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General Information
Breeds of Goats Meat Goat Breeds and Breeding Plans Preparing Meat Goats for the Breeding Season Reproductive Management of the Meat Goat Meat Goat Selection and Care

Breeding Management
Meat Goat Breeds and Breeding Plans Evaluating Meat Goat Breeding Stock Breeding and Kidding Management Preparing for Breeding and Kidding Evaluation and Preparation of the Meat Goat Breeding Herd

Heat Detection
Heat Detection and Breeding in Meat Goats Heat Detection for Hand Breeding

Selection Tools
Procurement of Foundation Stock Online Pedigree Generator Understanding Boer Goat Pedigrees The Use of Inbreeding in Farm Animals Breeding Strategies Heritability Estimates Why Crossbreds may be Superior to Purebreds Goat Map Database

Anatomical Charts
Reproduction in the Goat (animation) External Anatomy Skeletal System

Reproduction in the Male


Preparing Bucks for the Breeding Season Billy Soundness

Reproduction in the Female


Development of Replacement Ewe Lambs Improving Reproductive Performance of the Ewe Breeding Season & Aspects of Reproduction in Female Goats

Estrus
Methods for Estrus Control Out of Season Breeding Alternatives

Artificial Insemination
Artificial Insemination of Dairy Goats Embryo Transfer in Small Ruminants Flushing Nannies

Gestation Calendars
Fetal Development of a Goat Gestation Calendar (animated) Kidding Calculator

Kidding
Necessary Kidding Supplies Process of Kidding (includes IMAGES)

Photos of a Normal Kidding Additional Kidding Images Dystocia/Abnormal Delivery Tube Feeding Neonatal Small Ruminants
Document

RID AND SEMI-ARID REGION (Contd.)


2.3 Goat Breeds
2.3.1 SIROHI (Plate 12)
a) Distribution. Sirohi district of Rajasthan. The breed also extends to Palanpur in Gujarat. b) Numbers. The total goat population in the Sirohi distribution area, according to the 1972 census, was 0.295 m, of which 0.007 m adult males and 0.204 m adult females. c) Climate
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum Average monthly relative humidity (%) morning evening Annual rainfall (cm) 55 48 169 2995 2491 16.5 24.9 9.322.3 19.331.5

d) Breed characteristics
i) Size Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Height at withers (cm) Chest girth (cm) Adult male 50.37 2.52 (16) 80.0 1.02 (16) 85.6 1.4 (16) 80.3 1.0 (16) Adult female 22.54 0.17 (343) 61.3 0.2 (343) 68.4 0.2 (343) 62.4 0.2 (343)

ii) Conformation. Compact, medium-sized animals. Coat colour predominantly brown, with light or dark brown patches; a very few individuals are completely white. Most animals are wattled. Ears are flat and leaf-like, medium-sized and drooping; ear length: 18.8 + 0.6 cm (15). Both sexes have small horns, curved upward and backward; horn length: 7.7 0.15 cm (144). Tail is medium in length and curved

upward; tail length: 16.7 0.14 cm (153). Udder is small and round, with small teats placed laterally. e) Flock structure. Average flock size is 60 (range: 10 to 200), containing 1 adult male, 42 adult females and 17 young. f) Reproduction. Under farm conditions, kidding percentage: (5): 89.3% (328). Litter size: singles: 91.5%; twins: 8.5%. g) Mortality (5): 0 to 3 months: 1.9% (219); 3 to 12 months: 4% (179); adults: 2.5% (451). h) Breeding. Generally pure breeding. Males are selected on size from within flocks. There is some introduction of Marwari for increasing hair production. i) Performance

Milk. Average lactation yield (5, 7): 71.18 1.55 kg (219); length: 174.8 2.75 days (219).
Plate 12

SIROHI

a) ADULT MALE

b) ADULT FEMALE

c) FLOCK

Meat: body weight (kg) (source: 5)


