v" . who take a real interest in the Company.Bancroft University ^ ' f of CBS orna WITHDRAWN Bancroft Library To all THE SHAREHOLDERS OF THE SANTA FE LAND COMPANY. I LIMITED.


The task of compiling that paper was I one of absorbing interest to me. . they are now reproduced just as in I received them. and incorporated with my own paper a book of which they form by no means the least interesting part. 1910). of the Shareholders of the Santa this supposition that it is Fe Land Company.PREFACE. IN May last I was asked to read. a paper on Argentina. several members of the staff of the Santa Fe Land Company aided me by writing some useful and interesting notes on subjects connected with Argentina. latest information for the Whilst I was obtaining the paper (which was read before the Royal Society of Arts on November 30th. and though inadequately I fully realise how I have dealt with so interesting a subject. towards the end of the year. before the Royal Society of Arts. and as I think that I others will find the reading of the notes as engaging as did. at any rate. venture to think that the facts and figures which the paper contains may be of interest to some. and also giving various experiences which they had undergone whilst resident for there. It is upon published. I am indebted to the writers many hints on life in Argentina.

therefore the happier phases of the noted . . should. however. 1910. although frankly humorous. P. was not luxury. CAMPBELL LAWFORD PLACE.The entitled final portion of the book is Leaves from a journal It "The Tacuru" written in a lighter vein. MANNINGTREE. mention that of the expedition. of the it describes a trip through some Northern lands of the is Santa Fe Land Company. information contains much really useful I and many capital illustrations. but I it can assure my the English readers that the all well though was planned. ESSEX. and it included because. . OGILVIE. To many who have helped me in this work I tender my most sincere thanks. December. their all this journal was written by members for and was originally intended solely edification own private and amusement trip are trip.





chilled beef. and to realise the saving power of the country.000. and articles which may be justly grouped as less the results of the cattle and sheep industry.872 (this figure includes such things as manufactured woollen goods.000. The value of material of all sorts sent from England to Argentina in 1908 was ^"16. leather goods.000.. extract.000 worth of exports of any value to us ? : Do we consume any them after ? of them ? Do we And do we send any of this same manufacture any of stuff back again " It has been dealt with by our British artisans ? would be difficult to follow definitely any one article. This fact our attention.200.000. keep which is worthy of particular mention comes from the to their forests. Other goods. foodstuffs or other necessities of and are consumed by those nations which do not produce enough from their soil own Another export teeming populations. mutton. grown and arrests imported goods to the extent of ^"60. oats. and forces us to recognise that is a trade balance of nearly 20 millions sterling in her favour. viz. lines the questions are simple and can be easily Amongst the agricultural exports to maize.000. amounted to no a figure than ^"23. there It is not mere curiosity which prompts us to ask Are these ^"79. linseed. which does not profess 2~\ facturing country.938. in we find wheat. All these exports represent life.ARGENTINA FROM A BRITISH POINT OF VIEW. wool. was exported quebracho.000.000.000. and flour. in the form of logs and in 1908 to the value of ^"1. pork. .000.000. and pays for and consumes nearly 42 per cent. exported in 1909 on her to be a manu- material own lands to the value of ^"79. of these exports. A RGENTINA. The value placed upon England these 1908 amounted ^"48. such as frozen beef. but it upon broad answered. which.

618 100. Nature has been lavish Argentina. . hatless and starving to the small town of Quilmes. therefore it is clear that we have.044 29. but.. of the immigrants are agricultural who soon find work in the country. we have the following (The figures represent the balance of : those left in the country after allowing for emigration) to Yearly Average. and paints). we look considering Argentina's To give each year's return for the last 50 years progress. Sixty-five per cent..998 labourers. My desire way of developing forgotten in agriculture in this richly -endowed country during the last fifty years.. One name which should never be that of life Argentina into is active in William Wheelwright.. Wheelwright was an earnest and far-seeing man. would be wearisome. . and. and his knowledge of railways in the United States helped in him to realise their great possibilities Argentina . and struggled on barefooted.. but.586 43. 1869 (inclusive) 1879 1889 1899 1909 . Mr. quota to the increasing quantity and value of Facing this page is a diagram of in her gifts to the Immigration Returns from 1857 to 1909.. . and man now has taken great advantage of these is to show what has been done in the gifts. . to 1909. 15. a practical and financial interest in the welfare and prosperity of Argentina. taking the average figures for ten- immigration returns when year periods from 1860 interesting table.... New countries cannot get on without men willing and ready to exploit Nature's to the gifts. naturally.462 84. .oils.. From 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 . whose entrance Buenos Aires was not particularly dignified. in 1826 he was shipwrecked at the mouth of the River Plate.. and again their add materials to be exported. and must continue to take.



strange to say.000. the first railway built.500 12. : 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 12.868 11. interested own Thomas associated themselves forming with Messrs.850 13. 5. * These figures are approximate B 2 .572.565 miles of railway. holds good in Argentina. from Buenos to Flores.000.A. whose first work was the building of a railway 17*480 kilometres long .829 14.370 12. in 1870 there were Ayres 457 miles of railroad in 1880 the railways had increased steel still road The year 1857 saw . representing a capital investment of ^"170.352 miles. themselves into the firm of Brassey. upon his return to his native land he could not impress any of those men who afterwards " " became such great Railway Kings in the U. in 1890 Argentina possessed miles of railway.S.140 12. their mileage to 1. which is embodied to-day in the Central Argentine Railway. country. Ogilvie & Wythes.825 15. and Brassey. between Buenos Aires and Quilmes in 1863 afterwards they built the line from Rosario to Cordova.895 The rapid increase in railway mileage during the last nine years is as follows In 1901 there were 10. Failing to obtain capital for Argentine railway development in his Wheelwright came to England. 5*879 kilometres long. Ogilvie. Other railways were proand this policy of progress and extension of the jected. Wythes & Wheelwright.000 of 10. and in 1900 there were 10. whose name was then a houseThese two men hold word amongst railway pioneers.937* which are owned by English companies.

for the last forty years Argentina has the rate of over a mile a day. but it When lay in the number of cattle owned . and no desire to acquire wealth except at the expense of broken heads. whose inhabitants had no ambition. and in 1907. and therefore counted for naught. found that riches were being accumulated for him without much exertion on his part. . but many Argentines to-day forget what they owe to the railway it is the railways. but cattle could be boiled down for tallow bones the man. and 1909 her average rate per day was nearly This means that owing to the extension of three miles. He took a risk inasmuch as he received payment kind only. The opening out of the country by railways soon The man who possessed changed the aspect of affairs. cattle was no longer considered the rich man it was he who owned leagues of land upon which wheat could be grown who became the potentially rich man he. which pioneers render the splendid and yearly increasing exports possible. therefore.built railways at In other words. There was a standard of wealth. railways during this last year alone. . and endowed the country by rendering it practicable to grow corn where cattle only existed before. It was the railways which created this possibility. it follows that the land proprietors have bein come immensely so. so did he. ning to flock in in an endless stream to the country. when the immigrants did well. 1908. William Wheelwright first visited Argentina it was little more than an unknown land. and the railways only. by cutting up his land and renting it to the immigrants. who were begin. . who possessed cattle possessed wealth. . save for feeding cattle. land was of little value. and hides were also marketable commodities . over a million more acres of land could have been given up to the plough if suitable for the cultivation of corn. Therefore. and as many thousands of immigrants have become rich.

pigs. considerably. and the entries into the port form an interesting and instructive table of . cattle-feeding. and is worth Previous to that date its value fluctuated approximately Is. of the total wealth of Argentina. 9d. which since 1899 has had a fixed value. goats and asses represent a value of nearly "130.000.000. railways having made it possible during those thirty years to utilise lands for other purposes than Let it be clearly understood. The following table shows how great the has been in Argentine animals : improvement Per Head. cattle . the value created by man's labour far outweighs the increased value mere breeding animals. Cattle in 1885 were valued at an average of $13* Sheep Horses in in 1908 1885 1908 1885 1908 32 2 4 11 25 Notwithstanding these increased valuations per head.000. . Next to the railways the improvements in shipping have helped the development of Argentina the shipping trade of Buenos Aires has increased at the rate of one million tons per annum for the past few years. : The following will in statement gives the total tonnage that passed through the port of to 1909. the total value of had not decreased far from that. and advance made * Buenos Aires from 1880 more clearly show the increase and the last thirty years. mules. the cattle had increased in value during the above period to the extent of ^"48. horses.In 1858 cattle formed 25 per cent. and the larger number of animals in the country. sheep. These figures The dollar referred to throughout this paper is the Argentine paper dollar.000. but in 1885 cattle only represented 18 per cent. and to-day cattle. of the total wealth.

include both steamers and sailing-vessels. . and local as well as foreign trade 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 : Tons.

the last Argentina also This trade has sprung up entirely within fourteen years.000 1. and the export of chilled meat has .233.000 beeves yearly. and has only increased by tons in twenty-two years. The preserved meats exported in 1908 was ^"5. The value of live-stock in Argentina in 1908 was 50.000 or 60.948. Until 1876 Argentina imported wheat for home conin that year.973. Goats and Asses ^"82.000 tons.000 1 .means by which meat could be exported. than two tons of butter.000 18.297.000 tons.000. and in 1908 she exported 3. whilst "jerked beef. or from 2. until. or 180.000 sheep in 1886 to 3.000.000. it reached the enormous quantity of 573.000.000 per annum.667 in 1908. progressed steadily at the rate of 25.000 value of frozen and made up as follows Cattle : Sheep Horses Mules Pigs . comparatively steady. The frozen beef trade in Argentina has had a wonderful development it commenced in 1884.000 25. the value of which was ^"283.000 2.549 tons of butter. exports butter. shipment of 5. has fallen from 38.000 cattle to find the household using Swiss milk.000 Buenos Aires each day for consumption.000 A few years ago it was common on an estancia feeding canned litres 50. into the city of and no less To-day 425. she began to export wheat with a modest sumption . one ton of cream.000." was mostly sent to Cuba and Brazil.651 tons.000 frozen which tons per annum to 6. when for many years past labourers had been arriving at an average of agricultural 25.000. in 1908.946 Frozen mutton has remained beeves.368. Thirty years later the export had . and of milk are brought three tons of cheese are used there daily.

It is interesting to follow the evolution wrought by labour. but upon the advance of the rail- of Argentina. in the method of cultivation produced a and to-day a great deal of attention is paid to the preparing of the land.988 tons.. and only a few cattle w ere to be found roaming about them. and. to-day where. d'etre for growing alfalfa is for the feeding of cattle and preparing them for market. alfalfa is grown thereon. and capital in the prairie lands First. Agricultural colonies had sprung up everyand cattle became of second-rate importance. etc. and has the peculiar property of attaching to itself those micro-organisms which are able to fix the nitrogen in the air and render it available for plant food.636. and the harvest. which term includes wheat. and was valued at ^"25. let us note the developments on those wonderful tracts of splendid prairie lands lying between the River Plate and the Andes fifty years ago these lands were of little account. proit is Every colonist knows the value of vided its The raison roots can get to water. and thought and care are given to the seed time.177 acres metric measurement) will When grown for dry carry on an average 3. the value of the exports of corn. without much attenAfter a time produced wheat and maize.8 mounted up to 2. : r way tion or care.768. and for this purpose a league of alfalfa (6. and. oats. etc.247.500 head. Alfalfa is easily grown. maize. the growing. they came under the plough. very strong when established. will go on growing for years. intelligence. is more than double that of cattle and cattle products. his animals. When it is found desirable to rest the land after crops of wheat and improvements better return. barley. Alfalfa is one of the clover tribe.520. and in 1908 the wheat exported amounted to 3.293 tons.. fodder it produces three or four crops per annum and a fair . but alfalfa for feeding not every colonist who knows why this plant occupies such a high place amongst feeding stuffs. maize.

shift. and these in quality beef.000 per annum. on an average. we will take a camp under alfalfa capable of carrying 10. cattle. when placed upon alfalfa lands. The ing . and nitrogen. and the meat is tender has been kept life on and compares favourably with any other business in Argentina of the same importance has shown such good returns as cattle breeding. so it is easy to place a value on its feeding properties. A $14 per acre. England as the four-course by successive generations of observant farmers has given us th key to what Nature had is This system known in Knowledge gained . on the and such an axiom has this become that in cases English landlords insist that their leases shall contain a clause binding the tenants to grow certain stated many crops in rotation. and. No results of alfalfa.00 per head per month.000 head of cattle all the year round. figures supplied by one large company are interest- they show that. have been chiefly brought about by the introduction and a knowledge of the life history of alfalfa is All cereal of the greatest importance to the cattle farmer. and the property them. land becomes that rotation of crops exhausted and generally poorer experience has taught us is a necessity to alleviate the strain soil. and after deducting expenses there is a clear return of about yield is from 6 year. An animal that rough camp. after continuous cropping the . "175. improve in value at the rate of $2. where as the fattened animals are sold off an equal bought clear to replace profit of number is Such a camp would bring in a $200. when too old for breeding.000 its should be worth all sterling. crops take from the soil mineral matter Therefore. fattens extremely quickly. is placed for the first time on alfalfa 8 tons per acre of dry alfalfa for each ton of such hay is worth about $20 to 30. Thus.

hitherto kept to herself. explanation between the very low microscopic animal life. devoting their lives to the systematic study of Nature's hidden secrets. a necessity.10 and to-day we know why the plan adopted by our forefathers was right. nothing would ever grow that soils contain all . of the in trials. and other leguminous plants. 1908 the Agricultural College at Ontario prepared no less than 474 packages of Legume Bacteria. and by means of Agricultural Colleges. these discoveries are given to mankind. this may. and why the rotation Men of science are of crops was. Almost every country is now devoting In time. however. and long before the soils of Argentina show any serious loss of nitrogen from continuous cropping. Alfalfa thrives on land which contains lime. to lack of experience in noting effects scientifically. known as is There . money. as well as private individual research. and is. and energy to agricultural research work. were composed of sand. science will probably have established means of being applying in a practical manner those methods already nitrogen - known of propagating the collecting bacteria which thrive on alfalfa. The a community of interest simple. No we greater factor exists than the microscope concealed in the very If soils opening up and hunting out the secrets soil are standing on. or to the soil . soya beans. nothing but pure silica but in Nature we find sorts of mineral matter. clover. have been due to the want of knowledge of how to manipulate the bacteria. and gives but poor results where this ingredient is is deficient. but in any case the experiment must be considered successful when the results obtained were satisfactory in no less than 65 per cent. and chief amongst these is lime. and in 309 cases beneficial results followed from the application thereof in 165 cases no improvements in the crops were noticed. peas.

and these nodules are the industrious population. and the third class so manipulate it as to form a nitrate which is capable of being used for plant food. it would be the . situation of the land to be dealt with is also depends upon the upon whether plentiful or not . whilst others work it into nitrite. the youngest plant will show the same peculiarity). microscopical. much nutrition as two tons The labour of cost of growing alfalfa greatly . upon which. of nitrogen. who perform their allotted work with the silent. three tons of alfalfa contains as of wheat. home of a teeming. Men of science have been able to identify at least three classes of these bacteria. some small nodules attached to the fine. because the alfalfa has encouraged the multiplication of those factories which convert some of the thousands of tons of nitrogen floating above the earth into substance As a dry fodder for cattle suitable for food for plant life. although one ton of alfalfa removes from the soil 50 Ib. soil In every ounce of and plant life generally.11 bacteria. there are millions of these living germs which have their allotted work to do. in order to give some idea advantage of growing this cattle food. The reason for their existence work accomwould seem to be that one class is able to convert the nitrogen in the air into ammonia. we will imagine the intrinsic value of the undeveloped land to be "4. and to ascertain the plished by each. If one digs up with great care a root of alfalfa (it need not be an old plant. but. yet that crop leaves the soil richer in nitrogen. under existing conditions. and care is taken in exposing the root (perhaps the best method is the washing away of the surrounding earth by water). Now.000. and they thrive best in soils containing lime. persistent energy so often displayed in Nature. hair-like roots are easily distinguished by the naked eye.

The maize .500 animals would be fattened thereon. undertake to cultivate from 500 to 600 acres. or to carry out the plan usually adopted. . Is it to plough and to do his be wondered at that ? work progresses under these conditions There is but one idea prevalent in the family. The colonist's cultivation of the land have effectually killed off the natural rough grasses which would otherwise grow up and choke the alfalfa. that time and opportunity are with them. it becomes necessary either to work it yourself. to 30 per from the railway. of his crops according to the distance of the land landowner anything from 10 per cent. and all the others in rotation. first crop grown on newly -broken ground is usually and perhaps a third year's crop wheat is grown by the colonist probably before the land is handed back to the owner ready to be the second year's crop is linseed. with the wife bringing up the rear she keeps a maternal eye upon the little mite.12 possible to keep 1. put will down in alfalfa. and agrees to pay to the cent. horses. followed by the eldest child. namely. yells manages somehow fast to cling to the or her share with the rest.000 to 3. In this work the whole family joins the father leads the way. Now. digs his well. whereas if this same land were under alfalfa 3.000. The colonist brings his agricultural tackle along with him. and then proceeds to plough. that of letting the land to colonists who have had some Usually a colonist will experience in this class of work. with your own men. and in such cases the landowner finds the alfalfa . bullocks. if the undeveloped land is to be improved. who with great gusto and terrific . Sometimes the alfalfa is sown with the colonist's last crop.000 head of animals. etc. in which case you must provide ploughs.000 or ^"30.. and establishes his house (usually a most primitive affair). and the land would have increased in value to ^"20.

When the colonist's contract is completed he moves on to another part. I doubt if an Italian would . has often been said that an Englishman will starve where an Italian will thrive. who. that . who has year by year received a percentage of the crops. I have heard Argentines praise Englishmen. but it Italian come off best were the two placed on a desert island where instantaneous action. hardy and quiet. because the after results greatly depend upon the care with which the seeding has been done. and endurance were called for. but at the same time they have told me that they would never allow two Englishmen on their place at once. grit. and buildings the more seed. and in some respects this is true an would be better expressed if it were stated that can adapt himself to circumstances better than an Englishman. At the same time. and many thousands could go back to their own country with wealth which has been acquired by constant and assiduous attention to the economies of It life." and this characteristic becomes more marked when he is able to grumble with one of his own kith and kin. Many things are said of an Englishman. manage their estancias far and away beyond all others. They are an industrious and kindly people. well content with their surroundings. wells. and none fits his character better than that which gives him the privilege " of grumbling.13 and during the sowing of this crop it is very advisable either he or his agent should be in constant attendance. careful and frugal in their living. the land will carry a larger head of cattle and the control of them is easy when the camp has been properly divided. It has been said that many of the immigrants do not intend to settle in the country. takes back his land. they say. The colonists are generally Italians. and the owner. Considerable outlay has now to be made in fences. there are of these the better. Probably this idea has .

783 returned.560. harvest. Argentina an and in every branch of that industry progress has been made. and of these at least 500. and then to go home and secure the European but generally these men come out again to stay. Taking the last five years. 727. More varied crops are being grown. and out of this number only 1.250. 103. and they return.197 individuals.000 immigrants per annum of In other words. The worked for the benefit . or an average of 50. who are attracted to Argentina by the high wages ruling during the harvest time. A Buenos Aires shows glance at the statistics prepared by the authorities in that during the last fifty-two years 4. agriculturists.000 workers per annum. to adopt Argentina as home for a period at least.000 were .000 went back. It is not to be wondered at.690. They have acquired a knowledge of the country.14 gained ground on account of the large numbers of the labouring population. chiefly made up of agricultural produce. that the exports. This remarkable progress. this its Nothing can be more eloquent than the figures shown diagram. and often find it pays them enough have also acquired an their interest in some land. Facing this page is a diagram showing the agricultural exportation from 1900 to 1908.670 have these. These figures have become even more marked of recent years. almost steady is in in is upward march. not in one direction only. then. and vegetable ideal country for agriculturists. Greater care is being taken to-day in working up the by-products of the cattle business. have shown extra- ordinary progress.980 persons entered as immigrants. leaving in the country 2. bringing their families. by-products are being economically looked forests of Argentina are also being after. made their homes within the borders of Argentina during the past five years. the country has received on an average 249.





000 5. an increase of 265 per cent.900. to 1908 3. 48.750 LINSEED shows an increase of 361 per cent. 300 per cent. on the land under cultivation in the year 1895.157.000 acres in cultivation in 1898.174. and a small quantity of the wood was exported in the shape of sawdust.. to 1908 15..750 MAIZE increased by 250 per cent. in ten years from 8.. ^"1.. retained for The United Kingdom purchased from Argentina and its own use (in round figures) during the year "WHEAT .200.300. to the enormous quantities used for the country. of which no less than 254.162 tons of this extract were made and exported 1908.000. and other crops. sleepers..000.571 either in the form tons were exported in 1908. to the value of l MAIZE .15 of mankind. The total value of Quebracho Colorado exported in various forms in in This means that year was.972 acres in cultivation in 1898.000 9.600. The area in acres under cultivation for the year 1908 was 46. FROZEN MEAT Making a 3.000. as already stated. including Oats. The Quebracho Colorado tree forms a very It is sent out of the country important item of export.250. or in the form of an extract for tanning purposes..000 total of ^"27. in annum for export purposes alone.835. The diagram facing this page shows the area in hectares : cultivated from 1897 to 1908 WHEAT The area under cultivation for wheat shows an increase of 89 per cent. in the same period. of logs. that the Quebracho forests are being depleted at the rate of half a million tons per in addition etc. from 831.000 .

Canada. is 11'3 bushels of this is the wheat per acre not high-class farming. yet Manitoba in average production for Argentina. These figures again clearly demonstrate that we have a vital interest in the well-being of our friends across the sea. Australia . more is not utilised is because there available.16 Indeed. 1908 produced 13i bushels per acre. and she supplies nearly 29 per cent. .064. from the past we the total area certainly it is In every direction Argentina has progressed. . but we have improved this yield to 30 bushels. 10 bushels per acre. has Argentina Russia . 776. Kingdom Belgium . 17 In the fourteenth century England only produced bushels. available for To-day only one-fifth of this available area being cultivated. foundland.... and within the bounds of reasonable forecast to of the consider that 100. only 63. . Germany 364 625 290 .000 acres of this land will be. . but the productive power of land now under cultivation may be vastly increased if farmers will devote their attention to improving the conditions of cultivation.000 acres are being occupied.. Saskatchewan. . New- The is chief reason why not sufficient labour 5 inhabitants per square mile. . of our corn and grain requirements. and judging may look with confidence to the future . ..000.... Not only is there an enormous tract of land lying dormant.... 18 1^ Ij ... Republic is 776.000 acres. U... of our total food purchased abroad. and another 43..000. etc. and other corn-growing. . is facilities..000. . while Roumania has increased her yield from ..000 acres are being utilised for feeding purposes thus... we buy from Argentina nearly 25 per cent.000. .000 out of . when opened up by railways.

oatmeal. and with more intelligent cultivation of the soil. the land must of necessity give a far larger yield than it has done heretofore. land proprietors will bring science to bear on their Indeed. rye. and the third meat alone returns. peas. taken from the Board of Trade show from whence England draws some of her supplies. CORN (including wheat. The first table includes corn and meat the second gives corn alone. oats. to 23 bushels in 1908. to 30 bushels in 1908. So that we not only look forward to a greater area being placed may under cultivation.487 48. maize. : FOOD IMPORTED INTO AND RETAINED BY THE UNITED KINGDOM IN 1908. wheatmeal.17 15 bushels per acre in 1890. buckwheat.613 Total .704. beans. work of development. with an increasing influx of immigrants. The following tables. Germany has increased her yield per acre from 20 bushels in 1899. France has increased her yield from 17 bushels in 1884. fresh and frozen (including animals for food) ^"71. They also show how prominently Argentina figures as a food producer. and offals) MEAT. barley. to 20 bushels in 1908. .103. with land rising in price. flour. but we may reasonably expect heavier if crops.

II i o .

...344.A.613 100*00 *THE OTHER COLONIES AND FOREIGN COUNTRIES which largely contributed follows : to the totals mentioned are as DENMARK Barley Meat ^"22. 14. . etc ..573 ROUMANIA Corn. Meat .705. ..084.19 including animals for food. nil. Kingdom in 1908 : / Argentina supplied U.. Russia . . etc ^2..971 ... etc... .113 1. imported into and retained by the United MEAT.708 5...545 or Canada Australia (including mania) supplied .471 19'07 38'41 0'16 8*38 Tas.099.322 .548 76. 9.556.. .. Per Cent..955 29*88 ^"48.. ASIATIC Corn.. TURKEY... chilled. ^1..... etc ^1.988.704. . 4*10 . Meat CHILI Corn. 18.660 10.S.564. .. TURKEY Meat (including CRETE) ^1. nil. .995...285. Corn. and fresh.383. frozen and tinned..981 4....538 ..682 c 2 Meat .. Other Colonies and Foreign Countries supplied* .. .. nil... ..

Before railways and steamships brought the foreign producer into close competition with our own farmers.. In the course of time. and cattle were bred only for their hides.. tallow and bones..649 is The lesson shown here see that Argentina supplies one worthy of attention. NEW ZEALAND Corn. concerning the inspection of should enforce greater care in seeing that Argentine saladeros and packing .A. England with one -fourth of We her imported food.. at least see that the food prepared under healthy and sanitary conditions.168.S..houses are manipulated with intense care. it would be a bad day for Argentina should ever such an outcry be raised against her saladeros as that which a few years ago was directed against the North American packing houses and for a time ruined the canning methods industry of the United States. . .66B . 1907. Argentine authorities should not only exercise the law factories. let our soldiers and sailors are to be fed upon those who are responsible for purchasing is the food.. when steamers superseded sailing-ships . and yet we find American being introduced into Argentina without let or If hindrance. supplies nearly one-third. Therefore it behoves both England and Argentina to see that America does not so manipulate things that she acquires the control over our meat and food supplies.. etc Meat ^"30.20 BRITISH INDIA Corn. canned meats. but they sanctioned February 4th. etc 2. The corn-growing industry of the Argentine Republic is an intensely interesting subject.585 4.. Argentina did not produce enough grain to supply her home consumption.226. and U. Meat . and cleanliness should be all insisted upon . nil.

in to be in learned the concerning handling of Both a handled than in cheaper the Argentina. however. in Argentina may Canada and Siberia wheat available throws some look forward to keen competition with for many years to come on the other . in the last ten years by . and eight hundred less by sea to the chief European ports than by any existing become the popular one the chief it a useful wheat outlet is the factor. the U. remains free from ice for a period of one month after Lake Superior is tightly frozen up.. Saskatchewan. will steadily show a smaller quantity of for exportation.. ... and the following table : light upon the wheat position Argentina and Uruguay have increased the area of their wheat-growing land brought under the plough in Canada the last ten years by .... although the much remains wheat. making established fact that Hudson Bay.. Russia United States . hand.. but a further big impetus will be given to this industry when the wheat-fields of Alberta.. 124 per cent. although many miles north of Lake Superior. and Manitoba are connected with a deep-sea port on Hudson Bay this will be an accomplished fact in 1915.. 120 27 14 . . . States and Canada grain is and more expeditious manner An enormous amount of grain is of dealt with in Wheat Exchange Winnipeg. thousand miles less haulage by land. . route.. it is bound to .A.21 and the world's carrying capacity thus became enormously increased. Corn-growing became a highly remunerative still business. No country in the world has shown such wonderful capabilities for growing linseed as the Argentine. and as this route means a ..S. Argentina saw her opportunity of becoming a keen competitor in the food market. and her .

000 North America 694. Russia. and India exported less than half a million tons between them. Moreover.000 360. production by 3*8 per cent. 470. after producing enough keep himself.22 average production for the following five-year periods show this expansion Years.000 and an agricultural produce export of ^"48.432. has to from the land nearly sent abroad. whilst North America.000 find Here again we Argentina leading. 1894-1898 1899-1903 1904-1908 193. The diagram . she exported nearly the whole of her production.. will than probable that by 1920 Argentina is more be able to export.000 In ten years she increased her production by 335 In the same period India increased her per cent. allowing for a population of 6. whilst Russia was unable to keep up her supply. goods to the value of facing this page shows what has been accomplished by Argentina in the last ten years.000 Russia India tons.500. In actual money value the exportation of wheat. The world's total made up as follows : linseed production for 1908 was Argentina produced 1. each individual in Argentina 8.000.000 382.000 839. as the present figures It reveal. more than ^"100. and North America by 105 per cent.. as the result of agricultural work.335. : Production in Tons. is It interesting to note that.000 worth of produce per annum.101.



530. ^568.818.634. oats.050.966.23 linseed. and middlings in round 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 figures. bran. other grain. namely LIVE ANIMALS .000 14.319.100. while horses were imported into England. The value allied derived from is produce Republic.000 32. the trade in the export of live stock has fallen off considerably the total value did not in 1908 amount to more than . as follows : ^"15. RAW PRODUCTS.047.383 head of cattle and 10.676 sheep.000 13.000 34. Since the closing of English ports in 1901 to the importation of live cattle from Argentina. is. The the cattle industry and its great importance to the Argentine exports from this industry may be divided of : into four heads.335. Chili.224 sheep. MANUFACTURED OR PARTLY MANUFACTURED MATERIAL AND BY-PRODUCTS.114 and 14.000 asses and mules.065.394 sheep. Bolivia took 3. and Paraguay. cattle .000 30. and 16. Chili took 45.000 CATTLE. Hour.485. Africa. maize. Uruguay.000 21. Portugal. Brazil.000 48. Belgium took 65.000 46. Bolivia.000 31.

things as horsehair. wool. and asses.. meat. unimproved stock. a value of ^19. for at the present time no less than five and a-half million cows are returned as Criollo cattle.. in other words. lard. jerked beef.531.000.000. including bones. and they comprise 84 per cent.760. etc. when it became possible to send frozen meat to Europe. of the classified breeding cows.. with an ever-increasing quantity of land being placed under Argentine Republic factor in the is fast becoming the leading production of meat to satisfy the world's consumption. 1908. Argentina's (after supplying her needs) was over ^"23.758 7. but. which include frozen and and mutton.376 6. sheepskins. swine. a more careful and complete classification will lead to modifications in these figures. and such etc. guano. represented ^"2. export from the cattle industry etc. did estancieros pay serious attention to growing cattle for alfalfa. waste fats.734. Not until the year 1885. dried blood. Argentina's live stock on hand when the taken in May. the meat production. represented Manufactured or partly manufactured material.802 The the favourite breed of cattle is the Shorthorn.454. meat extracts. goats. with a distinct strain of still the .24 chilled beef Exports of raw products.625 67. whilst the by-products. including prepared tallow.098.231 in 1908.211. dressed leather.628. and now. representing in value ^"129.549. 29.116. was as follows : own last census was Cattle Sheep Horses Mules. Cattle on the outside fringe of occupied lands are very coarse and rough. butter.369. hides.. total were valued at ^"430. Thus.. undoubtedly. tallow. cheese.. Herefords only figure out as 6 per cent.

The cattle on ranches which are nearer is to the seaports. $6 per head. it lost sight of the up so that they are looked upon as "freezers. or railway stations distinct show is improvements. . mention must be made of two estancias near Buenos Aires. those belonging to Messrs. and little or no water." which means that they are good enough to be purchased by one or other of the his cattle graded who take nothing but the best.800 was paid for a prize which was sold to Argentina ! it may be Durham bull . a useful herd and most suitable for the districts they occupy. it is a marvel how these animals exist at times and assuredly no refined breed of cattle could live where the Criollos not only manage to . where they often have to undergo the hardships of shortage of pasture owing to drought. where splendid stock is always to be found. viz. thrive. Greater care and the main consideration is never ambition of every estanciero to have bestowed upon them. mentioned that ^"3. 1900 15 1908 28 1910 40 raising : must is and the object to be obtained they must decide whether the land to be utilised for fattening cattle or for breeding the highrest with the The question of stock owners which there is an ever-ready market. Cobo and Messrs. In 1888 cattle running the northern camps (which then represented the extreme outlying posts) were only valued at refrigerating companies. Bell. To give some idea of the high class animals for price paid for first-class pedigree animals. manufacturing centres.25 Hereford about them they are. however.. indeed. but generally to return a satisfactory result to their owners. In 1890 the value had risen to $10 per head. To show the enormous value of animals and the high standard to which agricultural lands can be brought.

but same time there exists much poverty within its precincts poverty caused in no small degree by the vicious- . 1910. be unnecessary to say that there not for their frequent reiteration it would is not one grain of truth in these suggestions as applied to the state of things to-day. Herefords for killing realized from 850 to ^"1.200. yellow fever.000 inhabitants. as a rule. I do not refer to those who have invested their money circle. evidently paid by the agents of Cold Storage Companies for ! One representative explained that advertising purposes. suggested that the chances of death from small-pox." and But men holding high our then in a whispered side-speech indicate the dangers of revolution. It makes one very indignant lips of those to hear these state- ments from the their own country. it who probably have never left Let me assure you they may be swept aside. the freezing Companies desired to encourage breeders. in the many channels known official to the River Plate positions speak of commercial interests in Argentina as "something between a hundred and a hundred and fifty millions. and were Nearly one-fifth of centred in and around the population of Aires. of prevailing conditions. It Buenos is Argentina is a city of at the 1.At the cattle show at Buenos Aires held in July. however.000 per animal These latter high prices were. that the English nation (business alike) is it appears incredible general public men and the so extremely ignorant. and even from murder are a serious drawback to what might otherwise be a country possible to Often it is live in. When we consider the really important position which Argentina takes as a food producer. and that his Company paid the high prices mentioned above so as to let the breeders know that they would always be paid high prices for first-class cattle. many of whom are millionaires.

The . 27'5. during the harvest time at least. wages are high and labour is anxiously awaited. many The whom remain in Buenos Aires. probably affected by the number of of immigrants finding their way to Argentina. was 34' 3. York Petersburg 5'7 4'6 Per 1.000 inhabitants. but to a far greater extent by the rooted objection of certain classes to go out to the camps where.000.. When we compare the health of this city of Buenos Aires with that of other large cities. Buenos Aires stands well with London has a death-rate of Berlin New St. and no other city equals this. health of the City may be well gauged by the death- rate for the year 1907. York 28*5.. 8*5 New St. 25'7.27 ness of the rich. Petersburg Both these tables great are.. A glance at the following tables will give some idea of what has been accomplished. 14*8 18*6 Petersburg 257 city is (Undoubtedly the high rate shown by the last-named greatly due to the foul condition of the Neva. however. birth-rate of . . Buenos Aires London Berlin for 1908 .000.. The increase in London Berlin was 8'8 per 1. we can see what has been done in the way of improvements in the last few years. New St.) Aires To appreciate thoroughly the position which Buenos now holds. York 15*2 per 1.000. The natural increase of the population of Buenos Aires between 1898 and 1907 was 19'1 per 1. and the strides which have been made in .. 15'1 . 23*3.

The and to authorities are justly proud of will not diminish their efforts so long as there is what has been done. Let him that those whom he meets in Argentina are as noble realise and pure as those he left at home. we have but to look at Between the years 1889 and 1898 the death-rate from 1899 to per thousand was as high as 22*9 per 1. there is but one answer. that because he is an Englishman all other nationalities must be inferior. with God's gift of questioner. " Is it safe to buy question has often been asked. however. . then. an evasive answer. Should the tempted be a young fellow. who wants not solely a personal one.000 the past. but to work it. which is. and now the record stands at 15*2 per 1. for reasons already stated. it really means is merely self-interest Can " I successfully speculate in land ? the matter is Clearly The . and that is in the affirmative let him and let him ever remember that he is an Englishman go. indeed. so one is to give only to acquire the land. but Can it she does not want the loafer nor the ne'er-do-well. " But the drift of this query too often land in Argentina ? " in other words. and that by some sort of divine right he has been created lord of all. no other consideration is thought of. Argentina offers to-day a splendid opening for the best of England's sons. I should like to state once more the fact that the United Kingdom depends upon Argentina for nearly one -fourth of I want to impress upon her food suppty purchased abroad. and that England is judged by the conduct of her sons: but do not let him make the great mistake a newcomer so often falls into.28 regard to the sanitation of the City. 1908 it was only 16*6. for this proportion your of one-fourth will be largely increased in the near future. mind the seriousness of the position. work do and problems to solve. health and plenty of truth and grit in him. .000.

who go to the country ? foreign countries. are bound to succeed. ' There's plenty of ' life about it. but she will spurn and despise the dissolute and drunken. Far be it from schooling in Argentina and goes through his training and passes into one of their Universities will have to his credit . men behaviour the Mother who never forget that from their be appraised. Not long ago I sent a boy out to Argentina and painted the first two years of learning in I explained and the new country in rather lurid colours. but finished up by " ' " saying.' came along and had adapted himself to his they ings." and worse. whose sons are looking forward to finding their life's work in that country.29 be wondered at that England's prestige is seriously injured when so many of the "wasters. A great many Englishmen resident in Argentina." and mentioned all that I had told him. England is should send abroad men who To my mind we judged. school the better will be the result correct the faults : a dog's dwelt on the hardships indeed. are sent from It is but natural that from these. I predict. but it might well be worth while English public The boy who has had his to consider the other phase. " things as surroundleft and. Argentina will embrace and Country reward them. for the wider field of Argentina. but not much The truth is that the boy had accepted dog. the harder the you cannot detect and which militate against success unless you have been through the mill. me to deprecate the training acquired by school life. will The advice I would give to all those thinking of trying Argentina as a field for agricultural work is to remember that to be successful one must begin at the bottom. where opportunities were cramped by small surroundings. he will never regret having his home. I described it as Within a year. send their boys home to England to be educated. the lad wrote home to his parents life.

