml of oxygen and electrically
sparked. The volume after explosion is (16 + x) ml
under the same conditions. What would be the
residual volume if 30 ml of the original mixture is
treated with aqueous NaOH ?
(A) 12 ml (B) 10 ml
(C) 9 ml (D) 8 ml
4. Rutherfords experiment, which estabilished the
nuclear model of the atom, used a beam of 
(A) particles, which impinged on a metal foil and
got absorbed
(B) rays, which impinged on a metal foil and
ejected electrons
(C) helium atoms, which impinged on a metal foil
and got scattered
(D) helium nuclei, which impinged on a metal foil
and got scattered
5. The correct order of acidic strength is
(A) Cl
2
O
7
>SO
2
>P
4
O
10
(B) CO
2
>N
2
O
5
<SO
3
(C) Na
2
O
>MgO
>Al
2
O
3
(D) K
2
O
>CaO
>MgO
6. A reaction follows the given concentration (C) vs
time graph. The rate for this reaction at 20 seconds
will be
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0 20 40 60 80 100
Time/second
(A) 4 10
3
Ms
1
(B) 8 10
2
Ms
1
(C) 2 10
2
Ms
1
(D) 7 10
3
Ms
1
7. The potential of the Daniell cell,
Zn
) M 1 (
ZnSO
4
) M 1 (
CuSO
4
Cu was reported by Buckbee,
Surdzial, and Metz as
E = 1.1028 0.641 10
3
T + 0.72 10
5
T
2
, where
T is the celcius temperature. Calculate S for the
cell reaction at 25 C
XtraEdge for IITJEE 54 FEBRUARY 2011
(A) 45.32 (B) 34.52
(C) 25.43 (D) 54.23
8. In a hypothetical solid C atoms form CCP lattice with
A atoms occupying all the Tetrahedral voids and B
atoms occupying all the octahedral voids. A and B
atoms are of the appropriate size such that there is no
distortion in the CCP lattice. Now if a plane is
cut (as shown) then the cross section would like
Plane
CCP unit cell
(A)
C C
C
C
B
B
B B
A
A
B
(B)
C C
C
B B B
C C
C C
(C)
C
C
B B B
C C
C C
A
A A
A
(D)
C C
C
B B B
C C
C C
9. The favourable conditions for a spontaneous
reactions are
(A) T S > H, H = , S =
(B) T S > H, H = , S =
(C) T S = H, H = , S =
(D) T S = H, H = , S =
Questions 10 to 14 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE THAN ONE) is
correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against the
question number of that question. + 4 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
10. A sample of water has a hardness expressed as 77.5
ppm Ca
2+
. This sample is passed through an ion
exchange column and the Ca
2+
is replaced by H
+
.
Select correct statement(s)
(A) pH of the water after it has been so treated is 2.4
(B) Every Ca
2+
ion is replaced by one H
+
ion
(C) Every Ca
2+
ion is replaced by two H
+
ions
(D) pH of the solution remains unchanged
11. Consider a sample of He gas and Ne gas both at 300
K and 1 atmosphere. Assuming ideal behaviour
which of the following quantities are equal for two
samples ?
(A) Root mean square speed of molecules
(B) Mean translational kinetic energy of molecules
(C) Number density of molecules
(D) Kinetic energy of molecules
12. Which of the following samples of reducing agents
is/are chemically equivalent to 25 mL of 0.2 N
KMnO
4
, to be reduced to Mn
2+
+ H
2
O ?
(A) 25 mL of 0.2 M FeSO
4
to be oxidized to Fe
3+
(B) 50 mL of 0.1 MH
3
AsO
3
to be oxidized to H
3
AsO
4
(C) 25 mL of 0.2 M H
2
O
2
to be oxidized to H
+
and O
2
(D) 25 mL of 0.1 M SnCl
2
to be oxidized to Sn
4+
13. Which of the following statement is/are correct ?
(A) [Ni(CO)
4
] is tetrahedral, paramagnetic, sp
3
hybridised
(B) [Ni(CN)
4
]
2
is square planar, diamagnetic, dsp
2
hybridised
(C) [Ni(CO)
4
] is tetrahedral, diamagnetic, sp
3
hybridised
(D) [NiCl
4
]
2
is tetrahedral, paramagnetic, sp
3
hybridised
14. Consider the reaction
C OH
O
EtOH
) ( NH , Na
3
l
A
2 2
2 3
Cl CH
S Me , O
B + C
D
Identify the correct representation of structure of the
products 
(A) A is
COOH
(B) The intermediate formed in the conversion of B to
D is enol
(C) The structure of C is
O O
(D) A can also be formed from the reaction
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has
3 multiple choice questions. (Questions 15 to 20) Each
question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which
ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR
sheet against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 55 FEBRUARY 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 56 FEBRUARY 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 57 FEBRUARY 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 58 FEBRUARY 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 59 FEBRUARY 2011
Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
218
85
15
56
473 K
573 K
647 K
673 K
J
G
F
C
H
A
1
Pressure
in atm
V
m
(in cm
3
/mol)
E
B
In the given figure PV
m
isotherm of H
2
O is shown.
The line () represent, the vanderwaals plot for
H
2
O at 473 K. The vanderwaals constant of H
2
O is
represented by a and b.
15. What is the equation of the dotted line (   )
A I C F B ?
(A) 0 =


.

\

T
m
dV
dP
and 0
dV
P d
T
2
m
2
=


.

\

(B) P =


.

\

+
m
m
V
b
V
a 2
1
2
(C) P =


.

\

m
m
V
b
V
a 2
1
2
(D)
T
m
dV
P d


.

\

2
2
= 0
16 As per the vanderwaals line I H G F (   ) which of
the following section against the behaviour of gas
(A) I H (B) H G
(C) G F (D) All of the given
17. For H
2
O which of the following is / are correct
(A) For H
2
O, compressibility factor (Z
c
) is equal to
0.23.
(B) For H
2
O, compressibility factor (Z
c
) is lesser than
0.375 because of stronger intermolecular
attraction among H
2
O molecules.
(C) For H
2
O if reduced pressure, reduced volume and
reduced temperature are 20, 0.6 and 2
respectively then intermolecular force of
repulsion predominate over intermolecular
Hbonding among H
2
O molecules.
(D) All of the above are correct.
Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
A useful method to convert oxime to substituted
amide is Beckmann rearrangement which occurs
through following steps,
Ph
C = N
CH
3
OH
) I (
H
+
Ph
C = N
Me OH
2
+
) II (
O H
2
Ph N C CH
3
=
) III (
O H
2
CH
3
C = NPh
OH
(IV)
CH
3
CNHPh
O
18.
Rate determining step in Beckmann rearrangement is
(A) I (B) II (C) III (D) IV
19. The compound
Me
C = N
Ph OH
when treated
with H
2
SO
4
and hydrolysed the products formed are
(A) CH
3
COOH and PhNH
2
(B) CH
3
NH
2
and PhCOOH
(C) PhCH
2
NH
2
and CH
3
COOH
(D) PhCH
2
COOH and CH
3
NH
2
20. In the following sequence of reaction
Ph C CH
3
O
6 4 pH
OH NH
2
=
I
5
PCl
P
the product P may be
(A) PhCOOH
(B)
CH
3
CNH
2
O
(C) Ph C NH CH
3
O
(D) Ph C NH
2
O
This section contains 2 questions (Questions 21, 22).
Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,
C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements
(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these
questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are AP, AS, BQ, BR, CP, CQ and DS,
then the correctly bubbled 4 4 matrix should be as
follows :
XtraEdge for IITJEE 60 FEBRUARY 2011
A
B
C
D
P
Q R S
S
P
P
P Q R
R
R
Q
Q
S
S
P Q R S
Mark your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question in sectionII. + 6 marks will be
given for complete correct answer and No Negative
marks for wrong answer. However, 1 mark will be
given for a correctly marked answer in any row.
21. Column I Column II
(A) Decomposition (P) 10 t
1/2
of H
2
O
2
(B)
K 298
K 308
k
k
(Q) 1
st
order
(C) Arrhenius eq. (R) Temperature coefficient
(D) t
99.9%
(S) log
1
2
k
k
=
R 303 . 2
E
a


.

\

2 1
1 2
T T
T T
22. ColumnI
(A)
Me
Me Me
Me
Me
Me
Me
Me
Me
Me
Cl
(B)
Me
Me
Me
Me
Me
Me
Me
Me
Me Cl
Cl
(C)
Me
Me
Me
Br
Me
Me
Br
Me
Me
Cl
Me
Cl
(D)
Me
Me
Me
Br
Me
Me
Br
Me
Me Cl
Cl
Me
ColumnII
(P) Optically active
(Q) Cis compound
(R) Trans compound
(S) Optically inactive
MATHEMATICS
Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
1. If , are the roots of the equation;
6x
2
+ 11x + 3 =0 then :
(A) both cos
1
and cos
1
are real
(B) both cosec
1
and cosec
1
are real
(C) both cot
1
and cot
1
are real
(D) None of these
2. If for the differential equation y =
x
y
+


.

\

y
x
the
general solution is y =
  log Cx
x
then f (x / y) is given
by 
(A) x
2
/ y
2
(B) y
2
/ x
2
(C) x
2
/ y
2
(D) y
2
/ x
2
3. Two flagstaffs stand on a horizontal plane. A and B
are two points on the line joining their feet and
between them. the angles of elevation of the tops of
the flagstaffs as seen from A are 30 and 60 and as
seen from B are 60 and 45. If AB is 30m, the
distance between the flagstaffs in meters is
(A) 30 + 15 3 (B) 45 + 15 3
(C) 60 15 3 (D) 60 + 15 3
4. If the probability of choosing an integer k out of 2m
integers 1, 2, 3, ...., 2m is inversely proportional to
k
4
(1 k 2m), then the probability that chosen
number is odd, is
(A) equal to 1/2 (B) less than 1/2
(C) greater than 1/2 (D) less than 1/3
5. The line x + y = 1 meets xaxis at A and yaxis at B.P
is the midpoint of AB (fig.) P
1
is the foot of the
perpendicular from P to OA; M
1
is that from P
1
to
OP; P
2
is that from M
1
to OA; M
2
is that from P
2
to
OP; P
3
is that from M
2
to OA and so on. If P
n
denotes
the n
th
foot of the perpendicular on OA from M
n1
,
then OP
n
=
A
x
P
M
1
M
2
O P
3
P
2
P
1
B
y
XtraEdge for IITJEE 61 FEBRUARY 2011
(A) 1/2 (B) 1/2
n
(C) 1/2
n/2
(D) 1/ 2
6. The sum
< 0 10
10
) (
j i
j
C (
j
C
i
) is equal to
(A) 2
10
1 (B) 2
10
(C) 3
10
1 (D) 3
10
7. Reflection of the line z a + z a = 0 in the real axis is
(A) z a + az = 0
(B)
a
a
=
z
z
(C) (a + a ) (z + z ) = 0
(D) None of these
8. If g(x) is a polynomial satisfying g(x) g(y) = g(x) +
g(y) + g(xy) 2 for all real x and y and g(2) = 5 then
3
lim
x
g(x) is 
(A) 9 (B) 25
(C) 10 (D) none of these
9. The domain of definition of
f(x) = 
.

\

+5
1
log
4 . 0
x
x
36
1
2
x
is
(A) ( , 0) ~ { 6} (B) (0, ) ~ {1, 6}
(C) (1, ) ~ {6} (D) [1, )~ {6}
Questions 10 to 14 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE THAN ONE) is
correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against the
question number of that question. + 4 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
10. The
(
3
8
0
1
lim
x
x
x
(where [x] is greatest integer
function) is
(A) a nonzero real number
(B) a rational number
(C) an integer
(D) zero
11. If l = dx
x x
x x x x x
e
x x x


.

\

+
+
2 2
2 4
cos sin
cos
cos sin cos
then l equals 
(A) e
x sin x
+ cos x 
.

\

x
x
x
sec
+ C
(B) e
x sin x
+ cos x 
.

\

x
x
x x
cos
sin
(C) e
x sin x
+ cos x 
.

\

x
x
x
x sec
tan
+ C
(D) xe
x sin x+cos x

.

\

+
x x
x x x
e
x x x
2 2
cos sin
cos
sin cos
1 dx
12. Let f(x) =
x x x
x x
x
+ +
+
sin } ) 3 1 ( ) 7 {(
) 3 4 . 3 )( 2 log ) 1 (log(
2 / 1 3 / 1
1
, x 1
The value of f(1) so that f is continuous at x = 1 is
(A) an algebraic number
(B) a rational number
(C) a trance dental number
(D)
9
log 4e
13. The solution of y
1
(x
2
y
3
+ xy) = 1 is
(A) 1/x = 2 y
2
+ C
2 /
2
y
e
(B) the solution of an equation which is reducible to
linear equation
(C) 2/x = 1 y
2
+ e
y/2
(D) 
.

\

+
2 2 /
2 1
2
y
x
x
e
y
= C
14. Suppose a, b, c are positive integers and
f(x) = ax
2
bx + c = 0 has two distinct roots in
(0, 1), then 
(A) a 5 (B) b 5
(C) abc 25 (D) abc 250
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has
3 multiple choice questions. (Questions 15 to 20) Each
question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which
ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR
sheet against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
At times the methods of coordinates becomes
effective in solving problems of properties of
triangles. We may choose one vertex of the triangle
as origin and one side passing through this vertex as
xaxis. Thus, without loss of generality, we can
assume that every triangle ABC has a vertex B
situated at B(0, 0), vertex C at (a, 0) and A as (h, k).
15. If in ABC, AC = 3, BC = 4, medians AD and BE
are perpendicular, then area of triangle ABC must be
equal to
(A) 7 (B) 11
(C) 2 2 (D) None of these
XtraEdge for IITJEE 62 FEBRUARY 2011
16. Suppose the bisector AD of the interior angle A of
ABC divides side BC into segments BD = 4,
DC = 2. Then we must have
(A) b > 6 and c < 4
(B) 2 < b < 6 and c < 1
(C) 2 < b < 6 and 4 < c < 12
(D) None of these
17. If altitudes CD = 7, AE = 6 and E divides BC such
that
EC
BE
=
4
3
, then c must be
(A) 3 2 (B) 3 5 (C) 3 (D) 3 4
Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
Among several applications of maxima and minima
is finding the largest term of a sequence. Let <a
n
> be
a sequence. Consider f(x) obtained by replacing x by
n e.g. let a
n
=
1 + n
n
consider f(x) =
1 + x
x
on [1, ]
f (x) =
2
) 1 ( + x
x
> 0 for all x.
Hence max f(x) = ) ( lim x f
x
= 1.
18. The largest term of a
n
= n
2
/(n
3
+ 200) is
(A) 29/453 (B) 49/543
(C) 43/543 (D) 41/451
19. The largest term of the sequence
a
n
= n/(n
2
+ 10) is
(A) 3/19 (B) 2/13
(C) 1 (D) 1/7
20. If f(x) is the function required to find largest term in
Q. 14 then
(A) f is increase for all x
(B) f decreases for all x
(C) f has a maximum at x =
3
400
(D) f increases on [0, 9]
This section contains 2 questions (Questions 21, 22).
Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements (A, B,
C, D) in Column I have to be matched with statements
(P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to these
questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are AP, AS, BQ, BR, CP, CQ and DS,
then the correctly bubbled 4 4 matrix should be as
follows :
A
B
C
D
P
Q R S
S
P
P
P Q R
R
R
Q
Q
S
S
P Q R S
Mark your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question in sectionII. + 6 marks will be
given for complete correct answer and No Negative
marks for wrong answer. However, 1 mark will be
given for a correctly marked answer in any row.
21. Column I Column II
(A) The period of sin x + (P) 2
2n
1
tan
2
x
+ sin
2
2
x
+ .... +
sin
1
2
n
x
+ tan
n
x
2
(B) g(x) = 3 + 4x, the value of (Q) 2
2n
g
n
(0) = gog .... o g(0) is
(C) f(x) = x
3
+ 2
n
x
2
+ bx + c is (R) 2
n
bijection if and only if
3b d where d is equal to
(D) (2
2n
1)
n
r
r
0
) 1 (
n
C
r
(S) 2
n
+ 1


.

\

+ + + infinity upto .....
2
7
2
3
2
1
r 3
r
r 2
r
r
22. Centre of circle
ColumnI ColumnII
(A) z 2
2
+ z 4i
2
= 20 (P) 1 i
(B)
1
1
+
z
z
= 2 (Q) 5/3 + 0i
(C) z z (1 + i)z (R) 4 i
(1 i) z + 7 = 0
(D) arg 
.