At birth At weaning 6 months 9 months 12 months 2.82 0.02 (309) 9.92 0.12 (288) 13.48 0.19 (144) 16.95 0.21 (118) 21.27 0.23 (117)

In individual feed-lots, from 3 to 6 months of age (4, 5): average daily gain: 61.4 5.36 g (23); efficiency of feed conversion (%) (4, 5): 10.1 0.93(23). Age at slaughter: 6 months. Dressing percentage on pre-slaughter live-weight basis (4, 5): 47.3 0.9 (13). Bone/meat ratio (5): 1:4.497 0.357 (9).
MARWARI Plate 13

a) ADULT MALE

b) ADULT FEMALE

c) FLOCK

2.3.2 MARWARI (Plate 13)


a) Distribution. Marwar region of Rajasthan, comprising Jodhpur, Pali, Nagaur, Bikaner, Jalore, Jaisalmer and Barmer districts. The breed also extends into certain areas of Gujarat, especially Mehsana district. b) Numbers. The total goat population in the Marwari distribution area, according to the 1972 census, was 3.914 m, of which 0.072 m adult males and 2.484 m adult females. c) Climate
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum 20 33.7 8.228.3 23.841.8

Average monthly relative humidity (%) morning evening Annual rainfall (cm) 54.6 32.3 33.17 35.378 18.357.6

d) Breed characteristics i) Size


Adult males Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Height at withers (cm) Chest girth (cm) 33.18 1.77 (17) 70.97 1.65 (17) 74.74 1.61 (17) 71.68 1.41 (17) Adult females 25.85 0.29 (404) 63.51 0.44 (404) 69.29 0.22 (404) 68.60 0.26 (404)

ii) Conformation. Medium-sized animals. Predominantly black with long shaggy hair coat. In about 5% of individuals, white or brown patches are also observed. Beard is present in both sexes. Ears are flat, medium in length and drooping; ear length: 16.38 0.20 cm (245). Both sexes have short, pointed horns, directed upward and backward; horn length: 10.10 0.18 cm (246). Tail is small and thin. Udder is small and round, with small teats placed laterally. e) Flock structure. Average flock size: 48.0 4.6 (29) (range: from 10 to 100), containing 0.6 adult males, 36.4 adult females and 11.0 young. f) Reproduction. In farmers' flocks, kidding percentage: 52.5 3.4 (25); litter size: generally single. g) Mortality. Young: 23.1 3.2%; adults: 9.6 1.5. h) Breeding. Pure breeding. Breeding males are selected on size and hair production, mostly from within the flock. The Animal Husbandry Department of the Government of Rajasthan has introduced cross-breeding with Jamnapari to increase milk production. i) Performance

Milk. Under farmers' flock conditions: average daily milk yield: 0.530 0.32 kg; lactation length: 196.3 14.2 days. Under farm conditions (7): average lactation yield: 91.39 6.8 kg; length: 105.80 14 days; daily milk yield: 0.713 0.047 kg. Meat: body weight (kg) (source: 8)
At birth At weaning 6 months 2.29 0.05 (30) 6.00 0.85 (20) 8.70 1.35 (14)

9 months 12 months

13.70 1.58 (14) 16.25 2.79 (12)

Hair production. 302.9 15.4 g per year.

2.3.3. BEETAL (Plate 14)


a) Distribution. Throughout the States of Punjab and Haryana. True-bred animals are however found in the districts of Gurdaspur, Amritsar and Ferozepur in Punjab. b) Numbers. The total goat population in the Beetal distribution area, according to the 1972 livestock census, was 0.159 m, of which 0.014 m adult males and 0.084 m adult females. The goat population of Punjab has shown a marked decline. Surveys carried out by the Division of Dairy Cattle Genetics of the National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) showed that both the number of flocks and the number of goats per flock have decreased, primarily owing to an increase in irrigated cultivated areas and the shortage of natural vegetation available for browsing. Beetal is a good dairy breed, second to Jamnapari in size but is superior to it in that it is more prolific and more easily adaptable to different agro-ecological conditions and to stall-feeding. Jamnapari is more sensitive to environmental changes, especially confinement. There is need for conserving this breed. c) Climate
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum Average monthly relative humidity (%) morning evening Annual rainfall (cm) 66 44 70.4 3783 2266 17.3 31.9 5.827.1 20.241.2