A boy born in brought up to appreciate that he is liable to be called upon to go through a military course the Argentine this military training demonstrations. life to attempt to is therein wellnigh the surrounding conditions make it on the extreme edge of cultivation it is distinctly rough. and worked shoulder to shoulder with men who will in due it is time influence. from the very richest of soils to ice-capped and rocky peaks. go through venture to think that were England to adopt compulsory military service in some shape or form. and the English boy. embracing r all kinds of lands. and generally the discipline engendered by this training has not only been good for him. and you must admit that describe the various conditions of impossible. sible in the if attempt to give a picture of Argentine life is imposshort time at my disposal. Amongst of Buenos Aires there .want. a country borders extend from of 1. To self. Imagine to your- whose to you can. and should be occupy positions of power and weigh out these things educate your boy. but is a distinctly valuable asset to the country. and in the is Life much what cities you will find just the cosmopolitan population what society you wish. fellow student.30 something which cannot be bought by money or influence He will have been a by boys straight out from home. is : compelled to serve his time in the army if called upon. who has had just as gentle an upbringing as the English boy. is by Argentine law an Argentine subject. on the inner camps refinement steps in.212.600 square miles well within the Tropics away down south to the everlasting snow s. as well as a boy I of any other parentage born in the country. will be obliged to if required. whatever the nationality of his parents may be. we should hear " " a great deal less of the unemployed and don't. and just as well to before deciding where to Argentina.

My experience is that the Argentine will always refuse an theatres. some hotel life. and are We have taught the ready to welcome the right sort.that the pupil has themselves to themselves. Englishmen often fall into the great error of keeping foreigner who degrades Possibly this trait is engendered from birth and training by our insular position. and music-halls are invitation to your home at first. who are devoting their lives to fortunate fellow-creatures path. find and it is quite general to children speaking fluently four or five languages. because of the trouble which he believes you will be put to. Travelling has become an integral part of the education of the Argentine family to-day. of our national sports and games. when in this Englishman's home surroundings. I have ever found the Argentine desirous of helping those who seek advice and assistance but he spurns the . for country. for the Argentine people do appreciate the thoroughness of our countrymen. improving the surroundings of those less who have fallen upon the thorny and whose portion is often the cup of bitterness. young I could wish that those who have Argentine friends insist would of the upon their seeing. himself and his country by acts of folly which would not be permitted in his native land. who stand out prominently from the throng of busy pleasure.seekers. . all very well in their but to see the real inwardness of English life you way. Indeed. proved better than the master. and he . must follow the Englishman to his country home. but don't take " " no for an answer simply make him come. and Argentines many they have entered into them with such thoroughness that the teachers have often had to admit . dinners. There are many Argentines.31 are many men and women of the highest culture and education. but it is a great pity to carry it too far.

for fear is the frosts in that country. that Argentina I have left an impression El Dorado which lies beyond the There are such things as locusts. English home Just a seas. is No will another. powerless to defend ourselves. of these locusts are indeed a plague which seems almost impossible to annihilate.32 will thank you afterwards for his experience of life. Those who have spent their lives in the River Plate district have seen this appalling plague crushed by means which Nature. and word or two. and means are now being adopted to conserve the floods and render their waters available in time of drought. Nature always seems to be on the alert to prevent an overthrow of the balance of things. for I have little faith in man's attempts effectually to stop or decrease this pestilence on the other hand. first The to-day it . be modified by men. has thought fit to use. these can. in her own good time. With regard to floods and droughts. floods. and only those whose work is in close touch with the growing and handling of crops who can fully appreciate the frosts r From w e seem it is damage done by late frosts. and these troubles which from drawbacks of some sort or I have just mentioned not prevent the forward march of progress in Argentina. country free . droughts. at least.



IN the years 1881 and 1882, Messrs. C. de Murrieta & acquired a block of land from the Government of Province of Santa Fe, and in December, 1882, sold undivided half-share thereof to Messrs. Kohn, Reinach &
Messrs. Murrieta



having Santa Fe Land Company, and the prospectus appeared
July, 1883.

Co. and Messrs. Kohn, Reinach & Co., decided to develop the said lands, formed the



The area sold to the new Company was said to comprise about 650 Spanish leagues, or 4,336,150 English acres, and the price to be paid to the vendors was 1,050 per league. In order to provide a port of shipment on the Rio
Parana the Company bought a further
lot of

323 acres


the Colony of Romang. In addition to the original block of land, the


has since bought the following areas








hectareas, say





hectareas, say strip of land at boundary of the

Guaycuru on the eastern Company's forest lands,

A piece of

1,636 hectareas, say land at Venado Tuerto, 37 hectareas,
piece of land at Arrufo, 100 hectareas, say piece of land at Tostado, 50 hectareas, say




Since the beginning of the Company the total area of land sold has amounted to 709,549 acres (up to 30th June,








claim, to which reference


later on,

comprised in the measures

582,914 acres.



supposition the

Company now

owns 3,044,100

The original price paid for the out at about 3s. an acre.
original capital of the

Company's lands worked
^"875,000, of

Company was

which over

675,566 was paid to the vendors, leaving a

balance of ^"199,434 to meet the preliminary expenses and the initial cost of opening up the new properties. After

some years


was found necessary

to write off

a portion of

the capital, and accordingly, in 1897, the

Company's lands

were re-valued


2s. 9d.

an acre.



present Directors of the Company are CAMPBELL P. OGILVIE (Chairman).


Mr. Louis H. KIEK. Mr. T. E. PRESTON.

The Hon.

F. C.


The London Office is at 779, Salisbury House, Finsbury Circus, London, E.G., and the Secretary of the Company

at 761,

Mr. David Simpson. The Head Office in the Argentine is Avenida de Mayo, Buenos Aires, and the following

are the principal officers of the







HUGH M. RATTRAY (General Manager). W. B. WHIGHAM (Manager of the Cattle
and Lands Department



Mr. R. N. LAND (Manager at Santa Catalina). Mr. T. SCOTT ROBSON (Manager at La Barrancosa), Mr. G. L. C. GlTTlNS (Acting Manager of the Woods Department).




shares of the

Company were ^10


was decided in 1897 to reduce them to

7 fully paid,

which placed the capital at ^"612,500. Shortly afterwards \ each -l share was converted into seven shares of

In 1906 the shareholders authorised the



,"200,000 of fresh capital, which was issued to them in two blocks of ^154,000 in 1906 and ^46,000 in 1907.

Fresh capital was authorised in 1908, viz., l 87,500, of which ^"161,608 was issued in 1909, and further lots have since been issued, bringing the total amount of authorised capital to ^1,000,000, and of issued capital at 30th June,
1910, to ^982,347. An issue of ^"50,000 Six per Cent. Debentures and the whole amount made in January, 1904

was was

redeemed on the

1st July,


Part of the area sold to the
block of approximately


consisted of a

88 Spanish leagues, or 530,000

English acres, which became the subject of negotiations and lawsuits between this Company, the Provincial Government of Santa Fe, and other parties, lasting for more than

The area in question lay to the West of twenty-five years. the Rio Salado, and, at the time when this Company was
formed, was supposed to be included in the Province of Santa Fe. Soon afterwards the Province of Santiago del Estero put forward a claim to the lands on the ground that
the boundaries of that Province extended eastwards to the

Rio Salado, and









Province of Santa Fe

to sell the lands to

Messrs. Murrieta


Co. in 1882.

in the

an Agreement with the Government of the Province

of Santa Fe, the Santa

Fe Land Company took proceedings Courts of the Province to establish its rights Supreme to the land in dispute on the understanding that if the Comfailed to establish its claim, the



of the

Province of Santa Fe would indemnify
result the

for its loss.

In the

Company was

evicted from the lands, and entered

into negotiations with the


of the Province of

Santa Fe for indemnification. These negotiations went on for some years without coming to any practical conclusion, and
a lawsuit against the After further delays and negotiations the Government agreed to issue bonds in respect of the
last the

Company commenced

Province and won


claim, and, in July, 1909, the

Company agreed

to accept $3,212,000

paper Bonds of the Province, carrying interest at 3i per cent., with an amortisation of i per cent.,

The the coupons being available for payment of land tax. Government further undertook to ratify the original titles of
the Company, and to make a survey at the joint expense of both parties, for the purpose of ascertaining the exact area comprised in the original transfer. Any lands found to be in

excess were to be paid for by the Company to the Government at the rate of $13.50, paper, per hectarea (about 8s. an The price of such excess lands was to be recouped acre). the Government from the Bonds issued to the Company, by

and the Government retained





purpose, pending the result of the survey.

At the time of the formation of the Company, the
nearest railway


that belonging to the Central Argentine

. bringing Cattle to {Barrancosa.Ca/e Train on Central Argentine Railway.

and the nearest railway station was Rosario. in 1908. and extend it from time development of the wood industry demands. the central offices were moved from San Cristobal to Buenos Aires. line from Santa Fe to San Cristobal via San Justo. The Company have built a railway from a point north San Cristobal Vera running into their forests. After various changes of offices centre the administration were. was built by the National and in 1907. and La Barrancosa. who lived at San Cristobal. . of the Company and Vera for the woods department. the lines now belonging to the French Railway Company of the Province of Santa Fe were laid between Santa Fe and San Cristobal. Vera. Santa Catalina. the National Government built a Government. They where the extract factory of the Compania Tanin de Santa of to time as the Fe is situated. divided between San Cristobal for the cattle and lands department. in the year 1902.39 Railway. ADMINISTRATION. and have applied to the Argentine National Government for a railway concession in connection therewith. Through the latter office all the work of the Company in Argentina passes on to the London office. in 1906. further own a line from Margarita to La Gallareta. The Company propose to build a railway from San Cristobal to penetrate to their northern properties. but. the managers at San Cristobal. having to concern themselves only with the technical and administrative work carried on under them respectively. Subsequently the Central Norte Railway. and. which stretches northwards from to Tucuman. but some years later. the woods department was placed under the supervision of the General Manager of the Company.

industry. The and for first situated at two branches are conducted from San Cristobal. The Company's three branches. equipped with the most modern requisites for carrying on the work of the estancia. whilst from Vera.East of San Cristobal). and (3) business has been mainly divided into (2) cattle (l) land sales and rentals : . the S. and Lucero (which lie to Polvareda. The Administration House and other buildings for the use of the General Manager and Staff of the Cattle and Lands Department were erected about three miles from the now forms a large and handsome establishment. the timber trade is conducted SAN CRISTOBAL DEPARTMENT.500 persons. viz. corner of the Company's original lands. which forms the North -Western corner of the been connected up Company's lands. under the control of the administration at San Cristobal. and the whole The cattle lands have been divided up officials of into sections. timber trade. Los Moyes. town. The office there and the offices on the various sections have recently These sections are by telephone. the North and North. and now numbers 4. and Las Chunas. which are managed by the Company. of the central offices of the many years the site Company in Argentina.40 COMPANY'S BUSINESS. Michelot. A township was started at San Cristobal in 1884.W. .

Loading Wheat at T^osario from the " {Barranca." .



5an Cristobal Estancia House. .

At the same time the Company continued the sowing of alfalfa which had been begun by the proprietor. equipping it with a full complement of wells and fencing. and have been constantly increasing the area there under alfalfa. They accordingly bought the estancia La Barrancosain 1906. terms of the purchase were that the price should be paid by way of an annuity. so that they might be brought into closer touch with the markets of Rosario and Buenos Aires. 1897. Here the stock which was brought down from San Cristobal was fattened before passing on to the markets. the Company rented the estancia of Santa Catalina. sections. This estancia lies half way between the towns of San Isabel and Venado Tuerto. during the year 1909. which is situated about five miles from Los Cardos on the Central Argentine Railway and about 150 miles South of San Cristobal. . payable during the joint lifetime of the owner and his wife. satisfied in full by an allotment of shares The practice has been that the male calves born on this estancia should be sent North to the general herds kept at San Cristobal and the adjoining progeny of these animals should cattle. In 1909 this method of payment was use of the compounded and Company. a new broad-gauge railway line was It passes opened. and ultimately decided to buy the camp and The it as an establishment for breeding fine stock. from the latter of which it is distant about sixteen miles. In January. But.41 SANTA CATALINA AND LA BARRANCOSA. leading from Rosario to Bahia Blanca. in turn and that the be sold as fat neces- To facilitate this business the Company found it sary to acquire a camp specially adapted for fattening purposes in the Southern part of the Province.

as well as the Company's officials who control the timber in the neighbourhood. to bring out a work a factory for the manufacture of tannin extract from the wood of the Quebracho Colorado tree. of the town of Vera. The Santa Fe Land have also built a branch line from Margarita to actory. on the line of the French Railway Company leading from Santa Fe to Resistencia.42 right through the estancia. at 13 kilometres north of to a point Vera town. a small village has grown up at the place. Along have sprung up. lying two or three hamlets In 1904 the Messrs. for whom houses had to be provided. and penetrate been miles has extended to a the point line away. A branch railway was begun in 1905. Company this tannin . which involved the presence of a considerable number of workpeople. which is situated 17 kilometres north-west of the Station of Margarita on the French Railway line. on the French Railway.W. entered into an agreement with Albert and Charles Harteneck. 30 called Olmos. to and Hermann Renner. Sawmills and offices were built. which stands at kilometre 250 north of the City of Santa Fe. Consequently. VERA DEPARTMENT. where people connected with the wood industry reside. Frederick and Company Charles Portalis. and this factory was ultimately built within the Company's Company properties at a place called La Gallareta. westwards into the Company's forests. The headquarters of the Woods Department is situated about eight miles N. outside the boundary the and by means of a station just Company have fresh means of despatching their animals to Rosario.

Walei'ing-Place at {Barrancosa. .



Wood on the Company's Own Line ready for Loading. .

43 II .






in in land. bringing capital Foreigners by foreign capitalists in had run out new branches. twenty-five years ago the Argentine had comparatively very few railways consequently. and. and put under wheat and linseed. which was the general thing to do in those days. 1886. several 47 . the mortgagees foreclosed. when the camps were put . . was confidence great the country. This. and these have risen tremendously. 1889 the harvest was practically lost owing to the heavy and continuous rains which fell from December till July with hardly a clear day. so much of late years northern provinces. he naturally turns his attention to the value of the land. new banks were opened. The province of Buenos Aires. there was a great boom were pouring in. the lands at any long distance from Buenos Aires (the capital) were at a very low value. proportion as land in the During the years 1885. created a great panic and a tremendous slump in all land. together with a bad government and the revolution of 1890.THE VALUE OF LAND WHEN when he IN ARGENTINA. from which it took a long time to recover. but not the country. the largest in the country. one goes to a foreign country. and 1888. and its lands have always commanded the highest prices. and more especially intends to settle there with the idea of making a fortune. . and a very large extent of land was opened up and cultivated. has always been the most populated. Where people had bought camps and mortgaged them. harvests were good and money was flowing into the country. 1887. new railways were railways built. Then came a very bad year. as from this he draws his views of the prosperity of Now.

after. some four or five This.48 auctioned off. while suburban lots of 20 yards by 60 yards realised 5 and to-day are fetching "150. where ocean-going steamers call. Buenos Aires is not considered good for further alfalfa growing. had a serious effect on years previously. and horses. The country first around part of this province to be developed was the Rosario. but has good natural grass camps.000. and contains what is known as the Gran Chaco. but the crisis was not felt until some three or four years really.000 the square league. and camp lands have risen in the city centre Buenos Aires. soundness. sheep. naturally. There are also large estancias carrying vast herds of cattle. extending from the northern boundary of the province of Buenos Aires to Santiago del Estero. property a yard.000. to is course this city . 6d. and maize. together all directions . at "2. give one an idea of the value of land in four or five I must begin with it Queen Province. for which it is admirably adapted. The southern portion of this province is largely dedicated to the production of wheat. 6d. while the northern portion has vast forests of very fine and valuable timber.000 per square league. To the of the principal provinces of the country. the large port on the River Parana. far "10. with good railway accommodation in This. linseed. and it was 1896 and 1897 which were very serious years for the country. and finances of the country. and west may yet be bought at and the province of south towards Neuquen The Pampa. In was worth 2s. of the within a radius of 30 to 50 leagues to the south still away and. viz. they did not fetch half what the properties for in the first instance. had been bought the credit. from lands "10. whereas to-day it has been sold up to "200 sterling per yard.. 1885. as is called. to 3s. Of "100. The province of Santa Fe is a large province.

Wheat read}) for Loading at Station on Central Argentine Railway. .


000 sold in was in and 1909. while to-day it is difficult to acquire land under cultivation or alfalfa at less so near the surface. lives for ever on account of the sandy soil. Property 50 in Rosario itself is very valuable. To-day it is one of the most latter wheat and linseed are great products here. in these districts the average price can be stated at from in the ^30. that is."40. considered a desert. certainly with further improvements as regards watering arrangements and more paddocks.000 per league. when carefully treated. and sheds. in fact. and water being . whilst 40 leagues further north it I know of one estancia is to-day worth ^50. and from ^"30 to In the immediate district a yard is a common figure. of Rosario land is rarely sold in large areas. . etc. and has been one of the most developed during Some twenty years ago this was almost years. of one league which was bought in 1885 for ^"2. further improvements. has twenty-five years risen from ^"2. resold. (this without 1903). facilitates the cultivation of cereals on a very large scale. and about 40 leagues distant. house.000 a league. In the Northern part of this province are very valuable stone quarries.000 to ^"6.000 per league. for ^"60. yet 300 miles further north land good land can be had at from ^"4. than ^"30. where one was told nothing would grow and cattle could not live. prosperous while alfalfa.000 a league..000 per league. is one of the most hilly in the country.000. The next province. a fair model estancia in good working order. calculated at after being sown down again in alfalfa and divided into paddocks.49 combined with excellent land in the district.000. at ^"12.000 a league to This is for virgin camp. Cordoba. and to-day ^"40. but may be 2Q an acre. Land on the south-west of Rosario. not overstocked. These lands twenty years ago were valued at about ^"500 to 60Q per league.000 to .

The greater portion is worth at large quantities. while a lot of fruit is also exported from there. will not carry the same amount of stock. present very little. The great point is to get the water without irrigation the land is concessions for irrigating . is a very sandy soil. Here.000 In this province there is a very large extent per league.50 Another province that is advancing very fast is that of San Luis. but still the average price for virgin camp is from ^5. worth as much as from /"40 while the ordinary camp land is at about 50 per acre. covered with a small shrub. Mendoza is a more northerly province. . is A good vineyard in its prime. Wine is made in very and a lot of very good quality.000 to ^"10.000 a league. useless. it has been found that alfalfa is at home. rights. of very poor land. with good irrigation to 7s. again. This. The value of land varies very much. and thrives splendidly. again. which is not worth more than . and mostly dedicated to the grape and wine industry."2. but this land has not yet touched the value of that in the provinces already mentioned it will not stand so much cropping. and . per acre. and consequently is much sought after.

.JlfCaker of Land Values.




to eight inches storm did a fearful single tree. and distant sounds of thunder were heard. meter has often been known to drop 25 degrees within half an hour. .m. came a downfall of huge hailstones they were just like big lumps of jagged ice some of them measured about six . ago will always be remembered by its spectators. haystacks is struck by lightning. round and weighed over half a pound. which generally precede " " a tormenta are certain forerunners of bad weather and A terrible hailstorm which took place some time storms. This not a leaf was left on a lot of harm and hundreds of birds lay dead all around. trees which and trouble are ruthlessly windmills blown down. it got peculiarly dark and a strong gale began to blow. . which meant that the storm was about to break . sudden changes of temperature take place. roofs blown off. Though only about 4 p. and valuable animals always caused. this hailstorm did not last 53 more . like all hot countries. which made man and beast tremble. turned over. most frequently in the spring and summer. The and before. Though very violent..REMARKS ON STORMS AND THE CLIMATE OF THE ARGENTINE. They occur when very The thermo- A have great deal of damage of taken years care uprooted. is subject to very great hurricanes and storms. THE Argentine Republic. every description were followed by deafening sheets of lightning of peals of Then there thunder. A sudden lull came. The usual signs of it were evident the atmosphere had become very close and it had been extremely hot for some hours terrible closeness stillness .

as. The sky turned black and blacker. uprooted. Suddenly a terrific gale got up. and the clouds looked horribly wicked. had. tiles. This hurricane as soon as it had lasted for about an hour and a-half abated somewhat we went out to see the result. at the neighbouring "estancias" was not felt . A peculiar feature of this storm was that it was not at it all general. broken branches. and lovely old trees had been completely . . We heard a loud bang and then another over our heads. cook had had to use all her force against the kitchen window big iron one. in their terror. 1909. it would have carried away that roof as well. loose sheets three roofs had been of corrugated iron lying all around blown away. which caused every window and door to rattle in a most alarming manner. ten time an incalculable amount of In September. several windmills knocked down and carried 100 yards away. We were told afterwards that the its way.54 minutes. if the wind had got in. though they had all been as well secured as possible. The dust seemed to filter in just the same. on to keep it from bursting open. and in five minutes the house was an inch thick in it." or huts. had been also quarters. leaving the occupants rains exposed to the cold and winds which followed. where they Out in the camp the fondly imagined they were safer. Everywhere reigned havoc and confusion. brick-bats. the whole place looked an old ruin. a . " roofs of most of the puestos. frightened of remaining in their own them and taken refuge. in which destruction took place. with their wives and children. and on looking out of a window we saw the roof of one of the outer buildings lying on the ground part of it had been blown over our house and had carried away the chimney. The natives. a very bad cyclone suddenly came on us. in the open camp. deserted carried away.

lasted for about ten days. when driving home from the town of Vernado Tuerto. The wind made such a deafening noise that playing could hardly hear yourself speak presently some of you the occupants of the house thought they would have a look outside to see if things were all right when they were surprised to see an outer building. . . no one took particular It was after dinner. . . said they could see this a long way off a column of red smoke whirlwind coming at a tremendous rate and that it looked like . as the wind had lifted the tiles and the rain was driven in through every possible place. they could not feel the effects of more than half a This storm was followed by very heavy rains which during which our house was flooded. On one occasion a very rough wind began to blow. and hold the wheels down to We all looked like prevent it from being overturned." who were riding in the camp at the time. . The wind was so strong that the men had to get out of the carriage. which was a heavy covered-in waggonette. Things became so black that we could not see where we were going. the wind either. seaside niggers. in the swampy districts or during a very wet season. Another time. and the roof nowhere to be. roofless.55 at all. and they had never heard it happen. and everybody was busy notice of it. as the dust and rain falling at once came down like mud on us all. we were caught in a very bad dust storm. great extremes of heat and cold. except when a great many residents suffer from rheumatism. and some of the " peons. as it was a steady gale. The climate in the Argentine is very variable we have It is healthy as a rule. although they were not mile away. cards. seen it was discovered afterwards on the top of their own house. One gets quite hardened to these severe storms. used for stores and machinery. so we had to halt. but.

be brilliantly hot and and another day cold and is One out. as generally dry. at blazing hot. as soon as the sun goes in. noon on a fine day in in the it early is is bitterly cold. of course. and then. sudden we are treated just the fine.56 People talk about the weather. In the summer. same changes of English one day it will . the heat it is is very great. when another part they are being flooded is In the winter there much more morning sunshine than there it is England. . it is quite healthy. but miserable. but. part of the country or another in generally suffering from drought. it freezes hard.



I asked the conductor to stop getting out in " said. then called the man a fool for We into stopped in Buenos Aires a week and our bill came hundreds of dollars. with a little straw. which took a big slice off our then went to an estancia (farm) in the Province The estancia was fifty-one miles square.000 cows. after we got over our sickness. The camp was with 3. and 500 mares.000 steers. chipping off rust and painting the decks. There was my companion. Mucha " grasa (much fat). another where headquarters. went whose proprietor to . North-American. 59 . first we Spanish. one peon (man). but very cold in winter. a boy. instead of " muchas gracias" (many thanks) laughing. My a tram. The manager was a owned by an Argentine family. 2. and fifteen miles. Rain typical heavily as gringos I landed at Buenos Aires. We of Cordoba. one where I went. well known in camp life.SOME EXPERIENCES OF WORKING ON ESTANCIAS. two (greenhorns). I had met was I in attempt speak Spanish England. It was cool in summer. My house was made of mud walls and floor. The estancia consisted of three sections. We fell took thirty-one brother on a tramp steamer from However. small means. myself. not knowing a word of to a first-class hotel. I my brother was. time days. and the other the was under a young Scotchman. passed fairly quickly. a zinc roof. I CAME out with my Penarth. There was one room for ourselves.

Up before three o'clock. a long black snake came out in the night. Also I had two kittens which slept it. found my feet covered with blood. . his trap would be . Sometimes tea at four. meat boiled in a pot). we branded 6. but. I had the fat then he burst out laughing and said I had : got the intestines. breakfast of puchero (big In the summer " " mate-cocido . putting my hand down.60 where we slept and ate. quite dark. At branding time the capataz (foreman) came up with pieces of . in I I my bed. having (cooked Paraguayan tea the native drink) with a hard biscuit at eleven.000 calves. I had charge of two valuable stallions they had a stable of mud and straw. One night I felt something soft by my feet. When I got there I could not see any fat and wondered what it was. I was up at between three and four. Needless to say different my I recado was the worse for wear. . then maize with milk and a biscuit. and a kitchen. thought it was the kittens. I jumped out of bed. my sheets covered The first thing I had to do was to skin a cow. My horse I told my companion got excited and I arrived dead beat. one for the cook (when we had Under my bed I had a snake's hole one). his men for a week. would go back. dead cow. and I enjoyed it. on I did everything to kill hearing a sound. The food was felt ill from what was used to. The Boss seldom came when he did. but with no success. and it made me feel very uncomfortable to look at the horrid The next day I was sent to fetch the fat from a sight. but very seldom supper consisted of an asado and mate at seven or eight o'clock. I saw the intestines and carried them bodily on my new recado (native saddle). and I for a time. and found a young hare half eaten and with blood. and.

coming in very tired from a hard day. Another time it was very dark our I candles. I could see she had some in a small bag. I My was cooked I made a big fire. and an occasional ostrich egg. coffee. and One day he had a row.61 sure to run over a piece of wire. three hours. for eight sack. the hot grease made Our table was an forks. months the first one : We then did our own cooking home from camp had to begin cooking. I followed a fence until . Ostriches swarmed everywhere. laid by cooking was rather a failure at first. and she got the frightened of her. am very fond of it is so refreshing and sustaining. changed the locks three times. the smoke was so thick we could not see each other. my companion was careless. just old greasy box knife. time The meat we got was often green and bitter. Then our cook began stealing provisions from the store box. found one nest with fifty eggs. and he had a comfortable house. using strong language. had made some good soup. and took the skin off . . put my foot in it : me hop. we had no strength to chop wood and make a fire we just went to bed. had run out. All the we had puchero and asado. made of old clothes and grease. She took up a I soon twisted the knife from knife and threatened me. different birds. Many days we only had an asado and mate. and then we heard of it . and each time she We One night I asked her for some She said there was none. walking by. my foot. then. and and was then told I had the stallions' maize. we had no plates. told to cook maize for dinner. her. nor a big Sometimes. going home from his place. and put the pot near the table. and it was good sport I lassoing them. nothing missed him. brother was only eight miles away his section was under alfalfa. bought a key to the same. for . and I went to fetch it. Our food was bad. One dark Mate I My : night.

a sudden. when I heard a donkey braying. so I shouted. Our nearest village was eighteen miles away.62 I came to a cross fence. and I shot over the fence. I used to start back at 2. felt rather sad at leaving I was hard work. came me to continue five miles I unsaddled for some time. companion was very slack. the bridle and halter and away went 'my horse. when. which I thought was the house. 15 per month. where I met some English friends. One we dug a two-metre hole. very red-faced and extremely rich.m. but my rough never had better health. . The Boss was a man of forty-two. and the patrons came up and sacked him. and played tennis or had some other amusement. all of horse stopped dead. leaving Bizcachas (like a big badger) were numerous. There was no opening there. My first work was to dig up locusts' eggs for a week under a hot sun. They have teeth one and a-half inches long. and was answered by a man in a puesto (out-station). good alfalfa and splendid water. It to the estancia I house for a month. Then I went work. with the ground very hard. all fine He had a big stock. One night I had to cross a big field. house and I expected I would live well. to be in time for work. so the Boss sent me to a New Zealander who had half a league of camp. my I was going slowly. path or fence for a guide. and lightning hard. without a It was dark. but as mean as possible. and his wufe cooked is one of the richest men in the country. Our meals took about six to eight minutes. Going off. fast eating .30 a. and next day found eight live day ones. I came to a fence I was lost. My for Boss then earned Now he the men. I made for a light. The light I saw was a village twelve miles My away. on foot. the rain was pouring hard. breaking in colts for driving. and lay down to sleep.

only years was He was We a splendid worker I have not seen a better one.000 and sold it He was a thorough campman. where the grease of visible. The last thing he said was. lot of milk and give me a little burnt meal. no one ever came and every Sunday he shut himself in his bought the place for $90. I was simply had to sit on their necks.63 he would watch every mouthful. and after being left standing for four days. but she has plenty of His countrymen called him a disgrace to his money. room. with hot blood. He allowed me he finished soon. In the winter we were in bed by six to seven. At branding time we lassoed each calf to cut off the horns. months to be washed. maize. while I a slice of biscuit for each His cook only got 10 a month. with top boots. no socks. His clothes were a disgrace to any peon. the second- . One cold winter 500 at a cows died of starva- low price he let them " starve. my throat. were carted to the village. The manager. where he got 10 cents a kilo. horses the locusts were put into sacks. many vest. Then a kind friend found me a place on a well-known rather than sell them estancia in the same province. : sugar." country and the meanest in the Argentine. At tea he would take a . tion . to visit him. used to catch locusts in a big zinc box pulled by two . The smell in carting these dead locusts Then I helped pick ten square of terrible. and other things. and got smothered in the face The Boss was very proud because his monthly account only came to $12 for four of us biscuits. which at first took a little skin off my hands. and big toe were sticking out. He mean. he was going to New Zealand to marry an ugly lady. tea. He sent his clothes once in three He had few friends. He had native trousers that button at the foot. but so for over double. his heel no a shirt and an old hat.

64 manager. and 8 p. The Boss took me to learn shearing. sometimes three a day. then went to see the train pass again and have another drink. . after a hard day's in hours. but it was hard work. so he got the sack. Then I cut alfalfa for a fortnight a nice easy job. quebracho posts had a French gardener in my room who did nothing else but spit and talk politics. but the told me to have my food with the peons I was rather disheartening.. The second-manager did no w ork up at half-past eight. I had to shear.m. born in the miles to rode fifty The second (men). went to the sermons.. sort it and pack it up. as a Protestant. which country. someone came priest in to say the gardener was dying we raced down. I us unloaded 300 work. and came back at all hours. and the book-keeper were I had a good horse. the front ready to hear his confession. No A work at all. and for ten months I fed with the peons they were very good fellows. which kitchen. he went to the train. while we were at Mass. under three three Catholic priest came to stay for eight days Mass every day at 7 a. all done by hand. r : finished of at 11 p. but when we . all I Irish. then came back for dinner. Another time. The second and the book-keeper had meals together. to go the book-keeper did not. the estancia. It was wonderful these rough campmen went away quite tamed for a time. One night we freezing factories. tried to eat in the French cook kicked me out. . cents a sheep. The chief work was loading cattle and sheep for the big The trucks were rotten.m. The last night the Boss got married at half -past twelve at night to a native lady. which were very good.m. had a drink at the shop. slept until tea-time. Each man got five gather the wool. He had been there fourteen years and was only getting a hundred a month. Everyone had I.

a very nice man of fifty. At eleven part we would have an asado and mate. and won a bottle of beer. as he had on been making love to the Stationmaster's sister. keen. and curing any foals that were ill. They could on the not speak to each other. then finish parting. I had ten was put in charge of fine stock. The Irishman all and poured kerosene every night. and a knife. also an Irishman just arrived. I had a boy under me. Every Once I rode my horse bareback there are races. watering. was calmly smoking his pipe. a packet of tobacco. and harness the traps. a girl of eighteen. two thoroughbred stallions. over him to keep insects away. and the The Boss was Sunday in talked of nothing else for days. and give our horses a drink. one Pecheron. had to saddle up the Boss's and the Second's horses. slept floor . greatly An did inspector of locusts stopped all the summer. even Sundays or feast days. night. Great excitement is caused by races. but we did not ten kilos. I then moved to another room near the stable. The horses look wrecks. He had We locust-killing kill machines of every description. The days The Boss's brother. with a newly arrived Italian who knew no Spanish nor English. and drink whisky.65 got there the gardener surprised. nothing but eat. Sometimes I had to wait till eleven at Then I Durham bulls. married a servant of the Boss. men three races of 200 metres. The work was very interesting and hard. and no good. to unsaddle the Second's horse. and get home at half -past seven. cleaning the animals. but they work all day mostly galloping and are splendid stayers. sleep. I also eight rams and twelve pigs. very tired. I enjoyed were when we started out early to some animals in a herd of over a thousand.

crowd of women came and began weeping they thought I r was dead then I was taken in who sent me I to a hospital.66 One day he poisoned to drink. after a few weeks' holiday to England. five pigs. took French leave and went. One laid down and would not move. I did not fall. It tried to bite everyone. and often had three pairs of trousers and two He One day got on five. but one wheel went into a big hole and the jerk sent me out on my head. where the wheel passed over my I w as senseless. the Boss was out I : the men were taming some I wild colts in the corral. inside out. We lassoed them. missing my head by inches. the great holiday in this country. is This estancia there is a little of everything. On my way On the 25th of May. A hair. we came . a splendid one for learners. None had had a Then saddle on before or even been handled. giving them the dip -water He would turn them had few clothes. shirts on. but one stirrup broke. can be made from the harvest. with stirrups big enough to get your toes in. Then. all the time bucking and plunging. where a procession to the chemist. the bridle. The coachman drove across. did nothing for three weeks. pulled them down and put on five men held a long rope and one put on the native saddle. Then the rope was taken and away the colt went as fast as possible. with one man to shove you either way. I off mounted gently but quickly. When they go fast and buck at the same time it is very on each side hard to stick on. I back we had to cross a deep river. I found my collar bone broken. because Once I had a month with the threshing machine. went to an estancia to see some friends. sleeping out with the mosquitoes. Then they tied a red handkerchief round my head. and getting meat nearly raw for food but a lot of money .

where plough every estancia has its own tent. but the life was simple and very healthy. there is racing all day and back. and learned how to and sow.67 went down south with my brother to sow alfalfa had a caravan on wheels. starry sky above one. and many pleasant reminiscences are talked over fire when it is my luck to join others around the before falling to sleep with nothing but a bullock's camp head as a pillow and a "recado" as a blanket and the glorious. I often look back upon these jolly times. Work was exacted with anything but kindness. We went to a camp race-meeting. and I seed. We dancing at night. F 2 .




so Sunday means a merry meeting of friends . \\herever there is a polo club in the district. a healthy. and are only too " pleased when people drop in. course." which they do at all times " and for any meal. more often than not. or games. This is no doubt owing to the bad roads in most districts. Sunday in is the great day for polo there is very little time our busy Argentine even for a practice game during the week. this might not be necessary but as yet they are very few and far between. and. at guests. and ready to provide. no fuss of preparation. after a few hours' rain. life in the camps or country might be considered very slow the distance between the estancias being so great. . a evening of cards. To an outsider. a delightful country for men. as a rule (talking of the English mayor-domo). and what is " " worse still. when one goes to pay a call on . a neighbour. with plenty of hard work and hard riding each man has from four to six horses allowed him for working purposes. and so allowing the horses to have a rest. if everyone had a motor-car. it means going for the day. open-air . the ordinary form of social life is quite impossible for instance. almost without a by your leave. pantanosa (thick. 71 people going in . the roads are flooded. music. estancia house has to be very elastic. even a first call. morning and returning in the Of evening." An starting in the cool of the . sticky mud). he has two or three polo ponies of his own. board and lodging for unexpected This is quite the nicest way of entertaining one's jolly is friends very It life.THE SOCIAL SIDE OF CAMP : LIFE. a moment's notice. and then. Most estancieros keep open house.

carrying sacks. if a big party). and always as many dances as possible. a very it is merry meeting as a rule. I may as well add here that " non est" in the camp. martinetta (similar to the and hares . a thing they might not do for months if it six or town to were not for the polo club. as be crowded in. which forces the Peons on horsebirds to rise. keep close up to them and pick up the . . one English Most clubs hold a Gymkhana Meeting in which makes one more excitement in the year the : Autumn. and many good shooting parties are given where there is enough game to make it worth while asking one's friends. and the guns walk behind. and she is a proud hostess who can count a few many as can girls girls for amongst her party. two days' racing. often followed by a polo match or tournament with neighthe year is Wherever bouring clubs. with always a dance or two if enough girls can be found. The bag pheasant) consists of partridges. who delight in these camp meetings. back. During the Winter season (from April 1st to September 1st) the shooting is very good in most parts. Each lady takes her turn in is great as to who makes the best cakes.72 seven leagues (or even more) from one side of the meet friends who have come an equal distance from the other side. many districts are almost leagues and leagues round not being able to boast of girl. and there there is a polo club the most exciting event of the Spring Race Meeting. dogs are not used. including friends from Buenos Aires and Rosario. but two men on horseback drag a wire through the grass (several in a line. (which are not considered worth picking up) when there are a number of guns. providing tea on these polo Sundays. as it is the only time in the year when enough girls can be collected together every estancia house has its own party. especially as it competition often falls to the lady herself to make these luxuries.