\

+
+ +
i z
i z
2 5
4 3
(S) 1 + 2i
XtraEdge for IITJEE 63 FEBRUARY 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 64 FEBRUARY 2011
PHYSICS
Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
1. A particle is projected towards north with speed 20
m/s at angle 45 with horizontal. Ball get horizontal
acceleration of 7.5 m/s
2
towards east due to wind.
Range of ball is 
(A) 40 m (B) 70 m
(C) 50 m (D) 60 m
2. A cylinder of mass m
1
is kept over a block of mass m
2
kept over smooth inclined plane shown in figure.
Surface between cylinder and block is rough. Friction
on cylinder
m1
m2
(A) is in upward direction
(B) is in downward direction
(C) is zero
(D) will depend on angle of inclination and
coefficient of friction between cylinder and block
3. A over head tank of capacity 10 K liter (10000 liter)
is kept at top of building 15 m high. Water level is at
depth 5m from ground. Water falls in tank with
velocity 2 5 m/s. The tank has to filled in
2
1
hr. If
efficiency of pump is 67.5%, electric power used is
approximately 
(A) 4 kW (B) 5 kW
(C) 2 kW (D) 2.5 kW
4. There ia a sphere of radius 'R'. Let E
1
and E
2
be
gravitational field at distance r
1
and r
2
from centre
(A) If r
1
< R < r
2
then E
1
must be less than E
2
(B) If r
1
< r
2
< R then E
1
must be greater than E
2
(C) If R < r
1
< r
2
then E
1
must be less than E
2
(D) If r
1
= R k and r
2
= R + k (where k < R) E
1
must
be greater than E
2
5. A block of mass m is placed at top of frictionless
wedge of mass 'M' placed on frictionless surface as
shown in figure. Velocity of block on wedge at the
time it slips off the wedge is u. Velocity of wedge at
that instant is 
(A)
M
u m
(B)
M
u m cos
(C)
M m
u m
+
cos
(D)
M m
u m
+
2
cos
IITJEE 2012
XtraEdge Test Series # 10
Based on New Pattern
Time : 3 Hours
Syllabus :
Physics : Full Syllabus, Chemistry : Full Syllabus, Mathematics : Full syllabus
Instructions :
Section  I
Question 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions with only one correct answer. +3 marks will be awarded for correct
answer and 1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 10 to 14 are multiple choice questions with one or more than one correct asnwer. +4 marks will be
awarded for correct answer and 1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 15 to 20 are passage based single correct type questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and
1 mark for wrong answer..
Section  II
Question 21 to 22 are Column Matching type questions. +6 marks will be awarded for the complete correctly
matched answer and No Negative marks for wrong answer. However, +1 mark will be given for a correctly
marked answer in any row.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 65 FEBRUARY 2011
6. A rectangular plate is kept in yz plane. Which of the
following is correct for this plate?
(A) I
z
= I
x
+ I
y
(B) I
y
= I
x
+ I
z
(C) I
x
= I
y
+ I
z
(D) All of these
7. A glass of water is to be cooled using an icecube.
For which of following position water will be cooled
fastest 
(A) Ice is left floating
(B) Ice is kept just submerged in water
(C) Ice is kept bottom of glass
(D) Water will be cooled at same rate no matter
where ice is kept
8. Shape of string carrying transverse wave at t = 0 and
t = 1 sec is given by y =
1
1
2
+ x
and y =
3 4 2
1
2
+ + x x
respectively, where 'x' is distance in meter. Wave
velocity is 
(A) 1 m/s in positive xdirection
(B) 2 m/s in negative xdirection
(C) 1 m/s in negative xdirection
(D) 50 cm/ sec in negative xdirection
9. A body of mass 200 gm is heated up. Graph shows
change in temperature as heat is supplied to body.
Specific heat capacity of body is (in J/kg/C)
H(in kJ)
H
(
i
n
C
)
30
(A)
3
10
3
(B) 3 5 10
3
(C) 3 10
3
(D) 3
Questions 10 to 14 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE THAN ONE) is
correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against the
question number of that question. + 4 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
10. A particle is moving along straight line with velocity
v = t
2
3t + 2 m/s. Particle will retard for time t 
(A) t < 1 (B) 1 < t < 1.5
(C) 1.5 < t < 2 (D) t > 2
11. Two identical rods P and Q are placed on frictionless
horizontal surface. Two identical mass hit two rods
separately and comes at rest after hitting. Mass hits
rod 'P' at its centre while rod 'Q' is hit by mass a little
distance away from centre 
(A) Rod P and Q will have same speed
(B) Q will have greater kinetic energy
(C) The two rods have same kinetic energy but linear
kinetic energy of 'B' will be less than that of 'A'
(D) The kinetic energy of 'B' will depend on the
distance from centre where the mass hit
12. Which of the following is true, for a sample of gas
according to kinetic theory of gases 
(A) Net velocity of the gas molecules is zero
(B) Net momentum of the gas molecules is zero
(C) Net speed of the gas molecules is zero
(D) Net kinetic energy of gas molecules is zero
13. A cylinder is floating in a liquid kept in container.
Coefficient of cubical expansion of cylinder is ''.
Expansion of liquid and container are negligible.
Upon increasing temperature 
(A) Level of liquid in container will increase
(B) Level of liquid in container will remain same
(C) Volume of cylinder inside water will increase
(D) Volume of cylinder inside water will remain
same
14. Length of kundt's tube is 1m. When tuning fork is
vibrated and brought near rod of the kundt's tube, the
powder keeps on moving. If velocity of sound is 320
m, frequency of tuning fork cannot be 
(A) 880 Hz (B) 900 Hz
(C) 960 Hz (D) 1040 Hz
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has
3 multiple choice questions. (Questions 15 to 20) Each
question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which
ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR
sheet against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
h
2h
A cylindrical container of crosssectional area 'A' and
height '5h' is kept at height '2h' above ground. It
contains a liquid of density '2' till height 'h'. The
cylinder is filled with light piston as show in figure.
15. Where should a hole is made in the container so that
liquid, strikes ground farthest ?
(A) At bottom of container
(B) At height h/3 above bottom of container
(C) At height h/2 above bottom of container
(D) Liquid will strike ground at same distance
irrespective of position of hole
XtraEdge for IITJEE 66 FEBRUARY 2011
16. A block of mass M is kept over piston and hole is
made at a distance 'h/2' from piston. Velocity of
efflux is 
(A) gh (B) g h
A
M


.

\

+
(C) g h
A
M


.

\

+
2
(D) g h
A
M


.

\

+
2
2
17. A liquid of density '' is poured in container till
height h above container. Velocity of efflux from
hole at distance 'h/2' below piston is 
(A) gh 3 (B) gh
2
3
(C) gh 2 (D) gh
Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
A
B
C
D
l
l
A T shape iron frame of mass m free to rotate in
vertical plane about one of its end as shown in figure.
The two rods AB and CD making Tshape are
identical. Initially the frame is in the position shown
in figure. The frame is left to rotate freely in vertical
plane.
18. Moment of inertia of frame about axis of rotation 
(A)
3
m 2
2
l
(B)
12
m 17
2
l
(C)
24
m 17
2
l
(D)
12
m 5
2
l
19. Angular acceleration of frame when rod AB is
making angle '' with vertical is 
(A)
l 17
sin 18
. g (B)
l 17
sin 24
. g
(C)
l 5
sin 12
. g (D)
l 2
sin 9
. g
20. Force due to axis on frame when frame becomes
vertical 
(A)
17
36
mg (B)
5
32
mg
(C)
17
39
mg (D)
17
44
mg
This section contains 2 questions (Questions 21, 22).
Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements
(A, B, C, D) in Column I have to be matched with
statements (P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to
these questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are AP, AS, BQ, BR, CP, CQ and DS,
then the correctly bubbled 4 4 matrix should be as
follows :
A
B
C
D
P
Q R S
S
P
P
P Q R
R
R
Q
Q
S
S
P Q R S
Mark your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question in sectionII. + 6 marks will be
given for complete correct answer and No Negative
marks for wrong answer. However, 1 mark will be
given for a correctly marked answer in any row.
21. ColumnI contains molar heat capacity for certain
process for an ideal gas and column II contains
corresponding processes. , and a are constant and
is adiabatic exponent. Match the correct one :
ColumnI ColumnII
(A) C =
T
(P) V exp 
.

\

R
T
= const.
(B) C = C
V
+ T (Q) V aT = const.
(C) C = C
V
+ V (R)PV
exp 
.

\

PV
) 1 (
= const.
(D) C = C
V
+ aP (S) T exp


.

\

V
R
= const.
22. A horizontal plane support a vertical cylinder of
radius 20 cm and a disk of mass 2 kg is attached to
the cylinder by a horizontal thread of length /5 m.
The disk can move frictionlessly on the table. An
initial velocity 1 m/s is imparted to the disk. Consider
a situation when
20
(in rad/sec)
(B) Time taken (in sec) (Q)
3
40
(in wrapping
20
meter)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 67 FEBRUARY 2011
(C) Tension in string (in N) (R)
3
20
(D) Time taken (in sec) after (S)
160
7
2
which disk will hit cylinder
CHEMISTRY
Questions 1 to 9 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in
OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 3 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
1. If 0.5 mol of BaCl
2
is mixed with 0.2 mol of Na
3
PO
4
,
the maximum number of moles of Ba
3
(PO
4
)
2
that can
be formed is 
(A) 0.7 (B) 0.5
(C) 0.30 (D) 0.10
2. If the threshold frequency of a metal for photoelectric
effect is v
0
then which of the following will not
happen ?
(A) If frequency of the incident radiation is v
0
, the
kinetic energy of the electrons ejected is zero.
(B) If frequency of the incident radiation is v, the
kinetic energy of the electrons ejected will be
hv hv
0
(C) If frequency is kept same at v but intensity is
increased, the number of electrons ejected will
increase.
(D) If frequency of the incident radiation is further
increased, the number of photoelectrons ejected
will be increase.
3. Which of the following is violation of Pauli's
exclusion principle ?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
4. The IUPAC name of compound
HO C = O
NH
2
C ==== C C H
NH
2
CH
3
Cl
is
(A) 2, 3 diamino4chloro2pentenoic acid
(B) 4chloro3, 3diamino2pentenoic acid
(C) 3, 3diamino3chloropentenoic acid
(D) All of the above
5. If optical rotation produced by the compound (i) is
30, then rotation produced by compound (ii) is
(i)
CH
3
H OH
HO H
CH
3
(ii)
CH
3
H OH
H OH
CH
3
(A) + 30 (B) 30
(C) zero (D) unpredictable
6. 16 mL of a gaseous aliphatic C
n
H
3n
O
m
was mixed
with 60 mL O
2
and sparked, the gas mixture on
cooling occupied 44 mL. After treatment with KOH
solution the volume of gas remaining was 12 mL.
Formula of compound is 
(A) C
2
H
6
O (B) C
3
H
8
O
(C) CH
4
O (D) None of the above
7. Most stable free radical is
(A)
CH
3
(B)
(C)
(D)
8. At constant pressure P, A dissociates on heating
according to the equation
A(g) B(g) + C(g)
The equilibrium partial pressure of A at T K is 1/9 P,
the equilibrium K
p
at TK is
(A)
9
8
P (B)
9
64
P (C)
9
16
P (D) 9 P
9. Calculate the pH of 6.66 10
3
M solution of
Al(OH)
3
. Its first dissociation is 100% where as
second dissociation is 50% and third dissociation is
negligible.
(A) 2 (B) 12 (C) 11 (D) 13
Questions 10 to 14 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE THAN ONE) is
correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against the
question number of that question. + 4 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
10. The IUPAC name of the following compound is 
OH
CN
Br
(A) 3Bromo3cyano phenol
(B) 3Bromo5hydroxy benzonitrile
(C) 3Cyano3hydroxybromo benzene
(D) 5Bromo3hydroxy benzonitrile
XtraEdge for IITJEE 68 FEBRUARY 2011
11. Which of the following is/are correct regarding the
periodic classification of elements ?
(A) The properties of elements are the periodic
function of their atomic number
(B) Non metals are lesser in number than metals
(C) The first ionization energies of elements in a
period do not increase with the increase in
atomic numbers
(D) For transition elements the dsubshells are filled
with electrons monotonically with the increase
in atomic number
12. Identify the correct statements 
(A) The compound
H
3
C
CH
3
COOH
O
fails to undergo
decarboxylation
(B) A Grignard reagent can be successfully made
from the following dibromide
Br
Br
(C) Cyclopentan 1, 2 dione exists almost 100% in
the enol form whereas diacetyl (CH
3
COCOCH
3
)
can exist in the keto form as well as the enol form
(D) Among the following resonance structure given
below, (ii) will be the major contributor to the
resonance hybrid.
13. Which of the following are possible products from
aldol condensation of 6oxoheptanal ?
(A)
C
O CH
3
(B)
C
O
H
CH
3
(C)
O
(D)
O
CH
3
14. Which of the metal is/are used in flash bulbs?
(A) Be (B) Mg
(C) Ca (D) Ba
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has
3 multiple choice questions. (Questions 15 to 20) Each
question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which
ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR
sheet against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
According to molecular orbital theory all atomic
orbital combine to form molecular orbital by LCAO
(Linear combination of atomic orbital) method. When
two atomic orbitals have additive (constructive)
overlapping, they form bonding molecular orbital
(BMO) which have lower energy than atomic orbitals
whereas when atomic orbitals overlap subtractively,
higher energy antibonding molecular orbitals (AMO)
are formed. Each M.O. occupies two electrons with
opposite spin. Distribution of electrons in M.O.
follows Aufbau principle as well as Hund's rule.
M.O. theory can successfully explain magnetic
behaviour of molecules.
15. Which of the following is/are not paramagnetic ?
(A) NO (B) B
2
(C) CO (D) O
2
16. Bond strength increases when
(A) bond order increases
(B) bond length increases
(C) antibonding electrons increases
(D) bond angle increases
17.
2
2
O will have
(A) bond order equal to H
2
and diamagnetic
(B) bond order equal to H
2
but paramagnetic
(C) bond order equal to N
2
and diamagnetic
(D) bond order higher than O
2
Passage # 2 (Ques. 18 to 20)
C
(Resolvable)
HBr,Peroxide
A(C
6
H
11
Br)
Decolourise Br
2
water and connot
be resolved
alc. KOH
a single possible
product
E
HBr,R
2
O
2
(Excess)
G
Resolvable
F
non
resolvable
(Nonresolvable)
HBr
B
Zn,Heat
D(C
6
H
12
)
O
3
;Zn,H
2
O
O

CH
3
CCH
3
XtraEdge for IITJEE 69 FEBRUARY 2011
18. Organic compound 'A' is
(A)
CH
2
Br
(B)
Br
(C)
CH
2
Br
(D)
Br
19. The resolvable orgainc compound 'C' is
(A)
CH
2
Br
Br
(B)
Br
Br
*
(C)
Br
Br
(D)
Br
Br
20. The resolvable organic compound, G is
(A)
CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
Br
Br
CH
3
(B)
Br
CH
2
CH
3
Br
H
H
CH
2
CH
3
(C)
H
CH
2
Br
H
CH
3
CH
3
CH
2
Br
(D)
Br
CH
3
Br
H
H
CH
CH
3
CH
3
This section contains 2 questions (Questions 21, 22).
Each question contains statements given in two
columns which have to be matched. Statements
(A, B, C, D) in Column I have to be matched with
statements (P, Q, R, S) in Column II. The answers to
these questions have to be appropriately bubbled as
illustrated in the following example. If the correct
matches are AP, AS, BQ, BR, CP, CQ and DS,
then the correctly bubbled 4 4 matrix should be as
follows :
A
B
C
D
P
Q R S
S
P
P
P Q R
R
R
Q
Q
S
S
P Q R S
Mark your response in OMR sheet against the question
number of that question in sectionII. + 6 marks will be
given for complete correct answer and No Negative
marks for wrong answer. However, 1 mark will be
given for a correctly marked answer in any row.
21. Match the following :
Column I ColumnII
(A) Compound show
Geometrical
isomerism
(P)
Me Me
(B) Compound is chiral (Q)
= C
Me
H
Me
H
(C) Compound having
plane of symmetry
(R)
C = C
Me
H
Me
H
(D) Compound having
centre of symmetry
(S)
Me
H
Me
H
22. ColumnI ColumnII
(Ionic species) (Shapes)
(A) XeF
5
+
(P) Tetrahedral
(B) SiF
5
= and
2
2
5
1
3
2 +
=
=
z y x
is 
(A) 3(x 21) = 3y + 92 = 3z 32
(B)
3 / 1
) 3 / 31 (
3 / 1
31
3 / 1
) 3 / 62 ( +
=
=
z y x
(C)
3 / 1
) 3 / 32 (
3 / 1
) 3 / 92 (
3 / 1
21 +
=
=
z y x
(D)
3 / 1
1
3 / 1
3
3 / 1
2
=
+
=
z y x
6. The set of all x satisfying the equation
10 ) (log log
2
3
2
3
+ x x
x = 1/x
2
is
(A) {1, 9} (B) {1, 9, 1/81}
(C) {1, 4, 1/81} (D) {9, 1/81}
7. In a certain test there are n questions. In this test 2
k
students gave wrong answers to at least (n k)
questions, where k = 0, 1, 2, ...... , n. If the total
number of wrong answers is 4095, then value of n is
(A) 11 (B) 12
(C) 13 (D) 15
8. Equation of the locus of the pole with respect to the
ellipse
2
2
a
x
+
2
2
b
y
= 1, of any tangent line to the
auxiliary circle is the curve
4
2
a
x
+
4
2
b
y
=
2
where
(A)
2
= a
2
(B)
2
= 1/a
2
(C)
2
= b
2
(D)
2
= 1/b
2
9. The number of values of x [0, n], n I that satisfy
log
sinx
(1 + cos x) = 2 is
(A) 0 (B) n (C) 2n (D) none
Questions 10 to 14 are multiple choice questions. Each
question has four choices (A), (B), (C) and (D), out of
which MULTIPLE (ONE OR MORE THAN ONE) is
correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against the
question number of that question. + 4 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
10. If x
2
+ 2hxy + y
2
= 0 represents the equations of the
straight lines through the origin which make an angle
with the straight line y + x = 0, then
(A) sec 2 = h (B) cos =
h
h
2
1+
(C) 2 sin =
h
h + 1
(D) cot =
1
1
+
h
h
11. If the numerical value of tan (cos
1
(4/5) + tan
1
(2/3)
is a/b then
(A) a + b = 23 (B) a b = 11
(C) 3b = a + 1 (D) 2a = 3b
12. Let E =
(
+ +
(
+
50
2
3
1
50
1
3
1
+ ... upto 50 terms, then 
(A) E is divisible by exactly 2 primes
(B) E is prime
(C) E 30
(D) E 35
13. If PQ is a double ordinate of the hyperbola
2
2
a
x
2
2
b
y
= 1 such that OPQ is an equilateral
triangle, O being the centre of the hyperbola. Then
the eccentricity e of the hyperbola, satisfies
(A) 1 < e < 2/ 3 (B) e = 2/ 3
(C) e = 3 /2 (D) e > 2/ 3
14. If z
1
, z
2
, z
3
, z
4
are the vertices of a square in that order,
then
(A) z
1
+ z
3
= z
2
+ z
4
(B) z
1
z
2
 = z
2
z
3
 = z
3
z
4
 = z
4
z
1

(C) z
1
z
3
 = z
2
z
4

(D) (z
1
z
3
)/(z
2
z
4
) is purely imaginary
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has
3 multiple choice questions. (Questions 15 to 20) Each
question has 4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which
ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your response in OMR
sheet against the question number of that question. + 4
marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 15 to 17)
In ABC, a = 14, b = 15, c = 13, P be a point with in
the triangle such that PAB = PBC = PCA =
and tan =
n
m
, where m and n are relatively prime
positive integers. Let PA = x, PB = y, PC = z
15. The area of triangle ABC is
(A)
2
1
sin (cx + ay + bz) (B)
2
1
(x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
) tan
(C)
2
1
(xy + yz + zx) (D) None of these
16. tan must be equal to
(A)
2 2 2
c b a + +
(B)
2 2 2
2
c b a + +
(C)
2 2 2
4
c b a + +
\

+ + + ...
16
1
8
1
4
1
log
5
) 2 . 0 ( (Q) 4
(C) x =

.