d) Breed characteristics
i) Size Adult males Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Height at withers (cm) Chest girth (cm) 59.07 2.82 (12) 85.5 1.49 (12) 91.60 1.97 (12) 86.0 1.20 (12) Adult females 34.97 0.52 (132) 70.42 0.88 (130) 77.13 0.46 (130) 73.70 0.70 (130)

ii) Conformation. Large animals. Variable coat colour, predominantly black or brown with white spots of differing sizes. In a survey conducted by NDRI in the home tract of the breed, 92.6% animals were black and 7.4% brown. The coat is short and lustrous. The face line is convex, with typical Roman nose but not as prominent as in

Jamnapari. Ears are long and flat, curled and drooping; ear length: 24.8 0.65 cm (18). Both sexes have thick, medium-sized horns, carried horizontally with a slight twist directed backward and upward; horn length: 11.95 0.76 cm (20). Tail is small and thin. The udder is large and well developed, with large conical teats. e) Flock structure. The average flock contains 21.06 1.92 individuals, of which 1.5 adult males, 11.7 adult females and 7.8 young. f) Reproduction. In farmers' flocks, age at first kidding: 559 days: kidding interval: 357 days. Under farm conditions, age at first kidding (6, 17, 29): 761.87 4.24 days (2 183); kidding interval (6, 17, 29): 368.0 2.44 days (3 411); service period (29): 159.9 9.7 days (92); kidding percentage (6): 176.4; litter size (6, 20): singles: 40.66%; twins: 52.6%; triplets: 6.52%, quadruplets: 0.22% (based on 2 487 kids born).
BEETAL Plate 14

a) ADULT MALE

b) ADULT FEMALE

c) FLOCK

g) Mortality. Pre-weaning (3, 6): 25.4% (4 167); adults (3): 13.2% (599) h) Breeding. Pure breeding. Breeding males are generally selected on the basis of their dam's milk yield. The services of a buck of a neighbouring owner are commonly utilized when a flock does not possess a buck.

i) Performance

Milk. Average lactation yield (17, 29) (all lactations): 177.38 1.46 kg (3 998); yield per lactation: 1) 153.1 2.3 kg (1 433); 2) 194.8 3.2 kg(991); 3) 194.9 3.7 kg (692); 4) 189.2 4.3 kg (441); and 5) 173.7 5.4 kg (254). Average lactation length (6, 17): 187.0 3.02 days (683); dry period (17): 125.46 6.84 days (124). Meat: body weight (kg) (sources: 2, 6, 9, 20, 21, 32)
At birth At weaning 6 months 9 months 12 months 2.80 0.01 (4 092) 9.26 0.09 (228) 12.18 0.21 (78) 15.42 0.65 (37) 21.83 0.83 (64)

Age at slaughter: 9 months; dressing percentage on pre-slaughter live-weight basis (9): 49.68%.
JHAKRANA Plate 15

a) ADULT MALE

b) ADULT FEMALE

c) FLOCK

2.3.4. JHAKRANA (Plate 15)


a) Distribution. Jhakrana and a few surrounding villages near Behror, in the Alwar district of Rajasthan. b) Numbers. The number of animals of this breed is rather small, as it is restricted to a very limited area. Considering that it is a good indigenous dairy breed, there is need for its conservation. c) Climate
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum Average monthly relative humidity (%) 18.4 31.7 8.327.3 22.040.6

morning evening Annual rainfall (cm)