.Tarty at Vera.

In a well-populated district he would hold one about every two months. . but to some places. tennis. ready to sing. cheering on the shooters and dispensing much-needed refreshments.73 fall. football. and does not object to any form of amusement in the afternoon. dance. Church Sunday of is quite an event. cricket. forgetting how tired they are. Another great event not to be forgotten is the visit of the Camp Chaplain services. A shoot is always followed up by a jolly evening. or play bridge until the small hours. to come to room hired for the occasion) in costumes suitable for such. The ladies of the party follow in all sorts and conditions of vehicles. Our poor Camp Chaplain does not have an easy time distances are so great that more than half and encourages the young men Church (usually a . after a hot bath and a good birds as they into The men. such as polo. every : he goes from one district to another holding Sunday in a different place. he would probably only go about once or twice a year. are quite dinner. where there are next to no English people. or golf. lenient with us as a rule. and close on their heels comes a big brake. his time is spent on the train. which are emptied the contents of the sacks as they get too heavy. and again gives one an opportunity The parson is very meeting friends from a distance.



.Carnival at Vera.

and is generally a yard deep in dust. procession ladies. and much fun and amusement are crammed into the few days which precede the dull season of fasting. and make things very lively for the unwary. 77 . after a long and busy morning's work in the camp. It is really quite a pretty sight to see a camp tovrn during carnival. It is a general holiday. one occasion. in which the caballeros " " take up their positions and pelt the with senoritas confetti and (blocks of different coloured serpentinas which look like rolls of tape about 30 or 50 yards paper The elite of the "pueblo" drive round in the long). and some in beautiful fancy dresses. parade round in flower and ribbon bedecked carriages. and to the best fancy costume. which causes a lot of competition and jealousy . is gaily decorated with bunting and festoons. A prize is generally given to the best decorated conveyance. The one main street.CARNIVAL CARNIVAL IN THE ARGENTINE. Carnival is more observed in camp towns than in the where the custom of celebrating it is very bigger cities. the giddy members of the household have a very rowdy time of it. which are winked at by the more lenient authorities in local towns. much on the wane. carnival drastic fashion. which does not boast of pavements. some in the very latest creations. " " amongst the fair sex. is celebrated in a much more one place. and where the law forbids water-throwing and other such damp forms of amusement. they deterhis share of the general mined to give the mayor-domo drenching which he had missed so when he rode in at midday. On an estancia. falls every year during the week before the beginning of Lent. On On . Small stands " " are put up every ten yards or so.

the vessel over the visitor's head. and then bolted the injured party. after an afternoon or evening's in dripping battle is very girls. which were emptied over him from the top of the house. and in spite of penitent apologies. his chair. come off best. present a truly comic sight. they are ready to discuss the glories of the day much -wanted .78 he was welcomed with a volley of buckets of water. their dresses. persons on these combine against the boys. generally the oldest of thin cotton ones. Prompted by her and stealing up behind daring friends she was induced to take up a jug of water. a fresh arrival from England. they retire When they are all where. Another time a certain young damsel. emptied the contents of . as a rule. The most binding promises are made on both sides. a guest in the same house. who vow not to throw anything is There not much respecting of occasions. discarding their soaking garments and taking a dinner. where the delinquents had taken up their advantageous position. " fray which follows all is forgotten. and even the ducking of some in water troughs. The scene funny . which turned out to be a freshly painted rubbish barrel. tired of strife. rose to the occasion and gave chase. the girls generally larger than a " globo which bursts when (leaden squirt full (a small balloon filled with water. with their hair lying masses over their faces and shoulders. and after a desperate struggle. saw from the window her hostess entertaining one of the boys. warm over a bath. she was borne off by her captor and deposited in the first tub he happened to see. the garden hose. after by common consent to the house. who. and buckets of water. clinging hopelessly to their wearied forms. " " touches anything solid) or poms of scent) but in the excitement of the it . are the final outcome. who had ridden over from a neighbouring estancia. after recovering his self-possession.



The course is of earth. of those 81 G . meetings in England. divided by the who bought the winner. This consists of tickets. and perfectly flat. made by those bought the winner. match their grass-fed ponies. On the days of festival. when there is a place is crowded. with the more important programme. while an outsider who wins will pay his backers perhaps ten. and at Palermo and Hurlingham every class of society in Buenos Aires may be seen on the stands. or even twenty times their receipts. which are sold at a fixed price. and these occasions correspond. weekly special At Palmero race-meetings are held frequently. so that the The only thing which interferes with the view is dust. while at the back of each may be seen the row of offices of the " Sport. with the name of one of the entries." which is the betting system of the country. generally well filled. total to collect their winnings. and it is not confined to the moneyed classes " " Even the peones hold their small meetings and only. this country a great deal more racing goes on than Europe. more or less. almost and the stands are in fact. After the race there is a great rush to the offices. who have which are the number minus a small percentage. stands are magnificent and the different grades of society are divided by railings. on Sunday afternoons .HORSE-RACING IN in IN THE ARGENTINE. In this way a very hot favourite will pay very little more than the original purchase money. Estancieros and mayor-domos have camp race-meetings once or twice yearly at all the larger polo clubs.

rest There are several other equally famous " San Jacinto. probably. turf circles at of whom home. In contrast to these races. run on a well-ordered course. at some country public-house. of course. such as the who won the Eclipse Stakes from Cicero. but no deposit. . Diamond the Derby winner of that year Jubilee. home country. and among them usually some good sellingplate winners. The races consist of matches arranged between two ponies. winning less known. " the de Agua. excellent horses. . and one or two that have been placed in of youngsters are imported yearly first-class flat races. Pietermaritzburg." consisting of a soft piece of road. The country also produces some . the expect to see scarcely famous Cyllene. are well known among latter part of his life. the most important. / Nor are the jockeys unworthy of their mounts. and Ituzaingo. are his present companions while the remains of all Gay Hermit. perhaps. Stiletto. public bookmakers. whose list of victories is long. and Kendal. held. are the native "cancha" meetings. Of these. a native of this of the . and some very fine riding may be witnessed both at Palermo and Hurlingham. whose offspring we races in the near future Polar Star. or along a fence where there are no holes. Ojo all which waters It is the stables as well as dwelling quarters." the present home stud farms. of Val d'Or. over short .82 There! is also private betting. and " run on a cancha. and watched from luxurious stands. though not up to the standard of the classic races in Europe." so-called from its famous spring. and they are improving every year the stud farms are already well known in Europe as some of the is best in the world. number A from England and the United States. at another. The horses are of very good quality. resided for the beneath its soil.

the evenings." and catch-weights: as may be gathered " from the method. or some entertainment in Old friends exchange reminiscences. The pony of most endurance has usually the best chance of winning. and could Therefore it usually means a two or three and often a dance. not infrequently knives are drawn during the heated discussion which follows the race. and as some. and new acquaintances are formed while the ladies also make the best of the opportunity to put on their smartest frocks and hats. it is usually owners up. come days' holiday. and has to be run again. If the judges have money on the loser. of the races are open to members of other clubs. as it is the best opportunity for those who come from a distance. The ponies are." Between these two extreme classes of racing in this country are the English camp race-meetings. are the source of considerable G 2 . distances. The races themselves. the race is often given a dead heat. though the race itself is short. if not all. They are ridden either bareback or with the native "recado. and understands this primitive method of racing better than the more complicated systems of the regular course. as his rival may be tired out by repeated false starts. and to the competitors' efforts to cheat one another. not twice. . The the jockeys. too. these are among the chief there is social gatherings in camp life : in many cases a small polo tournament attached. as the native is a born gambler. for the most part. Owing to this. taken straight off the camp. which are held by all the larger polo clubs once or twice a year. Being of rare occurrence. Large sums of money often change hands at these meetings.83 start is made only by agreement of both and thus many hours are wasted in their manoeuvres to get the advantage of one another at the start. though in some cases they have been fed on maize and trained.

mounts against to Nowadays most of the entries are trained some . The betting is on a smaller scale generally than at the native meeting. in this for ponies under polo height give way. Young mayor-domos who have never ridden at a meeting before often find themselves ranged alongside of Grand National riders at the start. Also the auction of all entries before the start of the races in the American way . and any "dark horse" or new with care and anxiety by his rivals. The shorter races an opportunity to the polo train his ponies for and the mayor-domo who cannot longer distances. though there is some very good amateur riding to be seen as well. There many opportunity for a good polo ponies to send is little horse-dealing too.84 talk and excitement sight : both horses and reputation to jockeys are part of well the known by or the chief company. to try the mettle of their outside and purer blood. is inspected The at all. class of horse entered varies between the three* quarter bred and the criollo " with no pretence to breeding often carries off the short polo pony sprints. as the longest races do not often exceed about a mile and a-half. and a large percentage of "owners up" is always found. but these are few and not always successful. Occasionally there may be a thoroughbred entered who has who been found wanting at Palermo or Hurlingham. and some amusing incidents have occurred. arrival. and is often conducted by someone setting is at other times a sport up as a public bookmaker formed after the fashion of Palermo. and or play in the tourna- home ments have been picked up player. " " the total receipts for each race are is a great favourite divided proportionately between those who bought the " " winner and placed horses. . As the weights correspond to steeplechase weights at home the jockeys are practically always amateurs.

though it had been obviously over height. In the old pioneer days mounts of English estancias. and curious incidents of racing. when the score was to be settled. they fit raced ponies taken straight off grass and kept the regular rounds of camp and stock. the To have in stable many go to regular training establisha reasonable chance of running well in however. " " by riding There are many tales of the great rags that happened in those days. The pony passed large pieces of hoof recently chopped off. it longer races. however. who. and Hurlingham or the Jockey Club rules. rough and run under good sport man looks forward to these occasions as the best bits of sport and amusement that he will get during the year. That evening at bridge owner happened to win considerably from the man who had lodged the complaint. . The measurement was to be taken after the end of the meeting and it must be remembered that all The man who had ponies out in the camp are unshod. too. On one occasion a winner of a polo pony race was objected to as over height. with an inch off his forefeet and nothing was said. is necessary to have your exercised regularly and fed on corn. the Nowadays. of course. when these clubs were formed. so that In fact the camp and good feeling prevail. threw down some pieces of hoof on the table " Take back your dirty chips. and most of the clubs are affiliated. that even so much training has been adopted at all generally. It is only quite lately. come in second went round to the stables before the measuring and noticed in the winner's stall a number of . though not ments.85 extent. things are not quite so ready." saying.




to-rnorrow's in with a fervid Thank Sunday. and having time to enjoy the extra then the luxury of dressing at one's leisure. turning goodness. or even earlier in summer) and remembering that it is the Day of Rest. choosing hours. Holidays on the estancia come but seldom.m. his life would " be a round of work. our campmen completed begin their weekly holiday by an extra hour or two at the billiards or music. forward to Sunday more looked and enjoyed than in camp. the thought of that early bell which rouses him before sunrise makes him take advantage of every hour's sleep he can. of beginning the evening's At an hour when the townman is thinking amusement at theatre or concert." the various duties that the tired worker when evening comes and dinner little is over has inclination for reading or any other relaxation. and that evening is Saturday. plentiful a shoot on the lagunas attracts the sportsman." Then the pleasure of waking at the usual hour (4 a. the collar and most becoming tie and adjusting them with blessed and coming out in spotless white duck or smart riding breeches. . or " perhaps a rubber of bridge. With the pleasant feeling of a week's work and the morrow's rest before them.SUNDAYS IN no place is IN CAMP. campman is sleeping the sound sleep that fresh air combined with hard work never denies. the 89 . and were it not for the welcome break that gives campman a day of rest every week. and when birds are care. and probably make him the proverbial dull All the busy working-days are so filled with the boy. ready to enjoy whatever sport is in season tennis is mostly played all the year round. But on one an exception is made to these early hours.




partridge, hares,

making a welcome variety to the dinner table snipe, and many varieties of duck are common in


a season that has not been too dry. Then, to those lucky who have a polo club within reach, Sunday during the

a day of real enjoyment. in England can only be played by men of means, can on the estancia be enjoyed by all at little

winter season

The game, which

expense, the


trained to the game.

Sometimes one

Argentine horses being easily finds a few enter-

prising golfers who, with not a little trouble, make a few " " greens and do a couple of rounds just to keep their hand

but it is not a general camp game. It will be seen, however, that the Day of Rest is not one of idleness, but rather a healthful and beneficial change of exercise. Church service enters but seldom into the camp Sunday

such privileges are rare, although now camp parsons are more numerous than a few years ago but at best one can
only count on one or two services a year. When a Church service is held he would be a carping critic indeed who is not satisfied and pleased with the earnest attention with

which the service is followed and the vigorous singing of hymns and chants in which all the boys join so lustily it is a reminder of Home to them, and the familiar service is

thoroughly enjoyed.

The Day of Rest, so essential to one's well-being, seems come round with such surprising rapidity that we may say


proves that estancia




work, so far from being monotonous or wearisome,

long hours of hard is a





past quickly



passes happily, and amongst the most pleasant of the days we spend in this land of sunshine we must count the Sundays in camp.


Jl T)ay of T^eal finjoyment."







often hear complaints from


home about

the trouble they experience over obtaining and keeping good

and there

a serious one

no doubt that the servant problem is England, and is getting worse every year

pales into insignificance trials and tribulations of those

when compared with the who live in the Argentine

keep house. one hears, those living in Buenos Aires and the larger towns have a terrible time of it with their servants, especially if they are not overburdened with the good things of this world in the shape of hard cash but

and have





experiences have been confined to the camp, so that of the town side of the question I cannot speak.

have been three years in the province of Cordoba, and I have met with except one were Argentines from the foothills of the Cordoba Sierras. They were without exception quite untrained as far as the English idea goes, and the first thing to do with them

the servants

was usually

to teach





Andrea, about forty

them the primitive ideas of cleanliness. had was an ancient female named years old, and it proved quite impossible
keeping anything
in the

to get her to see the necessity of

kitchen clean, as she seemed imbued with the idea that it was great waste of time washing saucepans and fryingpans, as they would only get dirty again when next used, and the most she could be persuaded to do was to rub them round inside with a bit of old newspaper or a handful of

Needless to say, after a time


got tired of these

methods, and so we parted.


My next servant, Angelina, was one of the best I had, as she was clean, which was a great consideration, and also she was quick to learn and soon picked up the rudiments of
cooking according to our ideas her great failing, however, that she was anything but honest, and could not refrain from petty pilfering and another drawback to her was her

wearing shoes or stockings in the hot weather being constantly told that she must not appear without them, she would insist in doing so, and this was a continual cause of trouble.
objection to
in spite of

we had

After getting rid of No. 2 our real troubles began, and At the time we were eight changes in ten months.

living in

wooden huts about two miles from a village which was a summer resort for rich people from Buenos Aires,


caused a dearth of servants during the summer

the place was full from the beginning of December to the end of March, and people who came up for the summer and rented houses usually were willing to


pay anything to get servants, with the result that we outside would get none, or only the cast-off ones. Nos. 3 and 4 My fifth attempt was a stayed but a short time. too dirty for words; and though apparently terrible girl,
willing to







She used to get herself into the most awful grimy condition, and one incident during her time with me is worth mentioning. I had with great
ever learn anything.

one day got her to understand that a wood floor could not be properly cleaned with a grass broom dipped in cold water and just swished about over it, and, by going

down on my knees with a scrubbing brush and

hot water

and soap, and giving a practical demonstration of how a floor should be washed, had started her away to clean it, and judged that

might safely leave

her, to attend to the

other household duties in the





and she single thing. Well. she had also attacked the stove with hot water. and scrubbing day was brush. whenever we happened to have The next worst. because her return to the kitchen. 8. the She was a Spaniard from Barcelona. and told me to do my own dirty work. No. was. and two days in the week she refused to get out of bed. Alexandrina. and did not a One day I was buying vegetables. and would insist on wearing clothes of so light and scanty a nature that she was not decent to have about the house also. After I had spent three weeks teaching No. and when I told her they were to eat. 6 cooking. 6. she said even poor people could afford to immediately to come going on. Two weeks of similar experiences finished our acquaintance. asked me why I wanted to buy roots. she quietly informed me that she was leaving at the end of the week to take up a place as cook in Rosario. but learning had paid her leave me. She was an awful individual. No. as she now knew enough cooking for the position . with the result that my hard work of the previous all undone and the whole room well sprinkled with black specks and the stove a mass of rust. and was very stupid and silly. after an hour in the kitchen I returned to that the in see how she was getting on. a joke of any I sort to in laugh over at meals. . . moral reputation was anything but good. and from the kitchen . so I had not only wasted into all my time in teaching her. I think. she used to see what was had the greatest difficulty to get her to I had to get rid of her.95 day previously I had given her a practical lesson black-leading a stove by doing it myself while she looked on. and she gave place to No. 7. the bargain for enough to servant. was a girl direct from the sierras. soap. Maria. as she was ill so at the end of two weeks she had to go. when I found to my great pleasure that not content with scrubbing the floor.

and removed all . This I was only too willing to agree to. have done the work myself. who was a widow with two children two weeks. and she would not eat them. as we engaged longer. and wanted me to pay her more money. Our tenth and last No. month she came for the girl's pay. when we went away for four weeks' holiday. but she only stayed attempt was made with A week after our return I paid her in full for the month. arrived at 10 a. and she was to She the next morning at eight o'clock to begin work. and experiences that this finished decided to do without any servant. After a few days I managed : to get No. as she had to bath. and she rushed in the room and out again. and someone was playing the piano.m.. and called on some people who had a piano. This girl's mother was a very talkative old lady. and informed me that. and left. so she asked if her daughter might go away night. and when once she commenced to At the end of the talk. one could not get away from her. and said someone was beating a big. 4 once more. She stayed two months. was so sick I me. It was twilight. day and her belongings. tired of I and my for the last year. with her face very white. . and she promptly said she could not stay with us any We nearly got to No. black animal in the corner of the room. 9. and let her go but they returned in the middle of the night.96 One day I took buy meat. Since then. and would insist on coming with three children every day and taking up her position in the kitchen. which I was not willing to do. this girl out with me to do some shopping. she could not I come for less. a girl to come at $20 a month to start with. 11. and it was screaming dreadfully with the pain. though she had never been near the house all that time. as she was again able to come to us. as I had been unable to teach her much for the . as we had paid come our last servant $25 the month.



The boss had a mortal dread of the police and their powers. was my boss. always taking from ten to twenty animals. and that a small point of half-breed heifers would do to go on with. J. YES. still to the fore ? Ye . I received orders to let him part out from our best 99 H2 . the Chief of Police. less price than competitors. standing in the place of the owners to me. to to Insatiable in his greed. times have changed since I went to San Cristobal For then the English were just twenty years ago. a very different and much worse matter. wonder is A. So that when the worthy Chief of Police suddenly decided to add the trade of butchering to his many lucrative businesses. until one day. he began to ask for cattle twice a week. pioneers. how that man tried I to break my heart. ! was a Mayor-domo then. nearly he succeeded and how and G. I had to sell him at fifteen shillings. then worth about one pound per head. protest ! Unlucky thought and ill-judged For when he urged that the inhabitants of the town were starving. I protested that it was not possible to round up the stock in the then state of the camp and destroy so much grass for a small bunch of cows. but of I semi-savagery.POLICE OF A BYGONE DAY. whereas I was selling them at twenty dollars paper. enabling him charge what he liked for meat. twenty-five per cent.. while I was forbidden raise the price of the cows sold him. after exceptionally wet weather. I sold to any of his Thus. I received orders to sell him cows at gods. with the inevitable result that he almost immediately became master of the situation and the entire local market became his. seen and unseen. so to speak not in a country of savagery.

and three mornings only had the fence been and early. " " Then mend it up. ! was Just let By me or heavens. and count them. not less than went post haste I " was young then. when one This sort of thing had been going on for some time. saying that not but that there were distinct cut. during which it was never cut. it is mended already. We later put a new boundary rider on. You don't little say putty-faced Don Ernesto " said his podgy. for I found the hoof marks of what I I calculated to be to my twenty animals. alive.100 herd. traces of cattle having passed out recently. never doubting that after all the friend favours shown him he would prove a friend in need. Just leave you me. After assuring myself that there was no doubt about the bright he came to see me matter. the time. I'll tell Now. somebody shall suffer for this ! any of it my to soldiers catch the thieves. ." Not a week had passed before the the same man brought " me same short report. and don't you worry nor think any more about the matter. and then the Capataz and I patrolled the fence night after night for a week. heifers in Twenty than a to one square league. much less mention it to a soul. so. Twenty fine half-bred Hereford* did he pick while all I almost shed tears of blood. without telling him why. though I had to show a smiling face. and I in month ! This thing had to stop." said I. " Where was it ? When Highness. of the boundary riders told me that the fence between the town and one of our nearest paddocks had been cut during the night. of course. told the Capataz take the boundary rider off that beat. So I determined to parar rodeo less " (round up the cattle) immediately. Sir. and not one of them shall reach Santa Fe what. the Chief of Police.

Colt in holster. You come and dine with me at six o'clock and five or six It and afterwards we'll go out with the sergeant men and catch 'em. and." if I was about the equinox. business in hand.101 In less than two days the stocks. I I and whatever he was not my programme. was not going to leave that fence unpatrolled until could move the stock out of the paddock. but he seemed to smile at eagerness. Don Ernesto. let us take some refreshment to while away the time. this evening. the most in the world at the time all " " Hope ! I arrived at his resi- dence. His welcome was cordial. There he was. handing out a chair for here in the cool of the evening." said me to sit by him on the foot- path. You shall be one of us. house. cut ? me. " Then this is what we'll do. remember rightly : the springtime. him plainly that that did. and But. The it I'm glad of in sons of guns shall suffer for this. when everything camp flowers all in bloom. whence he could look down How my like thought. above the all. the the lovely and lovable aroma of the trees burdening is the air with delicious perfume. a spider. But " let us sit he. the fresh verdure and plenty of grass. Eh a way glad to have a little work. I sitting at the door of his corner three streets at once. and told me that he never dined before " eight." I I'll have the thief or thieves here in told that. the powerful. Carbine in hand. doesn't do to have a too . where did you say that the fence was But did you really see signs that cattle had passed ? tell ! Preposterous well. the issue expected of important business to me these combined spelled but one word. stout-hearted bounding of the ' horse (no longer great poor ") beneath one. It and perhaps a little excitement.

being ushered into a dirty room with a brick floor. his secretary. sir. in those days. I have been to the Justice of the Peace. and a clerk. sir. too. dim light and grimy tableErnesto. The dinner was in the . as his victim I'll bet you that that again. " " But. were pioneers the majesty of law. what d'ye want ? " Sir. stuttering in his nervous" one of my bullocks has been stolen. man doesn't to you." " Bueno ! Ten dollars. I seated myself at the table with my host." I could see that the poor fellow's heart was breaking as he drew the money from his pocket and handed it over. and I know the ness. Just then a poor Italian colonist all his class came up. so hard for Provincial soldiers.102 orderly district. Don Ernesto the fellow that was I've got him molesting a mad woman in the camp I wish you would seventeen years in the line for that. me to bring the thief to him but. for the Governor and his satellites in Santa Fe imagine I'm lazy and not looking after my business if me they hear of no commotions. and ten dollars down" roared . that there Don a district in the cloth. Well." said the wretched man." At last it was dinner-time. call the But me no buts! Ten dollars at once. That black fellow you sent the other day. me isn't guarantee whole province where so few appeals for justice are made. and he told thief." up are they He. the th-thief refuses to come. Smilingly the bully turned to "No! me and I'll walked slowly away. send me Fe in a few more. for hardly a letter comes from Santa which I am not asked to send in recruits. or I'll sergeant to lock you up until you can get it. and and God knows what they suffered. " " asked my companion. and. the doctor. hat in hand. come around to molest " said.

I kept on the necessity for action." which is simply the water in which the beef and vegetables have been of grease. a corporal. Then I began to smell a rat. I could himself. ! we begun this dinner than was noticed that we had no No wine How's ? What d'ye mean " ? as he angrily turned to the sergeant who was waiting. the sergeant. sir. So-and-so and So-and-so. four men. and then eleven. and the wine set flowing round the table. with a bit and brace. and. with a good thick coating it No " sooner had wine. The " No." was brought. but it became more and urging more evident that the Chief was fooling. with you in good time. to finish up " with caldo. quickly tapped. or I'll know the reason why. half-past. ." It was after twelve The horses are down and have when not saddled yet patience and at last are you going ? not even : we'll all go we made a start. stand it no longer.103 usual native style of those days ribs of beef roasted : on the gridiron. but stop. although he pretended otherwise. until I thought he meant us to sit there all night. There were the Chief. The dinner dragged on and on. say that they can supply no more wine until they can get some of their accounts settled. " If you please. beef and pumpkin boiled together." mentioning " the name of a local firm of storekeepers. and got up in no very good humour barrel to go. He pressed wine upon all and upon me in particular. Sit caught up. Ten o'clock came. while he drank little At last." " How dare you bring me Take the corporal with a couple of such a message as that men and bring a half! barrel at once in less than three minutes. boiled. Don Ernesto ! Where Sit down again.

and to arrest of not using them. while the sergeant and men with muffled bits and spurs at a short distance from patrol the fence. was as much annoyed at tranquillity. during which he moved. wiser to acquiesce. while commending me for my forethought in bringing arms. much to my disgust.104 and myself. or. having to keep me in conversation. coughed. appear boiling with hasta Bueno." When we when got through the fence. I did not dare to move. as he rolled over on his . I should be obliged to you and send you Santa Fe. no matter what Because. said he. expectorated. Even so. and had other signs of conscious animation. rage and anxiety under my assumed while he. What I propose is that you and I and doss down here. I shall never forget that night. How we talked and talked and talked as we lay beneath the brilliant stars. It must have been I. manana. doubtless. you are not an arm of the you were to shoot anyone. and too wanted to do the patrolling." side. law. About an hour passed. Don Ernesto. you and I off-saddle have had a long day. at least. All the way thither the Chief. you see. We rode slowly in a northerly direction until we came to a small gate in the fence. for fear that he might be foxing. let come and that I Then the moment they hear anything they can " us know ! In vain protested that this was not my idea at all. of which I had the key. until at last I thought the snoring sounded too genuine to be shammed. what was my surprise " the Chief said. Bueno." In five minutes he was snoring. so I crept towards him and whispered in his ear that I thought I heard sounds of nearly four o'clock " when I told him that I really must " sleep. thought do so. had been impressing upon me the importance " if happened. but when he told a I man for to to take the saddle off I it my horse and shake down a bed me.

I moved and soon recognised the quick tramping of animals ahead. Then I drew back. and then. In doing his snoring was rhythmic and swinish. sure enough. the realisation came as a shock to me. good God. gathered up which was him up. estancia. man. picketed some yards off. I my heart. swearing I vengeance galloped as hard as ever could to the boss. to impatiently await the uprising of " must wire. then mounting. do ? This man is a personal friend of the Governor's. or one of us must go to the Governor my We in to Santa Fe at once. there were six military chacots outlined against the great sky and a troop of animals ahead of them. Horror Even though it was but what to one. my stirrups somehow : clashed and thought it was all up. or " even to the President of the Republic ? " . the British Minister." my disgust ! Not if I know you want to have said he. and proceeded to saddl But my so. rode him down ! alongside the fence for about a mile until came my suspicions had " The depicted. But what was be met with but a quiet smile of amusement " " it. But it was all right the music continued. I drew round to the west side of the smart Yes. cavalcade. so I saddle and gear and stole over to my horse. all our throats cut Why. and as the day was just breaking. " The To repeat my expressions would edify no ! ! a fresh gap in it. and what satisfaction do " you think we are likely to get out of that ? Then let us go to the Consul. I halted to let them get well away from me. all with rage and hatred in the while. I I I led the horse for some little distance.105 movement." I urged. so that I might see without being seen. Guided by the along at a signal-lights at trot the station. for what a fool I should look if he woke and discovered me.

A room I and found the sought him in his private Chief of Police sitting sitting- in an easy-chair.106 A quiet smile with a negatory shake of the head fortnight later was the only answer. in all much Don Ernesto. I never laughed so my life as when I awoke that morning and ! ha ! it found that you had given me the slip " ! . " Ha ! ha you ? Well. So you caught us. did was worth the fun.



linseed. This town. fertile three years on an estancia in the vast monotonous. of the province. slightly undulating plains. East. probably in the among the richest world for the growth of wheat. appears to be a dry. is rather an uninteresting place chiefly noticeable in it are the great number of fine churches and the magnificent sawmills owned by a to be Santa Fe is supposed large French company. treeless. the water rising four feet in the houses on the highest level in the town. that enormous tract of land which lies . Our morning meal was taken (the only restaurant in 100 in the station waiting-room the town).A AFTER VISIT TO THE NORTHERN CHACO. More than once it has almost been washed away in an eddy of the giant Parana in flood. and maize. the capital and Government centre . and only valuable on account of the excellent forest trees and timber. animal life and more congenial surroundings and so I determined to visit the Northern Chaco. arriving there The land around here from the train in the early morning. and West. and consisted of cold . the headquarters of the Santa Fe Land Company's wood department. one of the most religious centres in the Republic. reaching Santa Fe early the following morning. under scorching sun. one crosses the great. North of Santa Fe and stretches right away for many hundreds of miles to North. devoid of herbage. but most plains of the Central Argentine. driving rains. one feels that one would like to see a river sometimes. salty country. After spending a day of sight-seeing in Santa Fe. we embarked at nightfall for Vera. Leaving Rosario by the night express. and biting wind.

of about thirty leagues in five hours. which one sees in Cordoba and Southern Santa Fe. Having washed off the dust of three days' travel from our weary persons. and having changed into more suitable travelling gear. The rest of the evening we spent in unpacking our . Arriving there in the sweltering midday heat. we sat down to an excellent spread. all hand-made from pure tobacco leaf by the brown-hued lasses of Reconquista. This is the general way of eating eggs in South America an egg cup is one of the few things one cannot get in the country without going to an English store in Buenos Aires. full kilo. and silver spurs weighing probably a One cannot natives .m. Leaving Vera at 8 a. straight. where we bought excellent smokes for $2 a hundred. which are filled with splendid tropical plants and ferns. deerskin apron. being most interested in the cigar factories. one has to tip into a wineglass and beat up with a fork. adding pepper and salt. don't-care kind of men. which hangs in clouds all over the town. we were met by an English friend and his capataz. in order to eat. which is saying a good deal. There is an excellent hotel in the centre of the town. Reconquista on a hot summer's day is one of the dirtiest One places on this earth. help noticing at once the different type of from the slow. covering the distance . etc. which have in reality been in boiling water half a minute. drives through streets two feet deep in light sandy dust. the train goes at a snail's pace along the branch line to Reconquista. quick.110 coffee and what the Argentine understands by boiled eggs. built on typical Spanish plans with fine large open patios. the latter dressed in his enormous slouch hat. to the hawk-eyed half -Indian Chaquenos. slouching. and which. In the cool of the evening we made a tour of the town.

Ill native saddles. all and This is the most general way of facing outwards. horses to stand in the Chaco. looking very warm and beaming distance further. if taught to stand teaching singly. as. two in front and two behind. through and jogging along league after league we gradually got into more interesting country little clumps of trees with very old railway : thick undergrowth. All being ready. them. without this they refused to manear that tie their let forelegs together. the height of their chests. a large stretch of low country. next morning found us out in the corrales having our ponies allotted to us by the capataz we found " " that is. " In order to saddle these " ponies we had to is. over an embankment.m. in a corner with a lasso ronda the tropilla on of fifteen grey ponies start tied across in front of them. they would fall too easy a prey to the Indians and gauchos. By this time the sky was beginning to grow light. " " Three a. which a small stream glided with winding course. bright-coloured flowers. four of us. and preparing everything for our long horseback journey not having forgotten to see that our tropilla were fit and ready to make an early next morning. get the pony's head up and managed to came along again. and evidently the fresh morning air had disagreed with my friend T. After some seconds of this amusing sight T. we started off. for us put the blankets on their backs. with eleven loose ponies between us. . clinging creepers. Leaving Reconquista on the north we crossed. his pink-nosed pony quite satisfied that he would have to carry more than his own weight for some . and gorgeously plumaged birds. which suddenly cleared down a side street with his head between his forelegs and his back arched like the bend in an archer's bow.'s horse.

Standing above on the bank. which gradually became more tropical looking. these animals. of wild animal life we saw. when there was a slight disturbance in the water and a suddenly small black dot appeared on the top of the water. apparently uncultivated. civilised parts of the more As we over them got further away. only long stretches of undulating land. we looked down upon this lazy stretch of perfect scenery. except for small patches of wonderfully grown maize and browning linseed. After travelling ten leagues or so we began to leave these habitations behind us.112 All along the sides of the roads were little farms. these farms are We changed our ponies every three or four leagues. always going at the same jog-trot. likewise. two or three hundred metres wide. and having been so much shot at and worried they need the most careful stalking. shade of some magnificent quebracho trees. the jacare the them back again. looking we came upon many more of much the same some had bridges . The capataz at once pulled out his revolver. until we came to quite a large river. and got into wilder country with no fences. stopping occasionally at a wayside inn to wet our parched throats with fresh well water (with a drop of cana in it to kill the microbes). all these streams. This was the first sign In Chaco. looking beautifully peaceful in the and oily. The road occasionally crossed small streams. and smoking hard all the time to keep off the swarms of mosquitoes. laid endways on and . Practically all owned by Swiss and German peasants. each one with his small herd of cows and working bullocks. only to all of us doing have to put disappeared as quickly as it " " or alligator. dotted with patches of splendid-looking trees and enticing shade. as well as the carpincho or water-hog. made of quebracho logs. are getting quite rare. as the dot had came.

horses. On reaching the estancia about 2 a.113 covered full of with earth. The first night we slept at the last habitation which we saw. and. so that we should not trotted on in Indian file. we had been night. snapping dogs. very dangerous to cross after wet weather or floods. felt rain. With a cheerful yell we suddenly came on a barbed wire fence. each of now leading spare horses. It was a very dark to following was almost and once or twice we We had miss the track. as darkness fell. coming stiffness.m. except when one of us asked how many leagues it was to the estancia. The afternoon was very hot. and on account of the innkeeper's fear of drunken gauchos. only to jog on again for what seemed two or three hours. Another early start on the second day saw us well on our journey by siesta time.. and we did not start off again until 4 o'clock. until almost midnight. we had the greatest difficulty in obtaining entrance on account of the chorus of barking. each day we unsaddled for lunch. discussing the ride. a small wayside inn. Arriving there late in the evening. as they are generally holes where the earth has fallen in. us Thus we go very slowly. Immediately tongues seemed to be mechanically loosened and the conversation flowed freely. especially at night. At 10 a. which made such a glare in front of us that the slight track which invisible. in silence. which we spent on the edge of a very fine forest. and after hunting about for a time. and coffee. During the evening we swam across a small river which we found overflowing its banks on account of the local rains. which was " " generally composed of charque or salted beef. and all the things that one has to talk about after two and a-half days in the addle.m. none of us needed much . we found it almost impossible to see our way on account of the fireflies. biscuits. a wire gate.