\

+ + + ...
3
1
3
1
3
1
log
3 2
5 . 2
) 16 . 0 ( (R) 2
(D) 3
x1
+ 3
x2
+ 3
x3
+ ... (S) 7
= 2 
.

\

+ + + + + ...
5
1
5
1
1 5 5
2
2
22. If a and b are two units vectors inclined at angle to
each other then
Column I ColumnII
(A) a + b < 1 if (P)
3
2
< <
(B) a b = a + b if (Q) /2 <
(C)
a + b < 2
(R) = /2
(D)
a b < 2
(S) 0 < /2
Interesting Science Facts
The dinosaurs became extinct before the Rockies
or the Alps were formed.
Female black widow spiders eat their males after
mating.
When a flea jumps, the rate of acceleration is 20
times that of the space shuttle during launch.
The earliest wine makers lived in Egypt around
2300 BC.
If our Sun were just inch in diameter, the nearest
star would be 445 miles away.
The Australian billy goat plum contains 100
times more vitamin C than an orange.
Astronauts cannot belch  there is no gravity to
separate liquid from gas in their stomachs.
The air at the summit of Mount Everest, 29,029
feet is only a third as thick as the air at sea level.
One million, million, million, million, millionth
of a second after the Big Bang the Universe was
the size of a pea.
DNA was first discovered in 1869 by Swiss
Friedrich Mieschler.
The molecular structure of DNA was first
determined by Watson and Crick in 1953.
The thermometer was invented in 1607 by
Galileo.
Englishman Roger Bacon invented the
magnifying glass in 1250.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 72 FEBRUARY 2011
PHYSICS
1. Distinguish between point to point and broadcast
communication modes. Give one example of each.
2. Two identical prisms made of the same material
placed with their bases on opposite sides (of the
incident white light) and faces touching (or parallel)
neither deviate nor disperse. Can this arrangement
produce a parallel displacement of the beam ?
3. What is the formula for the magnifying power of a
compound microscope ?
4. Sketch two equipotential surfaces for a point charge.
5. What are superconductors ?
6. Draw a labelled diagram of Hertz' experiment for
producing E.M. waves.
7. What is the phase difference between voltage and
current in a series LCR circuit at resonance
connected with an AC source ?
8. Explain the difference between Hard and Soft
Xrays.
9. The given graph show the variation of photo electric
current (I) with the applied voltage (V) for two
different materials and for two different intensities
of the incident radiations. Identify the pairs of
curves that correspond to different materials but
same intensity of incident radiations.
I
V
1
3
2
4
10. Four nuclei of an element fuse together to form a
heavier nucleus. If the process is accompanied by
release of energy, which of the twothe parent or the
daughter nucleus would have a higher binding
energy/nucleon ?
11. Zener diodes have higher dopant densities as
compared to ordinary pn junction diodes. How does
it effects the
(i) Width of the depletion layer ?
(ii) Junction field ?
General Instructions : Physics & Chemistry
Time given for each subject paper is 3 hrs and Max. marks 70 for each.
All questions are compulsory.
Marks for each question are indicated against it.
Question numbers 1 to 8 are very shortanswer questions and carrying 1 mark each.
Question numbers 9 to 18 are shortanswer questions, and carry 2 marks each.
Question numbers 19 to 27 are also shortanswer questions, and carry 3 marks each.
Question numbers 28 to 30 are longanswer questions and carry 5 marks each.
Use of calculators is not permitted.
General Instructions : Mathematics
Time given to solve this subject paper is 3 hrs and Max. marks 100.
All questions are compulsory.
The question paper consists of 29 questions divided into three sections A, B and C.
Section A comprises of 10 questions of one mark each.
Section B comprises of 12 questions of four marks each.
Section C comprises of 7 questions of six marks each.
All question in Section A are to be answered in one word, one sentence or as per the exact requirement of the question.
There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided in 4 questions of four marks each and
2 question of six marks each. You have to attempt only one of the alternatives in all such questions.
Use of calculators is not permitted.
MOCK TEST3
CBSE BOARD PATTERN
CLASS # XII
SUBJECT : PHYSICS , CHEMISTRY & MATHEMATICS
Sol ut i ons publ i shed i n same i ssue
XtraEdge for IITJEE 73 FEBRUARY 2011
12. Oil floating on water looks coloured due to
interference of light. What should be the
approximate thickness of the film for such effects to
be visible ?
13. Draw a graph showing the variation of intensity with
angle in a single slit diffraction experiment.
14. A parallel plate air filled capacitor has capacitance 5
F. If plate separation made twice and whole space
is filled with medium, capacitance becomes 20 F.
Find dielectric constant of the medium.
15. Suppose you have two bars of identical dimensions,
one made of paramagnetic substance and the other
of diamagnetic substance. If you place these bars
along a uniform magnetic field, show
diagramatically, what modifications in the field
pattern would take place in each case.
16. In a plane e.m. wave, the electric field oscillates
with a frequency of 2 10
10
s
1
and an amplitude of
40 Vm
1
. (i) What is the wavelength of the wave and
(ii) What is the energy density due to the electric
field ?
17. A solenoid has selfinductance 2 mH and current in
it is 5 amp. Find magnetic energy stored in it.
18. Find power factor of the adjacent circuit.
L = 30 mH
~
R = 4
V = 2 200 sin 100 t
19. Experimental observations have shown that Xrays
(i) travel in vacuum with a speed of 3 10
8
ms
1
,
(ii) exhibit the phenomenon of diffraction and can
the polarized.
What conclusion can be drawn about the nature of
Xrays from each of these observations ?
20. A radioactive material is reduced to
16
1
of its
original amount in 4 days. How much material
should one begin with so that 4 10
3
kg of the
material is left after 6 days.
21. Why are apertures of camera lenses so small while
the apertures of telescopes are as large as feasible ?
22. In adjacent circuit, if current in 5 resistance is
zero, find resistance R.
R
6
5
10
20
1
12V
23. The self inductance of a solenoid is 5 mH and
current flowing in it depends on time t as i = t
2
.
(where i In Amp., t In second). Find induced
emf in it at t = 4 s.
24. Derive an expression for magnetic field inside a
long solenoid.
25. What is Wheatstone bridge ? Deduce the condition
for which Wheatstone bridge is balanced.
26. Explain the differences between diamagnetic,
paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances.
27. Describe the method to obtain Reverse Bias
characterstics of a PN junction diode. Define
reverse resistance. Draw necessary circuit diagram
and also the reverse characterstic curve.
28. A student has to study the input and output
characteristics of a npn silicon transistor in the
Common Emitter configuration. What kind of a
circuit arrangement should she use for this purpose ?
Draw the typical shape of input characteristics likely
to be obtained by her. What do we understand by the
cut off, active and saturation states of the transistor?
In which of these states does the transistor not
remain when being used as a switch ?
OR
Input signals A and B are applied to the input
terminals of the dotted box setup shown here. Let
Y be the final output signal from the box.
Draw the wave forms of the signals labelled as
C
1
and C
2
within the box, giving (in brief) the
reasons for getting these wave forms, Hence draw
the wave form of the final output signal Y. Give
reasons for your choice.
What can we state (in words) as the relation between
the final output signal Y and the input signals A and
B ?
A
u1
0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4
B
B
C
2
C
1
A
B
XtraEdge for IITJEE 74 FEBRUARY 2011
29. Draw a labelled ray diagram of an astronomical
telescope. Write mathematical expression for its
magnifying power. How does the magnifying power
get affected on increasing the aperture of the
objective lens and why ?
30. Derive an expression for the energy density of a
capacitor.
OR
An electric flux of 6 10
3
Nm
2
/C passes normally
through a spherical Gaussian surface of radius
10 cm, due to a point charge placed at the centre.
(i) What is the charge enclosed by the Gaussian
surface ?
(ii) If the radius of the Gaussian surface is doubled,
how much flux would pass through the surface ?
CHEMISTRY
1. Which of the following lattices has the highest
packing efficiency (i) simple cubic (ii) body
centered cubic and (iii) hexagonal close packed
lattice ?
2. What is meant by 'specific surface area' of a solid ?
3. Give the IUPAC name of Li [AlH
4
]
4 What is formula of siderite ore ?
5. Name the monomer units of Bakelite
6. What are antiseptics. Give two example :
7. What are basic amino acids. Give a example ?
8. Arrange the following in the order of their
increasing reactivity in nucleophilic substitution
reactions :
CH
3
F, CH
3
I, CH
3
Br, CH
3
Cl
9. The half life for radioactive decay of
14
C is 5730 y.
An archaeological artefact contained wood had only
80% of the
14
C in a living tree. Estimate the age of
the
sample.
10. What is the effect of temperature on the rate
constant of reaction ? How can this temperature
effect on rate constant ? Explain using collision
theory ?
11. Explain the following :
(i) S.H.E.; (ii) Kohlrausch's law
12. Why Actinides show much higher oxidation states
as compared to Lanthanides ?
13. How group I radicals like Ag
+
and Hg
2
2+
are
seperated by complex formation with NH
4
OH ?
14. What is Roasting ?
15. Give the structure and monomer units of
biodegradable polymer PHBV ?
16. Name the purine and pyrimidine bases in DNA and
RNA .
17. What are detergents. Give a example of Cationic &
Anionic detergents
18. A sweet smelling organic compound 'A' is slowly
oxidised by air in the presence of light to a highly
poisonous gas. On warming with silver powder, it
forms gaseous substance 'B' which is also formed by
the action of calcium carbide on water. Identify 'A'
and 'B' and write the equations of the reactions
involved .
19. (a) Gold (atomic radius = 0.144 nm) crystallises in a
face centred unit cell. What is the length of a side
of the cell ?
(b) Classify each of the following as being either a
ptype or an ntype semiconductor
(i) Ge doped with In
(ii) Si doped with As.
20. Two liquids A and B form ideal solution at 323 K. A
liquid mixture containing one mole of A and two
moles of B has a vapour pressure of 250 bar. If one
more mole of A is added to the solution, the vapour
pressure increases to 300 bar. Calculate the vapour
pressures of liquids A and B at 323 K.
21. (a) In which of the following does adsorption take
place and why ?
(i) Silica gel placed in the atmosphere saturated
with water.
(ii) Anhydrous CaCl
2
placed in the atmosphere
saturated with water.
(c) Give an example of shapeselective catalysis
22. Explain the order of basic character in hydrides of
nitrogen family ?
23. Give structure of Cr
2
O
7
2
?
24. How will you convert ?
(i) Phenol to phydroxyazobenzene
(ii) Ethyl alcohol to methyl alcohol.
25. Write the IUPAC name of the following :
CH
3
O C (CH
3
)
3
26. Give a suitable colour reaction test to distinguish
between
(i) 2Pentanone and 3Pentanone
(ii) Acetone and acetaldehyde ?
27. An organic compound A(C
3
H
6
O) is resistant to
oxidation but forms compound B(C
3
H
8
O) on
reduction which reacts with HBr to form the
bromide (C). C forms a Grignard reagent which
reacts with A to give D (C
6
H
14
O). Give the
structures of A, B, C and D and explain the reactions
involved.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 75 FEBRUARY 2011
28. (a) What are ideal and nonideal solutions ? What
type of nonidealities are exhibited by
cyclohexaneethanol and acetonechloroform
mixtures ? Give reasons for your answers.
(b) A solution containing 30 g of a nonvolatile
solute exactly in 90g water has a vapour pressure
of 2.8 kPa at 298 K. Further 18 g of water is then
added to solution, the new vapour pressure
becomes 2.9 kPa at 298 K. Calculate,
(i0 Molecular mass of the solute;
(ii) Vapour pressure of water at 298 K.
29. Give structure of :
(a) Hypophosphorus acid (b) Pyrophosphoric acid
(c) Dithionic acid (d) Marshall acid
(e) Hypophosphoric acid
30. (a) An optically inactive compound (A) having
molecular formula C
4
H
11
N on treatment with HNO
2
gave an alcohol (B). (B) on heating at 440 K gave an
alkene (C). (C) on treatment with HBr gave an
optically active compound (D) having the molecular
formula C
4
H
9
Br. IdentifyA, B, C and D and write
down their structural formulae. Also write equations
involved.
(b) Explain why Alkyl amines are stronger bases
than arylamines.
MATHEMATICS
Section A
1. Show that relation R on the set A = {1, 2, 3} given
by R = {(1, 2), (2, 1)} is symmetric but neither
reflexive nor transitive.
2. If x
2/3
+ y
2/3
= a
2/3
then find
dx
dy
.
3. Evaluate
dx e x
x sin log 3
cos .
4. Solve : (x + y)
2
dx
dy
= a
2
5. The projection of a vector on the coordinate axes are
6, 3, 2. Find its length and direction cosines.
6. Find the values of x for which the angle between the
vectors a
r
= 2x
2
i
+ 4x j
+ k
and b
r
= 7 i
2 j
+ x k
is
obtuse.
7. A plane meets the coordinate axes in A, B, C such
that the centroid of triangle ABC is the point
(p, q, r). Show that the equation of the plane is
p
x
+
q
y
+
r
z
= 3.
8. If
(
+
ab
b a
5
2
=
(
8 5
2 6
find a, b.
9. Find matrix X and Y if
X + Y =
(
9 0
2 5
, X Y=
(
1 0
6 3
10. Using determinant, find k so that points
(k, 2 2k), (k + 1, 2k) and ( 4 k, 6 2k) are
collinear.
Section B
11. In two successive throws of a pair of dice, determine
the probability of getting a total of 8, each time.
12. If f : R R is given by
f(x) = sin
2
x + sin
2
(/3 + x) + cos x . cos (/3 + x)
x R. g : R R be such that g(5/4) = 1 then prove
that gof is constant function.
13. f(x) =
< +
+
< + +
8 4 , 5 2
4 2 , 2 3
2 0 ,
2
x b ax
x x
x b ax x
f(x) is continuous on [0, 8] then find a, b.
14. y = tan
1
(sec x + tan x) then find
dx
dy
;
where
2
< x <
2
.
15. Differentiate tan
1
(
(
+ +
+
2 2
2 2
1 1
1 1
x x
x x
w.r.t,cos
1
x
2
16. The two equal sides of an isosceles triangle with
fixed base b are decreasing at the rate of
3 cm/sec. How fast is the area decreasing when the
two sides are equal to the base.
OR
Use lagrange's Mean Value theorem to determine a
point P on the curve y = 2 x where the tangent is
parallel to the chord joining (2, 0) and (3, 1).
17. Evaluate
dx
x x
x
4 2
1
2
OR
Evaluate :
+
+
2 / x
e .
x cos 1
x sin 2
.dx
18. Evaluate
+
+
dx
x
x
16
4
4
2
XtraEdge for IITJEE 76 FEBRUARY 2011
19. Solve :
dx
dy
2y = cos 3x.
20. For any two vectors a
r
and b
r
, show that
(1 +  a
r