53 37 64.81

2968 1871

d) Breed characteristics i) Size


Adult males Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Height at withers (cm) Chest girth (cm) 57.80 3.50 (10) 84.10 2.11 (10) 90.40 1.61 (10) 86.00 1.91 (10) Adult females 44.48 0.52 (178) 77.74 0.36 (178) 79.12 0.29 (178) 79.13 0.31 (178)

ii) Conformation. Large animals. The coat, predominantly black with white spots on ears and muzzle, is short and lustrous. Face line is straight. Forehead is narrow and slightly bulging. The breed is quite similar to Beetal, the major difference being that Jhakrana is longer. Ear length is medium: 13.8 0.19 cm (164). Udder is large, with large conical teats. e) Flock structure. The average flock consists of 14.2 2.1 (36) individuals; (range: 5 to 34), including 0.05 adult males, 9.08 adult females and 5.07 young. f) Reproduction. In farmers' flocks: kidding percentage: 141.8 10.05 (223). Litter size: singles: 57.0 7.6%; twins: 41.0 7.5%; triplets: 2.0 1.2% (22). g) Mortality. Young: 3.4 2.1% (18); adults: 0.17% (18). h) Breeding. Pure breeding. Males are selected on the basis of their dam's milk yield. Breeding bucks are generally produced from within the flock. Owners of small flocks who do not maintain a buck utilize services of the buck from a neighbour's flock. i) Performance: Milk. In farmers' flocks, average daily milk yield: 3.18 0.17 kg (28); lactation length: 231.8 6.3 days (22). Under farm conditions (7), lactation yield: 121.80 8.8 kg (12); lactation length: 114.7 18.5 days (12); daily milk yield: 0.988 0.06 kg (12).
BARBARI Plate 16

a) ADULT MALE

b) ADULT FEMALE

c) FLOCK

2.3.5 BARBARI (Plate 16)


a) Distribution. Etah, Agra and Aligarh districts of Uttar Pradesh, and Bharatpur district of Rajasthan. b) Numbers. The total goat population in the Barbari distribution area, according to the 1972 census, was 0.444 m, of which 0.028 m adult males and 0.270 m adult females. Officials of the State Animal Husbandry Department state that Barbari goats true to breed number only about 30 000. The breed, quite important for milk and meat, is a dwarf breed highly suited for rearing under restrained and stallfeeding conditions. In addition to being a good milker, it is highly prolific. Considering the number of animals reported, there is serious need for undertaking conservation measures. It was observed in personal surveys that most males are castrated early in life and fattened for slaughter at religious festivals, and that a sizeable number of non-descript goats are kept for milk production by owners who maintain Barbaris, as all the milk of the latter is allowed to be suckled by their kids to ensure good growth.

c) Climate
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum Average monthly relative humidity (%) morning evening Annual rainfall (cm) 62 43.6 77.0 33.383 2074 18.8 32.3 7.528.8 22.241.7

d) Breed characteristics i) Size (sources: 19,31 and personal observations)


Adult males Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Height at withers (cm) Chest girth (cm) 37.85 1.96 (10) 70.45 1.43 (11) 70.67 0.74 (11) 75.53 1.25 (11) Adult females 22.56 0.32 (203) 58.68 0.38 (203) 56.18 0.37 (203) 64.31 0.40 (203)