" The horse corrals were all palo a pique. limes. vegetables. and all kinds of luxurious fruits and In a small fenced paddock at the end of the garden. and throwing our things down on the grass outside. were sweet potatoes. pea-nuts. About 10 o'clock the next morning I awoke to find myself on a most neat little estancia high up on a hill. we soon were dreaming of alligators. overlooking. . across a slight valley. it is is the finest and unreliable because it is cheapest grazing in the quite inundated in time when the cattle have to be withdrawn to higher camp. tobacco. garden were oranges. pome- granates. The camp was more or less on the real banks of the Parana. and about two metres high. and forming one of the most fertile spots in the Republic. surrounded by a ring of fine chaco paraiso trees and "ombu. hollowed out and made in the form of a large *++*******+*+* the palms being placed concavely and convexly alternately. magnificent forests where one could see the glint of running water. broken bridges. etc. The house was brick floored and had four very nice rooms. making The whole place was fine drainage for the heavy rains. a deep -coloured ' black called. cotton. and some magnificent maize. sloping away to the river four leagues away. being of seasoned. The " it ceilings at once attracted attention. with no wire. well oiled and and is the best carving the country. Timbo and furniture wood in Out in the is wood. which had been colour-washed by my friends with excellent success. swimming rivers. The men's huts were made of mud over a cane network. but of floods. that is. and the roofs were made of split palm trees. made of solid posts. lemons. citrons. stuck in close together side by side.114 bed. This low-lying land north.

killing them. The latter is unfortunately getting very rare now. A very fine tiger's skin was brought in one night. which is always left uncovered." we found neatly covered up with grass ." which has long creeping roots. and tala. and only to be compared with the otter. including the " gato once or ounce cat. among with excellent pasture land between them and they contain. Each day we saw many wild pigs (" chancho moro and various kinds of wild cats. " The great wolf or aguaras " is still common. but were unable to shoot on account of the bad light. and after wounding it with his Winchester had run it down with his dogs and killed it.and leaves. 3 . One finds occasionally itself. and in some marvellous way apparently eating them up. crowns. with pricked ears and shaggy black mane. as he slopes along with his hind-quarters well under him. measuring 1'84 metres from the tip of the nose to The man had the root of the tail. and is a ") " splendid very stately beast. which cling on to neighbouring trees and gradually pull them down and absorb all their goodness. other commoner chaco trees. Amongst the strange trees there is one " enormous broad-leafed tree called guapoij. four . lance wood. guasuncho. tracks of . which has a most magnificent fluffy pelt with a golden tint on the tips. and easily distinguishable from the tiger's kill. a small gazelle buck.115 During various excursions on the following days we saw " " " " lions (leopard) and (puma) the kill tigers " of the latter. and 1'56 metres across. embracing another bigger than it one of these trees and gradually rooting I out of the ground. whose skin is one of the " " lobo or golden finest. One evening we caught sight of a tapi (tapir) coming down to drink. The forests here are mostly in long strips and clumps. suddenly come across it while on foot in the monte.

116 low ground one generally finds Zeibos " a tree with very soft wood and very pretty branches of scarlet On " all flowers. various kinds of teal . and of A a splendid orange colour with a scarlet tip he is a top-heavy looking little chap when seen seated on an orange tree. which latter make noises like the grunting of pigs. The Indian children eat the has no bad effect on " them. looks a very tempting fruit a very powerful purge. blue. his . tattoo or mulita. with a beak almost as big as his body. eating all the maize. as the locusts do in the South. to in those already mentioned. muscony and swans. and the ring-tailed coons. " or great tree duck. black and brown monkeys." a small black bird. and it apparently grows everywhere. of hawks. and partridges. there are red deer. The addition forests are full of all kinds of animals. Amongst table birds there are grey pheasants. black-headed geese. favourite haunt. grey. including the mallard. having most wonderful and yellow. with joy. green. whistling and shovellers. most of them plumage of brown. scarlet. and osprey falcon. and two or three kinds of parrots and cockatoos. including some very much like the great English brown buzzard. grey geese. armadillo. ground game there are foxes. widgeon. " strange bird which is not often seen is the tucan. to most Europeans. There or are many different kinds " of carpinteros " woodpeckers. and bear. and however. and hooded duck. Amongst water-birds are the black. The as it is wild apricot or "ijguajay fruit. Of Amongst the birds the most common are various kinds bustard. there are enormous varieties. Of wild pato real " fowl. and. the green parrots being the curse to agriculturists. and ostriches. martinetta. fatal.

which one sees nearly always with its tail out of water." of happy days of excursions and where sometimes we had to walk through explorations. in some places. every where great distances of undergrowth and the abundant prickly cactus. over the water. rod or ." a fly." a splendid which can be caught with " and goes up to 10 kilos in weight Suravi. a large flat fish with a long tail. Gorgeously plumaged. . hostile and the assaults on the extremities of all foreign bodies " or sun fish. beast. and " " the chaja or wild turkey. weighing up to 50 kilos." The the river birds.eating cruiser. the most noticeable of all chaja. and which makes excellent revolver shooting. The latter are especially valuable on account of the splendid feathers on the back of their necks." the mud. a kind of landrail. abound with enormous water snakes up to 6 metres long. like flashes of light. fighting fish. " Palmieta. always sight of with our eyes skinned to catch some strange bird. " which is full of all kinds of fish including Dorado. from the small European variety to one almost ten times their size. mud fish. rallo. or flower. " and good eating. " Of the smaller birds there is the gallinetta. The beautifully coloured and almost transparently winged golden moorhen covers every stretch of water inland. perhaps. which. excellent eating. with enormous head. their wretched screech warning every bird in the district. sends forth his dismal cry kingfishers are. the curse of hunters shooting wild duck. and quite uneatable. Savala.117 and white "garza or heron. making bathing unadvisable on account of its . which is seen sometimes basking out of great water. Sometimes we waded for miles through swamps. one of the most useless birds in the " Chaco. and are of all sizes. cutting our way with large - Thus was spent a week cavalry swords." the curse of the Chaco streams and rivers. they skim.

with. much toastlittle farewell dance to the accompanigramophone. with a long wire tied to the end of the pole. The horses were unhitched. reaching to recount all the We put up all kinds of water. splashing through rivers. with five young horses tied in abreast.fowl. first one side up and then the other. eaten up by mosquitoes. good friends. The coach. " ment back. to dream for many days of birds. tied together and swum across a boat coming from some unseen corner. with hurried packing. back to a tiring journey in dust and heat by rail. clambering up and skeltering down slippery banks. until we came to a big river. and two coach boys. And so we travelled on. So ended my holiday. the coach tumbled head- over-heels into the raging flood. as we home tired and weary every night day's doings." or public mail coach. priceless plains of the Central Argentine. bringing us home to the same old flat. until at last it reached the near bank. half in passengers. took passengers and . unfortunately in flood. as fellow German traveller.118 struggled on. trees. mouth-organ. twisting and turning in all ways. half on horse- drinking. with a whoop and a cheer. who had brought enough a a cure (most jovial of food with him to feed a whole regiment). The horses were fastened to the end of this wire on the other side of the river. leaving the coach itself alone. The journey south was of no great interest. went bumping and jolting along hour after hour. galera. a head of police and his men. sitting out in the patio in the cool evening. . flowers. and the fine natives of the Northern Chaco. and a final of guitar. and accordion. luggage across. treeless. animals. and then. civilisation . beings. fishes.



called the nails. or goes to the store The axemen generally live to fetch meat and provisions. by moonlight when the Their food consists of biscuits. favourite roast. dried to the consistency of flint made from is fresh meat or dried these they " Charki. ready to start out after half an hour spent up and he imbibing a tie in their few mates in yerba infusion.WORK THE worker the nature of his IN THE WOODS. convenient to their work. which hold in their teeth. The cartmen and drive bullocks. The till ribs of beef Asado." which " coarse macaroni. This coffee made 121 in the country. ." is To this soup added rice. off to bring charges to the axemen. at the risk of shortening that organ. called Galleta. usually as hard as sufficiently cooked. or "fideos. while. maize. kept overnight in a corral. and some distance from the contractor's rancho. or cut the bark and outside layer of white wood off . is enjoyed by the men. They have to work hard. chiefly . in the forests is of necessity task requiring that he should be in betimes. the bullock-herd takes his and the men's employer mounts his pasture horse to visit the camp of his axemen. who cut off portions. mouthfuls they are sawn off close to the nose. and either square the logs for baulks and sleepers. Water is drunk. or coffee sweetened liberally with is moist sugar. is His preparations full of for breakfast are simple. in tents or temporary shelters." is made from on a stick and placed near the fire impaled This delicacy. wood prepared by to make logs for export. with a jack-knife. working is heat of the day soften in soup excessive. an early riser. stripped to the waist in summer they fell the trees.

picturesque to see a long string of carts enter a sound of pistol cracks from long whips. The distances which have to be covered by these carts are considerable. but a great deal depends on the roads being dry. In the case of very heavy logs the cart is placed upside down on the log. which envelopes the moving be wondered at if carts in a choking cloud. and the bullocks pull the whole thing over. or. and they are When the men attending a race meeting or dance. by advancing a short distance. and It is deposit to the to watch the cartmen unload the heavy logs. . These cartmen are hardy fellows and work wet to the skin. which is then bound to it. have the effect of making these men embrace every opportunity of unsociable. changing bullocks once en route. with a large percentage of chicory give it to body. at the desired moment. It is little to the when pay day and drinking arrives. enlivened by dancing till daylight. axemen and cartmen. excited by drink quarrels are frequent. as might be expected. hidden from the roads. roll the log from the ground on to the cart. go in for a spree. fifteen miles in the day is not unusual. again. A cartman will load his cart with logs of a ton and upwards. covered with in the dust mud up to their knees. and the police search them for arms before admitting them to a Rt-union.122 from beans or maize. as in wet weather the wheels sink up to the hubs in the mud and the roads are soon dotted here and there with loads abandoned till better conditions enable them to be reloaded and delivered at a depository. in The result of sojourning the woods does not. each with the aid of his team of bullocks. which for them usually takes the form of gambling. placing the chains so that the animals.

who creep back once silence has returned. puma skin or other Among these people one looks for. a haunt for the woods to wild animals. the morrow or what will be their They have no thought for lot when too feeble to work. the skins of these being much They take a pleasure in presenting a visitor with a trophy of the chase. who are natives of Italy and Austria. and. to enable prized. and the men like to carry a knife and a good revolver. them to get a shot or. but compare unfavourably with natives of the country. forest when he goes to an estancia. the primitive idea of hospitality. which gives them sufficient for their daily wants. at any wild animal they may come across. . better still. are very good workmen. workers are nomads. an unaffected welcome and Here are men willingness to give of the best they have. The axemen. a Winchester. being extremely dirty in their persons. independent by virtue of their labour. a disagreeable experience to have whereas the Argentine native puts on his best apparel The cut out. and finds. as the woods get move on to fresh camping grounds. to such a degree that to interview it is them in an office. leaving the revert to their former solitude.123 Arms are carried ostensibly as a precaution against meeting with Indians and bad characters in the lonely recesses of the forest.




creaking. and straining as though struggling from its load. every niche doing its work. cachape here it is Lying idle may something not to be lightly passed over. is The cachape . He has had a surfeit of carts with two wheels. To a man coming from and dragged by anything from sixteen to twenty-eight horses Russian carts.CACHAPES. and you recognise the raison d'etre of the queer little cart. Seeing that obviously they can't put the log on the cart. Supposing the cartmen find a log too heavy to load in the ordinary way they do not return and inform the boss that the log must be hoisted by mechanical means or propose highpriced cranes. while American spring carts are much But the too European to warrant unslinging the Kodak. the cachape must appeal as something peculiar to the district. every chain taking ten more strain than it was ever intended to take. when. they accept the alternative and put the cart on the 127 . tired of waging light operatic war. but rather as a remnant of some revolution. no longer amuse him. crawling laboriously over snaps and trunks to fall again with its load of four tons to free itself with a jerking. not strike him at first sight as a cart. like Thames punts on four wheels. each 12 feet high. a roughly hewn pole and various chains in an apparently hopeless tangle. swaying. groaning. not without its humorous moments. squat. crashing into holes. . and joining them. between. Yet see them in work per cent. AND OTHER THINGS. forest belt of the Southern Camps to the Santa Fe. leaving their gun-carriages to serve more peaceful purposes. Two pairs of short. the army disbanded. and most essentially local. enormously powerful wheels .

and over the wheels comes the log. reviews the situation. throwing up the mud and water for 50 feet around. Then back they go again the forest. Sometimes he finishes his carting days through too decided opinions as to the other man's integrity " Taba" sometimes on his canvas bed in a hut in playing ." He must get out <k of his largely for any remark. since no man can desert Wet through and his cart. men can Out exert in this position is little short of marvellous. their clothes hanging in ribbons from shoulders and belt. The correct proceeding now is for the cartmen to lie on their backs and push with their feet. then back again under. when and how he can. they live the one life which is certain to kill them before they are forty. for another load six miles through through. a combined push. mud and . branches. and with a long sword stuck through their belt in front. . Once there. betraying no emotion in either case he is rarely over thirty-five and often leaves a wife and children. they present a figure comical enough were it not that one knew the other side of the picture. reclining on sawed-off sofas. then haul everything right side up again with the bullocks and proceed to the unloading station. twiddle gold-spangled spheres with their toes our cartmen sphere is lie in water and for mud and changed a three -ton only the gold-spangled The force the log. who. a creak. and " when he has saved any money the merry Taba bone charms it from him in a way too universal perhaps to call trouble. chain it on securely. they are called upon again and again to suddenly exert enormous strength. one day's mud caking on another's. Wet chilled. Reeking with inherited consumption. He He must "get eats there. but here the intelligent foreigner is misled. after the manner of the gentlemen in music halls. his browny yellow face and sunken eyes asking no pity.128 log. of . one crawls. it might be supposed that they would tumble the cart over again.

129 " say wife and children. unused to a town This in a surroundings uncongenial. once they is far rarer than in civilised countries. remember that their unwritten pact is just as binding to them as our formal marriage tie is to us. which changes are generally marked by little have settled down. as a matter of strict fact. and with pieces of casting sticking to his back through the carrying away of a crane. Much has been said about the terrible wickedness of the . iron crosses in the woods. but. as it signifies Putting on side. and my informant went on to say that the only case he knew of where marriage had been really successful was that of the fair-haired carpenter. I have desertion seen a native workman with his shoulder blade in his armpit. the doctor was. who was married and asked all the bosses on the place. But. cavil against the idea of being taken into the township where life. I was informed that among them. muttered whisper. had happened.) in fire crackers alone. who each gave something. it cost him three dollars and a-half (say 5s. the ceremony of getting married I ." since it sounds the usual thing but. twelve hours after the accident broken. and that in their way they are probably better husbands and fathers than your Balham clerk. lest you should judge them lightly. lest his old woman." resorted to when they are in a village and there " when the cross-eyed blacksmith Strike got married. then aged six. is deprecated and is only is a chance that the presents that are given will more than compensate the tremendous expense they have to go to. In their young days they may chop and change. Speaking to a gentleman of this kidney. with which he was able to buy a sewing machine for the eldest girl. mark you. during which time every new arrival had find should the been called upon to witness the peculiar nature of his injuries. his face cut to ribbons.

and he goes as quietly and pleasantly as though he were going about the most commonplace work. and he resumes his work on return. neither is he bad as he's painted. or rather will substitute for the truth something they think and they you would like to hear. horse and all. horse twenty miles for medicine. in the dark. They will lie scared. vast majority will steal raw hide gear as a cat steals but will not touch your money. but even in " is " England Custom from time imme- morial held as law. one must confess them to be. The fish. Immoral. and has suffered in some degree what they suffer. his gambling. Blackguards they are but manly. He to go out at midnight with the carriage own tip. his almost fanatical desire to murder everyone he sees and for . just as if he hadn't been up all night riding at a hard canter over broken ground full of expects no He may holes and snags. he is by no means an ideal worker. complete and detailed lists of crimes and monstrosities appeal to any newcomer. half so No. one hesitates to . but is happy if he has not smashed the bottle of medicine. have a bad case of sickness in the house and ask a will do as little man or to go on horseback on his to get the doctor. much as in a community is if of young men property common to all with the same exception. have come down. nor is he lauded as a hero. . who will be delighted to hold forth on the subject but when one has lived with them and worked with them under varying conditions. his immorality. condemn them offhand. no extra wage. and I'd rather meet him in the next world than lots of men who boss him in this. But.130 lower-class native. according to our lights. work as you will let them. humorous blackguards.



in costumes varying from nothing to very little. wants credit for provisions at the almacen or general store Has he sufficient wood cut to warrant it ? It is the Mayor-domo's business to find out. made burglar- proof by innumerable bands and fastenings of bright tin. or even gilt wall-paper. : not quite so sounds at but as interesting as one cares make it." and therefore the homestead watercourse consists of about four yards of canvas stretched across the branch of a tree like the roof of is a tent. EIGHTY to feel a square leagues of dense forest. and has not had time or energy to " build himself a rancho. " With this end in view. a Brummagem bedstead. Scattered around are the little Fulanos. he rides along The Mangy " till he comes to the lowland of "The Blind Cow. Fulano de Tal. One is inclined trifle small and overcome when this fraction of is Mother Earth orders to know is all put into one's hands (metaphorically). and a small trunk. with about it and to be able to answer all is questions as to what The work romantic as to it like going on in it. most other occupations first. Beneath this a " New Home " sewing machine. wipes her hands on the nearest dismount.MY FRIEND THE AXEMAN. The man has perhaps recently moved to this spot." The barking of half a dozen mongrel curs leads him into the edge of the forest. and invites the visitor to 133 . child's head. and he comes upon the residence of Fulano de Tal. One's main employment can best be illustrated by a leaf out of a mental diary. axeman. Their mother ceases her cooking operations.

however. in the case of an perfect instance of this can be quoted estanciero who found a peon wearing one of his shirts. too numerous to take separately. with the sides as smooth as if sawn. The typical axeman in the Santa Fe Chaco more genuinely "childlike" than. for instance. and a wild war-whoop of delight as a stack of newly piled give mouth-organ when he sleepers falls crashing to the ground. Stealing. and quite as "bland" as. him a thief . It is part of the inspector's know is these and a myriad other tricks. his last dollar on a is forty. but call A and you must be prepared for trouble.134 He directs answers that he is looking for her husband. Give him a chance and he will count every log twice (most likely he has already plastered mud over the marks which show the rotten patch in the wood. The first ten commandments he will break most cheerfully. His amour propre is tremendous. and she him with a sweep of the hand which covers a quadrant of the compass and includes several square leagues of thick forest. and influences his code of honour to a great extent. the famous Celestial. but the eleventh "Thou he respects to the best of his shalt not be found out" power. he regards as a pastime. he soon hears the ring of axe-strokes. Taking a likely track. and is wondering whether he has cleared the black sufficiently off is His horse " tied through his corte. which is rapidly taking the form of a baulk. He loves sweets and the bright clothes which he wears with childish dignity on feast-days and holidays. up near. and he takes the Mayor-domo showing him the wood prepared for the carters." a piece of is " campana" to persuade a reasonable stock in trade to man that it really fresh wood). He never quite grows up he will spend . and finds his man patiently chipping away at a felled tree.

.Square Quebracho Logs worked by the Axeman. showing Resin oozing therefrom.


for instance he wishes perhaps to ask for an increase of fifty cents per ton on his wood. Sefior from me. with them. had not reckoned on such damning evidence. To have come all straight to the point would have been contrary to his ideas of correct procedure.135 " I You are wearing my shirt. passing on to the bad state of the bullocks and on the chance of a rainy winter. To return to our friend : Fulano. a matter of degree. " is an expression which generally followed it is to that Business must be done on a completely different basis which obtains in England." . take it but don't call me a thief.'" . " But you stole bought it in the store. for puts by a cascade of lies. insisted the tab at the front. " ." estanciero." The man. when he makes his request with as much circumlocution as possible. You have just enlarging decided that he has nothing more to say and are preparing to leave him. admittedly. such as Good . I have heard two natives make one another's acquaintance with a bout of verbal sparring which an Englishman " would obviate by a single sentence. . pointing to the his " it No. Senor if it is yours. that going to be frank with you the wise man on his guard. where name was written in marking ink there is my name on it. being : quite illiterate. Honesty is A man of will " deficiency." said the master. and introduces the subject by a short conversation about the points of his horse. but he recovered himself and replied " with dignity Very well. always say if questioned about some small think " " ? Do you or two dollars Do would swindle you for a matter you think I would risk my credit I with the Company for the sake of one calf " ? To be honest in a case where a larger profit is involved is a height " I am of integrity to which he does not even pretend.

A." he shouted." Equally. Sen" or "Very well. San Juan." the other would answer. which however. "come down and I'll fight me. he invoked higher powers. or in denunciation. and the business would be entered upon . " Spanish blood." A. praise. I believe ? Yes. San Pedro." . Senor well. I once heard a cartman give vent to a quite Olympic challenge. San Juan. B. calls for some such is taken from real life." B. B. "At yours. dialogue as the following. San Geronimo. am " speaking to Mr. Good day. a deep rut up to the axles." are you. thank you. His cart had stuck commenced tender words curses. and he operations by addressing his bullocks with in and soft names swiftly followed by lurid This proving useless. B. B." " Don't mention " I it.136 " morning Mr." " It gives me great pleasure to know you." "Come down. whether in greeting. " and called on his pet saints by name Help me. Brown." " How am " " ? . and I'll take you both on Then " his patience failed entirely together. B. you." A. Equally. A." " ? At your A. thank you. " immediately." are flowery always. A." Good day. Santa Lucia." B. The A." result : Still no If you won't help San Pedro." Very I how are you " ? " " glad. commendation. Juan Sosa service. They In illustration of the last point." Equally.

and when . but which have no root in the highest power It might be they know. a friend of mine was dissatisfied with the policeman he had. and sent the sergeant into the township to exchange him for another. police. was full enough came down on it for his satisfaction he it with both feet. " ? in jail for being drunk and disorderly. for such . .000 inhabitants. of the peace. The Chief local for instance. and justices of of Police of . that when sober he was such a good workman that we could not spare him from the job of cleaning the asked. When his hat leapt into the air." Stay there." I was the answer. refused ^"2. a town of only about 7. which is the arm of the law. San Marco. for a real or imagined black blood will show up and convert a friend into a relentless enemy.137 Still no reply. and continued to dance on for about three minutes." stables." On the other hand. time later I found the man " On still going to the place some " Why. Again. when one considers the lack of which ought to be exerted from the top downwards. The man returned with a particularly villainous-looking specimen.000 a year for the gambling rights. slight. San Gercnimo Stay there. San Juan . was put imprisoned. interesting to note a few proofs of the corruption which It is not surprising civilising influences exists justice among those who wield the local weapons among the comisarios. a small offence " We found. Stay there. a gardener. the streak of Thus. his hat off he placed it Taking on the ground. whom I knew. made the motion of clawing his guardians from the skies and placing them " in his hat.

and concocted the following plot intestate. and wished Garcia : to make his will. A man who lived with him. or burst ? No." and past the power of speech. Garcia seated himself at the foot of the bed. Pie was in the local bar one day . contained serioNegro. explained that the Chief of Police had told him to look among the prisoners for a suitable man. while the Justice at the side addressed questions to the deceased on the following lines : . Another comisario in the north of this country flattered himself on his revolver-shooting.138 asked where he had got him. unknown relations. whom I story r A knew died An personally. I am getting a very : poor shot nowadays. old man who owned a considerable quantity of land. (obviously with the connivance of the neighbouring Justice who was a friend of his). quite capable." which was told me in the province of Rio and which was well vouched for. Crack and the man with a bullet through his temple instead of his hat. " I thought this was the best of them but they all wanted to come. when a peon entered to with a brand new white hat it was an opportunity not fell be missed. give him a uniform and take him. He moved the body with the toe " his boot and remarked Carramba. . and used to perform the feat of shooting the hat off a man's head without hurting him. into self-reproach of Did the Comisario stand stricken with remorse. Garcia by had no idea of letting the property go to distant name. signs told him that the man was not yet dead. of the Peace. " The lawr allows that a sane man in articulo mortis. comic elements of w hich I believe the perpetrator." he concluded ingenuously. may make statements by so when the Justice was summoned to the house.

139 " Do you " ? wish me to record your last will and testament The " corpse nodded. if they wish to impress you with the truth of a state" ment. it was easy enough to hide the strings passing from his ears and chin to the foot of the bed under the Two witnesses were settled with coverings.. "on the word of an Englishman. among if such things exist return to the point. great surprise . only being able to count up to four. He once saw a trainload of Indian prisoners who had had oranges given them throwing the skins against the windows and showing when they fell inside. the white and black blood being so mixed that it is almost Their dusky ancestors impossible to note the dividing line. To . they add palabra de Ingles. that as the dead man wore a full beard and whiskers. The following incidents were related to me by an old estanciero." that Their Indian descent is answerable for a great deal. sole legatee " ? brought. I think it was Garcia himself who explained. however those in the highest positions of trust it is not surprising to find wholesale chicanery among the lower orders that they realise their shortcomings is evidenced by the fact . " Do you intend to make Garcia your The deceased nodded several times.e. were blessed with an extremely limited intelligence." i. and the business was commendable promptitude. Do " ? you wish your property to pass into your cousins' hands The head moved from side to side. In this connection legal is I have since heard that one of the ceremonies in a coroner's inquest in Central America to solemnly ask the deceased who killed him. some time afterwards.

but if it is necessary to chasten him for his soul's good. I fear that I have given a black character to the people I work among. Treat him well and he will treat you well. I have found the Correntino. or Santa Fecino. under the same circumstances. is generally sleepy or bad tempered. and I have had many a weary hour's ride wiled away by the philosophy and anecdotes of some peon or small contractor. " " Oh." This same girl at first insisted on turning up the carpet whenever she entered a room and walking along the boards at the side. Beside a camp fire. a cheery and uncom- plaining companion. and as the place mother did all the talking.140 woman came with her daughter to her in domestic service at the estancia. without mentioning the enjoyment of that hospitality which is a characteristic of the nation. . while the mate pot passes from hand to hand. but there are lights as well as shades." answered the mother. who. who compares well with the recently arrived Englishman. and would not presume to talk Spanish unless she had shoes on. keep your hand a little nearer to your revolver than his is to his knife. under the stars. yes. the estanciero's wife asked if the In another instance a daughter could speak Spanish. or when huddled under a horse cloth with the rain dousing the last embers. but she is barefoot.



and. The town was given twenty-four hours to decide. In the second revolution of 1893 great excitement was caused in Rosario by a revolutionary gunboat being pursued the river outside Rosario. but these in rumour. but. and pictures of the French Revolution immediately rise before one. by a Government boat and a naval battle (!) being fought on These two boats blazed away at each other till the revolutionary gunboat was reduced to a wreck the Government boat then threatened to turn its guns on Rosario unless the revolutionists capitulated. including a terrible battle. out very quickly. and after a few persons. with perhaps more than two months between them. had been threatened. It sounds terribly alarming to hear that a revolution has broken out. those of South American cities are not of that calibre reports and rumours fly about of the terrible things that are going to be done. . probably by soldiers letting off their rifles up some street just on the chance of hitting something (often that at which they are not aiming). generally end those who have nothing to do with the movement. the first little provincial and the second national. as usual the revolution came to a sudden end. fortunately. the revolution fizzles . though not so uncomfortably exciting perhaps to-day as they were. this particular occasion owing 143 to the revolutionist leader. on . when more than three years seldom passed without a revolution of some kind.DUST AND OTHER STORMS. LIFE in South America has many and varied experiences. after various disasters. either national or provincial. The year 1893 was marked by two revolutions in Rosario. have been killed.

and to anyone . after about ten cyclonic force. we could hear in the far distance wind coming. after on a brilliantly sunny afternoon.W. on the horizon. I must own with some fear as to how it was going to end. suffers from tinguished dust storms of a greater or lesser degree. evidently very much frightened. saw the clouds the afternoon had changed from brilliant sun- shine to pitchy darkness. we noticed right down in the S. and the horses about The wind was neighing. a suburb about six miles from Rosario. darkness. When the storm caught us we had to stand and wait. 1893. So rapidly had the darkness come on us that no one was prepared. which. after any lengthened period of dry weather. for some time it rained mud. Though all doors and windows were closely entering in shut. The first of these many months of drought.. making it quite unpleasant breathing. in It came up with and be then everything in the way of tins and buckets began to gallop to blown every direction. They had a most alarming appearance. minutes of pitch darkness. though. seemed to be rolling rapidly up the sky towards us. much to the detriment of the houses. disitself by drawing to a close with three of the most terrible dust storms ever seen in a country that. That same year. occurred early in December. committing suicide. of course. to our surprise. Standing at the front door of a house at Fisherton. for these masses of grey cloud approaching so rapidly seemed to portend a storm of terrible In less than twenty minutes from the time we first force. Alem. the forerunner of the rain. no glimmer of light even revealing where the windows were situated in the room. and fallen on us the Up in to this time the total silence : storm had come up now. we could feel the dust clouds through the cracks. which gradually began to clear the air.144 D. and no matches or lights were forthcoming so there we stood in a room in absolute . great banks of grey-looking clouds.

storm lost their lives through falling into wells. But. one of our friends. was found crouching under his umbrella by one of the posts of the railway fence. by then.145 unfortunate enough to be caught out of doors in the storm. . the river. indeed. deeply repentant that he had started for the station Indeed. who insisted on starting for the station just as the storm descended on us. many caught out in camp by the against advice. nowadays principally. in some cases. and. and. fortunately. with a face as black as a sweep's. I fancy. owing to the larger area of country under cultivation these dust storms do not recur.




whilst much general biological information has been written upon the subject. We do not know what precise influences cause their migration. which may be robust or fairly slender. the differentiating features being more or less the form and sculpture of protorax. and the general build of the entire insect. but its colour varies somewhat 149 generally brownish. straw. A of migratory locusts might general description of the distinctive physical features be given as a strong. four wings. powerful and peculiarly-formed legs attached to a short. there are things which we do not yet know about this insect or its habits.LOCUSTS. nor do we know breeding what is the exact length of life of the locust or in its power. the comparative length of wings. or the precise may be defined as its classified country which Locusts are abode. the comparative length and size of prosternal the hind thighs and shanks. mainly from the desire to seek its subjugation and destruction. the length and size of the spine. the size of the head. strong. There are a large number of species. or according to the . feelers. permanent locality any under the order of orthopterous insects of to the family Acrydiidae. and are very closely related grasshoppers. and. six legs. square trunk or thorax. two antennae or and a long segmentary abdomen. DURING the past century considerable study has been centred upon the life and habits of the locust. wild- looking head. a strong collar inside which the neck moves. The is ground colour of the locust red. the amount and arrangement of the tegmina mottlings.

locust can jump seven or eight feet in height. . third. The front and middle feet of this insect are short and weak. consisting of a plate deeply cleft and capable of opening . which is a fearful apparatus. and two lower jaws. To attached the two front legs to the second. but nothing certain known as to what Mere ground colour is influences the shade of colour. The mandibles and jaws move laterally from . consists of nine distinct and well-marked organs an interior or upper lip. . and to the The the first is . enormously two true jaws or powerful mandibles and two pairs of jointed organs called (maxillary) palpi. noticeable a feature in The mouth.150 particular season of the year or some is other peculiar circumstance. not signify a new species. a confull of The abdomen struction centimetres which enables the insect to extend its body several It can also be beyond its normal extent. right to left. placed like shining dots at three angles of a triangle below the two feelers. the two middle legs and the first pair of wings. there are three other simple little eyes. strength. increased in thickness. consists of a number of horny segments which are joined together by an elastic membrane. the a fatty sort of substance. and formation of the hind A full-grown legs enable it to take extraordinary leaps. two hind legs and the second pair of posterior Along the posterior margin is a well marked serrated (spinous) arrangement by means of which the The trunk appears to be locust adheres and grips forcibly. wings. but the length. thorax or trunk consists really of three rings. immaterial and does Besides having a pair of compound eyes which form so its head. whilst it is said to be able to leap more than 200 times the length of its body.

and the manner in which the females. ' The young locusts are known as hoppers. The average 3 inches length of the migratory locust is from 2 to and about f inch in thickness in the abdomen. having selected a favourable site." in which stage they pass some forty-five or fifty days before arriving at the fully developed stage known " " " as fliers. The eggs hatch in from twenty-five to sixty days. and forked. Here she deposits her eggs arranged in about eighty regularly a long mass and envelopes them in a spumous or sort of glutinous secretion. and arranged so that all four hooks can be brought with their points close together. The eggs resemble in shape grains of small rice and are about i inch long. but the period may vary a little according to temperature. By this means a sharp pointed lever is formed which can be turned around. etc. she actually normally cylindrical bores to a depth of 6 to 7 centimetres. each pair placed back to back with their points directed outwards.151 The female is normally larger by i or i inch in length than the male. make an excavation in the earth for depositing their eggs is intensely interesting and wonderful. With this apparatus she drills a small hole and by means of a series of muscular efforts and the continuing opening and closing of the valves provided with the formation of the abdomen. At the very extremity of the abdomen the female has two pairs of horny valves or hooks. so that the whole are quite tapped up and level with the surface of the ground. Locusts generally lay their eggs in the spring." To reach the flying " or migratory " stage . cr about 3 inches. evolved. humidity. usually about forty days. This substance when dried is more or less impassable and affords protection to the eggs from the elements and secures an easy outlet to the surface for the young locust when hatched. and has a rather thicker body.

is great. it is sometimes much more. they seldom At other times. and whilst. the damage growing crops than the devour everything clean before them. quiescent stage. be taken as a moderate estimate of often much less. in particular cases. they will cover fifteen to twenty miles per hour. it is flight. have or not quite one-third divisions. extending to twenty-seven divisions at full growth. clinging closely to all kinds of vegetation and to each other. Their height . With an unfavourable wind. gradually approaching to full growth. the wind is favourable. During the cold weather they usually gather together in thousands. and finally growing wings. to the " It is interesting to state that the " hoppers thirteen in the first stage are in length of an inch. They have no for their voracity flying locusts do less hoppers. Perhaps the most feasible suggestion as their migratory impulse is to the cause of that locusts naturally breed in dry sandy districts in which food is scarce. about 7 to 9 and that the feelers mm. when travel more than five miles an hour. and invariably their cases have been found empty.. and they are very destructive. changing the colour of their skin several times. When on the wing it is certain that a distance of 1.000 miles may. their locomotive powers are very considerable. The rate of travel varies according to circumstances. who Comparatively speaking. the purpose of watching the development of their eggs. several hundred locusts have been opened during the winter months by entomologists. and are thus impelled to wander in order to procure the necessaries of life. probably. or little wind.152 they pass through six different states. In this season the general rule seems to be For that comparatively little food is taken of any kind. and whilst they are naturally yet incapable of flight.

so many are washed ashore. dropping from the clouds is a common A expression used by observers of a when describing the apparition swarm. . nigh impossible to estimate the number in a cloud of locusts. that it is said by one observer that their dead bodies formed a bank of nearly 40 miles long and 300 yards wide. in fact a migratory swarm usually are followed by myriads of birds. and throw up all they have eaten. all vegetation rapidly disappears. and many feet in depth. and at a given signal go off again to fill up with more locusts. especially sea gulls they often found 150 to 200 miles inland. Many is .153 of flight has been variously estimated at from forty to two " " hundred feet. unwinged state. they devour them by thousands. only to repeat the operation time after time. as sometimes is the case in a storm. take a little water. Locusts have their natural enemies. Predatory insects of other orders also attack them. into the sea and drowned. and will then go to a neighbouring laguna. and the stench from the corruption of their bodies proceeded 150 miles inland. but some idea may be formed from the fact that when they are driven. They make their appearance It is wellin swarms and eat up everything. constitutes It will force not be denied that the presence of locusts in a terrible plague. especially when in the more deadly more foes in parasites. but the greater number adopt the insidious method of attacking the eggs. cannibalism amongst them Such has is their voracity that been asserted as an outcome of the failure of other kinds of food. They have still some of which attack the fully developed locust. When a swarm of locusts temporarily settles in a district. birds greedily devour them. Often a of gulls will flock clean up a " manga " of locusts . and then hunger urges them on another stage.

From 1892 to date. at least. 1909.154 Many of exterminating the locusts.000 acres). .540 mn. inventions have been brought out with the object some of which. The Agricultural Defence Department reports having spent $10. from 1st January.000 have been spent in combating locusts and like plagues to agriculture.000 hectares (about 337. 135. but determined and combined effort by the nation and land proprietors is imperative if the remedial and preventive measures proposed are to reap the success hoped for. $54. in fighting the locusts. to 31st May.500.561. The total area invaded was 1910.000.000. and with what is required for the present year. have doubtless been partly successful.



and the roll is called over. according to height from 1'75 metres upwards to Cavalry. for a year in the Army or two in the Navy. At 4 a. and at the end of this period a big manoeuvre is held in which every This manoeuvre is divided regiment has to take part.. At 11 o'clock the troops have to turn out and clean and is brush down their horses until 11. in the month of September all troops into two parts: pertaining to the I. calling to arms.000 to 15.. : at 4. life of a conscript is more agreeable than most people it in the Argentine Republic imagine to be.000 are called out every year and distributed in the different regiments.CONSCRIPT LIFE THE its IN THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.30. At an average 12.30 a. go to the shooting range. at 5. middle height to Infantry. Every year all over the Republic a drawing takes place. which hour the troops are due back at the barracks.0 every morning orders are given to saddle -up horses and arm.m. coffee is served. II. and in November those of the III. having to go through a course of drilling on foot up till 11 o'clock. and they have to be ready to leave the barracks at 5. although it has disadvantages as well as its advantages. For eight months the troops are drilled daily.30 for morning drill on horseback or to at to . and short men to Artillery. Argentines who have attained the age of twenty-one. Regions are mobilised. and V. at the call The daily routine is as follows of a bugle all troops have to rise. and IV. according the drilling the time-table continues till 10 o'clock. . at which hour lunch 157 .m.