2
) (1 +  b
r

2
) = {(1 a
r
. b
r
)}
2
+  a
r
+b
r
+ ( a
r
b
r
)
2
21. Find the foot of the perpendicular from the point
(0, 2, 3) on the line
5
3 + x
=
2
1 y
=
3
4 + z
. Also,
find the length of the perpendicular.
OR
Find the particular solution of the differential
equation
dy
dx
+ y cot x = 2x + x
2
cot x, x 0 given
that y = 0, when x =
2
22. Show that
xy z
zx y
yz x
1
1
1
=
2
2
2
1
1
1
z z
y y
x x
and hence factorize.
OR
If a, b and c are real numbers and
a c c b b a
c b b a a c
b a a c c b
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
= 0
Show that either a + b + c = 0 or a = b = c.
Section C
23. Two persons A and B throw a die alternately till one
of them gets a 'six' and wins the game. Find their
respectively probabilities of winning.
24. Find the area bounded by the curves y = x and
y = x
3
.
25. Find the shortest distance between the lines
2
1 x
=
3
2 y
=
4
3 z
and
3
2 x
=
4
4 y
=
5
5 z
.
26. If A =
(
(
(
1 2 0
3 1 2
0 2 1
, find A
1
. Using A
1
, solve the
system of linear equations
x 2y = 10
2x + y + 3z = 8
2y + z = 7
27. Show that sin
p
cos
q
attains a maximum value
when = tan
1
q p / .(where p, q > 0)
28. Evaluate
+
3
1
2
) 5 ( dx x x , by first principle method
OR
Evaluate
1
1
dx e
x
by first principle method
29. There is a factory located at each of two places P
and Q. From these locations, a certain commodity is
delivered to each of the three depots situated at A, B
and C. The weekly requirements of the depots are
respectively 5, 5 and 4 units of the commodity while
the production capacity of the factories at P and Q
are 8 and 6 units respectively. The cost of
transportation per unit is give below.
From
To
COST (In Rs.)
A B C
P 16 10 15
Q 10 12 10
How many units should be transported from each
factory to each depot in order that the transportation
cost is minimum. Formulate the above as a linear
programming problem.
OR
A brick manufacturer has two depots, A and B, with
stocks of 30,000 and 20,000 bricks respectively. He
receives orders from three builders P, Q and R for
15, 000, 20,000 and 15000 bricks respectively. The
cost in Rs. transporting 1000 bricks to the builders
from the depots are given below.
From
To
P Q R
A 40 20 30
B 20 60 40
How should the manufacturer fulfill the orders so as
to keep the costs of transportation minimum?
Pluto lies at the outer edge of the planetary
system of our sun, and at the inner edge of the
Kuiper Belt, a belt of icy comets that are the
remnants of the formation of the solar system.
Gamma ray bursts  mysterious explosions at
the edge of the Universe  were first detected in
1969 by military satellites monitoring the Test
Ban Treaty.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and the
second largest moon in the entire solar system.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 77 FEBRUARY 2011
PHYSICS
1. p = q 2l
It's a vector quantity
2. Sensitivity
gradient Potential
1
3. Gamma rays, Xrays, ultraviolet, Infrared
4. =
p
h
=
mk
h
2
The proton will have a higher K.E.
(mass of proton is slightly less than that of the
neutron)
5. The ionization energy of silicon gets (considerably)
reduced compared to that of carbon. Silicon
(a semiconductor), therefore, becomes a (much)
better conductor of electricity than carbon (an
insulator)
6. (0 to t
1
), (t
3
to t
4
)
7. No, when the refractive index of prism material is
same as that of the surrounding, then there is no
dispersion.
8. As, P
f
1
, so lens of smaller focal length is more
powerful and more magnifying power.
9. F = qvB sin
(i) = 90, F
max
= q v B
(ii) = 0, 180, F = 0
10. S =
g
g
i i
G i
11. V
1
= 2 V
V
2
6 F 12 F
V
V
1
= 2 =
12 6
12
+
V
V = 3 volt
OR
d
A
0
= 8
C' =
2
) 5 (
0
d
A
= 10
d
A
0
= 10 8 = 80
12. The region containing the uncompensated acceptor
and donor ions is called depletion region there is a
barrier at the junction which opposes the movement
of majority charge carriers.
+ + + + +
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
P N
Depletion region
Formation of depletion region in PN junction
diode
The physical distance from one side of the barrier
to the other is called the width of the barrier. The
width of the depletion region or barrier depends
upon the nature of the material. Its typical value is
nearly 10
6
m. The difference of potential from one
side of the barrier to the other side is called
potential barrier or height of the barrier. Its value is
nearly 0.7 V for a silicon PN junction and 0.3 V for
a germanium diode.
13. Reasons :
(i) Size of antenna
(ii) Effective power radiated by the antenna
14. The activity of a radioactive element at any instant,
equals its rate of decay at that instant. Its SI unit is
Becquerel (Bq) (= 1 decay per second)
Activity R =
dt
dN
= N =
T
e
2 log
N
2
1
R
R
=
1
1
T
N
+
2
2
T
N
=
1 2
2 1
T N
T N
MOCK TEST2 (SOLUTION)
MOCK TEST 2 (PAPER) PUBLISHED IN JANUARY ISSUE
XtraEdge for IITJEE 78 FEBRUARY 2011
15.
Information
Source
Transmitter
Transmission
channel
Receiver
Message
Signal
Transmitted
Signal
Received
Signal
16. The permitted stationary orbits for the electron in a
hydrogen atom are those for which the angular
momentum of the electron is an integral multiple of
h/2
m v
n
r
n
= n
2
h
2r
n
= n
mv
h
But
n
mv
h
=
n
the associated de Broglie
wavelength for electron in its n
th
orbit
Hence 2r
n
= n
n
or circumference of n
th
permitted orbit
= n de Broglie wavelength
associated with the electron in the n
th
orbit.
17. For telescope, focal length & aperture of objective
has to be maximum i.e., lens A and eyepiece has to
smaller focal length and smaller aperture i.e., lens
D. Then magnifying power will be maximum, i.e.
M.P. =
e
f
f
0
=
5
100
= 20
and l = f
0
+ f
e
= 105 cm.
18. The interference pattern due to different component
colours of white light makes interference pattern of
different colours and overlap on each other, so the
central fringe is white. As violet wavelength is
minimum and red has maximum so violet fringes
are closer & red are farther. And there are different
lines of different colours.
19.
r
P
90
r '
i
y
dy
At point P
dB =
4
0
2
) ' (
) 90 ( sin
r
y id
=
4
0
2
) ' r (
cos idy
y = r tan
dy = r sec
2
d
and cos =
' r
r
r ' =
cos
r
= r sec
dB =
4
0
2
2
) sec (
cos ) sec (
r
d r i
=
r
i
4
0
cos d
B =
r 4
i
0
=
=
d
2 /
2 /
cos =
r
i
2
0
20. (a) = NiAB sin
here = 0
= 0
(b) F = ev
d
B , v
d
=
neA
i
21. (a) K =
L
V
0
=
xt e
R r R
R
+ +
L
=
480 20
20
+
10
5
(r = 0)
= 2 10
2
V/m
(b) V = Kl = 2 10
2
6
= 12 10
2
volt
22. R =
A
l
If l = 1m, A = 1 m
2
= R
S.I. unit, = R
l
A
= ohmmetre
m
ne
=
2
'
23. (i) A Capacitive circuit
B Inductive only
(ii) For device A ; i =
C
X
V
= V C
I
For device B :
i =
L
X
V
=
L
V
1
XtraEdge for IITJEE 79 FEBRUARY 2011
24. Output not symmetric for A,B = (0,1) and
(1,0) Not gate in one input
(i) has three zeroes NOR gate
Thus
A
B
Y
A
B
Y
(ii) has three one's OR gate
Thus
25. =
p
h
=
mv
h
e
=
6 31
34
10 3 10 9
10 6 . 6
= 2.44 10
10
m
ball
=
100 10 3
10 6 . 6
2
34
= 2.2 10
34
m
e
= size of atom,
ball
<< size of ball
26. =
1
= R


.

\

2
1
2
2
1
1
n n
=


.

\

2
1
2
2
1
1
1
n n
R
=


.

\

2
1
2
2
1
1
970
n n
Let us take n
2
= 1 (Lyman series of hydrogen
spectrum)
Here can take values
) 4 / 3 (
970
,
) 9 / 8 (
970
,
) 16 / 15 (
970
..
.........,
1
970
(corresponding to n
1
= 2, 3, 4, .. )
Permitted values of are 1293.3 , 1091,
1034.6 , 970
Let us next take n
2
= 2 (Balmer series of hydrogen
spectrum)
Here can take values
36 / 5
970
,
16 / 3
970
,
100 / 21
970
,
4 / 1
970
(Corresponding to n
1
= 3, 4, 5 . )
Possible values of are 6984 , 5173. 3, 4619 ,
3880
Hence = 824 , 1120, 2504 , 6100 , of the
given lines, cannot belong to the hydrogen atom
spectrum.
27. Directions of different minima in the diffraction
pattern are given by
n
=
D
x
n
=
d
n
or, x
n
=
d
D n
Width of secondary maximum,
= x
n
x
n1
=
d
n n ) 1 (
D =
d
D
width of central maximum,
0
= 2x
1
=
d
D 2
= 2
Thus the central maximum is twice as wide as any
secondary maximum
Again,
d
1
So, as slit width is increased, the secondary maxima
get narrower.
28. (a) f
r
=
LC 2
1
(b) Z =
2 2
) (
C L
X X R +
At resonance, X
L
= X
c
R Z =
i =
Z
V
=
R
V
(c) V
R
= i
rms
R = 
.

\

R
V
R = V
V
L
= i
rms
X
L
=
R
V
X
L
V
C
= i
rms
X
C
=
R
X V
C
(d) The voltage across L,C,R are not in phase.
OR
(i)
p
s
N
N
= 100, N
P
= 100 N
s
= 100 N
p
= 10,000
(ii) V
p
= 220
V
p
i
p
= 1100
220 i
p
= 1100
i
p
=
22
110
= 5 Amp.
(iii)
p
s
V
V
=
p
s
N
N
= 100
V
s
= 100 V
p
= 100 220 = 22000 volt
(iv) V
s
i
s
= V
p
i
p
22000 i
s
= 1100
XtraEdge for IITJEE 80 FEBRUARY 2011
i
s
=
22000
1100
=
20
1
Amp.
(v) Power in secondary V
s
i
p
= V
p
i
s
= 1100 W
29.
E
i
K
E
0
+
+
Due to dielectric, electric field between plates
decreased, so p.d. decreased, consequently
capacitance increased
Net Electric field between plates
E = E
+
+ E
=
K
0
2
+
K
0
2
=
K
0
E =
AK
q
0
d
U
=
AK
q
0
U
q
=
d
KA
0
C =
d
KA
0
30.
A
i
2
e
r
1
r
2
When light passes through a prism, it gets refracted
twice from its two nonparallel refracting surfaces
such that net deviation is given by sum of
deviations produced by each surface,
=
1
+
2
= (i r
1
) + (e r
2
)
= i + e (r
1
+ r
2
)
A e i + =
At minimum deviation,
r
1
= r
2
= r (say) & i = e
so, A = r
1
+ r
2
= 2r r = A/2
min
= 2i A i =
2
min
A +
As, =
r sin
i sin
=
2 / sin
2
sin
A
A
m

.

\
 +
L
O
v
0
E
F
e
A''
B''
F
0
u
0
A
B
D
B'
A'
f
0
P
Magnifying power,
M =
tan
tan
=
D PB
D
B A
/ ' '
' ' ' '
=
AB
B A ' ' ' '
=
' '
' ' ' '
B A
B A
.
AB
B A ' '
= m
e
m
0
=


.

\

+
e
f
D
1 .
0
0
u
v
=
0
f
L


.

\

+
e
f
D
1
CHEMISTRY
1. NCl
5
is not found because nitrogen do not have
vacant dorbitals
2. Ores of aluminium are :
(i) Bauxite ore : Al
2
O
3
. 2H
2
O.
(ii) Diaspore : Al
2
O
3
. H
2
O
3. Enzymes are protein natured specific biocatalyst
which increases the rates of reaction by lowering
the energy of activation.
4. Coordination No. of
B.C.C. = 8
H.C.P. = 12
C.C.P = 12
S.C. = 6
5. K
0
= 0.25
hr
M
x = K
0
t t = 30 min
(a
0
a
t
) = K
0
t
a
0
= 0.25 0.5 + 0.075 = 0.20 M
6. Ca
+2
+ 2e
Ca
2mol 1 mol
1F mol = 20 g
7. In absorption association over the surface takes
place
It is an exothermic process.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 81 FEBRUARY 2011
8. CH
3
Cl, Na, Dry ether; Wurtz Fittig reaction
9. Carbon monoxide is poisonous as it combines with
haemoglobin of blood forming
carboxyhaemoglobin due to which deficiency of
oxygen occurs in blood.
10. The principle oxidation state of lanthanides is +3.
However, some lanthanides also show oxidation
state of +2 and +4.
For example, Eu shows oxidation state of +2 and
Cerium shows oxidation state of + 4 .
11. Bayer's process is used when bauxite ore contains
ferric oxide as chief impurity.
The powdered ore is first roasted at low
temperature to convert ferrous oxide into ferric
oxide. It is then digested with a concentrated
solution of sodium hydroxide.
The aluminium oxide dissolves in caustic soda
(NaOH) forming soluble sodium metal aluminate
(NaAlO
2
) while ferric oxide and silica remains
insoluble and settle down. These are removed by
filtration.
Al
2
O
3
. 2H
2
O + 2NaOH 2NaAlO
2
+ 3H
2
O
(soluble)
The sodium metaaluminate solution is agitated and
it undergoes hydrolysis with formation of Al(OH)
3
as precipitate.
NaAlO
2
+ 2H
2
O NaOH + Al(OH)
3
(Precipitate)
The precipitate is washed and dried
12. (i)Colligative Properties : The properties which
depends upon no. of particles but do not depends
upon nature of particles are called colligative
properties.
(ii) Reverse Osmosis : When we apply pressure
greater than osmotic pressure on the conc. side of
the two solution which are separated by
semipermeable membrane. This results in
movement of solvent molecules from high conc. to
low conc.
use : purification of water
13. The minimum additional energy which is required
by the reactant molecule to participate in the
chemical rx
n
is called activation energy. Catalyst
reduces the activation energy as it offer an
additional path to the chemical rx
n
with rise in
temperature the activation energy is not affected but
more and more molecules will have that minimum
energy which is required to participate in chemical
rx
n
14. log
1
2
K
K
=
R
E
a
303 . 2


.

\

2 1
1 1
T T
ln 2 =
30 . 8 303 . 2
a
E

.

\

310
1
300
1
0.3010 =
314 . 8 303 . 2
a
E

.

\

300 310
10
E
a
= 2.303 8.314 0.3010 31 300
= 53.598 kJ
15.
0
Ag / Ag
E + = 0.80 V
0
Zn / Zn
2 E + = 0.76 V
E
0
cell
=
0
Ag / Ag
E +
0
Zn / Zn
2 E +
= 0.8 (0.76) = 1.56 V
G
r
= nF E
cell
= 2 96500 1.56; = 301.08 kJ
16.
H2
(5atm)
O2
(5atm)
NaOH + KOH
Porous Celectrode
Cathode
Anode
Impregnated
with Pt or Ni
Chemical rx
n
At anode
H
2
(g) + 2OH 2H
2
O(g) + 2e
At cathode
2
1
O
2
(g) + H
2
O(l) + 2e
2OH (aq)
overall rx
n
H
2
(g) +
2
1
O
2
(g) H
2
O(l)
17.
) Z (
5 6
) Y (
2 5 6
) X (
2 5 6
I H C Cl N H C NH H C
+
18. (i)
C
2
H
5
Br
Mg
ether
C
2
H
5
MgBr
O
C
2
H
5
CH
2
CH
2
MgBr
H
2
O / H
+
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
OH
Butan1ol
XtraEdge for IITJEE 82 FEBRUARY 2011
(ii)
CH
3
MgBr + CH
3
C CH
3
CH
3
C CH
3
O
CH
3
OMgBr
H2O / H
+
CH
3
C CH
3
+ Mg
CH
3
OH
OH
Br
Methyl magnesium
bromide Propanone
2Methylpropan2ol
19. The preparation of K
2
Cr
2
O
7
from chromite ore is
given in following steps :
Step I : Preparation of sodium chromite :
4FeCr
2
O
4
+ 16NaOH + 7O
2
8Na
2
CrO
4
+ 2Fe
2
O
3
+ 8H
2
O
Step II : Conversion of sodium chromate into sodium
dichromate :
2Na
2
CrO
4
+ H
2
SO
4
Na
2
Cr
2
O
7
+ Na
2
SO
4
+ H
2
O
Step III : Conversion of sodium dichromate into
potassium dichromate.
Na
2
Cr
2
O
7
+ 2KCl K
2
Cr
2
O
7
+ 2NaCl
on increasing pH value, dichromate ions (Cr
2
O
7
2
)
get converted into chromate ions (CrO
4
2
).
20. (i) [CoCl
2
(en)
2
] Cl
Dichloridobis (ethane 1, 2diamine) cobalt (III)
chloride.
(ii) Potassium tetrahydroxozincate (II)
(iii) Tetraammine aqua chloridocobalt (III) chloride
21. Polymers are macro molecules with number of
repeating units called monomers
Terylene
O CH
2
CH
2
O C C
O O
( )
n
Nylon 6, 6
(
HN (CH
2
)
6
NH CO (CH
2
)
4
CO
)
n
22. Dissaccharide are sugar containing two
monosaccharide unit
(i) maltose = D Glucose + D Glucose
(ii) Sucrose = D Glucose + D Fructose
(iii) Lactose = D Galactose + D glucose
23. Antibiotics are naturally produced chemical
substances which kill or arrest the growth of
bacteria
(i) Bactericidal These kill bacteria
Ex Penicillin, Ofloxacin
(ii) Bacteriostatic These stop the growth of
bacteria
Ex Chloremphenicol, Erythromycin
24. Edge of unit cell a = 288 10
10
cm.
V = a
3
= 23.9 10
24
cm
3
d =
A
N
M
a
Z
3
7.2 =
A
N
24
10 9 . 23
52 2
N
A
=
2 . 7 10 9 . 23
52 2
24
= 6.04 10
23
25. (a)
0
O H
2
p = 12.3 kPa
In 1 molal solution
m =
Kg
B
w
n
n
B
= 1
O H
2
n =
18
1000
= 55.5
O H
2
x =
1 5 . 55
5 . 55
+
= 0.982
p = 0.982 12.3 = 12.08 kPa
v.p. of solution p
A
= 0.8
0
A
p
(b) let mass of solute be W g
moles of solute =
40
W
moles of octane n
0
=
114
114
= 1
x
B
=
1 40
W
40
W
+
0
A
p
p
= x
B
0
A
0
A
0
A
p
p 8 . 0 p
=
1 40
W
40
W
+
W =
8 . 0
40 2 . 0
= 10 g
26. (a) The associative colloide is that colloide which is
form due association of large no. of particles. These
particles form true solution at lower conc. but as
conc. became greater than C.M.C. (critical micelles
conc.) their association results in the formation of
colloidal solution Ex. Soap, detergents
(b) HardySchulz rule states that for the coagulation
of colloidal solution active ions are required and
active ions are those ions which are having opposite
charge more is the charge greater will be the
coagulation tendency.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 83 FEBRUARY 2011
(c) Cellophane bag
H2O
H2O
Dialysis is a phenomenon in which removal of
dissolved impurities from the colloidal solution by
means of diffussion through a suitable
semipermeable membrane.
In this process colloidal solution is placed in
cellophane bag and impurities get removed through
small pores of the bag. To enhance the removel of
electrolyte it is placed in electric field which is
called electro dialysis.
27. (a) The reactivity of aldehydes and ketones toward
nucleophilic addition depends upon (i) + I effect (ii)
steric hinderance. Hence the order is Ditert butyl
ketone < methyltertbutyl ketone < Acetone <
Acetaldehyde
(b) The acidic strength depends upon (i) nature of +
I effect (ii) nature of atom / group attached (iii)
position of substituent on the chain. Hence,
(CH
3
)
2
CHCOOH < CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
COOH <
CH
3
CH(Br)CH
2
COOH < CH
3
CH
2
CH(Br)COOH
(c) 4Methoxy benzoic acid < Benzoic acid < 4
Nitrobenzoic acid < 3, 4Dinitrobenzoic acid
28. Hydrolysis of trichlorosilanes gives cross linked
silicones.
Cl Si Cl + 3H
2
O
3HCl
HO Si OH
R
Cl
R
OH
n HO Si OH
R
OH
(n1) H2O
 O Si O Si O 
R R
O O
 O Si O Si O 
R R
Cross linked silicon
29. A is C
6
H
5
CONH
2
; B is C
6
H
5
CN; C is C
6
H
5
CH
2
OH
the sequence of reactions is
C
6
H
5
CONH
2
P2O5
H2O
C
6
H
5
CN
Red
C
6
H
5
CH
2
NH
2
Benzamide
Benzonitrile Benzylamine
N2 H2O HNO2
C
6
H
5
CH
2
OH
Oxide
[O]
C
6
H
5
COOH
Benzoic acid Benzyl alcohol
30. Formic acid H C OH
O
contains both an
aldehyde
C = O
H
as well as carboxyl
group
C OH
O
but acetic acid contain
only a carboxyl group. Formic acid behaves as
reducing agent whereas acetic acid does not.
(a) Formic acid reduces Tollen's reagent to
metallic silver but acetic acid does not.
HCOOH + 2[Ag(NH
3
)
2
]
+
+ 2(OH)
Tollen's reagent
2Ag + CO
2
+ 2H
2
O + 4NH
3
Silver mirror
No silver mirror is formed with acetic acid.
(b) Formic acid reduced Fehling solution to red ppt.
of Cu
2
O but acetic acid does not.
HCOOH+2Cu
2+
+ 4(OH) Cu
2
O + CO
2
+ 3H
2
O
Fehling solution Red ppt (cuprous oxide)
MATHEMATICS
Section A
1. t
r
(A) = a
11
+a
22
+a
33
= 14 + (5) + (2) = 14 7 = 7
2. x + 10 = 3x + 4 and y
2
+ 2y = 3 and y
2
5y = 4
2x = 6 (y +3) (y 1) = 0 y
2
5y + 4 = 0
(y 4) (y 1) = 0
x = 3 y = 3, 1 y = 1, 4
x = 3, y = 1
3. sin 10 cos 80 sin 80 (cos 10)
= sin 10 cos 80 + sin 80 cos 10
= sin (10 + 80) = sin 90 = 1
4. Diff. w.r. to x
e
x
+ e
y
dx
dy
= e
x+y

.

