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The Effects Of Customer Relationship Management And Service Quality Towards Customer Loyalty Through Customer Satisfaction

Hotman Panjaitan Feliks Anggia B.K.P


( hotman_pp@yahoo.com) ( felikscp23@gmail.com)

Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya

The International Conference on Sustainable Development March 6, 2012, Inna Bali Beach Hotel Sanur Bali Indonesia
Abstract
In enjoying the foods, every customer has their own different ways how to fulfill it. The way how to choose restaurant, which large and elegant with their luxury services, customer expected to feel satisfy after they had sacrificed a large value. Besides, there is customer which tends to choose, an ordinary restaurant, yet give satisfaction in the foods they had consumed. This research, was a descriptive research which using survey methods. There are four research variable: (1) customer relationship management with three dimension, are: man, process/procedure and technology, (2) service quality variable with five dimensions, are: physical evidence, responsiveness, assurance, reliability, and empathy, (3) customer satisfaction variable which come with three dimensions, are: price, convenience of acquisition and experience of employees, and customer loyalty with four dimensions, are: cognitive loyalty, affective loyalty, cognative loyalty, and acts loyalty. The result of research analysis through structural equation model with amos 18 on 100 respondents, shows that customer relationship management effects on service quality in amount of 0.6995. Customer relationship management effects on customer satisfaction in amount of 0.405. service quality effects on customer satisfaction in amount of 0.266. service quality effects on customer loyalty in amount of 0.877. This research, also found that customer relationship management indirect effects on customer satisfaction through service quality in amount of 0.186. Customer relationship management indirect effects on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction in amount of 0.355, and service quality indirect effects on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction in amount of 0.233 Keywords: customer relationship management, service quality, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty

INTRODUCTION
In enjoying the foods, every customer has their own different ways how to fulfill it. The way how to choose the restaurant, which large and elegant with their luxury services, customer expected to feel satisfy after they had sacrificed a large value. Besides, there is customer which tends to choose, an ordinary restaurant, yet give satisfaction in the foods they had consumed. Many assumed that, instead eating an expensive food but not delicious, better if choose the ordinary one, but serves delicious menu according to our taste Pizza Hut Restaurant is a common restaurant, however they offer special taste and menu on their dish which become their superior product. Example all kind pizza menu, which attract customer interest to try and frequently eat the dining menu Customer who become Pizza Hut loyal customer, are those whom understand the true restaurant condition, which so crowded and ready to queue when they comes to the restaurant at certain hours. So that, they often willing to wait to get a place to sit. In the era business competition which increasingly stringent in the field of food services, was able to maintain its business and loyal customers. This also supported by strategy and other efforts which undertaken to improves the quality of products and service quality to maintain the success achievement until now. One of the ways that used by management to intensify customer relationship management, with expectation for service quality can be maximized. When customer get good services, so the customer will be satisfy, and when they satisfied they become loyal mcustomer. Kotler (2005); Parasuraman et al., (1991) said that, customer satisfaction is the level of someone after he compares between perceived performance compared with his expectation. Product or services that can be satisfy are product or services that deliver something sought by the customer to a level sufficient. In customer behavioral context, satisfaction can be define much more from customer experience prespective, after they consumed or used some products or services. If performance was below expected, so the customer is not satisfied. If the service quality was above expected, customers are very satisfied or pleased. High satisfaction or pleasure wil likely cause the costumer behave positively, the emotional attachment to the brand, as well as rational preference, so the result is a high customer loyalty Based on description before, the problem can be formulated as follows:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Whether customer relationship management affects towards service quality in pizza hut? Whether customer relationship managemenet affects towards customer satisfaction in pizza hut? Whether service quality affects towards service quality in pizza hut? Whether customer satisfaction affects towards customer loyalty in pizza hut? Whether customer relationship management indirect affects towards customer satisfaction through service quality in pizza hut? Whether customer relationship management indirect affects towards customer loyalty through service quality in pizza hut? Whether customer relationship management indirect affects towards customer loyalty through customer satisfaction in pizza hut?

REVIEW REFERENCES
Customer Relationship Management
Customer relationship management is the process to build and maintain relation with customer which prosperous by providing a very valuable product for the customer and make customer satisfied. Schiffman dan Kanuk (2004) emphasizes that customer relationship management is the way company build relationships with customers in order to maintain customer loyalty and commitment to continue using the product the companies concerned. There are three factors driving the success of the relationshi[ between the marketer with the customer: 1. The ratio of the difference between benefits received by the resources used to obtain these benefit. 2. Ones perception for the perfomance of the products and services in connection to their expectation. 3. The purpose fom offering products of value on an ongoing basis and more than the other competitors, so that the customer are very satisfied and remain loyal to the companys products and brand.