30 p. after which those who have leave are allowed out until 10 p. dinner is served out. it superiors." or on the "Carabine or Sword" every . respect for their After their year's all.30 to " Mate3 p. how to shoot.." Duties or Laws. having to serve for a month every year in a regiment allotted to them.. where they have to serve for three months.. and be made a few things also.m. There are certain allowances made for students. cocido" is served out at 3. to look after and clean same.30 p. and at 3 p.. From 4.30 to is At 5.m. It brings half-breeds from all parts of the Republic in touch with civilization. and should they pass.m. above teaches them obedience. next morning. and. the troops are drilled on foot.30 p.m. on an average. there is revision and cleaning of arms." which every two years leaves Buenos Aires for a trip round the world. There is also the better class of lads to be considered. either on Military Campaign Service. other day class and on how given on the different parts of a horse. At the end of this period they are put through a very severe examination. knowing a good deal more about things in general than when they entered them. service they leave the barracks Conscription teaches them is knuckle down (which Argentines).30 they have to attend class " " until 4. The advantages of conscription are many.m.30 5. or in some cases until 4 a. eighteen months.m. are promoted to the grade of SubLieutenant of the Reserve. Those drawn for the Navy have to go through a pre- liminary course of training on shore before being sent on " board the training ship Sarmiento. viz.m. .158 served out after which they are allowed to do as they like (except leave the barracks) till 1. . from 1. to a great failing of the Angloto do things which they have not . occupying. who at the age of nineteen are allowed to enlist in the 8th Cavalry.

boiled). a mid-day meal and dinner. as anything they may happen to lose 5 is deducted from their wages. per month. but A conscript may have to suffer punishment these are rare. consisting of soup and " " (a national dish made of beef and vegetables puchero and an occasional dish of "pulenta" (boiled maize). The food in the Army is good and plentiful there is coffee in the morning on rising. which are very small. which are usually similar. etc. There are cases of miscarriage of justice and ill-treatment. clean out stable. . and look after their equipment properly. and is not allowed to protest his innocence against an officer until after he has completed his punishment. although in the right.159 been accustomed to. : The general treatment in the barracks is good..




163 M 2 . justify a cursory perusal. observations to the trip as headed. always attended by a certain amount of danger. of a journey Mollendo to the Bolivian the is interior. I south. are here transcribed. and the scenery is not associated of the kind generally with tropical climes. in have crossed the Andes Chain in other places farther Chile but on this occasion I will confine my . Sand dunes and waste meet the eye on all sides. in part at least. so much so " that not infrequently passengers have to be "slung on to the landing stage in baskets from the land on and the landing is made for the purpose. All at least half a mile account of the constant heavy swell. and the compiler of the manuscript only hopes that his efforts may. from the Peruvian port of which the writer made year stated. Mollendo is one of the worst ports on the Pacific coast. of which one reads so much. and the traveller for the interior is generally glad when the railway journey commences. but is of some importance on account of the fact that the railway through Peru to vessels have to lie Lake Titicaca starts here. or overtaxing their indulgence. facts only are related.ACROSS THE BOLIVIAN ANDES RECOLLECTIONS in IN 1901. No rhetorical claimed. Like most of the South American coast from Valparaiso northwards there is little or no vegetation. without exhausting the merit patience of the readers. These notes are transcribed nearly ten years after the trip was made. and any readers who may have visited Bolivia at a more recent date are requested to make allowance for such modifications or change of conditions of which they can be the only judges.

for hours. valley surrounded by high volcanoes. the train reaches Gradually rising Arequipa. see the town.164 Of the country through which there is not is traveller of the railway takes one but the attention of the said. Leaving Crucero Alto the descent is very gradual until Puno is reached. it Mollendo about 200 miles. at no great distance suffers frequently off.000 feet. where a notice board indicates that we are now 14.000 feet or more. and distant from the famous engineer Meiggs." towering up to 18. who Arequipa has about 45. at an elevation of 7.000 while rather prettily situated in a small inhabitants. until a point is reached where passengers. the actual railway track over which they have passed an hour before. goes on winding and climbing. to resist are all built with " vaulted " the " Leaving Arequipa behind." but on this did not experience any shocks. the ascent continues until the highest point is reached at Crucero Alto. The houses better I the occasion foundations.666 feet above It is before reaching this altitude that the sea level. which does not " El surprise one when you look at the giant volcano Misti. " but went straight on board the Coya. At one place there are actually three tracks visible. may see right below them. twisting back again but always ascending. looking down from the carriage windows. Moreover. on the shore of Lake Titicaca. The line wonderful enterprise of the engineer shows up. and. and I believe there nothing quite like it in Argentina. from earthquakes. earth-tremblings.500 feet. at once called to the marvellous ingenuity much to be built the railway. is just like steps and stairs. one right below the other. it does not have anything of particular interest to attract one. only a few feet down. as the coast recedes. but still at an I did not actually altitude of 12. which is a short distance from the station." the steamer .

and the food and bedding were decent. on the Bolivian side of the immense lake. and higher range of the Cordilleras. and we remained hard aground for thirty hours. and when we again transferred to got into the deep channel " the s. so that I had not on this occasion an opportunity of seeing the surrounding scenery. Before floating again about 100 tons of cargo had to be transhipped to the other steamer. . The bill of fare and wine list contained many quaint delicacies. the it the centre of Bolivia until meets the inner La * fact that the President. and they gave no trouble at all. was our Allow me to water in the world which remind the reader that Lake Titicaca is navigated by steam. on account of the General Pando. We were relieved by another small steamer belonging to the railway company they were kept in good humour. Landing at the Bolivian side immense plateau which covers all stretches out on all sides landwards. it Coya. had over a hundred Japanese passengers immigrants going to the rubber country and all armed with huge revolvers but as the food lasted out until we . is the highest . when you consider the part of the world you were in. and " the word read Guiscki. Paz. and the passage was made in ten hours. the then capital of Bolivia.s." it This latter was again boat was about 150 feet long was quite a comfortable boat. He was quite phonetic from the Spanish point of view. lived there. of Puerto Perez. and I shall never forget how the printer of same spelt the word indicating Scotch wine (commonly known as whisky). On another occasion I saw too much of it. during the night. as the steamer missed the canalized strip which extends several miles out from Puno.165 which was to ferry us across to Chili laya or Puerto Perez.* The distance in this direction is about 110 miles." but it tasted all right.

166 next objective point. with their " growing their potatoes and grain. It is a very Sunday morning to seethe market. but all sorts of native silver in quaint shapes. and thus for make some open patches which. and the scene that here awaits To describe the traveller is magnificent in the extreme. as the plain seems to extend right to the foot of the mountain. the coach eventually arrives at the brink of a hitherto unnoticed hollow. Right ahead of us there is the gigantic Illimani. and we found the old " Diligence Coach. the view baffles my limited vocabulary. entirely and covered completely with large. and the road was only the same latter the Indians have to gather in heaps.000 feet above sea-level. with its perpetually white crown One begins to wonder rising 22. is Besides. But I am getting away from the main subject. . level.200 feet below you. There you are looking lies down on the roofs of the houses in La Paz. This part of the journey All along fair. round stones. and. surplus produce conveyed and there realised to the best advantage. are Chalona. because. as far as I can remember. red. devoid of trees." and the curio hunter would just be in his element. and ornaments made by the Indians themselves can be picked up very cheaply. which It just seems that you snugly 1. so precipitate are the cliffs but it is the enormous drop that deceives the eye. awaiting to convey us the forty-two miles across the plain. the towns on llamas." or sheep dried to the larger their principal foodstuffs throughout the year." drawn by eight horses. green. Keeping steadily on. could drop a stone on to them. . and bright yellow were the dominating colours. silent and majestic. The dresses of the Indian squaws are also very picturesque. however. in the sun. These is it is most uninteresting. stony ground. where La Paz can be. as not interesting sight every " only do the Indians bring in vegetables and fruits.

and pass the night somehow or other. that to fully appreciate this special fail scenery words Allow me occasion that it me. hoping to up against some Indian settlement. was all right enough as long as daylight darkness overtook me I I was " lasted. if such a thing can be imagined. transgress " to I once more." It miles from La Paz.000 feet to 12. on account of the darkness. Apparently I had journeyed too fast for my horse. The whole city is lit up by electricity. I have seen La Paz from the top of the "Cuesta" both by day and night. and there being nothing to guide consult. think. and in tion. and it just seems as if one were gazing down on another firmament. me and simply walked along slowly. sixty-six miles off. and therefore great speed is impossible on account of the rarity of the air. I trudged along for goodness knows how long until I eventually did hear some sounds indicating that at any rate I was nearing some encampment or habitaI could hear what was supposed to be music. in the direction of the sound. " On the first reached the top of the entrance to sporting La Paz I was under rather I circumstances. I repeat. The elevation above the sea varies from about 14. which.167 of the route over to which the coach passes. while losing much of its grandeur and magnificence. six miles have yet be traversed before getting into the town. as near as I could judge. and in about half an hour my efforts were rewarded. may be excused for interpolating here. but when fairly in the soup. I had come on horseback and alone from the mining town of Coro Coro. as the poor animal died when I was still eighteen " Here was a nice kettle of fish. almost surpasses in beauty that of the daylight vision." Not knowing no one to strike the road. the dark made my way.000 feet at the La Paz end. and it is a very hard and tiring journey. and the latter effect. as I had overtaken a band of roving .

at the foot of. as the balance in my bank (otherwise my pocket) did not warrant my looking upon my visit to La Paz as one of pleasure only. The steep. as the reader may imagine from my description of its position. business. with the exception of one or two which run parallel to each other on both streets are mostly hilly and and in the centre of This it bridged in about half a dozen places for horse traffic. accompany them. I I resumed at my seat and an excellent put up of which there were several. and he was a Scotchman like myself. when sides of the valley." as it is called and soon I was allowed to explained to them my position.m. which might easily have had a more sinister termination. and at once bethought hotel. about Well. me of looking for work. and he was proprietor of the coaches that ran. which at the top of the I think I left La Paz entrance. and I La Paz understood had quite a remunerative is a peculiarly situated city. to come back to our old coach. the which La Paz river. and soon became a lifelong friend of theirs when I produced a small bottle of whisky which I had with me.168 Indians. At the time I write of there was one solitary Britisher resident in La Paz. . flows. The experience was of a unique nature for a white man. They could not speak Spanish. This was before got into the city at mid-day. and when I reached La Paz 1 a. but I must confess I rather appreciated the novelty than otherwise. there is scarcely any water in the river. I felt that I had had quite an adventure. and while. the railway from Oruro was built. from La Paz to the south. but at that time I knew sufficient of " their language Aymara. as I found they also were bound for La Paz. had my Indian escort shown the other side of their nature. playing funny reed instruments and dancing continuously as they travelled. all in fancy dress. for most of the year. once a week.

. they are very illiterate. and a large number "of wealthy mine-owners reside there. and. Quechua is I saw several bull fights in the bullring of which the town boasts. have yet seen. carrying with it over 200 people. and I women. but further north. unfortunately. drawing their incomes There are from rich tin mines in the neighbourhood. had rained very copiously for some days. about 30 per cent. this evidently rate. sightseers were about. The Cathedral was there. with the result that the bridge tumbled into the raging stream. and many of them were drowned the exact number was never known. larger proportion of the inhabitants are Indians. also numerous stores from which the wants of the distant The population that reside in the rubber country are supplied.169 snow melts it is converted into a veritable roaring and I happened to be present during one of the most serious accidents that had ever occurred from this the torrent . Quite an important city is La Paz. only In the south. cannot help remarking that the Bolivian Indians. and it is estimated that. and the in fact higher than ever had risen enormously before recorded and many were the predictions as to how The usual the bridges would stand the weight of water. . men and are about the ugliest type of human creatures I Besides. cause. but at any . excited their a crowd tried to cross. can read or write. but they were so very disgusting that I refrain from nauseating my readers with details. only half completed is still when I was I and I understand in the same condition. a large number of them paid the penalty with their lives. Aymara is chiefly spoken the commoner language. of the total population of Bolivia. They had been duly warned that a certain bridge was dangerous and It river threatened to give curiosity all the more way.

she stood the fatigue of many days' riding on mule-back. and. but the fact. I eventually arranged to accompany the proprietor of a very large rubber forest on a trip to his properties on the higher reaches of the River Amazon. just about as well as any of the rest of us. but the remuneration not being commensurate with my ambitions. and hence my privilege of being able to offer you a perusal of the my inner ranges of the Cordillera experiences across His mountains. 1901. at 8 a. but with his face being that the to the tail . a Bolivian President compelled the British official representative to ride round the plaza seated on a donkey. at Paz. although the journey is a most uncomfortable one in more ways than one. indeed can be procured on the journey in the accordingly had to carry way of good food or lodging. to start with.m. food. firearms. Our conveyance. consisted of a coach drawn by four mules. in Peru.170 was forgetting to mention Minister or Consul in La there was no British and the story goes that. and. remained several am not aware of in La Paz in the months I employment of a Bolivian magnate. the consequence Prime Minister of Great Britain figuratively wiped Bolivia off the map. daughter also accompanied him. that some previous period. and in fact everything we could think For a little We of in the form of clothes. of course. our beds and bedding. and we sent . and on the 20th May. our caravan departed eventually from the then capital of Bolivia. the necessary accompaniment in liquid form. over trails which did not deserve the name trip of this of roads. as very kind many provisions have to be made. Anything which we required from the Diplomatic Service had to be obtained through the medium This I of the British Minister resident in Lima. may now be altered. Most of our baggage and what we might not require at a moment's notice on ahead with a day's anticipation.

travelling quite comfortable. having covered. and the only white people are the Bolivian half-caste authorities. Guarina is purely an Indian fishing village. which we had dispatched the day before. However.m. more or The journey seemed longer. but much nearer than Achicachi. we had to change our plans and therefore directed our coach towards Guarina. There was a long journey ahead of us. and this being beyond that we changed the ordinary country fare for the passing traveller. less.171 it took much longer to climb the steep to "Cuesta" than it had taken us descend on previous occasions already mentioned. and I took what proved ground as it. The journey I for the first forty miles is over the same have already referred to. As I was have already stated. twelve leagues off. and there is nothing more to be said about animals at a place called a few Indian huts where there Ocomisto. there are no hotels or even lodginghouses in these Indian towns.. but as it was now quite out of the question to think of travelling our baggage animals so far before night should overtake us. but as fair. and ordinary travellers have just to hunt about until they find a place suitable to put . another were very disgusted to find that our pack animals. had got no farther than this point. in the direction of Lake Titicaca. as the country the roads were is so much alike all along the route . to be my last view of La Paz City. Our desired destination for the night was the Indian town of Achicachi. simply is always a supply of grain and water for the animals. another Indian town on the shores of Lake Titicaca. fifty miles since morning. our animals were good and in about an hour and a-half we reached the top of the hill. and we eventually arrived there at 5 p. so we only remained during the time that was occupied in outspanning the tired mules and mspanning the fresh lot. At 1 o'clock we reached " " tambo or resting-place. and Machacamarca.

smell." men in authority. got about five leagues off.000 Indians. and thought of our other means of transport for the forward journey." These are about the size of walnuts. and made " from frozen potatoes which are called chuno. and we only remained a square meal. and then they are not a savoury bite. and gave us a meal consisting which is soup as black as coal.172 beds " for words. The population was about 5. Good . and have to be well soaked before cooking. There is still a road for vehicles made in the morning. of one of these in their frugal " of Chairo. and we very soon had our things unpacked and occupied our beds. to bleak spot.m. bound for Achicachi. we of course fared considerably better than we should otherwise have done had he not been with us and we were invited to put up in the house the " night. we then dispatched our reigning magistrate.m. and for the time sufficed. coach on its return journey to La Paz. Never mind. we reached this larger Indian town about 9 a. we were hungry and partook of whatever was brought along. The and to at daybreak we town. under way. as my friend was a personage in Bolivia. very repugnant in appearance. and taste." already the described sheep dried is generally speaking. He did his best for us way of living. until the "inner man" cried The meal. Our pack animals arrived at Guarina about 7 p. but it is a this very uninteresting. was washed down with a content cheap "wine" distilled from cheaper raisins. and which. I may add. The next as lean plate consisted " of in Chalona. sun. However.. but it was something wet. and keeping along the shores of Lake Titicaca. knowing that a pretty early start would be ! night passed uneventfully. in other . a man of position and power in political circles. hard and black. which we were long enough fortunate enough to have provided for us by the again have That over.

. and in some This places very steep and covered with loose stones. although comfortable enough. having climbed probably 2. and taking it all round. and as there were any amount of fowls to be had. who Nevertheless. Our destination for the night was Gualata. at about 1 o'clock. and we at last got started on this the more arduous part of our journey inland. and all plotted out in small squares for the cultivation of vegetables. letting rein to choose their own footing. passed the Indian village of Illabaya.000 feet higher up the mountains. etc. a small holding belonging and we reached it to my fellow-traveller. the house. it was peopled by about sixty Indians.173 mules we had sent ahead. turned out in true Indian style in their beautifully coloured robes and making horrible discordant noises which all. however. There was nothing to do specially." required. were intended for music " ciation of their our bill-of-fare improved in accordance. and were now awaiting us saddled and ready. distant about six leagues. so we were quite pleased when bed-time came ceremony each floor. imagine. to show their appreHere. of course. We of which we . was situated in about as bleak and bare a spot as it is pretty well possible to scale. them go along on a loose which they did very successfully. we got all we patron. and without any on the Owing to excessive cold. of course. made the foothold bad for the mules. Cultivation of cereals and potatoes is carried on on a limited owing to the altitude. sleep was out of the question. and it was a relief when day dawned on May 22nd. retired to their respective couches round. but we trusted to the useful animals entirely. and we did not feel inclined to move about much at this elevation above the sea. perched on the side of a hill. After refreshing ourselves with a cup of tea we set out for Sorata. Travelling was now much slower as the roads were very bad.

and visitors for the first time must really wonder how they are to find a road to cross these gigantic mountains. Sorata is indeed very pretty and quaint. thanks once more to my friend's influence. the few days we remained were very enjoyable. rises up magnificently right above and round the town. while the rubber districts is exported to the coast also finds of Sorata agents. and by way of recreation I scented out a billiard table.174 The highest point we bought a supply for our own use. which consists of walking round There is and round at a good pace to keep up the circulation. as all materials and merchandise for the interior must pass through the hands of the Sorata merchants. la Gilbert Sullivan. it is true. and although comparatively out of the world." a elliptical . not a good one. passed was over 14. descent into the pretty little town of Sorata. . where the youth and beauty disport themselves in the way peculiar to these mountainous regions. a traveller can spend a short time there pleasantly. Illampu. and then began the gradual down. 6. and the pace was very but the scenery was quite refreshing compared with what we had already passed through. naturally of more consequence on that account. being the nearest town to the Bolivian personage ! rubber which export their products to the Pacific coast.000 feet. the conditions were not so discon- certing as they would doubtless have been to a less famous Sorata.000 feet lower The path was not of the best. as the town appears to be so completely shut in. its way through the medium the usual plaza in the centre of the town. as the weather is nearly always cold in Sorata. and which claims to be the highest peak in South America. For a change we did not sleep on the floor. slow . and the balls were rather " but as I had once personated the Mikado. and personally speaking. the competitor of Illimani and Aconcagua.

started to ascend the track and got a fine send-off by more important of whom turned out to bid us adieu and wish us luck over a case or two of beer. it still affords a covering for weary travellers ourselves. as it seemed. the May we interior. and we soon began to select the most com. we got under our blankets in . Indian hamlets. and accordingly completed the worst part of the way on foot. There was an old a meagre existence by selling and forage to passing travellers for their beasts of burden he was also utilised by us for getting a fire ready and boiling Indian there earns . forming the way to the This we reached about midday. and there was no protecting fence of any kind.000 feet.175 However. Apparently. One thousand feet above our heads. we decided to get off our mules. There is a long. on 27th the inhabitants. and it was piercingly cold. gold-washing had not been carried on for a very long time. at just under 16. steep descent to the old mining camp by a narrow winding track cut out of the mountain side. and to-day we were to pass the highest point of our entire trip. but the appearance of the exceedingly precipitate track up to it did not excite us in any desire to make the ascent. We were above the perpetual snow-line for a short time. as although the main building still has a roof.. who water for a welcome cup of warm tea. like whole place has a very deserted look about it but. but we kept steadily on and reached an old mining establishment called" El Injenio" at 5 p. the nevertheless. and as the drop on one side to the little stream down below was about 40 to 50 feet. we could see Llane. having done 24 miles in all since morning. fortable looking corners for our beds. and of course this made travelling very much slower. another of these quaint. besides we had to go slowly on account of the thin air. The climb before us was a constant one for 18 miles.m. After partaking of some food.

animals over these precipices now to Some of bed were now much deeper. called there Tolapampa.. but more level. and about 450 feet of a climb. had the just to accept the inevitable. and on more . cut out of the mountain side at an angle of about 50 deg. and him have his head (on no account attempt to guide him). not roads. opening in the mountains. carrying everything behind them too. This is called " " tornillo the (screw). in the saddle and more sleep the sleep of the 6. the animals falling. we might have experienced considerable inconvenience at the bottom. some parts far too steep for comfortable riding. about two feet wide only winding round and round the mountain side. and many of the ascents and descents were so steep that it was quite out of the question to attempt to negotiate them and in on muleback.15 next morning we were again By under way the road was now even narrower than before. with philosophic patience and get off and lead our really dangerous parts. and than let a wonderful beast. our example. The is roads became worse and worse. We. accordingly. From now onwards the journey was over tracks. and it was wonderful to see how they kept as one false step might have sent them to the their feet bottom. Riding was of course impossible. ascending all the time.176 the usual way at sunset to once contented traveller. and we scrambled more than walked until we safely got over the top." but the " really they could be given no other name mule Our sleeping is not much fear of any serious trouble. place for the night was to be at an old ruin of a house at a bare. very The mules with their cargo followed tired and puffed out. and before reaching this we had to negotiate much the worst pass on the whole route. and a greater down the river difficulty in getting up again. and it is a real corkscrew path. goat-tracks. than one occasion this has happened. . and had we slid over.

because this is a treeless burned. but nothing to close it with to keep out the intense cold. it was not till 4 o'clock p. hoping by daylight to move on to a more charitable atmosphere. it the afternoon. region feet. Then I was only accompanied by two Indians no white people and was I think relating travelling towards Sorata. and therefore set about at once to get something to make a fire With great good fortune we. at an elevation of 10. that our residence for the night loomed in view. after a great deal of with.m. and we looked forward to the night with no very pleasant forebodings and it did turn out a tiresome night it rained all the time and the cold was extreme so much so. searching and gathering. and it did not inspire one that it could supply much in the way of home comforts. i arrived skin. We. Sure. already described. malaria very acutely. I was suffering from having rained constantly all day. shivering cold. I should not miss this opportunity of an experience of mine when I journeyed over the same route on another occasion.177 Pushing on as generally being killed outright in the fall. so there was no use grumbling now. fast as possible. as we had a spirit lamp. but beyond that there were no windows. evening meal. I remember very well in we reached Tolapampa.000 naturally always at a premium. yet. and fuel is For cooking it did not matter so much. obtained some old rubbish that I say with good luck. have to of course. the old hovel had walls and a roof. and the high levels at which we had been travelling also affected at Tolapampa soaked to the me grievously. knew when we started that we would rough it. but it was to warm our bodies and keep up our spirits that made the fire Darkness was on us before we finished our so desirable. and where the door ought to have been there was only a hole in the wall. that we eventually sat up most of the time. and .

178 To aggravate matters we really more dead than alive. which under normal circumstances little are of no inconvenience to travellers. and it was destined to be hardly . a trip of which I shall always retain very vivid recollections. and when I to to my men that it was time to move until the rain ceased. all the mountain streams." and kept moving all me backwards and I they could to get me to forwards to warm myself. causing me on more than one this occasion. frugal fare it . condense matters as much as possible. did " buck up. and at any rate It I got some at rest. with the rain. I therefore started on my lonely journey at eight o'clock. scrambled amongst round me so as to benefit from the heat It was neither a very pleasant nor a very of their bodies. had been converted into veritable roaring torrents. these natives. to get was determined It was very disappointing. I could and at times sleet. to bear. and I can hardly realise how I had the courage to do what I did but the facts remain r . clean position that I occupied. On To occasion to think twice before attempting a crossing. to eat of their cold but that was beyond rest for the all me and after I they decided in was time to them Indians night. which operation well remember was a very tedious one. They also tried to get me . coming down in bucketfuls see in front of me at times. follow but all I had decided got out of them was a promise they would it was of no and as me at 10 o'clock. and we did look a sorry was so weak (I lot. let me remark that it . my I persuasive powers to go on alone. poured all night. Another gang of about ten Indians also turned up. seeing that I had had malaria almost constantly during the previous six months). However. start. could not light a fire everything was wet and I can assure you it was anything but a bright outlook for us. but I forward at all cost. owing to the excessive rains. daybreak I suggested they positively refused all brought avail. the same.

when I came to what had been a bridge. away had gone the remainder of the and. fortunately. it continued moving on far before There was no use was now dark feeling river. after all. could judge that it was four or five feet deep.which in the darkness fairly frightened me. and therefore did not trust to getting over them on mulebut took the safer and. more sensible back. dangerous paths to go along which have already described. and. before attempting to return to my animal. My mule would not look at I it. I " objective point for I had the narrow. bridge. I plan of leading my animal. could hardly keep my seat on my mule. got over all right. my way. Leaving my mule. the appearance of . still a long the night. and for a while I did not know exactly what to do. was about thirty feet wide. and over which it was impossible for a mule to go. being so ill. leaving me on one side. from so I my mule and saddle-bags. way from El Injenio. and. have hoped as it to keep our feet if we had attempted crossing. as far as 1 could judge in the uncertain light. This was tedious work. but which was partly washed away. but. as it turned out. I my progress was too suddenly did not until the next morning know what N 2 . had not and keeping very carefully away from the proceeded very arrested. and I. however. in my opinion. leaving a gap of about four feet in the middle. I started to go forward in the hope of at least striking some sheltered spot where I I Meantime. and now completely isolated might pass the night. All this made travelling so slow that I was rained all . I made a good jump. and rushing Neither mule nor I could ever past at a great rate. I left my mule and commenced to reconnoitre along the side.179 day travelling was not only difficult but positively dangerous. I did not know in the least where I was. but it I arrived at one of those swollen mountain streams. all I fretting. was to become worse very soon. heard a crash." my when darkness overtook me.

only about a hundred yards away. luckily for me. was of which. shivering with ague. so that The cold was intense. and when daylight came I never felt more thankful in my life. my surroundings. I simply made up my mind to remain had fallen until morning. and I did not know anything . with the water about two feet deep. travelled on the previous day I could not be far from Injenio. nothing to eat. and apparently had simply very edge stepped over the side. I mounted my mule. destination right ahead of me. and there. My saddle-bags were with the mule. I rolled to the bottom. can safely say that I never of water all round me. was not molested . plenty of cigarettes and matches. but I in am thankful to say that any way. I where I was soaking wet. and spent such a long. so that they would not light. As it was so black. and crossing on foot. but unable to even make a light. they were all wet with the rain. I climbed out of my nest. Towards morning the rain slackened. so my disagreeable plight smoke or can to some extent be imagined. At any rate. and I wondered where I had actually landed. There are bears I in this district also. there were about six inches I I could not attempt to sleep. was my faithful mule standing exactly as I had left him. and dreary night in all my previous experience. although I had plenty of matches. Moreover. and I was right. disagreeable. I waited until the water in the stream had gone down sufficiently. as in less than an hour I saw my I was in a pitiful condition. was only about fifteen feet but it quite a bump. and I had to remain in darkness all night.180 actually did take place. and I did not even know now where the animal might be. and I hope never to be compelled to do so again. but the facts are as follows I : In had actually been walking on the groping my way along of a sort of precipice. I ought to tell you that. and then recrossed on I knew from the number of hours I had muleback.

and for the best part of the day the route was over country very similar to but we were descending that passed on the previous day rapidly now. and the weather and other worrying insects were very plentiful but. and the temperature became perceptibly much warmer. and didn't.. as just about had enough of it.181 and could hardly stand up. Well. not to mention the magnificent butterflies of the all We colours. until I was revived somewhat. by the afternoon we had indications that " soon we should arrive in the montes. Instead. it The long pass of Margurani was down hill most of the time. luckily.m. In the meantime I did not know what had become of my pack animals and Indians." which at least put some life into me. We we had been accustomed to since we left were now only about two thousand feet above was very hot indeed. thirty hours. mosquitoes . of "Aguardiente. and as both we and the animals had was unusually tiring. but I drank a large quantity dry blankets. we decided to remain for the night. and the beautiful palms and ferns. in fact. which were very hard on our poor feet. were a grateful contrast to scenery Sorata.. and I got under his I could not eat. my men turned up. continued to be very rough and broken. I kept my bed for about Then. nevertheless." where we would have vegetation in abundance. The road. The old Indian recognised me and got me dry wraps after a fashion. and we had frequently to dismount and lead our animals for long distances at a time. and consequently we would at least have some shade during the heat of the day.m. a. a small stopping-place. were now right in tropical surroundings. and over loose rocks and stones. Pararani. and I was able to continue my journey to Sorata. we left Tolapampa about 6 . but I was not in a state to worry about them. bad as . was reached about 2 p. sea level.

feeling that at last AVC we were nearing our journey's end. In the morning. that is. now directed our animals' heads towards Copa- cabana. I slept was so fearfully tired. I awoke refreshed. and oranges. This was only three or four leagues off. we got the full benefit of the rain dripping from the branches overhanging. had been fairly good. as may be imagined. and he. but Ave Avere not fated to be so In fact. taking into consideration the high regions through which we had come. as we with his wife. and the going was somewhat improved also. and supplied passing travellers with general rations for both man and beast." I and. that Ave arrived " " " at Copacabana like the proverbial drookit mice. oasis. and with as our usual punctuality got away at 6 o'clock. properly. better treated. the result being. . that after all the "roughing. however. and. cultivates a little piece of ground. I think. although there were rats about. and with our tinned stuffs made quite a decent The place was owned by a Spaniard. I HoAveA er. we had not gone successful on this our last day. and continued during the Avhole of the rest of the day." the trip Avas. felt Avhen I got into the Estancia house. and we seemed to sigh a mutual sigh of content at our good luck in reaching this We rested all afternoon. they seemed trivial troubles compared with what we had come through. The place was clean in comparison with what we had been accustomed to. bananas. At " this " puesto we were obtained vegetables. and got to bed early. so our progress Avas a good deal faster than usual. the nearest of the rubber forests belonging to my friend. r got into dry clothes. Avhen a really characteristic tropical shoAver baptized us far.182 they can be. so far. along repast. the Aveather." As the path Avas beneath the trees all the Avay. During the greater part of the present journey. Avhich Avas just like a shoAver bath all the time." " like a log.

is very hard on white " I had my full share of this terciana. perusal of me my humble effort to express a modest hope that the put personal adventures on paper may at least convey to the reader some idea of what has to be experienced if one chooses to be a wanderer like myself in remote places.183 in part. However. and sometimes wonder how to the outside let I really managed to work my way world again. making my way over these very mountainous regions at such a very high elevation. without going through the hard work involved actual performance. compensated for by the new experiences I had gone through. and that he or she may to a certain extent enjoy the result nomh in the ally." as it is people. I remained for over a year in the rubber districts. called. nately. and the malaria being of a very malignant nature. and had an opportunity of seeing how the work is carried on and of judging of the enormous Unfortuprofit which must result to the lucky owners. In conclusion. . the climate is of the very worst.





Loading Wheat at the *Por/ of {Buenos j4ires. .

197 vessels with 55. at his Riachuelo was first opened for traffic for Buenos and in own 1865 applied for permission to construct them Four cost. but the application was rejected. and another pier for passenger traffic at . docks were to be constructed on the river side of the . In the year 1878 the sea-going ships. that Ed. The " the site of the Arsenal " on the Riachuelo. It was not until 1882 Madero succeeded the in obtaining the concession of building docks for the port of Buenos Aires. Taylor House replacing the fortress. and steamers over 100 metres long frequented the harbour about the time of 1870. these were only carried into practice and built by the Government under the a new Custom technical direction of Engineer E. Madero turned his attention to the question of docks for the port of Aires.091 tonnage had entered the Riachuelo. and in 1879. the locality of the old mole. which suffered In 1869 the total exports from Buenos the same fate. a timber pier for loading and unloading goods. the bulk of which were loaded at the Riachuelo. Aires were 397. years later he presented another application. THE built for the port of Buenos only work carried out in the harbour up to the end of the eighteenth century was the construction of thirty-five metres of brick quay-wall at first Custom House in Aires was 1603. 187 The city. As early as 1862 Ed.722 tons. 1858 We find that although between the years 1852 and many plans were presented for building of piers.PROGRESS OF THE PORT OF BUENOS AIRES.

183 between the gasworks on the north and the Riachuelo River on the south. arrived yearly. time of City of Buenos Aires up to the the South Basin had nearly all opening been carried on between the shore and the steamers by trade of The the the of lighters and small steam tenders. followed by the French Messageries Maritimes. many cases. and a few more that very slowly. and shortly afterwards by the Lamport & Holt Line. passengers brought on in tenders and landed at the Riachuelo wharves." a distance of about fourteen miles transhipped into lighters. they were taken ashore in small boats. and from this point they were taken to Custom House wheels. In the water was were too low to go alongside the mole. progressed . that arrived in the River Plate were those of the Royal Mail Company. Up were to the year 1870 these lines. and even the Riachuelo was so scantily . when there was sufficient if water. and not only a fair number of sailing-vessels started. although the rates of but after that trade increased freight were then very high gradually. the from the city. but the regular lines of steamers increased The great drawback was the their number of sailings. in specially-constructed carts with very Passengers were transhipped in the bar large into small tenders. The cargoes were which brought them as near to the shore as possible. no channel dredged. From these tenders. The first steamers which were then under construction. however. where steamers had to lie at a distance of fourteen to sixteen miles. and were brought to a point anchorage about 500 metres from the end of the passenger mole. while. and most of the sailingThere was vessels at ten to twelve miles from the shore. the ocean steamers was in the " The usual anchorage for bar anchorage. deficient state of the port. they also had to be brought ashore in carts.

being 570 more comfort. in the unseaworthy and leaky state they were in. often arrived of the with their cargo considerably damaged. The docks are united by passages 20 metres in width. No.409 metres and a depth of 21 feet 3 inches. and 1 and 2 have metres long by 160 metres wide. The total area of the basins and the four docks is 174 acres. depth of 9 inches below low there water.535 metres. with a quay length of 1. however low the river may be. presented the great objection that a roads. 4 Dock has a water area of 25 acres. which has a water area of 41 acres and a quay length of 1.189 supplied with water that lighters drawing seven to eight feet were sometimes for weeks prevented from getting out to deliver their cargo to the sea-going vessels in the outer The discharge was exclusively effected into lighters. each passage being Dock No. should never be less than 23 feet 9 inches in the docks. these lighters were old sailing-vessels or steamers. 3 Dock has a water area of 27 acres. with a quay length of metres. 1889. apart from the heavy expense incurred by the receiver of the goods. claims for which had Another point was that many of to be paid by the ship. . 1. each a water area of 23 acres. No. Since then dredging has been going on and the docks have been deepened to receive larger vessels. when they 23 feet were originally had a so that. which. 1.660 is 630 metres long by 160 metres wide. and. This lock opens into the North Basin. with a quay length of these four docks. northern end by the north lock. All finished. 4 is entered at its crossed by a swing bridge. considerable portion of the cargo was often broached and pilfered before it reached the shore.420 metres. passengers were able to embark or disembark with a little Docks cargoes were landed on the quays. On the completion South Basin on 28th January. is 690 metres long by 160 metres wide.