\

+
dx
dy
1
(e
y
e
x+y
)
dx
dy
= e
x+y
e
x
dx
dy
=
) 1 (
) 1 (
x y
y x
e e
e e
XtraEdge for IITJEE 84 FEBRUARY 2011
5. f(f(x)) =
3 ) ( 2
2 ) ( 3
x f
x f
=
3
3 2
2 3
2
2
3 2
2 3
3

.

\


.

\

x
x
x
x
=
9 6 4 6
6 4 6 9
+
+
x x
x x
= x
6. =




.

\

2
sin 2
2
cos
2
sin 2 1
2
x
x x
e
x
dx
=

.

\

2
x
cot
2
x
cosec
2
1
e
2 x
dx
=
I II
2
x
cosec e
2
1
dx
2
x
cot e
2 x x
+
dx
=
)
`
dx e
2
1
.
2
x
cosec e .
2
x
cot
x 2 x
+
2
1
dx
2
x
cosec e
2 x
= e
x
cot
2
x
2
1
dx
2
x
cosec e
2 x
+
2
1
dx
2
x
cosec e
2 x
+ C
= e
x
cot
2
x
+ C
7. We are given that cos
2
x
dx
dy
+ y = tan x
dx
dy
+ (sec
2
x)y = tan x . sec
2
x .(i)
This is a linear differential equation of the form
dx
dy
+ Py = Q, where P = sec
2
x and Q = tan x sec
2
x
I = I.F. =
dx x sec
2
e = e
tanx
Multiplying both sides of (i) by I.F. =
x
e
tan
, we get
e
tan x
dx
dy
+ sec
2
x e
tanx
. y = e
tanx
. tan x sec
2
x
Integrating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
ye
tan x
=
x tan
e . tan x sec
2
x dx + C
[Using : y (I.F.)= dx .) F . I ( Q
+ C]
ye
tan x
=
II I
, C dt te
t
+
where t = tan x
ye
tan x
= te
t
dt e
t
+ C [Integrating by parts]
ye
tan x
= te
t
e
t
+ C
ye
tan x
= e
tanx
(tan x 1) + C,
which is the required solution.
8. We have,
( a
r
b
r
)
2
=  a
r
b
r

2
( a
r
b
r
)
2
= { a
r
  b
r
 sin }
2
( a
r
b
r
)
2
=  a
r

2
 b
r

2
sin
2
( a
r
b
r
)
2
= { a
r

2
 b
r

2
} (1 cos
2
)
( a
r
b
r
)
2
=  a
r

2
 b
r

2
 a
r

2
 b
r

2
cos
2
( a
r
b
r
)
2
= ( a
r
. a
r
) ( b
r
. b
r
) ( a
r
. b
r
) ( a
r
. b
r
)
[Qa
r
. b
r
=  a
r
  b
r
cos ]
( a
r
b
r
)
2
=
b b b a
b a a a
r r r
r
r
r r r
. .
. .
9. Let a
r
= i
+2 j
+ 3 k
and b
r
= 3 i
2 j
+ k
. The vector
area of the parallelogram whose adjacent sides are
represented by the vectors a
r
and b
r
is a
r
b
r
.
Now, a
r
b
r
=
1 2 3
3 2 1
k j i
= (2 + 6) i
(1 9) j
+ (2 6) k
= 8 i
+8 j
8 k
So, area of the parallelogram =  a
r
b
r

=
2 2 2
) 8 ( 8 8 + +
= 3 8 square units
10. We know that the angle between the line
r
r
= a
r
+ b
r
and the plane r
r
. n
r
= d is given by
sin =
   
.
n b
n b
r
r
r
r
Here, b
r
= i
+ k
and n
r
= 2 i
+ k
sin =
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 ) 1 ( 2 1 ) 1 ( 1
)
2 ( ).
(
+ + + +
+ + k j i k j i
=
6 3
1 1 2 + +
=
2 3
4
=
3
2 2
= sin
1


.

\

3
2 2
XtraEdge for IITJEE 85 FEBRUARY 2011
Section B
11. R
3
R
3
+ R
2
, R
1
R
1
+ R
2
=
c b c b c b
a c b a c
b a b a b a
+ + +
+ +
+ + +
) (
) (
= (a + b) (b + c)
1 1 1
1 1 1
+ +
a c b a c
R
1
R
1
+ R
3
= (a + b) (b + c) .
1 1 1
0 2 0
+ + a c b a c
= (a + b) (b + c) (2)
1 1
a c
= (a + b) (b + c). 2 (c + a)
12. A Integer chosen is divisible by 6
B integer chosen is divisible by 8
n (A) = 33, n (B) = 25, n (A B) = 8, n(S) = 200
P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B)
=
200
33
+
200
25
200
8
=
200
50
=
4
1
OR
Let E : Candidate Reaches late
A
1
= Candidate travels by bus
A
2
: Candidate travels by scooter
A
3
: Candidate travels by other modes of
transport
P(A
1
) =
10
3
, P(A
2
) =
10
1
, P(A
3
) =
5
3
P(E/A
1
) =
4
1
, P(E/A
2
) =
3
1
, P(E/A
3
) = 0
By Baye's Theorem
P(A
1
/E) =
) A / E ( P ) A ( P ) A / E ( P ) A ( P ) A / E ( P ) A ( P
) A / E ( P ) A ( P
3 3 2 2 1 1
1 1
+ +
=
0
30
1
40
3
4
1
10
3
+ +
=
13
9
13. Let y = tan
1
(
(
+
x
x 1 1
2
z = tan
1
x
put x = tan
dx
dz
=
2
1
1
x +
y = tan
1
(
sin
cos 1
y = tan
1
(
(
(
(
2
cos
2
sin 2
2
sin 2
2
y =
2
1
tan
1
x
dx
dy
=
2
1
.
2
1
1
x +
dz
dy
=
2
2
1 / 1
1 / 1 2 / 1
x
x
+
+
=
2
1
14.
dt
dx
= a 
.

\

2
1
1
t
dt
dy
= a 
.

\

+
2
1
1
t
dx
dy
=

.

\


.

\

+
2
2
1
1
1
1
t
a
t
a
=
) 1 (
) 1 (
2
2
+
t a
t a
=
(
+
t
t at
t
t at
1
1
dx
dy
=
y
x
OR
x
p
y
p
= (x + y)
p + q
Take log on both sides
p log x + q log y = (p + q) log (x + y)
x
p
+
y
q
.
dx
dy
= 
.

\

+
+
+
dx
dy
y x
q p
1
or
x
p
y x
q p
+
+
=
dx
dy


.

\

+
+
y
q
y x
q p
or
) ( y x x
qx px py px
+
+
=


.

\

+
+
) ( y x y
qy qx qy py
dx
dy
or
x
qx py
=


.

\

y
qx py
dx
dy
or
x
y
=
dx
dy
15. Let f(x) = log
e
x, x [a, b]
continuous & differentiable
f (c) =
a b
a f b f
) ( ) (
c
1
=
a b
a b
log log
Q a < c < b
b
1
<
c
1
<
a
1
b
1
<
a b
a b
log log
<
a
1
b
a b
< log b log a <
a
a b
XtraEdge for IITJEE 86 FEBRUARY 2011
16. Q differentiable at x = c
continuous at x = c
f(c) = f(c
+
)
c
2
=
0
lim
h
a(c + h) + b
c
2
= ac + b (1)
Now
f (c
+
) = f (c
)
0
lim
h h
c b h c a
2
] ) ( [ + +
=
0
lim
h h
c h c
2 2
] ) [(
0
lim
h h
c ah b ac
2
) ( + +
=
0
lim
h h
ch h
2
2
0
lim
h h
c ah c
2 2
+
=
0
lim
h
(2c h) [From (1)]
a = 2c (2)
from (1), (2)
a = 2c, b = c
2
17. f(1) =
2
1 1+
= 1
f(2) =
2
2
= 1
manyone function
If n odd natural number then 2n 1 is also odd
number
f(2n 1) =
2
1 1 2 + n
= n
If n even natural number then 2n is also an even
natural number
f(2n) =
2
2n
= n
f is onto function.
18. We have,
I =
x
x
4 sin
sin
dx =
x x
x
2 cos 2 sin 2
sin
dx
=
x x x
x
2 cos cos sin 4
sin
dx
I =
4
1
x x 2 cos cos
1
dx =
4
1
x x
x
2 cos cos
cos
2
dx
I =
4
1
) sin 2 1 ( ) sin 1 (
cos
2 2
x x
x
dx
Putting sin x = t and cos x dx = dt, we get
I =
4
1
) 2 1 ( ) 1 (
2 2
t t
dt
Let t
2
= y. Then,
) 2 1 ( ) 1 (
1
2 2
t t
=
) 2 1 ( ) 1 (
1
y y
Let
) 2 1 ( ) 1 (
1
y y
=
y
A
1
+
y
B
2 1
. Then,
1 = A (1 2y) + B (1 y) .(i)
Putting y = 1 and y =
2
1
respectively in (i), we get A
= 1 and B = 2
) 2 1 ( ) 1 (
1
y y
=
y
1
1
+
y 2 1
2
) 2 1 ( ) 1 (
1
2 2
t t
=
2
1
1
t
+
2
2 1
2
t
I =
4
1
) 2 1 ( ) 1 (
2 2
t t
dt
=
4
1
\

2
1
1
t
+ 
.

2
2 1
2
t
dt
I =
4
1
2
1
1
t
dt +
4
2
2
) 2 ( 1
1
t
dt
I =
4
1
.
2
1
log
t
t
+
1
1
+
2
1
.
2 2
1
log
t
t
2 1
2 1
+
+ C
I =
8
1
log
t
t
+
1
1
+
2 4
1
log
t
t
2 1
2 1
+
+ C
I =
8
1
log
x
x
sin 1
sin 1
+
+
2 4
1
log
x
x
sin 2 1
sin 2 1
+
+ C
19. We have,
I = { }
+ cot tan d
I =
)
`
+
tan
1
tan d
I =
d
tan
1 tan
Let tan = x
2
. Then,
d (tan ) = d(x
2
)
sec
2
d = 2x dx
d =
2
sec
2 dx x
=
+
2
tan 1
2 dx x
=
4
1
2
x
dx x
+
I =
+
2
2
1
x
x
.
4
1
2
x
dx x
+
= 2
+
+
1
1
4
2
x
x
dx
= 2
+
+
2 2
2
/ 1
/ 1 1
x x
x
dx
I = 2 dx
x x
x
+
+
2 ) / 1 (
/ 1 1
2
2
2
1
1
XtraEdge for IITJEE 87 FEBRUARY 2011
= 2 dx
x x
x
+
+
2 2
2
) 2 ( ) / 1 (
/ 1 1
I = 2
+
2 2
) 2 ( u
du
=
2
2
tan
1


.

\

2
u
+ C,
where x
x
1
= u
I = 2 tan
1


.

\

2
/ 1 x x
+ C
I = 2 tan
1


.

\

x
x
2
1
2
+ C
I = 2 tan
1


.

\

tan 2
1 tan
+ C
OR
+
+ +
) 5 ( ) 3 (
) 4 )( 1 (
2 2
2 2
x x
x x
dx
Consider
) 5 ( ) 3 (
) 4 )( 1 (
2 2
2 2
+
+ +
x x
x x
=
) 5 )( 3 (
) 4 )( 1 (
+
+ +
t t
t t
where t = x
2
= 1 +
) 5 )( 3 (
19 7
+
+
t t
t
Consider
) 5 )( 3 (
19 7
+
+
t t
t
=
3 + t
A
+
5 t
B
A =
4
1
, B =
4
27
+
+ +
) 5 ( ) 3 (
) 4 )( 1 (
2 2
2 2
x x
x x
dx
=
dx +
+
+ 5
4
27
3
4
1
2 2
x
dx
x
dx
= x +
3 4
1
tan
1


.

\

3
x
+
5 8
27
log
5
5
+
x
x
+ c
20. Let P(x, y) be any point on the curve. The equation of
the normal at P (x, y) to the given curve is
Y y =
dx / dy
1
(X x) (i)
It is given that the normal at each point passes through
(2, 0). Therefore, (i) also passes through (2, 0). Putting
Y = 0 and x = 2 in (i), we get
0 y =
dx dy /
1
(2 x)
y
dx
dy
= 2 x
ydy = (2 x) dx [On integrating both sides]
2
2
y
=
2
) 2 (
2
x
+ C
y
2
= (2 x)
2
+ 2C (ii)
This passes through (2, 3). Therefore,
9 = 0 + 2C C =
2
9
Putting C =
2
9
in (ii), we get
y
2
= (2 x)
2
+ 9
This is the equation of required curve.
21. We have,
(2 i
+ 6 j
+ 27 k
) ( i
+ j
+ k
) = 0
r
1
27 6 2
k
=0
r
(6 27) i
(2 27) j
+ (2 6) k
=0
r
6 27 = 0, 2 27 = 0 and 2 6 = 0
= 3 and =
2
27
22. The equation of a plane passing through the
intersection of the given planes is
(4x y + z 10) + (x + y z 4) = 0
x(4 + ) + y ( 1) + z (1 ) 10 4 = 0
This plane is parallel to the line with direction ratios
proportional to 2, 1,1
2(4 + ) + 1( 1) + 1(1 ) = 0 = 4
Putting = 4 in (i), we obtain
5y 5z 6 = 0
This is the equation of the required plane.
Now, length of the perpendicular from (1, 1, 1) on (ii)
is given by
d =
2 2
) 5 ( 5
6 1 5 1 5
+
=
5
2 3
OR
Given line
5
1 x
=
2
3 y
=
4
1 + z
or,
5
1 x
=
2
3
y
=
4
) 1 ( z
....(i)
is passing through (1, 3, 1) and has D.R. 5, 2, 4.
Equations of line passing through (3, 0, 4) and
parallel to given line is
5
3 x
=
2
0
y
=
4
4 + z
...(ii)
Vector equations of line (i) & (ii)
r = i
+ 3 j
+ (5i
2 j
+ 4 k
)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 88 FEBRUARY 2011
r = 3i
4 j
+ (5 i
2 j
+ 4 k
2
a
1
a = 2i
3 j
3 k
b =
2 2 2
) 4 ( ) 2 ( ) 5 ( + +
= 45 = 5 3
Also
b


.

\

1 2
a a =
3 3 2
4 2 5
k j i
= 18i
+ 23 j
11 k


.

\

1 2
a a b =
2 2 2
) 11 ( ) 23 ( ) 18 ( + + = 974
Distance between two parallel lines.
=


.

\

b
a a b
1 2
=
45
974
units
Section C
23. We have,
b
a
dx x f ) (
=
0
lim
h
h[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a+2h) +.+
f (a + (n 1)h)]
=
0
lim
h
h
(
(
(
(

.

\

+
2
sin
2
sin
2
) 1 ( sin
h
nh h
n a
=
0
lim
h
h
(
(
(
(

.

\

+
2
sin
2
sin
2 2
sin
h
nh h nh
a
=
0
lim
h
h
(
(
(
(

.

\


.

\

+
2
sin
2
sin
2 2
sin
h
a b h a b
a
[Q nh = b a]
=
0
lim
h
(
(
(
(

.

\


.