ii) Conformation. Small animals, with compact body. The orbital bone is quite prominent, so that eyes appear bulging. There is wide variation in coat colour, but white with small light brown patches is the most typical. Ears are short, tubular, almost double, with the slit opening in front, erect, directed upward and outward. Both sexes have twisted horns, medium in length and directed upward and backward; horn length: 11.17 0.27 cm(99). Bucks have a large thick beard. e) Flock structure. The average flock contains 9.25 2.23 individuals (range: 2 to 31), of which 0.6 adult males, 5.3 adult females and 3.4 young. f) Management and feeding. Stationary. Mostly maintained on browsing and grazing stubble of cultivated crops and tree leaves. Cultivated fodders (e.g. berseem, wheat straw) and grains (e.g. maize, barley, millets) are commonly offered. The animals are generally housed in thatched sheds inside the house. Most males are castrated at ages between 7 to 30 days by the open method, with a blade, and are fattened on milk for slaughter on festive occasions. g) Reproduction. In farmers' flocks, litter size; singles: 23.12 8.4%; twins: 64.12 9.4%; triplets: 12.75 6.8%. Under farm conditions, age at first kidding (11): 648 36 days (24); kidding interval (11): 348 9 days (24); service period (25): 70 days (90); kidding percentage (27): 70.2 (322); litter size (11, 22, 27): singles: 49.64%; twins: 49.32%; triplets: 1.04% (578). h) Mortality. In farmers' flocks, young: 0.87 0.35%; adults: 0.19 0.14%. Under farm conditions, pre-weaning mortality (18, 27): 41.5%.

i) Production.

Milk. Average lactation yield (7, 19, 26): 107.120 3.2789 kg (70); lactation length (7, 11, 19): 150.13 5.247 days (94); daily milk yield (7, 11): 0.760 0.158 kg (99); dry period (11): 155.3 10.6 days (24). Meat: body weight (kg) (sources: 1, 3, 8, 27)
At birth At weaning 6 months 9 months 12 months 1.739 0.018 (539) 6.661 0.095 (325) 7.800 0.476 (9) 12.566 1.215 (9) 14.517 0.765 (18)

2.3.6 JAMNAPARI (Plate 17)


The name is derived from the location of the breed beyond the river Jamna (Jamna Par) in Uttar Pradesh .
1

a) Distribution. Agra, Mathura and Etawa districts in Uttar Pradesh and Bhind and Morena districts in Madhya Pradesh. However, the pure stocks are found only in about 80 villages in the vicinity of Batpura and Chakar Nagar in Etawa district. b) Numbers. The total goat population in the Jamnapari distribution area, according to the 1972 census, was 0.58 m. However, officials of the Animal Husbandry Department of Uttar Pradesh state that the total number of pure-bred Jamnapari does not exceed 5 000; these are located mostly in the Chakar Nagar area, between the Jamna and Chambal ravines. There is a serious need for conservation, multiplication and further improvement of the breed, considering the extremely small numbers of pure-bred animals remaining. Jamnapari is one of the largest goats in India; it has been extensively utilized to upgrade indigenous breeds for meat and milk, and has been taken to neighbouring countries for the same purpose. c) Climate
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum Average monthly relative humidity (%) morning evening Annual rainfall (cm) 60 41 76.54 3081 1875 19.0 32.3 7.429.5 22.241.8

d) Breed characteristics

i) Size Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Height at withers (cm) Chest girth (cm)

Adult male 44.66 1.89 (49) 77.37 1.23 (49) 78.17 1.25 (49) 79.52 1.2 (49)

Adult female 38.03 0.63 (168) 75.15 0.46 (168) 75.20 0.38 (168) 76.11 0.38 (168)

ii) Conformation. Large animals. There is a great variation in coat colour, but the typical coat is white with small tan patches on head and neck. The typical character of the breed is a highly convex nose line with a tuft of hair, yielding a parrotmouth appearance. The ears are very long, flat and drooping; ear length: 26.79 0.21 cm (216). Both sexes are horned; horn length: 8.69 0.27 cm(108). Tail is thin and short. A thick growth of hair on the buttocks, known as feathers, obscures the udder when observed from behind. The udder is well developed, round, with large conical teats.
1

A distinct strain, called Ramdhan (also known locally as Kandari Ka Khana) originated from a cross between a doe from the Alwar region in Rajasthan and a Jamnapari buck; it has a typical nose shape, even more like a parrot mouth than is usually observed in the true breed. The strain is known to have better milk production and growth, but its flocks are very limited in number.