. This includes Dock No. machinery. 1898 The timber sea-wall was built to a level of 16 feet above low water. Dock No. Dock No. Madero was $35. and Graving Docks. several warehouses 192. 1 . 1890 31st March. have been built.. 1897 Second half of North Channel. The following statement shows the total tonnage that passed through the port of Buenos Aires in 1880. and 1909. 15th June.000.. two warehouses and two sheds in warehouses in Dock No. North Basin. 1897 North Channel. and the floor area Since then. say. 2. and the stone sea-wall to 19 feet. 4. North Lock. North Channel. 1900. 2 3 26th September. about ^7. three sheds and two warehouses Dock No. First half of 7th March. 28th January. 1889 31st January. and some burnt down.000. and four wareDock No. the total capacity of these sheds and in Dock No. Dock No. and clearly shows the advance last made in the 30 years.482 lineal metres.800 square metres. five warehouses being 525.. buoys and beacons 31st March. Dock No. 2. 3. 4. Dock No. 1890. North Basin. .. 1892 Dock No. houses in 1. The total cost of the harbour works as contracted for by Ed.190 and the total length of quays 8. the South Basin. 1. The following are the dates the various basins and docks were opened to traffic : South Basin South Lock. Originally there were built three sheds in the South Basin. 4. 1890 Dock No.510 cubic metres. or.. Graving Docks. 3. etc.000.000 gold.

sailing-vessels.008 we vessels entered the of tonnage of 5.114. 53^ per cent.507. of the total.096 tons 8.242 steamers and 37 sailing-vessels. British boats lead with 2.750 tons 4.174.978 steamers and 129 sailing-vessels left the port for foreign shores with a find that 2.191 These figures include steamers and local as well as foreign trade. out of these. say. and 1.193.973 tons 1909 In 1909 steamers and 137 sailingBuenos Aires from foreign port shores with a tonnage of 5.542.993.047. . and 1880 1890 1900 644. or.010 tons 16.




to whom I was saying good-bye. that I in great measure owe my quick recovery. I The good out from the Old Country. Buenos Aires British Hospital. and fate more is fate .M. " " Southern Cross met her fate on a rock in Vigo Bay. and it is to this fact. This was wrecked on something of a blow. shortly after my arrival.S. " R.JUST I MY LUCK! As you know. This I is how fate treats strangers in a new country." which carried the shipwrecked " " of the Southern Cross from Vigo to Buenos passengers Aires. but I REALLY have had my way rather bad luck. ship and my luggage met its fate at the same time." country taken care of myself. Even however. the Manager Company.P. for within two months I was down January. employment with the Santa Fe Land and immediately on my falling ill. Danube. one of my fellow-passengers. for I remember thinking that everybody in the train was wearing so. : with typhoid fever. and to the sensible treatment which I received in camp. proverbially kind to tyros of every sort. The journey to that find Buenos Aires was made as comfortable as possible. of the estancia sent me to bed. and the this sound piece of advice I don't suppose I can have will take care of you. I must have been slightly delirious. gave me " Take care of yourself. was expected to be treated a little when once my destination was kindly by reached I would be a stranger in a new country. 195 02 . You know to had the good fortune. and reduced me to a milk Two days later he himself took me down to the diet. arrived at the Argentine capital towards the end of At the conclusion of my journey.

Two or three berths away a . together with the latest and most approved methods of treatment. more mixed than in The company the here private ward consisting as it did of every class and of every nationality. however. I could not help noticing the cheery look of the ward. but my rather depressing I was just able to realise that the cases around me were more serious than in the private ward. after carefully diagnosing my case. ordered me to the medical ward. We typhoid patients had four cold baths daily. This was amusing. I was soon. were indeed a feature of the hospital It in all its aspects. surely have been a delusion. and my faculties were naturally not at their quickest. from Montenegrin to Turk. w as as kind and as careful as new surroundings had for the moment a treatment r formerly. the patients were obviously well cared for. and the British nurses looked both efficient and attractive. and that both doctors and nurses were more grave and intent on their work. and for the next few days was more or less oblivious to my environment. After a short time I became more alive to what was happening around me. everything was scrupulously clean. and was promptly carried upstairs to a private ward. This must I reached the hospital on a Sunday morning. There were flowers on the tables. effect. where there would be greater facilities for In the medical ward my giving me a course of baths. My was sense of certainly humour was reviving. The scrupulous cleanliness. was a short time afterwards that one of the doctors. to become delirious again. but it was not on that account any the less entertaining. Though my temperature was now as much as 104 deg..196 a pink shirt without either coat or waistcoat. and those patients who in their normal existence were unaccustomed to one warm bath a week were somewhat inclined to rebel.

The weather not think any other article of dress necessary. that he was going to his " And yet people accuse Scotsmen of a lack of little nest.197 monster dimensions. who was convalescent after an acute attack of rheumatism. it As I but she gave her charge the same excellent attention as At this time I began to be troubled with the pangs before. for Eventually my bed in the medical ward was required a more serious case than myself. at the time was certainly hot. This was in one case. and this may have suggested such a daring flaunting of the conventions. and behaved accordingly. but at last there came a chicken. would every night before getting into bed say. at home drinking beer in Plymouth. and the one on my an Italian workman. How I tore those bones chicken. Through all these vagaries on the part of the patients the nurses remained kind and careful as ever. I action without rather one time imagined that I had been discharged from the hospital with only the top of my pyjamas and a myself at would carry the travelling rug on my arm." imagination. The one on my hand imagined he was left. would persistently call for his It seemed he wished to return to his work and did boots. scarcely compensated for the lack of other apparel. of a great hunger. with a certain naivete. nor the of the nurse who brought it to me. where a patient insisted especially conspicuous that his nurse was a Chinese pirate. my food diet began with small doses of cornflour and with large doses of castor oil. After subsisting for five weeks on milk alone. and how I attacked them in my fingers so that I should not leave any of the good meat. travelling rug. On either side of me lay a typhoid patient right each delirious. I shall never forget that first chicken. and brawny Scot of without any sense of proportion. not the nurse apart. that It is curious among typhoid patients this illusion sufficient clothing is of doing some prevalent. and I was .

and they suffered from less grave complaints.198 sufficiently well to be returned to the private ward for a few days certainly of convalescence. It was after two months of medical treatment that I was able to leave the British Hospital. and finally. but efficient. thank sufficient emphasis and may fate deal Heaven I return to camp in a week. All the same. The building itself designs. In the evenings we generally had some sort of amusement among ourselves. both medical and surgical the treatment is excellent. and were all nearly well enough to leave the hospital. . . I on the point of leaving that realised and it was only when what we Britishers owe to this institution. the percentage of cures remarkable not a single case has been lost in the medical ward during the current year the doctors is fitted . more kindly with me in the future. the nurses but perhaps I have already dwelt with on their virtues. it is constructed on the most approved with every modern appliance. their efforts were distinctly humorous. They were for the most part victims of accidents. Theptece de resistance was more often than not a wrestling match between the man with the amputated foot and the man who had undergone an operation for sciatica. As both performers were in ordinary circumstances compelled to use crutches. are not only experienced. The patients here were more companionable than in the medical ward.



or even a desire for notoriety that urges us to issue " The Tacuru " we have undertaken this responsibility because we know that the world would be the loser did we . especially as some of the most adverb is well chosen) members to give their scientific of the band have promised is views on the lands through which we shall pass daily. but let us assure you our reasons for putting another paper and nestle in every due to our readers (if on the market are purely altruistic. we shall have created a demand and interest which not even to satisfy Halley's comet can rival. for we are certain that once the public have been educated to appreciate the high-class literature and useful information " " which it will be the aim of The Tacuru to supply. 1910."THE TACURU: PATRON SAINT No. Though this yet we have no intention of closing our paper at the end of that time. WHEN we consider the already overstocked journalistic world. expedition only advertised to last a fortnight. and remember the innumerable papers and magazines at every street corner which greet one armchair. : GEORGE WASHINGTON. Saturday. March 26th. It is no idea of mere gain. Our only 201 fear was that lest the world . we feel that an apology is any) for our temerity in swelling the overflow of periodicals. 1. refuse to give to the public the highly scientific impressions formed by an extraordinarily intelligent party of pilgrims during a unique journey into the wild uncultivated northern lands of the intellectual (the superlative Argentine. and that we shall endeavour demand daily.

Peary journeys.m. it is possible remonstrances might have been raised. blankets required. and the moon shone forth in such a way as to influence The Instigator to rescind his decision and declare an early start for to-day. This unequalled patience under trials was rewarded. so no expostulations were made.30 a. contributed by one we think our readers might appreciate a slight character sketch of each of our " Staff. fortunately." and all the innumerable details which made for the party's comfort. finally arranging up places in the carriages. to clench his The Instigator jaw yesterday afternoon. and had it not been . But. each member of the party only possessed the angelic variety of temper. Rumour Our Hostess has sat it that till The Jehu and 12. goodness only knows." This fiat caused dire consternation the idea of waiting for two days when all those carts were packed ready for our immediate outset. or it may have been the " " Cristobal Cocktails which inspired him to do great deeds. . the elements seemed inclined to delay us.202 should be kept waiting for the publication of our paper." There are nine Pilgrims.. on to-day's trip. for though everything was in readiness yesterday for an early start to-day. and peace was maintained. food supplies. but you do want to know him first. FIRST: The Instigator. " as he remarked We cannot start till Monday. filled the party with annoyance. and when rain had fallen steadily nearly all day. Well. he's right when you know him. unless he was fired by a desire to celebrated imitate the Cook.m. it was found that the rain had ceased. publish the impressions. What possessed him to suggest that we should trek away north. his aide-de-camp " and Before we member of the band. of the trip was seen for the fact that The Instigator is a man not to be trifled with. and great was the joy of the party when at 8 p.

a leaf. and to teach him how many grains of " maize make ocho. do. be always on the trying to sleep) . As a camp man he a few shillings to the highest lady is a marvel. just as well for know when and where you friends cannot say he will get the next. Talking of feeding. Popularity Stakes." you never His best is musical (save when others are but he has a favourite song. standing that square possibility jaw of which seems " to hint at the a man of wrath existing in that silent fails thoughtful being. system. he " of is a very good fellow. or some weird microbes which he says are . and says to make a good meal while you are about " it is it. and he had not been long Beer. " tout jour" he can eat anything. The Wild Man discovered this " a railway carriage.hear that coming out from England he earned a reputation on board ship as an auctioneer." However. and once even sold a live We lord for bidder. and feeds on it constantly. babbling for Kwilmez so he was brought along. and never to do his share of work as it comes along. and it must have been his desire to acquire knowledge which induced him to come with the party." at the Estancia before he was running first favourite in the in He was always ready for anything. never seen on horseback. The Saint has undertaken to explain to him how colonists thrive on the 8 per cent. for we fancy Our Guest will never leave eight grains of maize uneaten he is a wonder for that delicacy. and occasionally going off into hysterics over some clod of earth. and it is that " old music-hall classic entitled Do. and we hear rumours . his motto is Instigator has the digestion of an ostrich." We doubt whether she will succeed in the latter attempt. do. he is kindness itself to all. SECOND rara avis : Our Guest. and notwithhis. The feeding on the alfalfa roots. . but generally discovered on his hands and knees fudging about with a thing he calls a pocket microscope.

hard voice. and his views are so uncommon that we called him The Delineator instead besides. about with maps and charts when appealed in to as to a cold. His knowledge of the horses . just as she goes. when they often degenerate into a snoring competition. he has never travelled quite the are going now. he guides his steeds with consummate skill and care. . but the discussions are not followed with quite so much delight by those who are privileged to hear is them at night. then gives his attention gers with a cheery All aboard ? more to the animals of which he is so fond. and tussocks. tacurus. in darkness. insects. This is a misnomer. " " he drives The Jehu is a man of great marvellous. and information. in light. se non e vero e ben trovato. replies " North by North. he always travels .204 that he intends to take his native country. There is but one his eyes to light : heard of the the ordinary make them name for a man who his handles his four-in-hand over tree-trunks. The Delineator. or someone else's) and what course we should take. He and The Instigator have great arguments together which interest all listeners by day. in sunshine. FOURTH The Jehu. and in once which he takes such pride. moths." but that sounds common. which is wonderful to see. He drives as not even namesake drove in rain. as our coacher does. own." (his Like the road new rest of the party. THIRD so : some maize cobs home with him to " and proposes to feed his team " on it. and plants caused we up with a wild gleam when he and the yarns he spins of things unseen by trip. but the prospect of collecting a few varieties of butterflies. sober mortal are ever a joy to the listener. he " really should be called The Photographer. over smooth ground or rough. and whisper. After a more than usually big bump he turns to his passen. and has a pleasant knack of perception being able to convey his knowledge to others.

and is always on the spot ready for any emergency when : required. SEVENTH The Saint is a lady who will give away anything in her possession. if The horses and peons will also be under his care. still he is always cheerful and content. He prefers to make his bed on the bricks or the cold. deer horns. tobacco. and is very keen on collecting knowledge which she is always ready to impart to others . for he always carries revolvers. knives. English or His resources know no bounds. but we fear that our kindest remarks may be misunderstood by one so unused to a quiet civili- sation with no revolutions. hard ground. and fed. and any odd things lying about the camp belonging to himself or other people . he has been seen to fasten up a pair of leggings with bits of stick. It will be his business to see that we are housed. handkerchiefs (her own or The is Instigator's). a person of importance. This product of a land of luxuriant vegetation has a quaint penchant for collecting matchboxes (filled). never grumbles. old boots. His powers of annexation. and can give valuable information respecting the ways of the natives who look upon him as a man and a brother. and cameras. comfort thereof . and anyone grumble about anything The Chaperon is the person Tent-erecting is what he considers himself to be very good at but rumour has it that his best accomplishwants to to abuse. and then enlarges on the foreign styles). ment is hairdressing (ladies or gentlemen. clothed. We had been driven south by should like to say some- thing nice about him. are indeed marvellous. both mentally and materially. SIXTH The Chaperon has his : uses. and good advice on matrimony. so we refrain from all personal comments.205 FIFTH: The Wild stress of Man weather and strikes. he generally takes his food standing up. save chicken or eggs. . Just now she is making donations of pipes. She .

" whisper that her her. some of her efforts to improve humanity have not been absolutely successful. Most of us have to thank her for some good thing or other. though occasionally quotations. but we think she came with the sheep. she will look after the Everyone goes to her for advice. she is brought along.206 unfortunately. lucid (when required) a Her description of anything. but she is never discouraged. thrown in : NINTH The Kid. so every histrionic genius is marvellous ." vide Arturo Cuyas' Dictionary). ' for the social success of the as the advertisements say of patent sweepers and the " no party is complete without Encyclopaedia Britannica. for. of her namesake and favourite book. it was not until the first part of the journey had been accomplished that she was discovered bleating in the corner of one of the had a meeting to decide whether she should coaches. but her hopeless incompetence . come on with us or not. Her accomplishments are numerous. too. It Why will (" ever know. it must indeed be wonderful. Anyhow. can only say that talent for giving her acting equals her really concise. physically and mentally. of us in her own gracious fashion. we. EIGHTH : My Lady lot is a general favourite . they remind us. She will do her best to keep every member of the party up to the mark. and arranged to put her on the job of tidying We up for the trip . are so ready and apt. nobody " have been as a contrapeso may an addition of meat or fish of inferior quality. by their vagueness. sympathy. which she is Even without her tea-basket she always ready to give. one was glad to hear that she had agreed to Those favoured ones the northern pioneers. who if are not among the fortunate number. would be an absolute necessity trip. or help. and takes up the next case on the list with equal enthusiasm. accompany " who have seen her on the boards. to complete the weight.

and The Wild Man carrying heavy boxes and baggage (with no thought of gain) out to the peons. as she is really not worth the trouble of sending back. as well hang him. were sent on ahead with the nine peons who had been told off for the Cameras appeared from every available corner as we trip. started out trip. under the able direction of The Chaperon. which. There you may an old saying. We ladies' from the estancia house as soon as the luggage could be brought downstairs. and was satisfied that even she could to do nothing more for our comfort. that it was a very affecting sight to see lifting Our Guest. and many invaluable photos of the start of the caravan must have been secured by those who gave us such a hearty send-off. followed by The Chaperon. in passing. and looked after the rest of the explorers. who had four members of the party in his care he was . we locked up the tea tin. we parted from her with great regret. when ready. and provided us with biscuits and bull's-eyes. awake or asleep. we may yet lose her much. necessitated instant dismissal without a character. party was us on the that The one disappointment expressed by all the Our Hostess decided not to accompany but to await our return at Cristobal.207 and ready impertinence to her superior officers. When at last Our Hostess had put in the final cushion and rug. However. and our travels en First went off the four-in-hand driven by The Jehu. who. route. With somewhere in the wilds. and we should like to remark. prepared to move. loaded them scientifically on one of the four carts. The and Delineator." is " Give a dog a bad name and The truth of this saying has . and let her continue the journey on the condition that she will not talk too any luck. who drove a pair. promising that she should receive numerous marconigrams concerning our welfare.

The sight of this great crop of valuable maize.000. impossible there for the white man indeed. The Santa Fe Land Company has been one of the pioneers who steadily fought down these reports. and his fellow-workmen. . colonist. on land which a few months before was a mere waste." north. and still Before we had gone far on our journey we they come. has gradually opened up the possibilities of the northern lands to colonists and investors. for surely of no country could it more truly . thick as crops grown. and though it was late in the season. : . first in fear " and dread. adaptability and grit can do what this man has done indeed hard work and perseverance will as amply reward the labourer in the northern lands as they have done in the south. And so sure is he that the land will repay all labour and time expended upon it that he is anxious to take up a league and colonize it with his fellowcountrymen. but later had an opportunity of conversing with one lately arrived A wonderful crop of maize attracted our notice. which long held the reputation of being good for nothing. strong-framed Italian who had grown it. it was supposed that cattle even could not live there on account of the . He has moved up from the south with his wife and family. with the result that he has to-day banked $5. and by showing what good cattle could be bred there. and we stopped to speak to the great. and what mosquitoes and garrapata flies. and now the cry is They come. Slowly but surely workers came with confidence.208 never been better exemplified than in the case of the Chaco. he was persuaded to try a catch-crop of maize. They started ploughing. when he never expected to secure a chance harvest. It is the same story all through the northern lands anyone with pluck. Rumour had it that the northern land was useless life was . jolly. and Indians were said to be as and equally disturbing. brings the words of the Psalmist forcibly to one's thoughts.


.Horses awaiting Inspection.

possibly her action . During our first change of horses. " there are few countries in which there are less openings for " " the the man whose mind is not set towards doing good : Argentine has little room it for the shirker. but it is really amusing to watch the expression of the horses as they stand in a row while the selection takes place. " and perhaps doing good. generally At the word of command they against a wire fence. . for the is early stop for a change. but horses." Where no wire fence is available. However. who chooses the animals he requires. The rain of yesterday relieved us also from the trials of dust on our journey. and the horses will line up against that " same manner. 87. these animals are all lined together they await the inspection of their master. and when a halt up in a row. a plaid horse at least this is what she called it. and instead of travelling for the usual two hours before relieving made we were obliged to total make an number This is is always an interesting sight. verily. without a word of warning. and be be said than of the Argentine. Our called. Their training wonderful. she leapt astride the native saddle and gave a short display of how it should be done. they seem to be saying Please. sir. fortunately from her point of view. the peons stretch a rope or lasso out. the going very heavy. backed close against the fence in a Packed tightly long line with their heads outwards. and as they are standing thus they allow themselves to be haltered up and led quietly is away from the line to be harnessed. animals are so well trained. not I this time. This horse must have reminded her of the circus-riders of her childhood (or was owing to temporary aberration) anyhow. range themselves.Dwell in the land. and. and in the we believed it to be German for piebald horse from which a peon had dismounted. thou shalt be fed . The Saint perceived unexpected excitement occurred.

roast ducks dodged the turkey. At eventide. of England. another excellent repast was provided. After The Saint had up. whether willingly or not. and only quietly ambled along for a few yards. during which time the cameras came into full play. and were pursued by plum pudding. He had ridden to the furthest outposts of his section to join us. neither he nor history mentions. etc. and The Saint was so impressed by the catering and culinary a prize skill of our host. successful exhibition of buck-jumping with his steed. took the opportunity for giving us a short. as we were wells. and it was not long before we met our host for the day. and the horses were harnessed onward move was made. arrived at the Section house of Polvareda about We midday. fencing. and under his guidance we were conducted to two or three spots. tality current in that part of the world.m. and found that our host had prepared an alarmingly sumptuous repast for his influx of visitors : as course followed course. an been persuaded to dismount. But we discovered that he came from the and had not forgotten the ideas of hospiRumour had it that he himself had been seen carrying about pails of scalded milk at 4 a. Our host. The afternoon was spent in driving or riding round the section to inspect various windmills. West driving round.. the piebald animal had not been trained to circus tricks. that she decided to inaugurate to be won by the bachelor estanciero who shall provide the best .210 though disappointingly from that of the spectators. and new alfalfa. This proceeding explains the delicious Devonshire cream and butter we are enjoying. where The Instigator inspected rodeos of animals in his charge. etc. we began to wonder if our host thought that meal would have to last us for the fortnight of our trip. more groups of cattle. meals for the hungry nomads during the trip certainly our host for to-day has put the standard very high for the other .

Stacking Alfalfa. .



.Alfalfa Elevator at Work.

cries for The Chaperon was mosquito bites. during dinner with Our Hostess at Cristobal. . ebryting! " viz. When at last the members of the party had p 2 wanted wanted to tell wanted to give advice or remedies Very early this morning there were he was wanted to tell the time he to bring water for ablutions. through the house. he justified his existence. "THE TACURU. he was us when breakfast would be ready he was : . Sunday. The party did not sit up late last night they had a short talk on the verandah for the sake of digestion. for a short space of time. March 21th. for . in general. and more nasal." but probably he was " of bullets and the roar of battle as ping the snores resounded through the room. or. and all retired to bed. Foolishly they had imagined that mosquitoes were things of the past. 2. Hush. and "All's well" was reported on both sides. 1910. but the word Our angels Guest used sounded " dreaming of the A short telephonic communication was held competitors. and you'll hear de little angels sing." No. and no nets were put up. one might almost like " say. but alas not to rest. and bite from some of the party we learn complaints of other songs. and it is believed that it was Our Guest who was heard at midnight to be murmuring the chorus of soon learnt that for fresh blood little was a plethora of these : a favourite song. with the result that one and all ! then and newcomers there demons waiting with their irritating song. more human. and." " " At least it says in the song. sting. boys! No noise! Silence Listen. .

or it was a desire to escape observation (and. given a bottle of Our Guest seemed to have cana. Bidding adieu to Polvareda. she seemed quite happy. Apparently The Kid. lumps. the too-effusive thanks of the lady a violent toothache. would have liked to give her views on mosquitoes and their ways." and. the chief being. but her uninteresting remarks were cut short by The Wild Man's order of "kennel up. perhaps. after due deliberation. too. and he assured us that a mosquito's proboscis is an impressive point.. The manager of the next . coffee (with the addition of bacon and eggs. etc. which caused our host to conceal himself in a huge blanket wrapped around his head as we left. and the showing of bites. we pushed forward. well under way before half the lamentations We were had been entered in the station complaint book. an impression. down some " useful rules for future guidance. that someone had blundered. and the interval. and several other " All things) was served. effects of our first Our Guest. Most of the nomads had had some slapping acquaintance with mosquitoes during the night. before the order " collected themselves aboard was issued. but we fear it was toothache that necessitated the extra wrappings. swellings. He knew someone had slumbered (some had not). had not gone far on our journey before We we crossed the bridge over Las Conchas. where the green fields of alfalfa show the march of progress. : Never be without a Mosquitero" his face and head were literally enlarged on this point. also. and plaintively he begged that he might be allowed in future to sleep at one estancia further ahead of the rest of the party. was chiefly occupied in observing night's experience of laid and discussing the bichos. but as we left we were members unable to decide whether of the party).212 from all sorts of odd corners. only ended when The Jehu ordered the bugle to be sounded for an onward move.

The Green Fields of Alfalfa. .


barrels of flour." where most of the life can be obtained. or pipes. On our way from Polvareda to Michelot we passed necessities the emporium of the Universal Provider of the " North. knives. axes. and found the same A gramophone occupied a side and skins and pictures were hanging on the walls. every variety of tinned foods. . the stores.213 section met us soon afterwards. table. She wanted to make the whole party presents of hats. for apparently constitutes the local rendezvous and news agency for miles around. where everything was extraordinarily neat and clean. We went into the living-rooms of the storekeeper. . for no place is stamped on her memory unless she has spent money there. Some men were on the benches. The cloths. father's native language. on. The Saint at once made purchases. sugar. bril. smoking and drinking and chatting " the stores " together. The storekeeper's wife and her sister were attractive Englishwomen there were two or three children running about. but none of them could speak anything but their attractive neatness there. and handkerchiefs hats hanging in long lines. etc. and one or two hats." The adage. and showing cleanliness sitting and method at every turn. tobacco. pipes. but she satisfied her generosity was restrained. leather goods and harness. and ultimately by choosing the best saddle-cloth the establishment could supply. After this inspection we drove and we are glad to be able to register the fact that Our Guest for once acted up to the first part of the old " Earn sixpence a day and live up to it. in other words. all arranged with precision. liant shelves piled high with bales of bright-coloured cottons.. hand- kerchiefs. and Saint can never resist the others of the party were anxious to see all that the stores contained. so we made a halt and inundated the building. and we inspected the cattle on his domains. saddle-cloths. and many of the luxuries of desire of a bargain.

that is to say." A short siesta followed lunch. on what we consider good authority. all the party were collected at Michelot estancia house. and we are assured. whatever his motive. he leapt from the carriage (perhaps " " flew would be a better word) and opened that gate. Some . which he did with a slow precision and apparent utter disregard of his master's orders.214 Jehu's coach had stayed behind for a while. who had other work to do he it was who dis. having possible. who apparently combined the duties of cook and parlourmaid in his own somewhat yellow person. and very well he performed his task. fulfilled her mission of purchasing whenever get was content. covered and averted what might have been a disaster." and all. so The Chaperon drove on with his coach. but. and the peons had likewise remained. he reminded definition of us " irresistibly of the soi-disant American whether in it were not " we began to wonder a Chinaman who summed up existence Life. lunch was served on the verandah by a dour-looking Oriental. he did open that gate. but as he went silently about his business of serving this large party. the words. and no peon at hand. to allow The Instigator to observe and note a great many things which were no business of his at all. and after an early tea everyone mounted horses or carriages and went forth to see the sights of the Section everyone. and let it be recorded to the honour of his fellow-passengers that his action was the stores. Possibly he had been fired with ambition to earn money while inspecting those crimson and blue handkerchiefs at we know he appreciates "colours". but to The Saint. save The Chaperon. for When not allowed to pass unappreciated or unrewarded. and anxious before her on to the Section house for a rest afternoon ride. that when Our Guest perceived a closed gate in the way. After Life is only one d d thing after another.


Herd of Cattle. .



of the party were quite content as long as they were given three cups of tea, others fancied cocktails, and some babbled for cocoa. It was suddenly found that the

supply of this

The last useful article was running short. Kid not being a cocoa-drinker, casually suggested filling up

the tin with tannin extract or dust

she said



looked the

same and nobody need smell
to resort to subterfuges



The Chaperon

and rode

off to the stores to


a deficiency caused by his


lack of attention.

At Michelot, as

at Polvareda, great progress has


of late years, alfalfa laid
cattle are

been down, fences and wells made,

and the

improving yearly.

the inspection for the day
of 3,000 cattle,



Our last sight, before was a wonderful rodeo

which we viewed from the vantage point of

the banks of a newly



was a



will not easily

be erased from the


of those who saw it. The cattle, with their long continuous lowing, were rounded up below us, and away on the horizon the sun was setting with the glory one never sees better elsewhere than over a plain, leaving, as it rapidly

sank from


marvellous shades of gold and crimson on

Save for the animals and the fantastically shaped clouds. their drivers just around us, the whole vast space seemed
and empty, yet on every hand were traces of man's skill, conquering a tract of land which was almost valueless a few short years back. On our return to the house we found dinner for us on the verandah. This was a delightfully cool method of taking food, but rather apt to attract beasties, and although the philosophers and friends of the party arranged the lights to keep away insects as much as possible, and succeeded in

labour and

their efforts,



some members of the party preferred to take and dined with veils wrapped around their heads,

only leaving their mouths available.

The Wild Man caused


some excitement before we



to dinner

It certainly railway insect." a railway train, with its green light on strongly resembled its head, red at the tail, and luminous yellow lights all over

us to a beast he called a


by introducing

body; it was a most interesting disWild Man went up in everyone's estimation covery, and the The Oriental again served us with for a few minutes. " It was suggested that one of our silent steadiness. boys" should assist him in the task of waiting on the party of


twelve, but notwithstanding the fact that he had been told

he might kick round any boy he chose to make an assistant, " he waived aside all outside help with the words no good," and continued on his way imperturbably.


Instigator, with


Delineator and


Jehu, had

a long discussion after dinner on various Argentine subjects too deep for the ordinary mortal, though The Wild Man and

The Chaperon seemed


interest in the conversation.

be trying to take an intelligent Our Guest sat silent, looked


and on being offered a penny for his thoughts, he murthat he was wondering whether he would be allowed

any sleep to-night. Doubtless he felt wearied, because, as it is Sunday, The Chaperon had been allowed to take a halfday off for his own amusements, and Our Guest, perhaps
stimulated by his financial success of the morning, offered but we to fulfil the duties of chaperon during his absence to say that we cannot candidly advise Our Guest regret

to take

up chaperoning as a means of livelihood, for though willing and tactful, he lacks the long training and






arduous work.



mosquito looked forward to a peaceful night. communication with Our Hostess over the telephone before


seemed happier, over each bed


they had noted


room, and they We had our usual


and received and gave satisfactory reports from

both sides.

A correspondent wishes to know can name the author of these lines

any of our readers




be undisturbed."

gives sleep to the bad, in order that the good He would also like to know if this

generally accepted quotation is quite correct, or whether " " " un is a misprint. O. G.," c/o THE the Replies to
to the innumerable applications which we have received for advertising space in our widely circulated periodical, we have decided to open our columns to advertisements at the rate of 50 cents per line, applications



be sent to

Offices, c/o

The Advertisement Editor," THE TACURU The Jehu, First Coach. All orders must be



Bricklayers Manager, Michelot.


who can

build straight.


fees go to Charity.

side-saddle or



T. S.," c/o




undertaken in best


per " T. C.," Offices of this Paper. received by


Ladies', per pair, for the asking.




Monday, March

28th, 1910.

Owing to the care with which the mosquito nets had been put up, there were few complaints of bites when the party assembled for breakfast, but the conversation chiefly
degenerated into an argument on phonetics. The different rooms held various views on the harmonizing of sounds.

Had it been a glee competition we should undoubtedly have given the award to the verandah party. Sleeping on the bricks seems to bring out the sweetness of a treble voice as
do. The Saint and My Lady both remarked that they were very fond of music, but they could not appreciate being awakened from their beauty sleeps, by " the announcement in a raucous voice of No, thank you." do not wish for a moment to imply that The Kid was They not perfectly justified in refusing whatever she did refuse, but they would like her in future to confine her conversations to the daytime if possible, and to leave their nights in peace.

nothing else can

It was a happy thought on the part of The Jehu to suggest a picnic at the Waters Meet to-day, before our forward move on to Los Moyes, and after breakfast we started out. First we went to inspect the site where the new house is
little monte near by, where were taken of the cavalcade some picturesque photographs We paused in this tiny monte, for it is an of riders. intensely interesting spot from a botanical point of view, and with care and attention should be so for some years to In an extraordinary small compass this wood come. contains more varied specimens of trees than one would So on to Waters Meet. ordinarily see in a day's journey. Here one is afforded an opportunity for studying the waterThree rivers meet here, shed of this portion of Argentina.




then on to the pretty

the Concha, the Calchaqui, and the Northern Salado.




the only perennial river in that region it rises snowy peaks of the Andes, in the province of

miles away, and it is not to be wondered at, that, though it is a slow-moving river and meanders through the Gran Chaco, in the times of floods its swollen

waters overflow their banks and flood immense tracts of

Thomas Page,


1855, navigated this river

Parana to went up it to give up the idea of continuing his pioneer task of It had been his intention to open up the river exploration. for trade, and there is no reason why this should not be done at some future date. The Calchaqui goes under different names at various places. It rises on the great on the North - East of the Santa Fe Land swamps Company's territory, and flows through a chain of lakes " Del and canadas until it runs into the huge laguna and thence along what used to be the Eastern Palmar," boundary of the Santa Fe Land Company's lands, until it
joins the Salado.

American Admiral, in the from its junction with the the spot where we were to-day, but when he there was so little water in the river that he had

The Calchaqui must drain at least 150,000 acres of land, and the Rio Concha has a watershed of about 60 or 70 thousand acres. It is not known what the area of the watershed of the Salado is, but it must be immense therefore it can be understood that the meeting-place of the waters of these three rivers is an interesting spot geoOn our graphically, and we were all glad to have seen it.

arrival at the

the native "asado," and

would not be the The peons collected (apparently from nowhere), in last. less time than it takes to write about, sticks and odds and ends for a fire, over the ashes of which they broiled the

Water Meet we had our we all hoped


introduction to

meat, holding

The meat was brought
and each one cut

over the heat on long skewers of wood. to us cooked, still on these skewers,

them by The Jehu, and a very hearty and the portion he preferred, merry meal was made by all. The resulting silence of repletion was only broken by a murmur from The Saint of My heart is full," which sentiment, anatomically amended, was echoed by all. When active exertion was once more possible everyone repaired to the banks of the Waters Meet, and a spot being found where there were no dead fish lying about, the ladies (under the tutorship of Our Guest and The Jehu) indulged
had cut
off for

or she





rifle-shooting at bottles.


fear that



record any marvellous marksmanship on their part, for the bottles were still bobbing about on the water when the " ladies' party retraced their steps to the camp." A cup
tea was suggested before the returning drive, and it was thought possible (though not probable) that The Kid might be useful on this occasion. However any hopes in this direction were speedily dispelled when (after a great

deal of noise and talk) she appeared with

a thick black

which proved absolutely undrinkable. True it was " poured from a tea-pot, but anything less like tea as one usually meets it at 5 o'clock, could scarcely be imagined, " and the air seemed full of the unspoken query, Has every" The drive back to the estancia one a use in this world ? house was as pleasant as that of the morning, and there we

found the Chinaman (who, owing to the strenuous exertions The Chaperon, now appeared with considerably less hair,

and obviously a more swollen head), had gauged correctly the incompetency of The Kid, in the brewing of his native beverage, and consequently had prepared a beverage which might pass for tea, and was enjoyed by all. After this refreshment a move was made, the luggage had gone

.fixpanse of jHfalfa.

char-a-banc had started some minutes ahead of the more modest two-horse vehicle. calmed the others sufficiently to allow of their enjoying the remnants of the sunset. on. it was to be supposed that it would reach the destination. We now began to approach a more pleasing country. We were favoured with another exquisite glorious drive. sunset which shed weird and beautiful light over this As the four-horse strangely quiet and empty country. However. Los Moves. part. in their waters. on their arrival they found that nothing had been heard. impassively murmured They're all right. Long after the last . and putting up beds and generally arranging matters as if the section house belonged to him. making a brave show. the land had a against the low trees. and the trees in the distance opening to a glimpse of smallest lake. Certainly Los with an Moyes section house is most prettily expanse of alfalfa beyond the little front garden. with of its silver the bright crimson its fruit of the smaller coach when. likely to) have overtaken situated. and fishing carried on. more homelike and less expansive appearance. or seen. as it was It was a broken up by these little groups of trees." and started to give orders for unloading. show There are three of is these lakes not far from the house.221 and the party followed in their two coaches. and we hear that there was some consternation expressed by the party the prickly pear. of the more ambitious vehicle. and drove through little montes of scrub and trees. undisturbed by any thoughts of the horrible fates their which might (but were not companions. by means of spearing. The Chaperon on being appealed " to. and this callousness on his we are told. first. grey appearance and showed up occasionally Altogether. and that larger optunia. with a few growing near the bright-coloured verbena and cacti ground.

" and we all safe." After everyone was assured that everyone else was " The Instigator came back from his Elysium. mosquitoes. So am I. out after dinner on the verandah. with tact worthy of a diplomat. Instigator. during which meal much merriment was caused by a difference of opinion between The " Saint and her host on dogs ard species of dogs. and a rush was made by the hosts of Los Moyes. photos could be obtained of the machine and its work. as they explained that The All anxiety The Instigator had sighted in the far offing a steam plough." Our enemies. who. with an audience seated on chairs venture to sit and beds. he insisted on investigating that plough. were not so virulent as usual perhaps owing to the eucalyptus trees which are growing near the house anyhow the party could . this delay. Thus. at the face of The rest excited. suggested that if an early return to the ploughing were made next morning. of the occupants of the coach seemed rather less and more weary. and it was with difficulty he was persuaded to return to the We believe the credit coach. dreamily to finish the quotation of The Delineator and " The Wild Man with Said Gilpin. for this latter achievement is due to The Delineator. was quickly allayed by one glance He was exuberant with joy. This bait was successful. which was already covered with beds for the accommodation of some of the party. the to-night. to ascertain the cause of trace of sunset had faded from the sky. The Instigator talked of the plough and of its marvellous work in opening up hitherto unused tracts of . and their earlier arrivals. sat down to dinner. and The Instigator was gently enticed away with promises of to-morrow.222 The Jehu appeared with his coach. and " the dinner waits and we are tired despite murmurs of * from The Delineator and The Wild Man. and continue the drive home. in fact on trying it himself.