\

2
sin
2 2
sin 2
2
sin
2
a b h b a
h
h
=
0
lim
h
(
(
(
(
2
sin
2
h
h
.
0
lim
h
2 sin
(
+
2 2
h b a
sin
(
2
a b
= 2 sin
(
+
2
b a
sin
(
2
a b
= cos a cos b
[Q 2 sin A sin B = cos (A B)
cos (A + B)]
24. A getting a white ball from 1st bag.
B getting a black ball from 1st bag
C getting a white ball from 2nd bag
D getting a black ball from 2nd bag
P(A) =
6
4
, P(B) =
6
2
, P(C) =
8
3
, P(D) =
8
5
(A) P (both are white) = P(A). P(C) =
4
1
(B) P (one is white and one is black)
= P(A). P(D) + P(B). P(D) =
24
13
25. Given curves are x
2
+ y
2
= 16 and x
2
= 6y
Solving these two equations
y
x
O(0, 0)
D(0, 2)
B(0, 4)
A(2 3 , 2) (2 3 , 2)C
x
2
+
36
2
x
= 16
x
4
+ 36x
2
576 = 0
(x
2
+ 48) (x
2
12) = 0
x
2
12 = 0
x = 3 2
y = 2
Required area = 2(area of shaded portion)
Reqd. area = 2[area of OADO + area of DABD]
= 2
(
(
+
2
0
4
2
2
16 6 dy y dy y
= 2
(
(
)
`
+ +
4
2
1 2 2
0
2 / 3
4
sin
2
16
16
2
1
) ( 6
3
2 y
y y y
=


.

\

+
3
16
3
3 4
sq. units
.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 89 FEBRUARY 2011
26. The given lines are
r
r
= ( i
+ 2 j
+ 3 k
) + (2i
+ 3 j
+ 4 k
) (i)
and, r
r
=(2 i
+ 4 j
+ 5 k
) + 2 (2i
+ 3 j
+ 4 k
) (ii)
Equation (ii) can rewritten as
r
r
= (2i
+ 4 j
+ 5 k
)+ (2i
+ 3 j
+ 4 k
) (iii)
where = 2
These two lines passes through the points having
position vectors
1
a
r
=i
+ 2 j
+ 3 k
&
2
a
r
= 2i
+4 j
+5 k
respectively and both are parallel to the vector
b
r
=2i
+ 3 j
+ 4 k
.
shortest distance =
 
 ) ( 
1 2
b
b a a
r
r
r r
(iv)
We have,
(
2
a
r
1
a
r
) b
r
= ( i
+ 2 j
+ 2 k
) (2i
+ 3 j
+ 4 k
)
(
2
a
r
1
a
r
) b
r
=
4 3 2
2 2 1
k j i
= (8 6) i
(4 4) j
+ (3 4) k
= 2i
0 j
(
2
a
r
1
a
r
) b
r
 = 1 0 4 + + = 5 and
 b
r
 = 16 9 4 + + = 29
Substituting the values of (
2
a
r
1
a
r
) b
r
 and  b
r
 in
(iv), we get shortest distance =
29
5
27. The given data may be put in the following tabular
form:
Refinery High grade Medium grade Low grade Cost per day
A 100 300 200 Rs.400
B 200 400 100 Rs.300
Minimum
requirement
12,000 20,000 15,000
Suppose refineries A and B should run for x and y
days respectively to minimize the total cost.
The mathematical form of the above LPP is
Minimize Z = 400x + 300y
Subject to
100x + 200y 12,000
300x + 400y 20,000
200x + 100y 15,000
and, x, y 0
The feasible region of the above LPP is represented by
the shaded region in fig.
The corner points of the feasible region are
A
2
(120, 0), P(60, 30) and B
3
(0, 150). The value of the
objective function at these points are given in the
following table:
Points (x, y) Value of the objective function
Z = 400x + 300y
A
2
(120, 0) Z = 400 120 + 300 0 = 48,000
P (60, 30) Z = 400 60 + 300 30 = 33, 000
B
3
(0, 150) Z = 400 0 + 300 150 = 45,000
Clearly, Z is minimum when x = 60, y = 30. Hence the
machine A should run for 60 days and the machine B
should run for 30 days to minimize the cost while
satisfying the constraints.
O
A3(75,0)
A1

.

\

0 ,
3
200
100x + 200y = 12000
X
B1(0,50)
300x + 400y = 20000
P(60,30)
B2(0,60)
A2(120,0)
22x + 100y = 15000
B3(0,150)
y
28. A
11
=
3 2
1 1
= 3 + 2 = 1;
A
12
=
3 1
1 2
= (6 1) = 5;
A
13
=
2 1
1 2
= 4 + 1 = 3;
A
21
=
3 2
1 1
= (3 + 2) = 5
A
22
=
3 1
1 1
= 3 1 = 2;
A
23
=
2 1
1 1
= (2 1) = 3
A
31
=
1 1
1 1
= 1 + 1 = 2;
A
32
=
1 2
1 1
= (1 2) = 1
A
33
=
1 2
1 1
= 1 2 = 3
adj A =
(
(
(
3 1 2
3 2 5
3 5 1
=
(
(
(
3 3 3
1 2 5
2 5 1
Also A = 1 (1) + 1 (5) + 1(3)
= 1 5 3 = 9 0 A
1
exists.
A
1
=
 A 
A adj
=
9
1
(
(
(
3 3 3
1 2 5
2 5 1
The given system of equations can be written as
XtraEdge for IITJEE 90 FEBRUARY 2011
AX = B where X =
(
(
(
z
y
x
, B =
(
(
(
2
2
3
X = A
1
B
i.e.
(
(
(
z
y
x
=
9
1
(
(
(
3 3 3
1 2 5
2 5 1
(
(
(
2
2
3
=
9
1
(
(
(
+
+ +
+
6 6 9
2 4 15
4 10 3
=
(
(
(
1
1
1
Thus x = 1, y = 1, z = 1.
OR
A
11
=
7 3
1 3
= 21 3 = 18
A
12
=
7 2
1 1
= (7 2) = 9
A
13
=
3 2
3 1
= 3 + 6 = 9
A
21
=
7 3
11 5
= (35 + 33) = 68
A
22
=
7 2
11 4
= 28 + 22 = 6,
A
23
=
3 2
5 4
= (12 + 10) = 22
A
31
=
1 3
11 5
= 5 33 = 38
A
32
=
1 1
11 4
= (4 + 11) = 15
A
33
=
3 1
5 4
= 12 + 5 = 7
adj A =
(
(
(
7 15 38
22 6 68
9 9 18
=
(
(
(
7 22 9
15 6 9
38 68 18
Also A = 4(18) + (5) 9 + (11)9 = 72 45 99
= 72 144 = 72 0 A
1
exists.
A
1
=
 A 
A adj
=
72
1
(
(
(
7 22 9
15 6 9
38 68 18
Further the given system of equations can be written as
AX = B where X =
(
(
(
z
y
x
, B =
(
(
(
2
1
12
X = A
1
B
i.e.
(
(
(
z
y
x
=
72
1
(
(
(
7 22 9
15 6 9
38 68 18
(
(
(
2
1
12
=
72
1
(
(
(
14 22 108
30 6 108
76 68 216
=
72
1
(
(
(
72
72
72
=
(
(
(
1
1
1
x = 1, y = 1, z = 1
29. 1st part
OC = X
AC =
2 2
X R
DC = R + X
Volume
V=
3
1
(R
2
X
2
) (R + X)
dX
dV
=
3
[R
2
2RX 3X
2
] = 0
(R 3X) (R +X) = 0
X = R/3 (Q R + X 0)
2
2
dX
V d
= /3 (2R 6X)
3 / R X
2
2
dX
V d
=
=
3
4
R < 0 maximum volume
Put X = R/3 in V, we have
V = 8/27 (volume of sphere)
OR
f (x) = cos x sin 2x = 0
= cos x [1 2 sin x] = 0
x = /2, /6
Now
f (x) = sin x 2 cos 2x
f (x)
x= /2
= 1 + 2 = 1 > 0 minimum
f (x)
x = /4
=
2
1
2 
.

\

2
1
=
2
3
< 0
maximum
f(0) =
2
1
f(/2) = 1
2
1
=
2
1
minimum value =
2
1
f(/6) =
2
1
+
2
1
2
1
maximum value =
4
3
=
4
3
X
O
R
R
R
C
A
B
D
XtraEdge for IITJEE 91 FEBRUARY 2011
ADAPTIVE TESTING
(An initiative by a2zExam.com)
What is Adaptive Testing?
Adaptive testing in the tertiary environment also has a long history as it has existed since the time of the oral examination,
and responding adaptively to students. This was totally lost in the paper based fixed test for everyone, because it was not
feasible to conduct oral test of each and every student in such a short time period. But due to the development in
technology, it is again possible to have adaptive testing for everyone. Computer Based Adaptive Testing is the way going
forward, as it gives the benefits of Adaptive Testing and also do not require too much resource.
Adaptive Testing Process:
Computer Basedadaptive test (CAT) is a form of assessment where the level of the questions administered to
individual testtakers is dynamically tailored to their skill and knowledge levels.
First set of Papers are fixed for each part of syllabus, student take this test and system judges the level of the
student based on their performance in this papers
Next papers onward system creates the paper especially for the student based on the students performance in
previous papers.
Thus, each paper adapted the students level and thus is known as adaptive testing
It is important to differentiate between online assessment tools, those readily delivered through learning management
systems, although having the advantages of collation and immediate results are fixed rather than dynamic, as they are not
adaptive.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 92 FEBRUARY 2011
Performance Analysis by Feedback Report:
Analyze the bigger picture then go deep to find exact cause
Overall Papers Danger Zone Analysis: Danger zone analysis tells where the student lies out of three zone
viz. Danger, Normal and Safe Zone represented by a white circle. Overall Papers Danger Zone analysis
tells where the student lies in the distribution graph as per total marks obtained.
Student or circle lies in Red area means student is in Danger Zone and needs to work very hard to
achieve the goal of selection
Student or circle lies in Blue area means student is in Normal Zone and should regularize and do
systematic study to achieve the goal
Student or circle lies in Green area means student is in Safe Zone but needs to keep improving to
achieve the goal
Subject Wise Comparative Analysis: This analysis compares students subject wise marks with highest and
average marks in the subject. It also tells percentage of question attempted by student correctly, incorrectly
& percentage of question student did not attempted.
Graph represents Students, Highest & Average Marks in each subject
Graph implies that student is doing much better in Physics than Maths & Chemistry
Table shows the Attempt Status & Marks of each subject in the test paper.
Table shows that in Chemistry, student has attempted very few questions, which implies either he
was short of time or he doesnt knew how to answer
XtraEdge for IITJEE 93 FEBRUARY 2011
Similarly, for Maths student has very high (%) of Incorrect Question, which implies either student,
has misconception or has made lot of silly mistakes.
Help you know your learning gaps & how to improve or fill them
SkillWise Personal Analysis: Personal analysis is done to find out the skill wise performance. Whether student is
able to Direct Theory or Formula based Questions, whether he has good concepts or problem solving skills, etc.
Inferences and Suggestions for Improvements: Based on the observation made above we deduct inferences and
suggest methods for improvement
Observation Inference Suggestion For Improvement
You have got only 50 % of
Easy and Direct Questions
Correct.
You are expected to grab
all the Easy and Direct
problems
Your real problem lies in your unsystematic self study, Revise
lectures on day to day basis and plan mega revision (1hrs) of
theory on weekends.
Help you focus on specific weak areas
Topic Wise Danger Zone Analysis: For each topic the analysis is done and suggestion based on students zone is
given in next column. Student should figure out the weak topics and should work according to the suggestion.
The circle o in the graph represents students position
Question wise Detailed Analysis: Each question is analyzed based on the students attempt status and compared
with overall attempt status.
Question wise analysis table shows Knowledge Area & Skills which the question belongs, along with
Students attempt status
(%) of student attempted the question
(%) of students among attempted which does it correctly
Each paper has some tricky questions, which most people attempt, but does it wrong. Understanding how to solve
those questions, improve students concept & learning on those topic. But the important thing is how to figure out
those questions.
Each paper has hard questions, which most people has left and if you have attempted you might have taken a lot of
time; this type of question should be tried in the end.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 94 FEBRUARY 2011
The above table helps you in recognizing those questions and if you keep this in mind you will be able to save time
and marks by not attempting questions which are meant to be left.
Benefits of Adaptive Testing
Adaptive test encourages student to bring out their maximum output by providing them the questions with levels
close to their skills and knowledge level, instead of very easy or hard which most of the time demotivates student
from attempting.
Adaptive testing helps evaluator to measure the accurate skill level of students, even with small number of
questions.
Better Analysis of Students Performance can be judged and provided to students using adaptive testing
Adaptive Testing targets the student weak areas and motivates them to improve on those areas by going to their
level and upgrading as students improve.
This also brings students focus on those areas where they need improvement
The experience of taking an adaptive test is like participating in a highjump event. The highjumper, regardless of
ability, quickly reaches a challenging level where there is about an equal chance of clearing the bar or knocking it
down. The score is the last height that was successfully cleared and is earned without having to jump all possible
lower heights or trying the higher levels.
Research shows that adaptive testing has improved the students learning by more than 22% compare to student taking
fixed test during their preparation.
How you can get Adaptive Testing for your preparation of Entrance Exams like
IITJEE, AIEEE, BITSAT etc.
Visit a2zExam.com and Register.
Select the Course according to exam you are taking and get the Adaptive Set of papers for the preparation of the
exam.
Everything will be done by them
a2zExam  Adaptive Testing with added advantage
First time in India, a2zExam.com brings Adaptive Testing for the preparation of Engineering Entrance Exams like IIT
JEE, AIEEE, BITSAT etc. a2zExam not just provide adaptive testing but also provide Feedback Report, which is used by
the system to adapt to your level for testing, so that you can work on your weak areas before taking the next test.
Adaptive testing is like High Jump but if every jump of high jumper (participant) is recorded and shown before the next
jump pointing out the mistakes or good things done by them. Think how much beneficial it will be for them and the
improvement in their records.
Similarly, after every test you will be provided here with the feedback report pointing your strength and weakness along
with the suggestions for improvement, so that you can work on those areas before taking the next test and improve your
performance.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 95 FEBRUARY 2011
Adaptive Testing
Get Adaptive Testing for preparation of IITJEE, AIEEE, BITSAT etc.
Give edge to your preparation and improve your ranking or chance of selection
Dont leave any stone unturned for such an important event of your or your childs life.
Detailed Performance Analysis
Subject Wise, Topic Wise Personal and Comparative Analysis
Skill Wise Personal Analysis
Inferences and Suggestions for Improvement
Question Selection Strategy
Anytime Anywhere Access
You can take the test anytime (Day or Night), anywhere (from Home or Cyber Caf or any place with Computer
and Internet)
As soon as the syllabus for a test is completed take the test, no need to wait for the specific Sunday for test to be
conducted.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 96 FEBRUARY 2011
PHYSICS
1. Point to point : Communication over a link between
a single transmitter and received
Example : Telephone
3. (i) When final image is formed at infinity
M =
0
0
u
v
e
u
D
(ii) When final image is formed at distance D
M =
0
0
u
v
(
+
f
D
1
4. S
1
and S
2
are the two desired surfaces.
q
S
1
S
2
5. Superconductors are those material which
resistivity is zero below a certain temperature.
6.
~
Induction
coil
Conducting
Plate I
Sphere I
Sphere II
Conducting
Plate II
Detector
7. Zero
8. High energy Xrays are known as hard Xrays and
low energy Xrays are known as soft Xrays. These
terms are relative.
9. (1, 3) (2, 4)
10. The daughter element
(release of energy is accompanied by an increase of
B.E)
11. (i) Depletion layer width decreases,
(ii) Junction field becomes very high
12. The approximate thickness of the film should be of
the order of wavelength of the light.
13.
Intensity
I
O
'
2
2
'
1
1
y
n
'
1
P
P
1
P
2
'
2
P
14.
d
A
0
= 5 F . (i)
d
KA
2
0
= 20 F . (ii)
(ii) (i)
2
K
=
5
20
8 = K
15.
Uniform magnetic
field
Paramagnetic
substance
Diamagnetic
substance
16. (i) =
c
(ii) (U
av
)
E
=
4
1
0
2
0
E
MOCK TEST3 (SOLUTION)
MOCK TEST 3 PUBLISHED IN SAME ISSUE
XtraEdge for IITJEE 97 FEBRUARY 2011
17. U =
2
1
Li
2
=
2
1
2 10
3
(5)
2
J
= 2.5 10
2
J
18. X
L
= L = 100 30 10
3
= 3
R = 4
V = 200 2 sin 100 t
Z =
2
L
2
X R +
=
2 2
3 4 +
= 5
cos =
Z
R
=
5
4
= 0.8
19. (i) Xrays are e.m. waves
(ii) Xrays are transverse in nature
20. Reduction factor =
16
1
=
4
2
1
in 4 days.
Hence life = 1 day
For 6 days reduction factor would be
6
2
1
=
64
1
original amount = 4 10
3
64kg = 0.256 kg
21. A telescope views large objects at large distances; a
microscope views small objects at small distances.
Both need a small field of view. A camera views
objects of ordinary sizes at fairly close distances.
Here the field of view is required much more
(compare 45 for a camera with about 1 for a
microscope objective and something similar for a
telescope, a moon subtends about 0.5 at the earth)
Thus rays entering a camera lens are far from being
paraxial and aberrations will be large and images
will be blurred if the apertures are not very small.
For a telescope, on the other hand, the important
thing is its ability to resolve distant abjects (i.e., see
them as distinct). We have seen that the resolving
power increases with increase in aperture.
Therefore, telescopes have as large an aperture as
feasible.
22. Q Current in 5 is zero
bridge is balance
R
R
+ 6
6
1
=
20
10
or
R
R
6
6+
=
2
1
R = 3
23.  = L
dt
di
=
dt
d
L (t
2
) = 2 L t
At t = 4, = 2 5 10
3
4 = 40 10
3
V
24.
P Q
B
S R
a
b
Let i current
N No. of turns
l length
n =
l
N
Applying Ampere's Law along PQRS,
l d B. =
0
i
net
Q
P
d B l . +
R
Q
d B l . +
S
R
d B l . +
P
S
d B l . =
0
i
net
B.a + 0 + 0 + 0 =
0
n (a) i
ni B
0
=
25.
I
g
G
I
2
I
g
Q
C A
P
S
I
1
R
D
I
1
+ I
g
+
B
I
I
2
+
+
+
It is an arrangement of four resistances used for
measuring unknown resistance.
Applying KVL in loop ADBA
I
1
R + I
g
G + I
2
P = 0 . (i)
and in loop DCBD,
(I
1
+ I
g
) S + (I
2
I
g
) Q I
g
G = 0
for balance bridge, I
g
= 0
I
1
R = I
2
P .. (iii)
I
1
S = I
2
Q .. (iv)
(iii) (iv) we get
S
R
Q
P
=
XtraEdge for IITJEE 98 FEBRUARY 2011
26. Diamagnetic substances are feebly magnetised in
opposite direction to that of magnetising field
Paramagnetic substances are feebly magnetised in
the direction of magnetic field.
Ferromagnetic substances are strongly magnetised
in the direction of magnetic field.
27.
V
+
P N +
Reverse biasing
In the experimental set, the P and N terminals of a
PN diode are connected to the negative and
positive potential point's of a potential divider
respectively. As the reverse bias current a feeble
current measurable in micro amperes so a micro
ammeter is used to measure it. To plot reverse bias
characteristic, we note down reverse currents
corresponding to various different reverse voltages
on the diode with help of the potential divider.
After obtaining it, the applied voltages are plotted
along Xaxis and corresponding reverse currents
along Yaxis of a graph as shown in the fig.
I (mA)
+
V
+
mA
C
E
I
B
I
B
+
A
V
BE
V
BB
R
2
B
Typical shape of the input characteristics.
29.
Q'
P'
B
f
e
E
Q''
P''
O
Astronomical telescope
(i) When the final image is formed on the nearest
distance of clear vision D
M =
e
f
f
0
(
+
D
f
e
1
(ii) When the final image is formed at infinity
M =
e
f
f
0
On increasing the aperture of the objective lens the
magnifying power of telescope will increase.
30. U =
q
Vdq
0
=

.