JAMNAPARI

Plate 17

a) ADULT MALE

b) ADULT FEMALE

c) TYPICAL HEAD SHOWING PARROT MOUTH

d) FLOCK

e) Flock structure. The average flock contains 16.0 2.57 individuals (range: 8 to 41), of which 0.25 adult males, 8.65 adult females and 7.1 young. f) Management and feeding. The flocks, stationary, are maintained primarily on tree loppings, acacia pods and stubble of cultivated crops. Some supplementary feeding (200 to 250 g/day of Arhar and gram) is given to lactating animals. The animals are housed in the courtyard within the living quarters, under a thatched shed with a thorny fence. Most animals are docked. Castration does not take place. g) Reproduction. In farmers' flocks: kidding percentage: 124.25 6.05 (12); litter size: singles: 69.0 7.1%; twins: 27.8 6.46%; triplets: 3.2 0.0%. Under farm conditions: age at first kidding (14, 30): 737.0 21.25 days (88); kidding interval (14): 229.3 26.71 days (8); service period (14): 101.4 13.03 days (11); kidding percentage (30): 79.6 (339); litter size (16, 30): singles: 56.2%; twins: 43.1%; triplets: 0.7% (329). h) Mortality. In farmers' flocks: young: 5.75 2.5% (10); adults: 4.21 1.97% (12). i) Breeding. Flocks are pure-bred. Selection in bucks is based on dam's milk yield. j) Performance

Milk. Average lactation yield (30): 201.96 6.65 kg (166); lactation length (30): 191 6 days (116); average daily yield (24): 1.752 0.031 kg(434); dry period (30): 115 3 days. In farmers' flocks, average daily yield: 2.15 0.30 kg; average lactation length: 255 6.7 days.

Meat: body weight (kg) (sources: 10, 12, 15, 28, 30, 33)
At birth 3 months 6 months 9 months 12 months 4.27 0.04 (372) 12.11 0.45 (13) 15.56 1.67 (5) 24.00 1.16 (5) 29.65 (100)

Dressing percentage on pre-slaughter live-weight basis (15): 44.57 1.09 (5) at 6 months, and 48.16 0.91 (5) at 9 months. Bone/meat ratio (25, 33): 1:3.89.
MEHSANA Plate 18

a) ADULT MALE

b) ADULT FEMALE

c) FLOCK

2.3.7 MEHSANA (Plate 18)


a) Distribution. Banaskantha, Mehsana, Gandhi Nagar and Ahmedabad districts of Gujarat. b) Numbers. The total goat population in the Mehsana distribution area, according to the 1972 census, was 0.736 m, of which 0.030 m adult males and 0.530 m adult females. c) Climate
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum Average monthly relative humidity (%) morning evening Annual rainfall (cm) 64 37 82.3 4786 1869 20.5 34.2 11.927.4 28.740.7

d) Breed characteristics
i) Size Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Height at withers (cm) Chest girth (cm) Adult male 37.14 1.51 (11) 71.2 1.0 (11) 80.4 1.2 (11) 76.9 1.2 (11) Adult female 32.39 0.38 (185) 68.0 0.3 (183) 74.3 0.2 (188) 73.0 0.3 (188)

ii) Conformation. Large animals. The coat is black, with white spots at the base of the ear. Nose line is straight. The hair coat is long and shaggy. Ears are white, leaflike and drooping; ear length: 15.8 0.55 cm (41). Both sexes have slightly twisted horns, curved upward and backward; horn length: 11.0 0.20 cm (190). The udder is well developed; the teats are large and conical. e) Flock structure. The average flock contains 54.7 13.1 (27) individuals (range: 20 to 300), of which 0.7 adult males, 39.4 adult females and 14.6 young. f) Reproduction. In farmers' flocks: kidding percentage: 69.5 7.1 (23); litter size: singles: 89.7 2.7%; twins: 10.3 2.7% (27). g) Mortality. In farmers' flocks: young: 13.0 0.35% (25); adults: 3.4 1.1% (25). h) Breeding. Pure breeding. Males are selected primarily on body size. i) Performance