Vise-Plough at Work .



.Roadmaker and Railroad Builder.

but mechanical ploughing obviates all this. or ride round the afternoon. The remedy. until quite recently the northern camps were very much handicapped by the lack of labourers. Fishing was spoken of. drawn by horse or bullock. however." writes in answer to " . will be inserted in the next day's issue. In dry weather it is almost impossible to get the plough. plans were made for the following day. the party retired to rest. The quotation is quite correct. for though Sadi travelled for a he gives is " M. and the drought so punishes the working animals that often when rain comes they are too weak for their work. and gives him the virgin land in such a condition that with the means at hand he is able to cultivate an area sufficiently large to ensure him the It success. Want and of labour has retarded development consider- ably. As w e r sat thus on the verandah in moonlight. Prepaid advertisements received at the office of this paper before 6 p. row on the lake. and of with brains to guide the labour. and the colonist is unable to take the best advantage of the season. so we found that probably the fishing would have to be given up. into the ground. was decided that a visit to the plough should occupy the morning.up of fresh lands has the traction engine. that it men left a sparseness of them for agricultural purposes. Not only was there a deficiency of men." that the quotation from the writing of the Persian poet Sadi. of the possession of clear consciences Thus. but often so many of the working bullocks were drafted off to the forests for timber haulage.223 land. always been the trouble facing the colonist. G. L.m. and a it. before proceeding to Lucero. presented itself by the utilisation of The breaking. in the security and mosquito nets. O. but we could not manage everything in the short time we had at our disposal at Los Moyes.

Lost. was busy divesting the fish of scales.. on " returning same to T. Modern thought is inclined to differ from ADVERTISEMENTS. . work. please return to the Manager. causing a great deal of interest to the various curious members of the band needless to say. he never travelled with the present Company in the Argentine. 1910. Asia. and we were afraid that not only would the fishing expedition be impossible." Offices of this Paper. one pearl-drop ear-ring may be Finder will be rewarded as above. ! This morning. March 29th. Our host had sent some men out in the early morning to secure fish for our delectation. for a drizzling rain was the promise of last falling when the party collected for breakfast. but also that the ploughing inspection might have to be postponed. alas did not fulfil night's sunset. therefore he did not realise that the sleep of the bad could disturb the good. examining them under his ubiquitous microscope. When finished with. The Instigator aquatic animal . 4.224 great number of years in Europe. but they were unable to spear more than one. after the enthusiasm of The Instigator. and this large was now hanging up under the verandah. and insisting on everyone . and Africa. under the carpet. S. \Q REWARD. "THE TACURU. LOST." No. his views. Tuesday. Michelot. and all to see that engine at were anxious. Two rubber sponges and two blankets.

made for for the smaller coach to return necessary of animals after a few hundred yards. another move forward was made. stimulated by the the Wild Man occupied best The Chaperon made a very and verandah.225 observing the marvels of Nature shown in this manner. A slight lameness on the part of one of the steeds to recover his nerve. all were surprised to note his passiveness during the competition however. The Jehu then pointed out that his had proved correct. think that this was the psychological moment when the rest of the party began to appreciate the powers of that microscope. and the misty rain had blown prophecy off. and satisfied himself that The Wild Man had nothing of value had escaped his observation. and The Wild Man. he explained his inertia by saying that his sleep had been disturbed by visions for which no microscope was . When the coach was ready with fresh horses. and chattels was away. in case any accident should happen to the boat during the voyage. but could " no more definite description in words than figures give " " and streaming hair." so he was left alone on the blind needed. The Delineator and The Wild Man appeared to be the chief favourites for the prize. and knowing the acquisitive propensities of The Chaperon. resulting productive tour of the rooms in great satisfaction to himself. He offered to sketch what he had seen. having ousted the colonists for the time . We and insinuations were made to the owner that it would be a pity to take such a beautiful pocket instrument back to Europe. The change it few minutes of this delay to The owner of the house possible advantage. and the microscope be lost. so a start was made en masse for the scene of the ploughing operations. leaving a clear sky and fine weather. and on arriving at the ground the smaller party found that the occupants of the first coach were already on the plough.

from which they are extricated with difficulty. as both wood and water fuel were plentiful. however. engine was drawing twenty disc-ploughs. Until recent years land in the Argentine Republic has been ploughed in small areas by animal labour. This is likely to cause damage. it has become necessary to work on a much bigger scale. but also for traction. In general. They are heavy and unwieldy. and could plough twenty -eight to thirty acres of land a day. carts plough has presented Further. to the immense harvests and the vast tracts of country awaiting development. not only for ploughing and threshing. week in and week out. etc. which has been brought to a state of considerable perfection It can be employed in Great Britain and the United States. excavation. and a staff of at least six persons to At the spot where this engine was working objections were obviated. ground. through explosion. and to bring in the aid of machinery. these difficulties are largely overcome by the adoption of the naphtha motor engine. and enjoyed the pleasure derived from turning over the untouched soil. and thus saving expense. and apt to sink in soft ground. In some places the ordinary form of steam many practical disadvantages. the latter wagons. the farmer or colonist often employing the members of his family to assist him. and of feeling that they were helping to start the The development of Nature's truest source of wealth. An engine and plough will break up one hectarea of camp per hour. and embankment work. and some of these machines with two relays of workmen will .22* This plough was working on rough virgin being. or more serious accidents. they require a constant train of water- and work them. Owing. turning over more land in one hour than two men and four horses can do in England in a whole day. Each member of the party took their turn on the plough.

.Ploughing Virgin Camp.


Other machines dig holes for fence posts at the rate of fifty roots. a feat which would be quite impossible with animal labour. being intersected by canadas.227 break of In a month of only 108 hectareas per week. twenty-three working days they will break up a league camp. but during the two years it has been thoroughly ploughed and drained by mechanical near the offering means. and in order to plough the land these trees must be dug up. and they can be so accurately gauged that the posts may be firmly fixed without expending much labour in ramming. holes per hour. people are to-day $118 per hectarea for land which was bought two years ago for $25 per hectarea. and difficult to get at. can now be treated by the motor plough. but they have not yet been introduced into the Argentine in large numbers. owing to their Central Cordoba Railway. The price of naphtha is gradually decreasing in the Argentine Republic. which have hitherto lain fallow. Areas of fertile camp. is A likewise used with great advantage striking instance of this is to be found at Rio Gallegos. The naphtha engine for traction purposes. owing to the rocky and broken condition of the roads. In nearly all the northern lands small trees grow camp. and the oil wells of the country will probably make the cost of fuel even less by-and-by than it is to-day. with the In an actual case result that their value will rapidly rise. 92 . where many naphtha engines are engaged in the work of carrying wool over a track of more than 300 kilometres. Machines are manufactured in the United States to deal with land containing tree irregularly all over the They perform the double operation of cutting roots under ground and ploughing up the surface.

they It is a pity that the agricultural implement importers of Buenos Aires should have recently formed themselves into a ring to lift prices. to be enjoyed by all. It was with great difficulty The Instigator could be persuaded to leave the plough. " The ploughman homeward Lunch awaited them. and wondered how it would be negotiated when the time came for an onward move. the rain showing no signs of clearing off. However." of the morning appeared in a more pleasant guise. and time will show which machine is to be recommended. a recommencement of drizzling rain apparently cooled his ardour. and those remaining grew speculative as to whether he would return before dark. realising as they went the sweet truth of the words.Parr oil engine. One of traction engine the greatest competitors of the British-built is the Hart. a splendid agri- cultural tool. however. after all. the party had to give up all idea of the lake proper. which is invaluable where ordinary fuel is not easily procurable. and restored him to the party. and at one time his enthusiasm at the starting-point (and the engine) carried him out of sight. So they sat on chairs. and the fish plods his weary way.228 As the Santa Fe Land Company owns a great diversity have used both the steam traction and the naphtha engines. will not deter the Company from it " continuing its march of but comes hard on the factor in colonist. but watched one form in front of the house instead. baggage and benches under the verandah. The nomads gladly turned their thoughts and coaches towards the section house. These combinations. and tried . After lunch." is the chief building up the fortunes of the great importing houses of Buenos Aires. because their doing so will certainly tend to lessen the progress which agriculture is making in the Argentine. of land. progress. who.

drawing e .Parr Engine.Hart.


but as the whole of the contents of his bag had to be turned out to pack the bottles scientifically. with contents goods (a most important item). One sheet of drizzling rain surrounded us all through the journey.) humour of is A slight diversion was caused by a repacking some seems that the bottles. and none were sorry when. the coaches drew up after lunch. packages and pan. he cheerily acquiesced. It . However. the ladies were transferred to the coaches in a highly skilled manner. probably remembering The Wild Man's character (vide page 205). (not before it was quite dark) outside the estancia house. We the boots of the sleeper. after a side slip or two." because the chief feature of the picture is in publishing it. and The Wild Man was approached with a request that the bottles might be transported to Lucero in his bag of course. were still in his own possession. while observing the steady downpour. and there was to be noticed for the first time since the start . but calmly looked on as his goods were repacked and removed from his sight for ever. After a cup of tea and farewells. save to the man who had laboured under the delusion that several horns and other articles which appeared from the bag. represented by the bags of biscuits and other impedimenta. to member A photo was secured of him as he lay half concealed amongst " refrain from the portmanteaux. and sank gracefully into the arms of Morpheus. had been forgotten. One of the party at last gave up the struggle against the inevitable. he said nothing. (We trust no weak intended in the preceding paragraph? EDITOR. and a damp drive to Lucero followed. developments were interesting to all. and as that bag happened to be the same receptacle in which The Wild Man had secreted the various articles collected during his tour of appreciation this morning.229 keep awake. A change into dry garments was very welcome. All honour to such unselfishness.

who is a devoted A nutria appeared and some friendly lover of animals. proper " 1. is it etiquette. and we heard of tame foxes and diminutive ponies to dogs. but the fact re- The Delineator It was a great regret to everyone that did not put in an appearance for dinner . It may have been the good dinner. Shirt fronts and pretty frocks appeared once more. HARD CASE No. all ended well. The Kid was observed to be burying her face in a spoonful of jelly. and after coffee various home pets were introduced by our hostess." writes to inquire the procedure under the following circumstances : lady receives a plate of jelly at dinner. true Fine feathers do not make fine birds. be seen next day. for the gentleman on her left to give her a slight push. K. and a prize will be awarded for the best solution sent in. or the genial glow mains that there were two or three unusual occurrences during the course of a merry meal. this year. as they collected for their evening meal. the gentleman on her right at once takes up her spoon and commences to feed her with the jelly." if A What should she do ? And she allows herself to be fed. "T. of a fire that upset their behaviour." proverb proved and some members of the party did not live up to their here we had a costumes. However. he pleaded headache and retired to bed early. for Still the old lady presiding over the table. in some sleep before The Instigator came ADVERTISEMENTS. perhaps the hope of getting to share the room. and others seemed to be performing a sort of a general post during the repast. a dull air of respectability over the party. .230 of the Tacuruers. which results in her nose meeting the jelly in the spoon ? We offer the problems to our readers.

" No. "THE TACURU. exactly described the when one considered Oriental style we had cause of his passing recovered." continuous adjustment of internal relations to The Delineator said that that formula. 5. he replied Delineator appeared at to the enquiries showered upon him that his indisposition could be explained in the words used by Herbert Spencer. from which he was now happily bright. W. the various cookings. March 30th. to a more restful spot. the owner would be very glad to have the horns returned to Michelot. and has paid for her advertisement. Much to everyone's relief breakfast looking himself again The . and The morning was remained to mud . at the first that it leapt sound of a snore the poor animal was so scared from its usual bed and rushed round the room till it found a way of escape. but does not wish to make a point of it. through the window. M. . including the lately sampled. drawn . The reward lost of 10 for lost ear-ring is with- owner found property herself. FOUND. nicely coloured.231 LOST. illness. At breakfast some strange tales were told of a frightened nutria which generally slept peacefully under a wardrobe in the dressing-room but last night the room had another occupant. Wednesday. and nothing but the drying remind us of the rains of yesterday. One pair deer's horns. when he defined life as "The external relations. whose sleep was not so peaceful as that of the nutria. 1910. If this advertisement meets the eye of T.

and at certain seasons animals running wild over unbroken camps. generally Time this pest after time wealthy men who realized the menace have attempted to fight it. who has a wonderful knack with all animals.232 Cattle-dipping was to be the sight of the morning. and . become literally covered with these The bichos . another great barrier to the progress of the north will have been broken down. handled. This process is necessary to clean the animals from the garrapata. and still is. This is a tick which has been. under the guidance of our hostess. These are the principles on which the Santa Fe Land Company have been working. After establishing itself on the animal. adapted to their surroundings. It is the means of transmitting to cattle the disease known as "Texas Fever. animals ready to be dipped. Often their loss has been immense. consequently the cattle fall back in condition. and as soon as the out-door menagerie was explored. cattle tick has two phases in its life. the tick becomes a blood sucker. but their efforts have not been successful. When this is an accomplished fact. the terror of the north. but native cattle do not suffer badly from any newly imported fine stock from the south to it. the coach and cavalcade of riders set forth to the Here we found a large number of scene of operations." The rough succumb was this fever. to the north Undoubtedly these constant failures helped to give the northern district a bad name. and they confidently predict that before long they will be selling pedigree bulls with tick on them. and with constant vigilance. sometimes as many as 95% of the total animals brought into the neighbourhood from the Province of Buenos Aires have died. but the experiments with the animals should have been carried on by means of acclimaAnimals for the north should be carefully tisation.


.Catlle leaving Dip.

this bath. The remedies basis that are principally employed are of a tarry and prepared so as be easily mixed with water. Animals certainly are frightened the first time they take its effect.233 to an appallingly obviate this the dip is used. or Dermatodectis Bovis) which is the The worst pest is. The it is absolutely free from the parasite. the cattle tick (the Garrapata. is usually in the proportion of The amount works out of mixture used 2. to 5 p. This latter is the harbinger of the microbe of Texas it is Fever or Tristeza. working from 6 a. and the animals are gently forced along it from the corral to plunge due season suddenly into a prepared bath of a strong solution.m. The cattle we saw dipped to-day had mostly been through the process several times before. which kills every tick so it follows. . object of dipping is to kill all kinds of insects and parasites which trouble the bovine race especially so the totally submerged. from the mortality amongst them mounts up To which there is a wooden passage.60 litres. that if the animal has been .700.m. and the cost at 10 cents. and has large percentage. of which are used but for dipping purposes this passage terminates in a precipitous slope. come into general use. and walked calmly down the passage. and brought into the corral (a strong enclosure). and known under the scientific name of Boophilus Annulatus. common Louse scab producer. however. having in their many contrivances cattle. but very soon they find the comfort of and come to like and enjoy it. The greatest number of animals that the Santa Fe Land Company have been able to put through the dip in a day is 6. to 100. branding. as known to 1 in the Argentine. On emerging from . seeming to enjoy their scramble through the dip. all useful for marking. and dehorning . per head. The animals are collected from afar.

with which he presses the heads of any animals. that they leapt on to the animal in front instead of sliding down the dip as the older animals do. which were of recent lunch. who have not been totally immersed. there are always mayor-domo any animal. thus to see that early days of dips. (which we are hoping to negotiate much further north to-morrow). though nowadays thousands of animals may be dipped in a few hours. and were to be reviewed by The Instigator.. in the course of which some native dishes were introduced to us. Another lovely sunset favoured us this evening as we drove homewards. earth tanks. Wild Man almost came to a serious quarrel over the shapes of various beautifully tinted clouds. and a weary but happy band returned to the house for dinner. One man holds a curious sort of w ide blunt prong. However. and find its way back to the tank. under the liquid as they pass him. with the utmost gentleness. After this inspection The Instigator and company were taken on to see land which was being broken by bullocks. the animals stand in a small corral on the other and are kept there for a while to allow the liquor to side. plenty of men under the superintendence of the no harm comes to broken legs there are very seldom any accidents. some of them grew so disturbed at the unusual proceeding. the party.234 the dip. etc. this time with their host and hostess. Everything he saw seemed to give satisfaction. and though a very great point is made of the fact that they must all be collected and driven into the corral and down the passage. drain off their hides. r ensuring the destruction of all parasites. set off for various windmills. One said a certain . and though in the were not unusual occurrences. and thence to the Rio Salado. and returned in time for After a short pause for rest and a cup of tea. Some of the younger animals seemed scared at the first plunge. and we hear that My Lady and The erection.

" till we all grew tired and retired to bed. or the of other snakes. The evening was calm and still. March 30th. or rest. decently clothed and fed. frogs. meals.m. While taking suitable precautions for the safety P. we wish it to be understood that we cannot hold ourselves responsible for any loss of wearing apparel or other goods. to-morrow. medium of your paper for announcing that anyone who wishes to purpose accompany the explorers on the excursion. the other said it was exactly like a pork pie "shot" with a diamond tiara. overeating. with a supply of patience and drinkables in their personal luggage... etc. LUCERO. under the guidance of The Jehu and myself to the wild north. must be ready.235 cloud resembled a bear. DEAR the SIR. and the perils that might Instigator " an early talked emphatically. and quite unnecessarily. and we all sat outside after coffee. and the matter was still under bitter discussion long after the cloud in question had faded away into a nebulous mist. temper. not later May I use the valuable of than 6 a. incompatibility passengers. The under what circumstances they would be sleeping to- morrow. March 31st. Yours. I. or from any cause whatsoever. I am.S. THE INSTIGATOR. T. caused by rain. discussing the unknown journey befall of to-morrow. 1910. where some of the party wondered us on our way across the camps. CORRESPONDENCE. and happiness of those who entrust themselves to our care. mosquitoes. of of his insistence start is imperative. 1910. .

still not for their entire suppression. We stop done to should be glad to know the public nuisance in if anything can be the shape of the amalgamation of two members of the party. are.To the Editor of " The Tfrcunt. Yours truly. but year of grace of 1910. The prize of five cents has been 1. Dear Sir. under the most favourable circumstances). HARD CASE No. D. awarded to a corres- pondent O. to assist him in his self-imposed . who are obviously descended from some long ago Christy Minstrels. when they attempt to be bright and amusing. 1910. but together. we find them nauseating to a degree. and turning her head slightly in the direction of the gentleman on her right. one at a time. G. 30th. and fancy they have a sense of humour and intelligent wit. and we shall be grateful if immediate steps can be taken for in in this their separation." March SIR. they are unwarrantable. at long intervals. caused by suffering if We being shut up in the same coach for three hours with these imbeciles. and should do all in her power by opening her mouth widely. and M. the aforesaid members can be tolerated for a few minutes (personally. L. He says that in those circumstances the lady should undoubtedly allow herself to be fed. They might have been useful (say 1500) as the final torture decreed by the Inquisition. from violent headaches. (who is requested to forward his real name and address as soon as possible) for the best solution to the Hard Case we published yesterday. they are absolutely impossible. We believe that. T. taken separately.

Several answers have also that the been sent to the second part of the question. THE LARGEST CIRCULATION OF ANY DAILY PAPER PUBLISHED ON THIS TRIP. or drinking trough. and it was not and dragging Jehu." interest. Much to everyone's delight the all morning was bright and fine. investigate before leaving Lucero. . but. he quite forgot breakfast as he fussed over his new-found until he was captured forcibly by a search party that his companions were allowed to come in to breakfast after the rest of the party had finished. off The Delineator and The and the "early start. or something. is totally without precedent in the "THE TACURU. Thursday. His hawklike eye (we apologise to Our Guest) had noticed some Galpon.. Such a highest proceeding circles. 1910. but consider the above the best. 6." No. Everyone was astir The Instigator's final of course. we Numerous correspondents have sent in solutions. The Instigator himself was missed. and thus to avoid giving him the impression that he had committed an unusual social solecism in commencing to feed her. early this morning. remembering warning last night of the necessity for an early start. on assembling for breakfast at 7 a.m.237 task. which he must. and promised favourably for the excursion into the unknown. and all agree gentleman on the left had no shadow of excuse for causing the lady's nose to rest in the jelly. March 31st.

And round the world away The Instigator must have his tour." too. Monte. and manipulating the mud for its construction in a most clever manner. the final preparations last So. the more fixed becomes San Cristobal Instigator . expostulations were and farewells were made. and. we commenced our journey. when the first returned. either) from those at headquarters. in view of weather reports. considerable interest was caused by the home-building operations of some birds. so the watched it progress. started off from their pleasant rest at Lucero. travelling for some hours over the land which " is in his charge. still his intention to do that thing. and the Tacuru coaches with their freight of precious humans. accompanied by the Section Manager. And never will give way ! . the second bird flew off to of moulding its that get her contribution of clay nest grew apace while we . and. a at communication held with Our Hostess Cristobal. Before not the we set out a pleading message came (and left was first. who were constructing a nest under the eaves of the outbuilding. seemed to consider that his . lad. Someone was heard to murmur as the coaches drove off " Then hey for boot and horse. then. before our passing into the wilds. The kept to his determination to see all there was to be seen. once he has decided to do it. to return in peace to the civilisation of but needless to say. One bird flew off to get some mud while the other energetically fashioned the last piece into shape in the nest.238 While waiting for the start. useless. and still more precious food and drink. nothing daunted. and the more people try to dissuade him from a thing. ' ' ! But this puerile parody met with the indifference it deserved. lad. begging us to give up our exploration scheme.

this example of devotion between dog and man was all the more noticeable and Needless to say. In a country where kindness to animals is not considered his " YOU " necessary. nose to the ground. the while the " little black smooth-haired terrier " felt the great passion and if really His master was evidently his god. Never giving them their due For ray heart and soul are needing. who was taken as a tiny puppy from a found in a wood near Los Moyes. almost voiced the sentiment : " Rank and wealth I pass unheeding. concerning the crossing of which river we had heard so . His yelps as he splashed along. almost like those of a for one alone. The About one o'clock we came to the banks of the Salado. as soon as The Saint appreciated. observed it she wanted to "give the man a present. and came along with us. and is very rarely found. child.239 presence as a guide and friend would be necessary to the party. or in that of Instigator. " " which is very Monte disinterested abstraction about litter and he is undoubtedly a philosopher. he is a "wild" dog of the deerhound type." on mankind in general as needing his care and supervision. as water which he tried to trace his master through the shallow we sometimes crossed. satisfying. " " he lost sight of master for two minutes it was touching to hear his cries. One of two Indian guides we picked up during the day's journey also had a dog. . " YOU !" Nothing in the world but And he and were never very far apart. but it was of a very different " " Monte " looked appearance and character to Monte." and was only restrained from doing so because she had nothing suitable for presentation in her luggage. and has ever since There is a calm air of been devoted to his captors.

however. had swollen the river too much for a safe passage that at the best of times the banks were too steep and slippery for carts to negotiate. We . and took photos of it. pictures We cannot complain. learnt since the gate-opening episode. as usual. taken out. to find that a tenant had built a narrow " tajamar. that the rains had been told it was impossible and impassable. and they were agreeably surprised. retired distances. across the river. but some members of the party had wondered how the traversing of that river was to be accomplished. rather). on reaching the spot chosen for crossing." or earth bank. but." for he is in this case his athletic training photographs of to safe interfere armed with their cameras. the conveyance of has " Apparently. Jehu merely smiled when they heard of these difficulties. when real " hard work presents itself. To illustrate the difficulties the taken. and that all idea of The Instigator and The crossing had better be given up. for the resulting make a good memorial of the crossing of the " Tacuruers." The ladies rushed to assist Salado by the when they saw that photos were being taken. and proved the truth " of the Yankee expression that It's muscle that tells." and. which at this place was not very wide. the progress of the carts. and vehicles across. proceedings during the crossing of the tajamar. as the carts were well over the danger line by the Lime the ladies . where the work could not possibly with them or they with it." The Delineator and The Wild Man. thought the party would like utility. of their action (or inaction. he the wisdom early to discern true beauty in always to the fore when work is to be done. the horses were hands First were in request to pull the went the coaches. then the luggage were dragged over.240 much. carts of Everyone all dismounted. of the first to help in we publish one of the many photos Our Guest these was one carts.

.Crossing the Salado.



.The Effect of a long 'Drought.

It is not surprising to hear that. and guided by wire fences. at one place . were really quite valueless at the horses. discussion. and luggage were safely across tajamar the more serious business of cocktails and lunch was thought of. appalling drought of long continuation. This what the cattle found after their long journey south. and not a drop of water on whose banks we are resting. through which they were daily growing weaker. only a few which hundreds of decaying carcases were is to-day the vegetation in this mud-holes embedded. for the northern camps were totally unprepared There was an which all . deeds. this point. which. too.holes which and then represented this river. One can imagine the horror distress of it all not a blade of grass for miles. forced by instinct. carts. judging from her attitude during the preparations for lunch. the river over which spot for all we have that is just passed became the concentration such times. we should say those hopes would not be fulfilled. brought from Lucerb. The Kid.000 It is most terrible at not exaggerating the case when we say animals (some of them having travelled south for 100 miles or more). we have no pictured record of their we may note. but. where river in is luxuriant. As we rest after our arduous crossing of the Salado. that 15. for many of the northern camp men. our thoughts are inclined to wander to the awful tragedy It was a disastrous year enacted here in the year 1904. Once was under The let unfortunate sheep who were still spared were out for a short run. was set free in the hopes that she might possibly prove useful now. in an incredibly short time. the the usual asado of meat. polluted chain of water.241 were at the ropes. and. came to drink from the foul.

carts packed once more." It was the want of wells which caused all this misery cattle will . after the farewell to our host house who was we went on ahead into returning to the section the wilder regions. over 3. and plenty of water in the river but we . and alfalfa. and. control second in importance only to the water supply is the fencing of the camps. by which refined means a over the cattle is established. the first necessity is the obtaining of a supply of good water. the crisp air sweeping over the uncultivated camp of natural grasses. and this is saying a good deal. and. probably. camps.000 were lost. He explained that . after a cannot linger. But.000 hides were taken off dead animals. pipe of peace for some. though rather short. the scene is different to-day. the "ail-aboard bugle was sounded. so that the terrible history of 1904 may never be repeated. " suffering and loss " ? And bear drought for a long time. it and for the first of the cattle his care. with a pleasant sunshine. will all follow in due course and anyone who has studied these northern lands would have no hesitation in predicting that these camps . and a " short siesta for others. so. it is well within the mark to say that at least another 1. Why this terrible the answer comes back. If the northern camps are to be colonised and are to become prosperous. but the actual want of water maddens them and causes the death of thousands. Well may we " wonder. and had a pleasant. However. Human negligence. horses were put in. as those who have travelled over the rich southern camps sake will realise. in time. for his in own let sake. prove just as profitable as any in the vast Republic of Argentina. will. drive for two or three hours before The Jehu called a halt. be the business of the estanciero to provide good and sufficient wells. better grasses.242 alone on the river-bed.

.Defined Camps.


accompanied by an unexpected slice of cake which apparently appeared from nowhere. R 2 . and My Lady became even more popular than usual when she suggested that the wait should be the coaches halted. no one objected to this harmless amusement on his part. for once. after long exercise.. as their loads were so much heavier. when needed).243 require at least an hour for the unloading and erection of the tents. an hour before setting). provided he did not . pitch the knife on to their toes and. he. and a very welcome cup of cocoa handed round. apparently he approved of our spot for camping. and tided over the tedious hour by trying to " " throw the knife in the most approved cowboy manner. but My Lady had plenty of cocoa. for it was decidedly useful fodder and appreciated as such by all. and which disappeared equally effectively. we must dismount. we found that there was no tea. We discovered here that our friend " Monte" had declined to go back after lunch with his present master to Lucero. etc. but had chosen to accompany his past master on this His presence was an agreeable surprise. . and produced her tea-basket from the coach true. beguiled with a cup of tea. before dusk therefore. as the sun was only a hand's breadth from the horizon (roughly speaking. and here not Of course the luggage carts could come up until some time later. Water was obtained from the house near by. not had chosen a pleasant spot for the camp far from a small ranch. we should . As The Chaperon could find no work to do before the carts arrived. " As each member of the party had had their tea " (he was practising with the knife which was used for the carving of the cake and anything else. also of the cake. and expedition. relaxed from his terrible strain of usefulness. tables. He was found surveying the party with his calm scrutiny. of He the night.

behold as by magic. a table. No sooner were of the party the carts on the spot than every member Poles was at work. blankets. the luggage was placed under another covering of canvas. too. The Wild Man. red-tied Socialist. ! canvas." exertions. by the strong men were taken off the carts. the attention of The Chaperon to the approach of the carts. of the band. sheets and pillows galore were in each tent. and the smell of roasting meat in the distance rose pleasantly upon the air. etc. The camp place looked as if the party had been accustomed to there regularly once a week. beds. floored with . the sight would have rejoiced the soul of the most ardent. everyone wanted the hammer at the same time. and stiffen into the attitude of action once more. or pretending to be so.. and were rejoiced to see him return the weapon to its sheath (in his leggings). for surely comfort. and each peon. with the same. . A sigh of lips of those who were dodging the knife when they saw the They at once drew luggage-carts looming in the distance. knives. Nothing had been forgotten which could add hands had been working hard. yells for resounding blows struck. canvas was " " the mallet alternated with the everywhere. with plates. camp -stools stood around it. two tents had been securely erected. had done his share in fact. was ready in an open space. so well was everything arranged. who and others' is an adept " at these The Chaperon escaped the at last succeeded in throwing the knife relief " to his satisfaction. the din ceased. terror.244 with the help of tricks. tent-pegs bristled all over the ground. for all . there was no trade union to limit their was an omission for which we may be thankful. never did a community carry out more thoroughly the principle of "each one working for the happiness of others. luggage uncovered. and apparent chaos reigned for half an hour then. forks. but that True.

and the party looked with satisfaction on their handiwork. It would have made an interesting. vanished they knew not what. A cynical traveller once said. the peons gathered which the meat was cooking. after . in to think their tale trouble so bravely that night are to be unhonoured and unsung. noting the innumerable number of statues in the land. and. here. " " Noble Tacuruers ! True. over deepened. if one could have obtained a " " Primera Vista camp that evening.245 As round the dusk quickly their fire. just when all seemed smiling and happy. was spoken of in whispers at first. the comforting thought that they still had a bottle and a." Think years to come. it what meant. you who may ! two days to face (with no prospect of obtaining supplies anywhere) and they discovered. a little the lamps were lit and hung distance from the camp site from poles. Theirs not to moan or sigh. photo of the But it was at this time. that the travellers were to go through their first real It trial. but gradually the whispers increased to a murmur as the loss became generally known yet neither man nor woman quailed.half of the precious drink with them may have helped them to keep their spirits up with the hope of pouring . conhonour our brave They veniently near the cellaret. in civilised places. E'en though their throats were dry. only that it had disappeared had at least ! Theirs not to reason why. comfortably seated in your armchairs. " South America has evidently produced a phenomenal number of heroes. left behind." but if has not been told those " we are inclined who bore their read this. and none could have told from their outward bearing the bitter struggle they were inwardly facing. . for here the discovery was made of a serious loss. and not unpicturesque illustration. that the case of whisky was lost.

after their dinner. Weary rows of their thoughts with the exertions of the day the party turned and steps early towards those tents where little bedsteads. whispering winds soon lulled asleep. unfortunately. and this accident prevented our hearing the national dances played on a guitar in the open camp as we had hoped to do. and before long lights were out and peace reigned as far as possible. and. Coffee was not forgotten. but. and. each with its mosquito net above.246 spirits down. of course. she had forgotten them at Lucero. but that surprised no one. A minor loss was that the dinner napkins were not forthcoming. had dropped a large packing case upon it. but a bottle and a-half is not so many thirsty souls for three days. " being left to be washed " He hearing the guitar played by one of the peons here. much amongst we repeat." Guards were set and the}'. for they were in the charge of The Kid. left to protect . " Thus done the Vales By to bed they creep. had brought his instrument with him. which did not improve its tone. the more musical members of the band tried to sing it kept the mosquitoes off and when "a catch" was attempted even the bicho Colorado We had looked forward to was cowed into silence. were the horses and camp through the night. with Monte. believe she said something about their We there. and. but no one listened to her. At our first camp evening meal everyone did justice to the goods that The Chaperon provided. that great courage and bravery was shown by the equanimity with which the party bore the news of their loss. and we used glass cloths instead. looked so attractively inviting.

feel that. A correspondent writes to know if any of our readers A starts on a can solve the following problem for her * * ' : seven days' journey with eighty-seven horses. please apply "T." The enquirer has searched through " Hamblin Smith but can find no honest method of solution. he loses two.W. Anyone requiring a really good guide. THE INSTIGATOR. to prevent a repetition of the annoyance. ADVERTISEMENTS. ways of wild Indians and animals. 1910.M. and I can only express my sincere regret for the mischief and trouble they have caused. and at the end of the week has her " 110 horses. Yours. thoroughly conversant with the Chaco. I am. March SIR. The that both of Bedlam at the necessity for same time that keeping them apart. I 31st.247 CORRESPONDENCE. as I am in a measure responsible for the presence of the your correspondents of should like to apologise. EXPERT GUIDE. medium of your paper. one of which he finds next day. but they shall be kept in separate coaches in future.. and to assure your correspondents that to I two people whom steps of shall be taken fact is.. through the yesterday object. nor the danger them are so rarely out I had not realised the of their amalgamation." Offices of this . for the inconvenience these two people have caused. etc.

as they will probably be If anyone eaten by the time this advertisement is in print.) . ED. advertiser LOST. Several good horses. No reward is offered. to Lucero. are quite willing to believe that the offender " one starboard light" at some period of that night. but that light had lost its power of illumination at the time our correspondents tripped over the They had had at least and they wish to suggest that in future out should use some means to safeguard people sleeping unwary passers-by. it deserves and trust steps will be taken to right the matter. animal and vegetable. One tin of would return the would be obliged. at night.248 Good shot. Terms the beauties of nature. Inspires confidence his winning smile. can cook and sew. Two or three say they have tripped over him in the dark and consider it would be a safeguard if anyone preferring to spend the night in this were compelled by law to burn an anchor or other way light. in the most timid ladies by moderate. is Several correspondents have written to know whether it not a menace to the rest of the community for one of the member or band to sleep promiscuously on the bricks. Lucero. (We give the complaint the publicity prostrate figure. able to point out all paper. as a recuerdo. anywhere else handy. LOST. tin. gingerbread biscuits (Huntley & Palmer).

so. of wild untouched Nature. were heard to enquire why he did not bring them early tea and hot water. but we think that few were asleep as the a strange It sun rose gloriously from the mists on the horizon. which makes us feel a close communion with Nature when . though regretted the cause of their wakefulness this morning. Rumour has it that The Chaperon had given instructions that he was to be called by the guard an hour before dawn. he combined the duties of valet and maid fairly efficiently. in the dark. the sudden flooding with bright sunlight of that rough camp land. looking- and all luxuries for the others. 1910. none will all plain. we see her in these great uncultivated wastes but. Friday. leave an impression and a longing more deep than any experience gained in years of civil ever regret having seen that sunrise on the life . 7. After he arose it occurred glasses. April IN /st. shaving materials The ladies . which scarcely owned a tree or shrub." No. It was sight. may be the primitive barbarian lying dormant in all of us though hidden under generations of civilization. Of course The Chaperon was up and seemed to be) clothed (he always and ready to get basins of water. on the whole.249 "THE TACURU. he was awakened by hoarse whispers c: his name and gentle shakings. fancy that most of the party were awake to see the morning it may have been that they only saw : We dawn the first this streaks of light between the openings of their tent as they lay in bed trying to soothe the itching of the mosquito bites. ADVERTISE "THE TACURU " THIS ENSURES YOUR WANTS BEING KNOWN IN EVERY COACH. whatever the causes of the sympathy. but. these pictures.

little more of "deep slumber" Scarcely were the toilets. There is no to him that ! ! ! dawn." " Difficulties are Nature's challenges to you. we were proud with the conceit of nets. tore off lumps of bread with their fingers (when they could get hold of a loaf). the only milk gone procurable was some condensed milk. peons' biscuits. alternately dozing and sucking mate. the morning. and a few other irregularities. " spoon for all their cups. and had thought we knew all about that was mosquitoes. There was one subject that did cause sore feeling.. and enjoyed their early meal.250 it felt more like the middle of the night than the and he enquired of the peon what time it was. accomplished. but no little items of that sort ever disturbed the temper of The Tacuruers they simply " remarked with the other Autocrat of the Breakfast Table. True. and used the same plate and knife for jam and sardines alike. the breakfast- greeted us ready laden with tea (from the kettle).m. We them. as table we emerged from the various tents. . before a request was made that the mosquito nets and beds might be removed for loading." solemnity so deep to a right-thinking creature as that of At the same time he was heard to murmur something to the effect that he would prefer a little less of the 'deep solemnity" and a another morning. " answer coming in soft Spanish. the cocks have " not crowed yet On investigation The Chaperon found it was scarcely 4 a. which had solid. Can't say. and. etc." and used one ." there were not enough knives to go round. jam. sardines. so spent the remaining two hours sitting round the camp fire with the peons. We believe he heard some " " roncadors of the expert opinions on the subject of the camp during his vigil. and the packing of personal luggage. ammonia. At any rate he had full opportunity " for proving the reality of Ruskin's words.