\

q
C
q
0
dq
=
C
q
2
2
=
2
1
CV
2
=
2
1

.

\

d
A
0
(Ed)
2
=
2
1
0
E
2
(Ad)
Energy density,
Ad
U
=
2
1
0
E
2
OR
(i) From Gauss' theorem
=
0
in
q
q
in
=
0
= 6 10
3
8.85 10
12
= 5.31 10
8
C
(ii) Flux remains the same
+
d
E
XtraEdge for IITJEE 99 FEBRUARY 2011
CHEMISTRY
1. H.C.P has highest 74% efficiency
2. When in Fe(OH)
3
ppt FeCl
3
is added Fe
+3
ions are
adsorb over the surface of Fe(OH)
3
it results in the
formation of Fe(OH)
3
solution.
3. Lithium tetrahydrido aluminate (III)
4. FeCO
3
is siderite ore.
5. Phenol & Formaldehyde
6. Antiseptics are germicides which can be applied on
wounds
Ex. Soframycin, Tincture iodine
7. Amino acid in which amino group are more then
COOH group are called basic amino acid.
Lysine ( R is (CH
2
)
3
NH
2
)
8. CH
3
F < CH
3
Cl < CH
3
Br < CH
3
I
9. t
1/2
= 5730
=
2 / 1
693 . 0
t
= 1.21 10
4
yr
1
=
t
303 . 2
ln
t
0
a
a
t =
4
10 21 . 1
303 . 2
ln
8
10
= 1845 yr
10. With the increase in temperature rate constant
increases. It is found that with 10 K rise in
temperature the rate of reaction become 2 3 times.
With the increase in temperature
(1) More no. of collisions occur between the
molecules.
(2)Only those molecules which are having
minimum sufficient energy to participate in the
chemical rx
n
, reacts with each other and form
product
(3) For effective collision activated molecule must
collide in the proper orientation
Rate of rx
n
= P Z .
RT E
a
e
/
P = Orientation factor
Z = No. of collisions
RT E
a
e
/
= No. of activated molecules
11. (a) Standard Hydrogen electrode  When H
2
gas at
1 atm pr is supplied on Pt sheet dipped in the
aqueous solution of an acid having molarity 1M
H2 l atm
Pt
1 M aq acid
solution
Following Chemical rx
n
takes place
H
2
(g, l atm)
2H
+
(aq, 1M) + 2e
the potential of this half electrode = 0.0 V
(b) Kohlrausch's law states conductivity of a
solution at infinite dilution is equal to sum of
molar conductivity of all the ions present in the
solution.
0
m
=
12. Actinides show much higher oxidation states than
Lanthanides because energy difference between 5f,
6d and 7s orbitals is less and hence electrons also
participate from 5f orbital also.
13. The seperation of Ag
+
and Hg
2
2+
in group I is
carried out by dissolving the precipitate of AgCl in
NH
4
OH, AgCl forms a soluble complex with
NH
4
OH.
Whereas Hg
2
Cl
2
forms a black water insoluble
complex.
AgCl + NH
4
OH O H 2 Cl ] ) NH ( Ag [
2 2 3
+
(water soluble)
Hg
2
Cl
2
+ NH
4
OH Hg(NH
2
)Cl + Hg + HCl
black percipitate + H
2
O
14. The concentrated ore is heated with excess of air to
remove water and carbon dioxide to remove
sulphur and arsenic impurities and to oxidise
ferrous to ferric oxide for eg;
2Fe
2
O
3
.3H
2
O 2Fe
2
O
3
+ 3H
2
O
FeCO
3
FeO + CO
2
S + O
2
SO
2
4As + 3O
2
2As
2
O
3
4Fe + O
2
2Fe
2
O
3
15. PHBV has 3hydroxybutanoic acid & 3
hydroxypentanoic acid.
O CH CH
2
CO O CH CH
2
CO
CH
3
CH
2
CH
3
n
XtraEdge for IITJEE 100 FEBRUARY 2011
16. Purine bases in DNA and RNA are Adenine &
Guanine.
Pyrimidine bases in DNA are Cytosine & Thymine
while in RNA are Cytosine & Uracil
17. Detergents are sodium or potassium salts of
sulphonic acid.
Cationic detergent Cetyl trimethyl ammonium
bromide
Anionic Alkyl benzene sulphonate
18. (A) CHCl
3
(B) HC CH
19. (a) Radius of gold r = 0.144 nm
F.C.C. 4 r = 2 a
a =
2
r 4
= 2 2 r
= 2 1.414 0.144
= 0.407 nm
Edge length a = 0.407 nm.
(b) (i) When
) p 4 s 4 (
2 2
Ge is doped with
) p 5 s 5 (
1 2
In 13
th
gr
element all the 3e
and hence an e
deficient bond or a hole is formed and p type
semiconductor is formed.
(ii) Similarly when Si is doped with As 4s
2
4p
3
4e
's
get bonded and fifth e
remain unbonded n
type semiconductor is formed.
20. p =
A
0
A
x p +
B
0
B
x p
n
A
= 1 n
B
= 2 mol.
1
T
p = 250 bar
250 =
0
A
p
3
1
+
0
B
p
3
2
..... (1)
n
A
= 2 n
B
= 2 mol
2
T
p = 300 =
0
A
p .
2
1
+
0
B
p
2
1
......(2)
solving (1) & (2)
0
A
p = 450 bar
0
B
p = 150 bar
21. (a) (i) When silica gel is placed is atmosphere
saturated with water adsorption of moisture takes
place
(ii) CaCl
2
adsorbs H
2
O.
(b) Zeolite is a shape selective catalyst which are
metal alumino silicates M
x/n
(AlO
2
)
x
(SiO
2
)
y
.mH
2
O.
When zeolite is heated pores are generated, these
pores are having size 260 740 pm which can
absorb molecule of definite size. Therefore it is
called shape selective catalyst
22. In case of nitrogen family, basic character of
hydrides decreases from NH
3
to BiH
3
because with
the increase in size of central element lone pair
density about it decreases and tendency of proton
(H
+
) to coordinate with it decreases and hence basic
character of hydrides decreases.
23.
O
Cr
O
O
O
Cr
O
O
O
131
Cr
2
O
7
2
24.
25. 2Methoxy2methylpropane
26.
27. The compound A can be either an aldehyde or a
ketone. Since it resists oxidation it must be a
ketone. i.e., acetone (CH
3
COCH
3
)
The reactions involved are :
CH
3
C CH
3
Reduction
O
2[H]
CH
3
CH CH
3
OH
(B)
2Propanol
HBr
H2O
CH
3
CH CH
3
Br
(C)
2Bromopropane
Mg
CH
3
C CH
3
+ CH
3
CH CH
3
MgBr O
(B)
(A)
CH
3
C CH
3
OMgBr
CH(CH
3
)
2
H2O
CH
3
C CH
3
OH
CH(CH
3
)
2
2, 3 Dimethyl2butanol
28. (a) The ideal solution is that solution which follows
the Raoult's law i.e for ideal solution :
(i) H
mixing
= 0
(ii) V
mixing
= 0
Non ideal solution is that solution which does not
follow Raoult's law and for which :
(i) H
mixing
0
(ii) V
mixing
= 0
In case of cyclohexane ethanol a solution with
+ve deviation is obtained
In case of a acetone Chloroform
XtraEdge for IITJEE 101 FEBRUARY 2011
ve deviation is obtained
Cl
Cl
Cl
C H O C
CH
3
CH
3
+
+
(b) Moles of solute n
B
=
M
30
Moles of H
2
O (
O H
2
n ) =
18
90
= 5
x
A
=
M / 30 5
5
+
=
M 6
M
+
p
A
=
A
0
A
x p
p
A
=
0
A
p .
M 6
M
+
...... (1)
When 18g of H
2
O is added to solution
O H
2
x =
M / 30 6
6
+
=
M 5
M
+
p'
A
=
0
A
p
M 5
M
+
...... (2)
from (1) & (2)
M 6
M 5
+
+
=
9 . 2
8 . 2
M = 23 g/mol
29. (a) Hypophosphorus acid
H OH
P
O
H
(b) Pyrophosphoric acid
HO O
P
O
OH
OH
P
O
OH
(c) Dithionic acid
HO S S OH
O O
O O
(d) Marshall acid
HO S O O S OH
O O
O O
(e) Hypophosphoric acid
HO
P
O
OH
OH
P
O
OH
30. (a) Since compound (A) is optically inactive and
contains nitrogen which gives alcohol with HNO
2
,
it is primary amine. The reactions may be given as
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
NH
2
2
HNO
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
OH+N
2
+H
2
O
(A) (B)
1Aminobutane 1Butanol
CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
OH
O H
2
K 440 , SO H
4 2
CH
3
CH
2
CH = CH
2
(B) (C)
1Butene
CH
3
CH
2
CH=CH
2
HBr
CH
3
CH
2
CHCH
3
(C) 
Br
(D)
2Bromobutane(optically active)
MATHEMATICS
Section A
1. Q (1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3) R
R is not reflexive.
again (1, 2) R (2, 1) R R is symmetric
again (1, 2) R, (2, 1) R but (1, 1) R
R is not transitive.
2. On differentiating
3
2
x
1/3
+
3
2
y
1/3
dx
dy
= 0
dx
dy
=
(
(
3 / 1
3 / 1
x
y
3. We have,
I =
dx e x
x sin log 3
cos =
dx x xsin cos
3
Putting cos x = t and sin x dx = dt
or, sin x dx = dt, we get
I =
dt t
3
=
4
t
4
+ C =
4
cos
4
x
+ C
XtraEdge for IITJEE 102 FEBRUARY 2011
4. Let x + y = v. Then
1 +
dx
dy
=
dx
dv
dx
dy
=
dx
dv
1
Putting x + y = v and
dx
dy
=
dx
dv
1 the given
differential equation, we get v
2

.

\

1
dx
dv
= a
2s
v
2
dx
dv
= a
2
+ v
2
v
2
dv = (a
2
+ v
2
) dx
2 2
2
a v
v
+
dv = dx [By separating the variables]


.

\

+
2 2
2
1
a v
a
dv = dx
dv . 1 a
2
+
2 2
1
a v
dv =
+ c dx
[On integration]
v a tan
1

.

\

a
v
= x + c
(x + y) a tan
1

.

\
 +
a
y x
= x + c
5. Let l, m, n be the direction cosines of the given
vector r
r
(say). Then, its projections on the coordinate
axes are l  r
r
, m  r
r
, n  r
r

l  r
r
 = 6, m  r
r
= 3, n  r
r
 = 2 (i)
{l  r
r
}
2
+ {m  r
r
}
2
+ {n r
r
}
2
= 6
2
+ (3)
2
+ (2)
2
 r
r

2
(l
2
+m
2
+ n
2
) = 36 + 9 + 4
 r
r

2
= 49
 r
r
 = 7 [Q l
2
+ m
2
+ n
2
=1]
Putting  r
r
 = 7 in (i), we obtain that the direction
cosines of r
r
are l =
7
6
, m =
7
3
, n =
7
2
6. The angle between vectors a
r
and b
r
is given by
cos =
  
.
b a
b a
r
r
r
r
For the angle to be obtuse, we must have
cos < 0
  
.
b a
b a
r
r
r
r
< 0
a
r
. b
r
< 0 [Q  a
r
,  b
r
 > 0]
14x
2
8x + x < 0 7x (2x 1) < 0
x (2x 1) < 0 0 < x < 1/2
Hence, the angle between the given vectors is obtuse
if x (0, 1, 2)
7. Let the equation of the required plane be
a
x
+
b
y
+
c
z
= 1 (i)
Then, the coordinates of A, B and C are A (a, 0, 0),
B(0, b, 0), and C(0, 0, c) respectively. So the centroid
of triangle ABC is (a/3, b/3, c/3). But the coordinates
of the centroid are (p, q, r)
p =
3
a
, q =
3
b
and r =
3
c
a = 3p, b = 3q and c = 3r
Substituting the values of a, b and c in (i), we get the
required plane as
p
x
3
+
q
y
3
+
r
z
3
= 1
p
x
+
q
y
+
r
z
= 3
8. a + b = 6, (i)
ab = 8 b =
a
8
(ii)
Putting in (i)
a +
a
8
= 6 a = 4, 2
From (ii)
b =
4
8
,
2
8
b = 2, 4
Hence (a, b) = (4, 2) or (2, 4)
9. 2X =
(
+ +
1 9 0
6 2 3 5
X =
(
4 0
4 4
and Y =
(
9 0
2 5
4 0
4 4
Y =
(
5 0
2 1
10. = 1/2
1 2 6 4
1 2 1
1 2 2
k k
k k
k k
+
= 0
8k
2
+ 4k 4 = 0
k = 1/2, 1
Section B
11. Let A total of 8 in first throw
B total of 8 in 2nd throw
Number of exhaustive cases when a pair of dice is
thrown = 6 6 = 36
Cases favourable to a total of 8 in each throw are
(2, 6), (6, 2), (3, 5), (5, 3), (4, 4)
Their number = 5
P(A) = P(B) = 5/36
P(A and B) = P(A). P(B) =
36
5
36
5
=
1296
25
XtraEdge for IITJEE 103 FEBRUARY 2011
12. f(x) = sin
2
x + [1 cos
2
(/3 + x)]
+
2
1
2 cos x cos (/3 + x)
= 1 [cos
2
(/3 + x) sin
2
x]
+
2
1
[cos(/3+2x) + cos /3]
= 1 [cos (/3+2x) cos /3] +
2
1
cos (/3 +2x) +
4
1
f(x) = 5/4
g(f(x)) = g(5/4) = 1 constant function
13. Q f(x) is continuous at x = 2, 4
f(2) = f(2
)
3 2 + 2 =
0
lim
h
(2 h)
2
+ a(2 h) + b
8 = 2a + b + 4
2a + b = 4 (i)
again,
f(4) = f(4
+
)
3 4 + 2 =
0
lim
h
2a (4 + h) + 5b
14 = 8a + 5b (ii)
Solve (i) , (ii)
a = 3, b = 2
14. y = tan
1
(
+
x
x
cos
sin 1
y = tan
1
(
(
+
2 / sin 2 / cos
) 2 / sin 2 / (cos
2 2
2
x x
x x
y = tan
1
(
+
2 / sin 2 / cos
2 / sin 2 / cos
x x
x x
y = tan
1
[tan (/4 + x/2)]
y = /4 + x/2
dx
dy
=
2
1
15. Let y = tan
1
(
(
+ +
+
2 2
2 2
1 1
1 1
x x
x x
, z = cos
1
x
2
put x
2
= cos 2
y = tan
1
+ +
+
2 cos 1 2 cos 1
2 cos 1 2 cos 1
y = tan
1
(
+
sin cos
sin cos
dx
dz
=
4
1
1
x
.2x
y = tan
1
[tan (/4 )]
y =
4
2
1
cos
1
x
2
dx
dy
=
2
1


.

\

x
x
2 .
1
1
4
dx
dy
=
4
1 x
x
dz
dy
=
dx dz
dx dy
/
/
=
4
4
1 / 2
1 /
x x
x x
=
2
1
16. Area A =
2
1
b AD
=
2
b
.
4
2
2
b
x
A =
4
b
2 2
4 b x
dt
dA
=
2 2
4 8 b x
b
8x
dt
dx
dt
dA
=
2 2
4 b x
bx
3 
.

\

= 3
dt
dx
Q
b x
dt
dA
=

.

\

=
2 2
2
4
3
b b
b
3 = 3 b cm
2
/sec.
OR
(i) Since (x 2) 0 in [2, 3]
so f(x) = 2 x is continuous
(ii) f (x) =
2 2
1
x
exists for all x (2, 3)
f(x) is differentiable in (2, 3)
Thus lagrang's mean value theorem is applicable;
There exists at least one real number in (2, 3)
such that
f (c) =
2 3
) 2 ( f ) 3 ( f
or
2 2
1
c
=
1
0 ) 1 (
2 2 c = 1
c = 2 +
4
1
= 2.25 (2, 3)
LMV is verified and the
req. point is (2.25, 0.5)
17. dx
x x
x
2 2 2
) ( 1
2
Let x
2
= t. Then, d(x
2
) = dt 2x dx = dt dx =
x
dt
2
I =
2
1 t t
dt
=
+ } 1 {
2
t t
dt
=
+ + } 1
4
1
4
1
{
2
t t
dt
=

.