Milk. Average daily yield: 1.323 0.134 kg (27); average lactation length: 197.2 7.5 days (27). Hair. Average yield per year: 210.2 20.4 g (27).
Plate 19

GOHILWADI

a) ADULT MALE

b) ADULT FEMALE

c) FLOCK

2.3.8 GOHILWADI (Plate 19)


a) Distribution. Bhavnagar, Amreli and Junagarh districts of Gujarat. b) Numbers. The total goat population in the Gohilwadi distribution area, according to the 1972 census, was 0.369 m, of which 0.017 m adult males and 0.277 m adult remales. c) Climate.
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum Average monthly relative humidity (%) morning evening Annual rainfall (cm) 56 39 60.01 3977 2164 21.0 33.4 11.127.1 27.639.6

d) Breed characteristics
i) Size Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Adult males 37.10 1.42 (22) 73.4 1.3 (22) Adult females 36.03 0.38 (173) 72.4 0.3 (173)

Height at withers (cm) Chest girth (cm)

81.2 1.2 (22) 74.7 0.9 (22)

79.5 0.3 (173) 75.2 0.2 (173)

ii) Conformation. Large animals. The coat is black and covered with coarse long hairs. Nose line is slightly convex. Ears are tubular and drooping; ear length: 17.5 + 2.7 cm (157). Both sexes have slightly twisted horns, turned backward; horn length: 12.5 0.20 cm (190). e) Flock structure. The average flock contains 24.2 2.1 (29) individuals (range: 10 to 50), of which 0.7 adult males, 17.1 adult females and 6.4 young. f) Reproduction. In farmers' flocks: kidding percentage: 72.9 6.2 (28); litter size: singles: 84.2 4.1%; twins: 15.8 4.1% (25). g) Mortality. Young: 6.1 2.5% (27); adults: 6.4 2.3% (27). h) Performance in farmers' flocks

Milk. Average daily yield: 1.710 0.145 kg (29); average lactation length: 227.2 8.9 days (27). Hair. Average yield per year: 317.1 22.0 g (28).
Plate 20

ZALAWADI

a) ADULT MALE

b) ADULT FEMALE

c) FLOCK

2.3.9 ZALAWADI (Plate 20)


a) Distribution. Surendranagar and Rajkot districts in Gujarat. b) Numbers. The total goat population in the Zalawadi distribution area, according to the 1972 census, was 0.341 m, of which 0.013 m adult males and 0.256 m adult females. c) Climate
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum Average monthly relative humidity (%) morning evening Annual rainfall (cm) 67 35 67.38 4986 1768 19.6 33.9 10.726.2 28.140.5

d) Breed characteristics
i) Size Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Height at withers (cm) Adult males 38.84 1.46 (19) 75.6 1.05 (19) 83.3 0.8 (19) Adult females 32.99 0.32 (186) 71.8 0.3 (186) 78.5 0.2 (186)

Chest girth (cm)

76.8 1.1 (19)

74.2 2.3 (186)

ii) Conformation. Large animals. Coat is black and contains long coarse hair. Ears are long, wide, leaf-like and drooping; ear length: 19.0 0.20 cm (163). Both sexes have long twisted horns, pointed upward; horn length: 16.3 0.2 cm (202). The udder is well developed, with large conical teats. e) Flock structure. The average flock contains 41.5 7.4 (17) individuals (range: 10 to 60), of which 0.9 adult males, 28.7 adult females and 11.9 young. f) Reproduction. In farmers' flocks: kidding percentage: 71.2 6.7 (15); litter size: singles: 82.1 4.6%; twins: 17.9 4.6% (15). g) Mortality. Young: 22.0 4.2% (15); adults: 3.6 1.2% (15). h) Performance
KUTCHI