."Rich black alluvial Soil.

none of us had thought of . though they thought of earthquakes.m. but settled to kill down again to their occupation of trying mosquitoes. Comparatively speaking.. at one end of the ladies' tent. lifting up each one of the low beds. in our nets. and . and notice to leave. in the dark. though a voice anyone get through those long night hours. and the speaker assured us this morning that she was only dreaming. of course. black. we had only known mosquitoes theoretically before (though that knowledge was bad enough) last night we learnt of them practically. the 7 a. so. which occupation resulted up this time finally.m. the coaches " and carts were ready. as he passed under them on his way to quell the outside noise. horses " Primera Vista camp was struck. and lack of cloths. ability to wash out By rounded up. but was disturbed from his in made " " beauty sleep by the sudden barking of a dog outside the other end of the tent. under each net before Little peace did and mosquitoes seemed to swarm up we had been in bed for half an hour. must be seen to it was his duty. After breakfast. owing incomtea- petence.251 and veils. Our Guest was " rather unkindly by The Instigator to dig holes. alluvial soil reached washed in the ladies energetically the breakfast things. quietly. The ladies forbore to scream. . neither were they ! Monte connection with the upheaval caused by He had taken up his quarters at one period of the night. and their occupants. to ascertain . being given to general The Kid once more. and that her words did not refer to insects of any kind. came from one of the tents about 2 a. how put on deep the " rich. " remarking clearly above the intermittent snores. impertinence. tucking. and to snatch moments of slumber occasionally. leaping up. This. but our pride had a fall. without a character. and. Oh how lovely. he rushed through the tent." few echoed the sentiment.

in Argentina the r . if not impossible." After breakfast he approached us with a stick held at arm's length. were no inconsiderit will able menace to the safety of the skill party. usually. should anyone have sufficient temerity to lay himself open to the but the attacks of the inmates by thus disturbing them homes of the black ant. But not before The Chaperon had pointed out a terror that "might have been. on which hung a dead. They are. The first part of our drive to-day was a new experience we had passed over a few ant-hills before on our journey. and even traction engines suffer from the sudden drop caused by these gigantic sugar-loaves. but they are not unlikely to cause the overturning of that cart. hard masses of earth from three to four feet high. of and it was the only due to the great care and threading their our driver* in that way amongst these obstacles . very wide at the base. It is not the yielding mass composed of soft earth and other heterogeneous materials as found in England. about 4 feet long. we drove. . Therefore be easily realized that the innumerable ant-hills through. and covered entirely with coarse grass. He explained that this reptile had crawled over the neck of one of the peons as he lay on the This had happened before we went to grass last night.252 march onward recommenced. bed. grey snake. They present an unyielding obstacle to any vehicle. and the wheels of even a heavily laden cart make no impression on them. which can be demolished with a kick. are quite a different affair. to dodge them they literally covered the and the South American ant-hill is a power to be ground. solid. . and over which. reckoned with. and we felt grateful to The Chaperon for having saved us from another horror last night by keeping the fact. slimy-looking. and snake. and the Amazon ant. to himself until w e were leaving that camp. but now we came to a land where it was difficult.

to bits. As it v/as. The worst part of our travelling did not last . after our cocheros had made futile attempts to cut require a figures of 8 with their respective four and two-in-hands on the invitingly Palmar. where the whole land is covered alike with long bumps and ant-hills. and cook was decided that horses and drivers alike would rest when we reached the shores of the lake. though still bare of trees. are They at exceedingly fond of armadillo animal in its skin. yards was during this part made two captures of peons and a sight. more than three or four hours then we came to smoother country. the party wandered on the shores of the lake trying to find remnants of extinct monsters. yellow sands which surround Lake dismounted. palms of our day's journey that the live animals in an armadillo These men have extraordinary good and far and observe any movement in the grass. and. after another three hours' driving. while firm. as yet. no accident of the slightest description occurred only a few one of the jolts as we ascended or descended which are so difficult to discern in open camp. during which we had " " many changes of horses and several helps from the guides over extra bad pieces of travelling. collecting sand and examining under the microscope (which is. horses were taken out.253 inmates of the coaches were not upset time after time. and occasional small lagunas. ahead of them. for they the flesh. his). and. nutria. fewer ant-hills. all lunch was being prepared. It once killed both animals. the land growing slightly undulating. grass. and. and generally trying to find a way of teaching Nature how to . we could see in the distance the position of the of the It Lake Palmar and the tops which grow on the farther shore. fossilised palms. tasting the water of the lake. The Instigator rushed and other improbable up and down picking leaves it things.

and two teeth of a nutria.254 It really seems a pity improve on her own handiwork. mate. only with constant watching that they are from thus wasting the valuable skins of animals. etc. and hard biscuits. which is scarcely to be wondered at. considering how scarce green food is. and. so the only available article. prevented They are enormous meat eaters. The tiny banks which slope down from the camp to meet the wide stretching sands of the lake are covered with scrub and low trees of the acacia type. They live on meat. gentle curve. under similar circumstances. a tinned Dutch cheese. one of the soft Dutch cheeses which one obtains in the Argentine. were absolutely valueless. white at the root and gradually deepening to a reddish-brown at the end but both these . . The peons would always prefer to cook all meat in the hide. My Lady and The Saint did discover a boar-hound's tooth on the sands. on one of these low trees. sheep had at last been sacrificed. connoisseurs. knew well that the "finds" would finds be dissolved to dust long before they could reach the civilisation of a jeweller's shop. if they were allowed to do so. very pretty in their long. . and w ould shortly appear before us in a different guise. and now the flesh was being cooked. The bright idea occurred to someone that a hors-d'oeuvre would be acceptable. was attacked and none but those who have tried. She does not engage him as her expert consulting engineer. wearied with their search for curios.. the party. for no one of us had heard the r slightest cry or sound of distress. such as The Wild Man. eked out with camp stools. and. settled down to await It was gently broken to us that the their mid-day meal. considering how long ago we had had it and is r our meagre early morning meal. The slaughter must have been most humane. though there was talk of having the teeth set as brooches.

for her extinction. and in a few minutes was growing unduly excited over a shrub on which he discovered some most unusual excrescences. A the eyes of everyone who knew anything wild gleam of of her at this Both the ladies. should be turned adrift to find her way back again as best she could. everyone who had known her for longer than the week. voted. and it was only when Our Guest came up and removed some of the earth from one of the excrescences that The . if possible. he went so disgusted with " with his microscope trying to find other interests. but four of the men were on foolishly too polite to express their real wishes. hunger.255 would be able to understand how very good it can be. and prospect of getting rid of the trial. and chose to go Thus The in Instigator's well.thought plan to remove an his " incubus was frustrated. drowned in the lake. he was examining from all points with the naked eye before submitting them to microscopic investigation. even beyond its deserts. hands and feet. now that she had lost her companions the sheep. and the exercise of the ant-hills caused it to be appreciated more than usual. or allowed to accom- pany the party for the joy lit rest of the journey. directly after lunch (which meant each one cutting off from the half-sheep. apparently growing on the shrub. As the party were thus collected (mostly with their legs tucked away to prevent the climbing operations of the black ants with which the ground was swarming). the piece he or she preferred). failure He was a laudable object that. and putting it to the vote as to whether The Kid. open-air. that was handed round. off These shapeless masses of earth. As it was handed round (to everyone on the same knife). The Instigator responsibility of the trip took this opportunity to try to rid himself of some of the by calling a meeting (the whole nine were already there). left So she herself was ! with the casting vote.

Neither of our cocheros could tunity of figures of eight as we resist the further oppordrove off on the hard sand. perhaps stimulated by her recent narrow escape from total extinction. Some excelwere obtained of the sleeping beauties as they there resting. could not do themselves justice with the more dangerous weapons. and started to walk to the up. noted that the mass resolved the shape of one of The Saint's shoes. It is true we only have her word. and. which had been hung up on the shrub to dry after her lakeitself into The searching expedition. the drivers. and some clean plates to vouch for the statement. combined with Our Guest and The Wild Man. rather to the surprise of the lookers-on. and The Wild Man revolver-shooting. but we by their passengers. The Jehu. an indistinct murmur from The Chaperon. where The Jehu could pick packing and harnessing allowed of an onward move. enjoying forty winks. trees. their who had very pleasant stroll round the lake. who was watching intently. Our Guest. Before the actual start The Chaperon. them when the washing. under northern end of the lake.256 Instigator. but their modesty caused them to beg for forbearance in the publication of any of the pictures thus obtained. really did do some work here. vegetable and mineral kinds during specimens the three walkers. was made. tiied their hands at seme Naturally. they left a fair show of broken bottles in the lake. The Instigator collected Delineator and My Lady. after their long hours with the reins. but. Here they were . or lent photos lay anywhere else. Foiled again. skirting the believe they were not encouraged in these exhibitions North part of the lake to they came a little ranch where they had arranged to meet discovered divers interesting of animal. as all the other members of the party remaining were lying in more or less graceful slumberous attitudes in carts. We are told that for once The Kid.

After crossing the Calchaqui we enter quite a new country. The mistress of the house was most anxious to entertain us to tea. and before long passed over the Calchaqui river (which is more This was not a generally known as the Golondrino here). made very effective roofing. with whom we had already made The roofing of this little friends. who it was arranged should meet us here with letters. After leaving the ranch we turned to the eastward. moments which to ranch and its out-houses was most interesting. one big bird was so willing to become attached to us that we could scarcely persuade it to leave the coach when we were ready to drive on. the grasses are finer . It was split carried out entirely with trunks of palm trees. and her pretty children. in half and cleared of all sap. These. all rain water drains off the convex half into the concave trunk and flows down these gullies into the water course formed of another hollowed palm trunk running along the lower edge A more suitable and rainproof roof could of the roof. so that the ridges of the two lengths of trunk placed bark upward rest in the hollow of the intervening trunk. having picked up our guide from Vera. off with the guide ahead of us. or hand. the land is perceptibly higher. fact. We allowed those in who had driven to the spot a few dismount and greet the neat little mistress of the ranch. we and once more started could not spare time for further delay. which flew about and pitched on anyone's shoulder and were most friendly in . but. Naturally. or on the carriages. placed alternately in concave and convex form. The owners of the ranch had six or seven birds of different kinds. and they introduced the newcomers to a marvellous collection of tame birds with whom they had made acquaintance. scarcely be designed. difficult matter.257 sitting at the ranch awaiting the arrival of the coaches.

stretches of grass bordered with trees of all kinds. and the sky assumed a threatening appearance but. in the neighfor the night. in any case. and asserted that rain was the most unlikely event. about this time. the sun. Hares were to be seen now and then. and. became overcast with clouds. and trees abound. to the ranch. then small montes gave place to the regular woods which stretch North on this side of the river. they intended to enjoy their present drive through scenery which would be found were gone. spot before long. Unfortunately. flew off in the distance. and the work of tent-erecting commence. or. and in in was not unlike that which an English park the great expanses their place we had slightly undulating . and very imposing they were. for here with trees. We arrived. and sometimes even one of the small wild deer of the forest was noticed before it rushed off to the shelter of the trees. but the water that could . The scenery was altogether more tropical. notwithstanding the wise head-shakings of those who know the country (The . were feeding.258 First we came to the tall palm on the edge of the forest. which had been so friendly all day. with the aid of My Lady's useful basket . Before the heavier belonging carts could arrive. the party refused to be downhearted. though no distant views could be obtained owing to the thick growth of the trees and the impossibility of finding any but the slightest rising ground. The whole aspect of the land had changed and the country here was extremely pretty. and near by a flock of sheep. trees sional flocks of bright pink flamingoes made a welcome touch of colour as they stood on the edge of some little laguna. Delineator and The Jehu in particular). Occa- and trees begin to appear. there we were surrounded was plenty of time for a cup of all tea. disturbed by the unusual approach of coaches. at a little bourhood of which we were to encamp ranch. The was very different to our camp of last night.

which was coming down heavily by this time. though this was used with great success. was no light one but here. which was intensified under the coverings. and thus hurrying matters on. which had been cooked this meat tastes very much like sucking pig. cunningly using trees as supports in the erection of the tents under his supervision. and unpacking in that warm. steaming air. We believe The Kid was rather annoyed about this. ." for by the time the carts arrived the atmosphere had become intensely close a slight drizzle seemed only to add to the damp heat. sponge of toilet vinegar. and The Saint once more earned the blessings and gratitude of all by " washing of faces. we could only secure two mouthfuls of tea from each cup." thoughtfully insisting on a general As she marshalled the party in front of her. The rain. and felt distinctly aggrieved. and well they deserved those cocktails " well " cocktails. was . luggage under cover. and beds. and everyone felt cleaner and more cheerful after this ablution. and ready to attack the poor little armadillo. as. and the work of unloading and erecting tents. the table laid ready in the tent. s 2 . as the rest of the contents was composed of mud. again. beds made. " . long the tents were obtained from the so-called at the ranch was half mud. but she did not dare to give vent to her feelings. Before Three were erected to-night. and attacked each one with sponge and towel. was one of the most refreshing things imaginable. and the matter did not worry those who were looking forward to " " before dinner. everyone performed their quota. after the damp heat and all trie work. and. whether large or small. for the general good. Everything was finished. owing to the rain. and lamps lit and suspended before the short twilight had given place to complete darkness. we should be obliged to have food under The Instigator caused great admiration by canvas. we were irresistibly reminded of a board school but that .

and that might again claim them for her own to-morrow. this damp the spirits They were only of the party as they sat down troubled because they feared their last evening meal in camp. rightly. Someone even tried to murmur something kindly about The Kid. and Company know no bounds. So they spent the time in eating.260 powerless to to dinner. and. in the early days of Company. and when he was able to send this reassur" to the General Meeting I honestly believe ing message the worst is past. the Instigator was eulogised. as there was no one there to contradict the obviously erroneous statements. Shortly afterwards matters began to improve. Above all. and go no one could have grumbled at the little inconveniences which they had had to put up with at times. Get him will tell and he you how. and drank each other's healths with enthusiasm. and whatever else was left. to its incomparable freedom. and the bankers refused to allow an overdraft of ^"2. and that in future we shall progress. undoubtedly. for his genial influence helped everything to Instigator was so cheerful and anxious for others' comfort his and careless of enthusiasm the to hold forth. for a great deal of the enjoyment of this trip has been due. and when it became absolutely necessary to have money he actually made advances out of his own pocket to supply the requisite funds. always appraises the work of others whether the and he will . His interest in. while The well . his own through all. and armadillo) that every other member of the party was just the nicest person that he or she had ever met. matters were quite different from what they The shares stood then at five shillings each. all were satisfied and content. and holding a mutual admiration society would be Civilisation Each decided (between the mouthfuls of mutton meeting." visited the property in 1900 he : He result of their operations is successful or not. are to-day.000. too. for.

Unfortunately. people will be attracted further north." It may seem to those will yield its hundredfold.appreciate the mental and manual exertions expended on the undertaking by the employees of the Company at their true worth. is more northern districts. word to the best He never paints the prospects to of a beginner in rosy hues of the hardships in fact. empty spend one's years and energies improving these wild lands. he has been known speak be prepared to " the being comparable to and privations which a young man must go through on first joining the Company as life of a dog. it is still to get colonists for these but when the railway which fact. in time. For a long while the party sat talking of their experiences on this trip. as surely as those whose lives have been spent in the more public fields of civilisation or in military prowess. accustomed life to the narrower life of towns. not only earns a great reward for to himself in the gradual development and growth of that land. a lonely. but men. . receive his praise. money. the dormant wealth lying in the camp must be enormous. . have " performed the great deed of making two blades of grass grow where only one grew before." first To-day the men self- who have been through denial those years of necessary and hard work are grateful for the training they have received and anxious to work their best for the Company. but has deserved well of mankind in general. and will. colonisation will be easier. and of the Company and its prospects. the land as it and some one will. and brains are needed difficult to exploit it. The travelling over this comparatively unknown land had been a revelation to most. some " Well done. but assuredly the man who labours here with the best that is in him." than which there is no higher day. contemplated becomes an accomplished assuredly must. is that each one shall All he asks of his colleagues and subordinates " " in every sense of the play the game of his ability.

cannot be held to be a man whose perceptions are becoming blunted by It is certainly true that there are his business. weather and workers. many who do " let things go. and who come to her determined to win the best from her rich lands. " knowledge. then due north to Las Gamas. of going south-east to the tannin factory at La Gallareta. but it was feared that the recent heavy rains in this district would have made the under- taking of the two journeys on one day inadvisable. Plans were made for to-morrow's journey. mechanical and material. besides being thoroughly in touch the latest improvements. Certainly the Argentine is away no place for the man disinclined for exertion. and to take every opportunity as it comes in their way for improving their things slide . those who let very shortly find that most things have slid from them irrevocably. unless be that agriculture . and great rewards but only for the resolute who are prepared to lead a strenuous and self-denying life of labour. " and in agriculture. exposure and fatigue. and " " the Indian guide persuaded the leaders that it would be wiser to go straight to Las Gamas to-morrow and . and be ready to anticipate any change. is the oldest and most necessary pursuit of mankind but surely the man who has to keep a perpetual watch on wind. it The difficult to imagine. in reference to his calling. first if the day was fine and the way possible." but that class is not confined to agriculturists alone. and conversant with the ruling with all prices in the best markets. animal and vegetable kingdom and natural phenomena. as in all other callings. She holds rewards.262 For some obscure reason the it is generally supposed that spends his life in agricultural pursuits is bound to have his mental abilities dulled by the continuous round of duties connected with the land origin of this idea is man who and the care of animals. there was talk.

Yes. OUT OF WORK.. One watch and attached containing several locks of hair and portraits of ten or twelve gentlemen. for he collects 24 more at the last estancia. T. might be useful in tea-taster's office hard work not so much an object as high wages and comfortable living. of C. Advertiser wants situation as general . and. and finds 1. This would give Tuesday for Santa Lucia and Wednesday for Vera. K. we owing to our proximity to the sheepfold of the Therefore. ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. Only experts yesterday's starts this . T. Advertiser could take immediate situation. a slight thunder and lightning storm commenced. notwithstanding this. we were happy in the assurance that our troubles from mosquitoes were likely to be less virulent to-night. loses 2.263 leave the visit to the factory for Monday. . help . leaving Vera on Friday afternoon. " So to bed. T." LOST." quote and with appropriate action ADVERTISEMENT. A can do hence your correspondent's failure to find chain (said to be gold). San Cristobal would be reached on Saturday evening. Sarnosa and Olmos could be visited from one or the other of these two estancias. Second Coach. ranch. writes in date. trinkets a solution. As we dispersed in the rain to our various tents. as good disciples of the immortal Pepys. If finder would return portraits and hair. but. No references. answer " to if the arithmetical problem with 87 horses. owner would be obliged. he does end the journey with 110. K.

264 "THE TACURU. it and the mud settle at the bottom. one could scoop up a little of the surface of the water for a splash without disturbing the thick stratum of mud at the bottom of the things might have been worse. " Neither The Chaperon nor anyone " " had an opportunity for seeing the golden exhalations of dawn this morning. " THE CIRCULATION OF WENT UP LITERALLY BY LEAPS AND BOUNDS YESTERDAY MORNING. leaving We the water quite clear . with appearance was skill. FAR BEYOND THE EXPECTATIONS EVEN OF THE EDITOR. 8. we assembled for breakfast in a dullHot tea. gold we saw was supplied by the light which The Chaperon. felt that dispensed with. 1910. but though several varieties of cacti . was very . April 2nd. always on the look out and the only of the paraffin lamps to anticipate our wishes. The water for ablutions was obtained from the mud-hole which did duty for a well at the ranch." No. and everyone on such a damp day washing at all was merely an aesthetic waste of energy. the power of clearing water absolutely if it is dropped in a vessel of water. provided for us to see our way to wash. By the time dressing was it was sufficiently light for the lamps to be accomplished basin . the special were tried this apparently . rain had fallen and else still continues. " The morning dawned damp and steadily all night long. Saturday. THE TACURU dreary . even though half mud. believe that the leaf of a certain cactus has good. and its somewhat disconcerting. and grey atmosphere. To-day's exhalations " were chiefly those of moisture. none were successful kind did not grow around our camp. morning. However.


Water Knee-deep. .

that long drive in unceasing rain. were considerably fewer in number to-day. Owing either to the skilful last of tucking in the nets adopted night. when his whole body way and especially his hands must have been numbed through and through with the cold and wet. packing . was calmly ready manner to accompany us. we all felt an even deeper admira- and endurance than before. despite the bad weather. Of to course. his we drove through The accomthe plishment drive of four-in-hand from absolutely unsheltered position on the box was no small feat on the part of The Jehu. downpour As soon as possible the tents were taken down. constant changes of horses were necessary. though already wet through in their scanty garments. as he handed round the only through water. At one spot. No grumbling. were cheerfully smiling as usual. and a start made. as he steadily on that terrible day. biscuits. no accident occurred all through which shrouded all but the most immediate view. though his work was not so strenuous as that of The Jehu. but the ground was ankle deep in water everywhere. as. However. for eight hours water. really deep water. formed a considerable danger in our path. The Chaperon. or to the neighbourhood of the sheepfold. with no thought of . of that our destination. beer and gin a change of horses. . in some places.bread. again owing to the skill of our drivers. when under trees we made The Chaperon was seen to be wading knee deep. and fallen tree trunks hidden under the. the soft Fortunately the ant-hills accomplished. too. mosquitoes had not troubled us nearly so much as on the previous night and only the continual flashes of lightning rumblings of thunder during the steady had been able to disturb our deep slumbers. had tion for his pluck pursued his an arduous day. too. refreshments available ginger. Monte.265 one seemed much disheartened by the rain even the peons. above and below.

the trees of these forests are chiefly Algarrobo the wood of which is . The word "quebracho" (pronounced KAYBRATSHo) signifies axe-breaking. on the opposite page gives a general idea of a tree's which. .266 to guests and peons it alike. of their The photo by the way. and it is intensely hard. appearance. trees have become much more numerous. leaves are quite small and the trunks have a rough bark from which often hangs moss-like lichen. was executed under the most trying circum- stances with not a single complaint or grumble from anyone. Calchaqui. all drinking gratefully from the to same small measure. cattle are very fond. bordering the river for its entire length . The land through which we drove to-day is covered with trees of various kinds large forests exist on the eastern side of the that they . That drive is something be remembered. but an increased thankfulness on the part of the passengers were in such good hands during the trip. It seems almost incredible of Buenos Aires should import millions of metres of ready-made parquet flooring when the square Argentine produces magnificent* timber of far more suitable and better wearing quality for the purpose than As we have journeyed any used in imported parquet. and even modern tools do not retain their edge long when working on this wood. the Quebracho Colorado. The wood. which is light in colour when first cut. for produces. and eastward. becomes dark red upon being exposed to light and weather. not unlike our walnut in appearance. Most splendid timber is to be seen on every side. but extremely hard in days to come this timber will be used in great quantities making parquet flooring. numerous amongst the trees is which supplies one of the hardest timbers the world for that the city The trees have a peculiar appearance.

Quebracho Colorado Tree.

Sleepers awaiting Transport at Vera.


The wonderful durability of the wood renders it a perfect material for railway sleepers, and this has been appreciated by the Government of Argentina to such an extent that
they have decreed that the laying of new railways is to be upon sleepers made of the hard woods of the Country.

The forests of the Santa Fe Land Company have produced in the last twelve years over a million Quebracho Colorado sleepers. One drawback to the wood is that it has the








caused by the accumulation of resin at certain periods, and is probably connected in some way with the excessive moisture or dryness of a particular year's


The tree is often attacked by a boring grub, which enters by making a very small pin prick opening, and during its existence in the tree grows and bores an ever enlarging hole until often it becomes half an inch in diameter. It would seem almost incredible that a grub could live either
on the resins
in the tree or

be able

to bore

through what


one of the hardest woods

in the world.

Of recent years


that of producing tan.

timber has also been put to another When used for this purpose,

was cut down,

outer sapwood removed, and

then taken to the river to be finally shipped to the United States of America or to Germany.
It was soon found that the railway and shipping freight charges absorbed a considerable amount of the profits to be obtained in making this tannin extract abroad, and, therefore,

extract factories were erected in Argentina.

The process of

obtaining the extract

very simple the logs are first put through a machine which reduces them to chips, the chips are then boiled in water till all soluble matter is extracted

from them, and the solution obtained



down to

in this form, after being dried, it The used by tanners the world over. great necessity and essence of success, in the present way of working the business, is good water and plenty of it.

the consistency of pitch


exported, and



do not

know who


noticed the tannin material

oozing out of these trees, but no doubt attention was called
to the fact

by pools in the neighbourhood of the trees being often red in colour. Undoubtedly the Germans first took
this business

up on a large enormous quantity of forest
in a solid state


and to-day they hold an


Hitherto the extract has been brought on to the market

very much after the style of Burma cutch. The Santa Fe Land Company have recently produced the
material in a fine powdered state, absolutely pure, and containing a great deal less moisture than any other form of extract on the market, and they are about to erect a factory


this process in connection

with their saw mills at

This new process requires very little water as compared with the old method, and can be adopted in huge
areas hitherto unsuitable for the industry.

About mid-day we approached a
of the

plaza, or




Gallareta Factory, situated on the Company's
falling in torrents for "


Rain had been


by courtesy
of soft



days past, and had one and

become deep crevasses

mud, loads








wherever the cart conveying it had stuck, and in many places the water was so deep that not a vestige of these obstacles could be seen. Our coaches had to be driven " under (or perhaps we should say over ") such circumstances as these for about three miles, and this part of our journey was absolutely dangerous the greatest credit is due to the drivers and those in charge of the party that no

serious accident occurred, for, about mid-day, the

way was

Tannin Extract Factory.


but always cheerful. and the same driving treatment was meted out to The Chaperon. during the long hours of to-day's tedious drive. in of roast turkey ! . guides becoming more and more chilled with the rain and cold." to shorten the drive. assumed really serious proportions. and consequent meeting with gate-posts. lying hidden under the water. despite the continual downpour. to a hearty meal and mince pies We almost fell to wishing each other a Happy Christmas. comparatively dry. and instinctively wondered sat we down. It was past three o'clock when. ordered some of the wire fencing to be dropped so that we might proceed in a straight line to the house instead of making the considerable detour to the gate. after a side-slip or two.269 truly terrible. till at last wire fencing and other signs of civilisation marked our approach to the precincts of Las Gamas. for all " " in the coaches were shelter. his The seat ! with a wood fire crackling in the grate. our drivers and of the flooded lands. the drivers were wet through long ago and the peons had not been dry since dawn. were soon forgotten as an incredibly short time. and one never knew when a tree trunk. that our troubles. despite the utmost efforts on the However. This was indeed a welcome sight to the were beginning to feel the need of food and party. we passed from the extreme danger zone into the comparatively smooth waters So we drove on. and hot whisky and water for all Our host and hostess gave us such a welcome and the big room looked so dry and inviting. " No one was sorry when The Jehu. we drew up in front of the estancia house and noticed on the outbuildings a damp flag trying to flap a weary "welcome" to the party of first thing was to get The Jehu from and into a warm bath. small or large. would cause a terrific jolt to the cart. which had. and though the passengers part of our cocheros. genial Tacuruers.

they It was some time before unceasing downpour. which were most grateful after the. on their preserves so poor Monte was perforce shut up. and ere long were happy and dry in the big galpon round a roaring fire. the beautiful gramophone which few selections of songs on our host had received a few months ago as a Christmas greeting from England. In fact. and the travellers clothed and fed. had been splendid. It We must be difficult for those at .270 if roast chestnuts would form part of the afternoon's pro- gramme. Meanwhile. which they must have badly needed. somewhat sketchy ablutions of the past three days. of necessity. strict surveillance. It was a relief to us all to know that the work of those peons had ended for the day with the caring for the horses and unpacking of the goods. the rain conits the baggage to say. where Bear and his exception to the presence of companions could not take an interloper. there seemed little reason for late hours. for but here he had to be kept dogs were numerous on the of the kind premises. But the peons soon had the goods unpacked. the men often suggested themselves little which they thought they might help the caretakers of the party. tinued Unfortunately. things in Monte under still accompanied us. waggons arrived on the scene. however harmless. chestnuts of an allegorical kind did enter into the proceedings. Their behaviour all through this terrible day. and it says a good deal for master as well as for man that not once was a sound of discontent heard. Now that the safe arrival of the luggage was an accomplished fact. needless and their contents were very damp. away from the . and. sometimes under most trying circumstances. and it was not long after dinner when the only waited to hear a general dispersal took place. house. and several of them were not who brook any encroachment. The late after- noon and evening were chiefly spent in having warm baths.


Some of the Horses. .

271 home to realise what an immense amount of pleasure a good gramophone can give to the dwellers in the far camp lands. and our cocheros. ridden. to-day. no communications had reached its up to the time of going to press. We have driven. Still. This instrument was in constant request. must have been worn out with their exertions of the day. and both the machine and records were extraordinarily good. etc.. and we are inclined to think that few other places could supply as The fitness of many animals to do such trying work. and have not lost one upon the journey. advertisements. doubtless oiving to the floods. more suffer especially the Jehu. as. Our horses have been simply wonderful during this trip. We hope all correspondents will accept our sincere apologies for the unavoidable delay in dealing with letters and orders . We are sorry to be obliged to hold over all correspon- dence. We their no after ill effects from can only hope they will arduous task and severe drenchings. . even this great attraction did not tempt the party to sit up late everyone was tired and exhausted. . This speaks volumes for the care and training bestowed upon the animals at the head estancia. our animals is owing entirely to the continual attention and care they receive daily at the estancia. and brought along nearly 100 animals for 150 miles. all despatches shall receive our earnest attention as soon as they come to hand.

and the camps were all flooded with the paths. . Dawn showed continuous rain of yesterday and last night. . whether intentional or not on the part of the animals. to the water feet from the ground. and the dogs were only separated by the calm procedure of some of the men who held them under the water taps until their ardour was cooled.B. etc.272 'THE TACURU. us no respite of the drenching rain the the garden. in order to devise a scheme for the best improvements for the estancia. and before long he and The Delineator had made out a plan which would drive any member of the R. and still it poured.I. for a few seconds. to desperaThe Jehu and tion. seemed little to do save listen to the dulcet strains of the gramophone." No.. he walked with majestic mien up which jutted out from the house a few . some minutes later. poking out his heavy under-jaw. collected the flow of water in his mouth in a most satisfying way. Monte was out of all this trouble. Of course. which proved a welcome diversion. but caused its authors enormous joy. when he decided to have a drink after his fight spout. for he had been consigned to the security the galpon to avoid trouble concerning rights of way which would assuredly have arisen between himself and of Bear (the big bulldog of the estancia) had they met. 1910. and. Bear amused the company by presenting a truly comical sight. After disposing of a more substantial breakfast than had fallen to the there lot of the travellers for some days. A considerable disturbance was caused by a dog fight under the table round which we were sitting . The Instigator started off pacing and measuring the room's verandah. 9. Sunday. April 3rd. the rout of the ladies was complete.A.

but unfortunately for him his first customer's beard was too unyielding for the . clothes. all the trees and roots must be removed before ploughing operations obtained is not wasted commence. are told that one We Tacuruer tried to employ the morning remuneratively by opening a temporary barber's shop on the verandah. For to-morrow the made visit to the La Gallareta factory will occupy the day.273 comfort of their The Chaperon were occupied for some time in seeing to men and animals. regret that a well-meant enterprise on the part of one of The We Tacuru party met with such a poor reception. and " " hair-cutting and shaving possibly he might advertising have built up a successful business in time. etc. and the Charcoal piles are too interesting a sight to be left unvisited now that we are in the wood department of the Santa Fe Land Company. and trying to dry the the tents. by the huge fire in the galpon in which the peons were housed for the day.. ordinary scissors and the customer objected to the way in which the horse clippers were used on the hirsute growth of his chin. if any could be reached on dry land. A gleam of ceasing rain it was not sunshine gave courage to some of the more energetic members of the party to go forth to inspect the heaps of wood about to be into charcoal in the neighbourhood of the estancia. who were observed to slink away one by one from the barber's chair as if it were infected. N But all the timber so the branches and etc.. and talked of his treatment afterwards in a way that did not inspire confidence in the other might-have-been customers. pieces not big are cut up into various suitable lengths and piled together in such a manner that T . In the northern districts where trees are numerous is it necessary to "distroncar" the land before the soil can be words In other brought into condition suitable for the plough. enough to be used for sleepers.

and the carbonised and makes excellent charcoal. an iron or brick still should be erected. the crown breaks in . and no air admitted.274 when finished the . of the by-products. how- wood where immense quantities are used purposes. some thirty to forty tons of charcoal are produced from one of these heaps not infrequently. is a hollow cylinder this tube or pipe is filled with the small sticks and twigs from the trees. for cooking and heating goes well. the fire slowly burns downwards and in sets to till the surrounding logs which their is turn smoulder they become charcoal. and the labour expended on this is represented by a few cartloads of useless ash. the kiln being well built. But the match not applied until the whole mass of wood has been covered up and plastered over with mud. and the charcoal itself would be a more certain production from these brick or iron kilns than . upon the advisability of bringing a little science to bear upon the problem of preventing any waste of the material itself or . The thought of The Instigator these possible failures was too much for he held forth. beehive heap presents the appearance of a huge the centre of this dome running from the apex to . at length. If all . His theory is that to make the best use of nature's lavish gifts in the way of wood products. and so find their way to the base of the kiln where they could be collected and run out into casks for utilisation. and up when all is in readiness the contents of the cylinder are the ground fired from the light top. to prevent the entrance of any air. the wood " is horno " completely burnt. this allows the air to enter. on the inside of - which the heavy tarry products would naturally accumulate. is The kiln thus forms an enclosed retort. whilst the lighter vapours are condensed in the hood of the still to be chemically treated later for their highly valuable properties. which eventually finds its way to Buenos Aires and other cities. ever.

though from the time of the crash (we found later that it was the telephone which had suffered). much considered as thorough T. it seemed to flash (and this was before the dinner hour) yellow light from the north. due for had not reached the office he fears they may have been lost.. C. while you wait. turned to seek the shelter of the estancia For some house. he. the weather became impossible. and was of long continuance. whither his audience had long ago fled. and when The Instigator discovered that he was expatiating to the camp and rain it is alone. the and only steady rain continued. repeated. Lowest bring Large supply of tools. could be done out of doors. The Editor regrets that up to the time of going to press to-day. and requests that all orders may be . and most of the party early to bed. too. storm abated nothing more was glad of a better day retired Songs occupied the evening. The culminating point seemed to come when an appalling crash was heard and something appeared to have been struck by lightning. THE VERANDAH. Customers' comfort not so work. time we watched the storm as it worked up with intense fury. while they hoped for to-morrow. and everyone warmth and shelter. This drove the party indoors. Satisfaction certain. The sent in following advertisements of to-day's dating have been : HAIR CUTTING AND SHAVING prices.275 At this point of his lecture from the present heaps. the advertisements. .. Good style guaranteed. or customers if may their own instruments preferred. red from the south. However. correspondence. The lightning as it illuminated the whole camp was a wonderful sight. yesterday's issue etc. and a bright white light from the east.

Anyone possessing a copy of this valuable work for sale. able information on any subject services. Reliable Barber for clipping advertiser's beard weekly. several people . at own residence. The Editor hoped long to continue his beneficent task of bringing a daily joy into the lives of all Englishbut.276 WANTED. bid our readers * * ' ' . The Tacuru announce wi th great regret the unavoidable demise of the journal known and respected by all as The Tacuru. May be required to travel. April 4th. alas." Office. there came a flood. in return for Barber's T. The Tacuru Monday. perforce. Therefore we must. WANTED By to lose at good book on " How not Bridge. Gentleness much appreciated advertiser would give valu. The Editor and Staff of '' * * 1910. LAS GAM AS. This valuable and instructive periodical has become a necessity to every happy home. an awful flood. I. and carried away his hopes and printing press (we believe some people were drowned. too).. speaking and reading people just as he bore ''his blushing honours thick upon him. ' ' . please quote lowest price to Editor.

" Awful Flood. .



.On the Way to Olmos.

we would mention that the printing-press and a few lives were lost on the way to Olmos. With this. Printing presses are not unique. depicting the counting of the loss after the deluge. we must pause. by the same staff. this paper has brought into their lives. we hope. and to all contributors. trusting that some day our great work may be renewed under similarly happy circumstances. we hope to be able to make our loss good and bring happiness and information once more to countless millions. for ever. willing or unwilling.277 'farewell. and some day. . tude to the enjoyment. to whom. We are able to publish a photo of extreme 4 4 * ' ' interest. a long farewell. or otherwise. In case any of our readers would like to erect a monument of gratiin memory of The Tacuru. in the land of civilisation. a thousand thanks. and our deepest regrets.'' Though not.





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