\

+
4
5
2
1
2
t
dt
=

.

\

+
2
2
1
4
5
t
dt
A
B C
x x
b/2 b/2 D
XtraEdge for IITJEE 104 FEBRUARY 2011
=

.

\

+


.

\

2
2
2
1
2
5
t
dt
I = sin
1


.

\
 +
2 / 5
2 / 1 t
+ C
= sin
1


.

\
 +
5
1 2t
+ C
= sin
1


.

\

+
5
1 2
2
x
+ C
OR
I =
+
+
x cos 1
x sin 2
e
x/2
dx
=
(
+
+
+ x cos 1
x sin
x cos 1
2
e
x/2
dx
=
(
(
(
(
+
2
x
cos 2
2
x
cos
2
x
sin 2
2
x
cos
2
2 2
e
x/2
dx
=

.

\

+
2
x
tan
2
x
sec
2
e
x/2
dx
2 tan
2
x
.e
x/2
+ c
18. I = dx
x
x
x
+
+
2
2
2
16
4
1
I = dx
x
x
x
+ 
.

\

+
+
8 8
4
4
1
2
2
2
I = dx
x
x
x
+ 
.

\

+
8
4
4
1
2
2
Let x
x
4
= t. Then, d 
.

\

x
x
4
= dt

.

\

+
2
4
1
x
dx = dt
I =
+
2 2
) 2 2 ( t
dt
I =
2 2
1
tan
1


.

\

2 2
t
+ C
I =
2 2
1
tan
1




.

\

2 2
4
x
x
+ C
=
2 2
1
tan
1


.

\

2 2
4
2
x
x
+ C
19. We are given that
dx
dy
+ (2)y = cos 3x (i)
This is a linear differential equation of the form
dx
dy
+ Py = Q, where P = 2 and Q = cos 3x
I.F. =
e
Pdx =
e
dx 2 = e
2x
Multiplying both sides of (i) by I.F. = e
2x
, we get
e
2x
dx
dy
2ye
2x
= cos 3x. e
2x
Integrating both sides w.r.t. x, we get
ye
2x
=
x
e
2
cos 3x dx + C
[Using : y (I.F.) =
+C dx F I Q .) . ( ]
ye
2x
= I + C, where I = e
2x
cos 3x
Now, I =
II I
dx x e
x
3 cos
2
I =
3
1
e
2x
sin 3x dx x e
x
3 sin
3
) 2 (
2
I =
3
1
e
2x
sin 3x +
3
2
dx x e
x
3 sin
2
I =
3
1
e
2x
sin 3x
+
3
2
(

.

\

dx
x
e x e
x x
3
3 cos
) 2 ( 3 cos
3
1
2 2
I =
3
1
e
2x
sin 3x
+
3
2
(
dx x e x e
x x
3 cos
3
2
3 cos
3
1
2 2
I =
3
1
e
2x
sin 3x
9
2
e
2x
cos 3x
9
4
I

.

\

+ I I
9
4
=
9
2x
e
xdx cot
e = e
log sinx
= sin x
the solution of differential equation is given by
y.sin x =
+ ) cot 2 (
2
x x x sin x dx
=
dx x xsin 2 +
dx x x cos
2
=
dx x xsin 2 + x
2
sin x
dx x xsin 2 + c
= x
2
sin x + c ...(1)
Substituting y = 0 and x = /2, we get
0 =
4
2
+ c or c =
4
2
(i) y sin x = x
2
sin x
4
2
or y = x
2
4
2
cosec x
22.
xy z
zx y
yz x
1
1
1
=
xyz
1
xyz z z
xyz y y
xyz x x
2
2
2
=
xyz
xyz
1 z z
1 y y
1 x x
2
2
2
C
1
C
3
2
2
2
1
1
1
z z
y y
y x
R
1
R
1
R
2
, R
2
R
2
R
3
=
2
2 2
2 2
1
0
0
z z
z y z y
y x y x
= (x y) (y z)
2
1
1 0
1 0
z z
z y
y x
+
+
= (x y) (y z)
z y
y x
+
+
1
1
= (x y) (y z) [(y + z) (x + y)]
= (x y) (y z) (z x)
OR
a c c b b a
c b b a a c
b a a c c b
+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
= 0
C
1
C
1
+ C
2
+ C
3
2(a + b + c)
a c c b
c b b a
b a a c
+ +
+ +
+ +
1
1
1
= 0
R
2
R
2
R
1
, R
3
R
3
R
1
2(a + b + c)
b c a b
a c c b
b a a c
+ +
0
0
1
= 0
XtraEdge for IITJEE 106 FEBRUARY 2011
2(a + b + c) (a
2
b
2
c
2
+ ab + bc + ca) = 0
(a + b + c) [(a b)
2
+ (b c)
2
+ (c a)
2
] = 0
a + b + c = 0 or a = b = c
Section C
23. Getting 6 success
p =
6
1
q = 1 p =
6
5
A can win the game in 1st, 3rd, 5th ..throws.
P(A winning) = p + qqp + qqqqp +
= p[1 + q
2
+ q
4
+ ..]
= p


.

\

q 1
1
=
11
6
P(B winning) =
11
5
24. y = x (i)
y = x
3
(ii)
Solving (i) and (ii)
O(0, 0), A(1, 1), B(1, 1)
Required area = area BCOB + Area ODAO
A(1, 1)
D
y = x
y
O(0, 0) x
C
B(1, 1)
Area BCOB =
0
1
3
) ( dx x x =
0
1
4 2
4 2


.

\

x x
= 
.

\

4
1
2
1
=
4
1
Area ODAO =
1
0
3
) ( dx x x =
1
0
4 2
4 2


.

\

x x
=
2
1
4
1
=
4
1
required area =
4
1
+
4
1
=
2
1
sq. units.
25. The equations of two given lines are
2
1 x
=
3
2 y
=
4
3 z
(i)
and
3
2 x
=
4
4 y
=
5
5 z
(ii)
Line (i) passes through (1, 2, 3) and has direction
ratios proportional to 2, 3, 4, so its vector equation is
r
r
=
1
a
r
+
1
b
r
(iii)
where,
1
a
r
= i
+ 2 j
+ 3 k
and
1
b
r
= 2i
+ 3 j
+ 4 k
Line (ii) passes through (2, 4, 5) and has direction
ratio proportional to 3, 4, 5. So, its vector equation is
r
r
=
2
a
r
+
2
b
r
(iv)
where
2
a
r
= 2i
+ 4 j
+ 5 k
and
2
b
r
= 3i
+ 4 j
+ 5 k
The shortest distance between the lines (iii) and (iv)
is given by
S.D. =
 
) ).( (
2 1
2 1 1 2
b b
b b a a
r r
r r
r r
(v)
We have,
2
a
r
1
a
r
= (2i
+ 4 j
+ 5 k
) ( i
+ 2 j
+ 3 k
)
= i
+ 2 j
+ 2 k
and
1
b
r
2
b
r
=
5 4 3
4 3 2
k j i
= i
+ 2 j

1
b
r
2
b
r
 = 1 4 1 + + = 16
and,(
2
a
r
1
a
r
).(
1
b
r
2
b
r
) = ( i
+ 2 j
+2 k
).(i
+ 2 j
)
= 1 + 4 2 = 1
Substituting the values of (
2
a
r
1
a
r
) . (
1
b
r
2
b
r
) and

1
b
r
2
b
r
 in (v), we obtain S.D. = 1/ 6
26. A
11
=
1 2
3 1
= 1 + 6 = 7; A
12
=
1 0
3 2
= 2
A
13
=
2 0
1 2
= 4; A
21
=
1 2
0 2
= 2
A
22
=
1 0
0 1
= 1; A
23
=
2 0
2 1
= 2
A
31
=
3 1
0 2
= 6; A
32
=
3 2
0 1
= 3
A
33
=
1 2
2 1
= 1 + 4 = 5
adj A =
(
(
(
5 3 6
2 1 2
4 2 7
=
(
(
(
5 2 4
3 1 2
6 2 7
Also A = (1) (7) + (2) (2) +0(4) = 7 + 4 = 11
A
1
=
 A 
A adj
=
11
1
(
(
(
5 2 4
3 1 2
6 2 7
Again the given system of equations can be written as
AX = B where X =
(
(
(
z
y
x
, B =
(
(
(
7
8
10
X = A
1
B
XtraEdge for IITJEE 107 FEBRUARY 2011
i.e.
(
(
(
z
y
x
=
11
1
(
(
(
5 2 4
3 1 2
6 2 7
(
(
(
7
8
10
=
11
1
(
(
(
+ +
+
+
35 16 40
21 8 20
42 16 70
=
11
1
(
(
(
11
33
44
=
(
(
(
1
3
4
x = 4, y = 3, z = 1
27. Let y = sin
p
cos
q
Let z = log y = p log sin + q log cos
d
dz
= p(cot ) q tan
For maximum
d
dz
= 0
p cot = q tan
tan = q p /
Now
2
2
d
z d
= p cosec
2
q sec
2
= p(1 + cot
2
) q (1 + tan
2
)
= p(1 + q/p) q(1 + p/q) (Q tan = q p / )
= 2(p + q)
2
2
d
z d
< 0
at = tan
1
q p / , y attains maximum value.
28.
b
a
dx x f ) ( =
0
lim
h
h[f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) + ........
.+ f(a + (n 1) h],
where h =
n
a b
Here a = 1, b = 3, f(x) = x
2
+ 5x and
h =
n
1 3
=
n
2
+
3
1
2
) 5 ( dx x x
=
0
lim
h
h [ f(1) + f(1 + h) + f(1 + 2h) + ..........
.+ f(1+(n 1) h)]
=
0
lim
h
h [{(1
2
+ 5 1)} + {(1 + h)
2
+ 5 (1 + h)}
+ {(1 + 2h)
2
+ 5(1 + 2h)} + .......
..+{(1 + (n 1)h)
2
+ 5(1 + (n 1) h)}]
=
0
lim
h
h [{(1
2
+ (1 + h)
2
+ (1 + 2h)
2
+ .+
(1 + (n 1)h)
2
}] + 5{1 + (1 + h) + (1 + 2h) + ........
.+ (1 +(n 1)h)}]
=
0
lim
h
h [{n + 2h (1 + 2 + 3 + ..+(n 1) + h
2
(1
2
+ 2
2
+ ..+(n 1)
2
)} + 5{n + h (1 + 2 + ...
......+ (n 1))}]
0
lim
h
h [6n + 7h (1 + 2+ 3+ ..+(n 1) + h
2
(1
2
+ 2
2
+ ++ (n 1)
2
]
=
0
lim
h
h
(
+
6
) 1 2 ( ) 1 (
.
2
) 1 (
7 6
2
n n n
h
n n
h n
=
n
lim
n
2
(
+
6
) 1 2 )( 1 (
.
4
2
) 1 (
.
14
6
2
n n n
n
n n
n
n
=
n
lim
(
+ 
.

\

+
2
) 1 2 )( 1 (
.
6
8 1
14 12
n
n n
n
n
=
n
lim
(

.

\


.

\

+ 
.

\

+
n n n
1
2
1
1 .
3
4 1
1 14 12
= 12 + 14 +
3
4
2 = 12 + 14 +
3
8
=
3
86
OR
b
a
dx x f ) ( =
0
lim
h
h [f(a) + f(a + h) + f(a + 2h) +.....
.+ f(a + (n 1) h)],
where h =
n
a b
Here, a = 1, b = 1, f (x) = e
x
and h =
n
) 1 ( 1
=
n
2
1
1
dx e
x
=
0
lim
h
h [f(1) + f(1+ h) + f(1 + 2h) + ...........
..+ f (1 + (n 1) h)]
=
0
lim
h
h [e
1
+ e
1+h
+ e
1+2h
++ e
1+(n 1)h
]
=
0
lim
h
h e
1
[1 + e
h
+ e
2h
+ .+e
(n 1)h
]
=
0
lim
h
h e
1
(
(
1
1 ) (
. 1
h
n h
e
e
(
(


.

\

= + + +
1 r
1 r
a ar ....... ar a using
n
1 n
=
0
lim
h
e
1
(
(
(
(
(


.

\

h
e
e
h
1
1
2
[Q h = 2/n nh = 2]
= e
1


.

\

1
1
2
e
= e e
1
(
(
1
1
lim
0 h
e
h
h
Q
XtraEdge for IITJEE 108 FEBRUARY 2011
29. The given information can be exhibited
diagrammatically as follows
Depot
A
5 units
Depot
C
4 units
Depot
B
5 units
Factory
Q
6 units
Factory
P
8 units
Rs.10
Rs.16
Rs.15 Rs.10
Rs.10
Rs.12
y units (5y) units
(5x) units
x units
8(x + y) units
6 (5 x + 5 y)
= x + y 4 units
Let the factory at P transports x units of commodity to
depot at A and y units to depot at B. Since the factory
at P has the capacity of 8 units of the commodity.
Therefore, the left out (8 x y) units will be
transported to depot at C.
Since the requirements are always nonnegative
quantities.
Therefore,
x 0, y 0 and 8 x y 0
x 0, y 0 and x + y 8.
Since the weekly requirement of the depot at A is 5
units of the commodity and x units are transported
from the factory at P. Therefore the remaining (5 x)
units are to be transported from the factory at Q.
Similarly, 5 y units of the commodity will be
transported from the factory at Q to the depot at B.
But the factory at Q has the capacity of 6 units only,
therefore the remaining 6 (5 x + 5 y) = x + y 4
units will be transported to the depot at C. As the
requirements at the depots at A, B and C are always
nonnegative.
5 x 0, 5 y 0 and x + y 4 0
x 5, y 5 and x + y 4
The transportation cost from the factory at P to the
depots at A, B and C are respectively Rs.16x, 10y and
15(8 x y). Similarly, the transportation cost from
the factory at Q to the depots at A, B and C are
respectively Rs.10 (5 x), 12(5 y) and 10(x + y 4).
Therefore, the total transportation cost Z is given by
Z = 16x + 10y + 15(8 x y) + 10 (5 x) + 12 (5 y)
+ 10 (x + y 4) = x 7y + 190
Z = 16x + 10y + 15(8 x y) + 10(5 x) + 12(5 y)
+ 10(x + y 4) = x 7y + 190)
Hence, the above LPP can be stated mathematically
as follows, find x & y which Minimize
Z = x 7y + 190
x + y 8
x + y 4
x 5
y 5
and x 0, y 0
OR
Let the depot A transport x thousand bricks to builder
P and y thousand bricks to builder Q. Then the above
LPP can be stated mathematically as follows.
Minimize Z = 30x 30y + 1800
Subject to x + y 30
x 15
y 20
x + y 15
and, x 0, y 0
To solve this LPP graphically, we first convert
inequations into equations and then draw the
corresponding lines. The feasible region of the LPP is
shaded in fig. The coordinates of the corner points of
the feasible region A
2
PQB
3
B
2
are A
2
(15, 0),
P(15, 15), Q (10, 20), B
3
(0, 20) and B
2
(0, 15). These
points have been obtained by solving the
corresponding intersecting lines simultaneously.
x = 15
y
y = 20
B (0, 30)
Q (10, 20)
B3 (0, 20)
P (15, 15)
B2 (0, 15)
A2 (15, 0)
O
x
x + y = 15
x + y = 30
A (30, 0)
The values of the objective function at the corner
points of the feasible region are given in the
following table.
Point (x, y) Value of the objective function
Z = 30x 30y + 1800
A
2
(15, 0) Z = 30 15 30 0 + 1800 = 2250
P(15,15) Z = 30 15 30 15 + 1800 = 1800
Q(10,20) Z = 30 10 30 20 + 1800 = 1500
B
3
(0, 20) Z = 30 0 30 20 + 1800 = 1200
B
2
(0, 15) Z = 30 0 30 15 + 1800 = 1350
Clearly, Z is minimum at x = 0, y = 20 and the
minimum value of Z is 1200. Thus, the manufacturer
should supply 0, 20 and 10 thousand bricks to
builders P, Q and R from depot A and 15, 0, and 5
thousand bricks to builders P, Q and R from depot B
respectively. In this case the minimum transportation
cost will be Rs.1200.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 109 FEBRUARY 2011
XtraEdge Test Series
ANSWER KEY
PHYSICS
Ques 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans D A C A A C B C B B,C
Ques 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans A,B,C A,C,D A,B,C,D A,B B A B B D A
21
A P,Q,R,S B P,Q,R,S C P,Q,R D P,Q,R,S Column
Matching 22 A P B R C Q D S
CHEMISTRY
Ques 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans C C A D A D D C A A,C
Ques 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans B,C,D A,D B,C,D B,C,D C B D B B C
21
A Q B R C S D P Column
Matching 22 A Q,S B R,S C P,Q D R,S
MATHEMATICS
Ques 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans C D D C B C A C C B,C,D
Ques 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans A,D C,D A,B,D A,B,C B C D B A C
21
A R B P C Q D S Column
Matching 22 A S B Q C P D R
PHYSICS
Ques 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans C C C D C C B C B A,C
Ques 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans A,B,D A,B B, D A,D A B C C A D
21
A R B P C S D Q Column
Matching 22 A R B S C Q D P
CHEMISTRY
Ques 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans D D B A C A C C B D
Ques 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans A,B, D A,C A,C B C A A B B C
21
A P,R,S B Q C P,R,S D S Column
Matching 22 A S B R C P D Q
MATHEMATICS
Ques 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ans C B B D A B B B A A,B,D
Ques 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Ans A,B,C B,D D A,B,C,D A C B B C C
21
A S B R C Q D P Column
Matching 22 A P B R C Q D S
IIT JEE 2011 (February issue)
IIT JEE 2012 (February issue)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 110 FEBRUARY 2011
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