Milk. Average daily yield: 2.02 0.18 kg (16); lactation length: 197.2 5.8 days (16). Hair. Average annual yield: 245.3 3.28.4 g (16).
Plate 21

a) ADULT MALE

b) ADULT FEMALE

c) FLOCK

2.3.10 KUTCHI (Plate 21)


a) Distribution. Kutch district in Gujarat. b) Numbers. The total goat population in the Kutch district, according to the 1972 census, was 0.402 m, of which 0.018 m adult males and 0.298 m adult females. c) Climate
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum Average monthly relative humidity (%) morning evening Annual rainfall (cm) 63 36 34.87 4580 1764 20.1 33.0 10.127.4 26.138.7

d) Breed characteristics
i) Size Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Height at withers (cm) Adult males 43.50 1.16 (24) 77.1 1.3 (24) 86.4 0.7 (24) Adult females 39.29 0.40 (176) 75.0 0.3 (176) 82.4 0.3 (176)

Chest girth (cm)

78.4 0.7 (24)

76.1 0.2 (176)

ii) Conformation. Large animals. The coat is predominantly black, but a few white, brown and spotted animals are also found. The hair is coarse and long. The nose is slightly Roman. The ears are long, broad and drooping; ear length: 22.0 0.26 cm (199). Both sexes have short, thick horns, pointed upward; horn length: 10.6 0.19 cm (198). The udder is reasonably well developed; teats are conical. e) Flock structure. The average flock contains 83.3 14.5 (24) individuals (range: 30 to 300), of which 2.4 adult males, 70.3 adult females and 10.6 young. f) Reproduction. In farmers' flocks: kidding percentage: 75.5 4.5 (23); litter size: singles: 84.1 4.2%; twins: 15.2 4.2%; triplets: 0.7 0.4%(22). g) Mortality: In farmers' flocks: young: 15.0 2.4% (22); adults: 5.5 1.2% (22). h) Performance in farmers' flocks

Milk. Average yield: 1.84 0.15 kg (23); average lactation length: 117.7 7.3 days (20). Hair. Average yield per clip: 229.3 23.9 g (20). The annual hair yield may be taken to be approximately twice this figure, since the animals are shorn twice a year.
Plate 22

SURTI

a) ADULT FEMALE

2.3.11 SURTI (Plate 22)


a) Distribution. Surat and Baroda.

b) Numbers. The total goat population in the Surti distribution area is 0.28 m, of which 0.030 m adult males and 0.183 m adult females. Accroding to the officers of the State Department of Animal Husbandry, however, the number of Surti goats is extremely small. The breed is known to be a good dairy breed and is specially suited for maintenance under complete confinement and stall-feeding conditions. Considering its dairy quality and extremely small numbers reported, there is need for conservation, further multiplication and improvement of this breed. c) Climate
Average Range Average monthly temperature (C) minimum maximum Average monthly relative humidity (%) morning evening Annual rainfall (cm) 71 53 120.3 5987 3381 21.9 33.6 14.827.1 30.337.3

d) Breed characteristics
i) Size Body weight (kg) Body length (cm) Height at withers (cm) Chest girth (cm) Adult males 29.50 (2) 65.0 (2) 73.5 (2) 70.5 (2) Adult females 32.03 1.31 (29) 66.6 0.85 (29) 70.1 0.92 (29) 71.8 1.02 (29)

ii) Conformation. Medium-sized animals, generally white in body colour, with very well developed udder and large conical teats. Ears are medium-sized; ear length: 16.9 0.4 cm (31). Both sexes have small horns directed backward; horn length: 12.1 0.68 cm (27). e) Flock structure and performance. Generally kept as one or two animals, essentially stall-fed. The does are good milkers, yielding 2.5 kg per day, on average.

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Name-Raja ram Singh I.D.n.-10IDDDH008