Service Quality
Payne (2000) said that the quality of services related to an organizations ability to meet or exceed customer expectations. Fitzsimmons dan Fitz-Simmons said that service quality is defined as how far the difference between reality and customer expectation for services they receive. Meanwhile, according to Parasuraman (1988) service quality s the desire of the customer expectations rather than services that maybe provided by the company. From the above definition can be seen that the service quality can be summed up as a level of proficiency (ability) from a company in providing all the expectation of customer in meeting their needs.

Customer Satisfaction
Engel, Blackwell dan Miniard (1995) defines satisfaction as a post-consumption evaluation, where a chosen alternative at least meets or exceeds expectations, the alternative is implemented at least as good as you would expect. According to Kotler (2005), customer satisfaction are feeling being happy or disappointed from someone who comes from a comparison between the impressin of the performance (results) of a product with many expectations. From some description of satisfaction, then the general satisfaction can be interpreted as comparison between the service received or the results of customer expectations. Where it received the results shuld at least be equal to the expectation on customers, or even surpass it.

Customer Loyalty
Loyalty according to Jacoby and Keyner in Pedersen and Nysveen (2004) can be interpreted as a nonrandom purchases from time to time in the brand among the many brands carried by the customer. Loyalty is a deep commitment to make repeat purchases or choose to return an item or service consistently in the future.from the definition it can be understood that loyalty is a behavioral respons in the form of the selection of one brad from a collection of existing brands, and expressed in a long time. More over Oliver (1997) explained that following the four stages of developing loyalty is known as The Four Stage Model Of Loyalty Strength include cognitive loyalty, affective loyalty, conative loyalty, and action loyalty. This model suggests that the customer become loyal firstly from the cognitive aspects and then affective aspect, and finally the conative aspect where further followed by motivation and strong commitment conative loyalty which will lead to loyal behavior.

The Research Hypothesis


1. 2. 3. Customer relationship management significantly effect towards customer satisfaction. Customer relationship management significantly effect towards service quality. Service quality significantly effect towards customer satisfaction.

4. 5. 6. 7.

Customer satisfaction significantly effect towards customer loyalty. Customer relationship management significantly indirect effect towards customer satisfaction through service quality. Customer relationship management significantly indirect effect towards customer loyalty through customer satisfaction. Service quality significantly indirect effect towards customer loyalty through customer satisfaction.

RESEARCH METHODS
The research was a descriptive research conducted by survey method, about the effect of customer relationship management and service quality on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction. This research intends to clarify the influence between variables through hypothesis testing and explananitons of some variables, using the method of random sampling. Estimate used the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), with using Structural Equation Modelling tool analysis. Population are Pizza Hut Customer, and the number of samples as many as 100 samples, were determined by using a reference (Hair et al.,1998).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The Research Instrument
The instuments used in this research is a quetionnaire, in which the questionnaire consisted of two parts: (1). The data include about personal identity of respondents. (2). The data relating to all variables of this research. Measurements for each variables take the form of scoring according to the likert scale, where 1 indicates the lowest number (strongly disagree), and a score of 5 indicates the highest value (strongly agree).

Validiy And Reliability Test


The test result of validity on this research are to get more product moment coefficient corelation than 0.3 on all question items, this means that each item has a question in the instrument accuracy and precisioon in measure function (valid) Results of reliability testing produced a cronbach alpha coefficient more than 0.6 in all dimension of the variables measured, means instrument that being used shown that they have acceptable reliability (Hair et al., 1998). Table. 1. Reliabilty test result with Cronbach Alpha () Variabel Cronbach alpha () Standar Kesimpulan conclusion standart Cus. Rel. Management (X)
Crm1 Crm2 Crm3 0,913 0,620 0,721 0,920 0,917 0,931 0,931 0,883 0,999 0,999 0,999 0,866 0,938 0,942 0,656 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable Reliable

Service Quality (Z1)


Sql1 Sql 2 Sql 3 Sql 4 Sql 5

Customer Satisfaction (Z2)


Cs1 Cs 2 Cs 3

Customer Loyalty (Y)


Cl 1 Cl 2 Cl 3 Cl 4

source: results of reliability test

Model measurement
Then performed confirmatory factor analysis / construct validity of the measurement model customer relationship management (X), quality of service (Z1), Satisfaction (Z2), and Customer Loyalt y (Y). This shown in Picture 1.

Picture 1. Validity Construct and Model Test The amount of contribution from each indicator (loading factor), are shown in table 2. Based on the results of the statistical test (Amos 18). The obtained values of CR (Critical Ratio) for each indicator forming X, Z1, Z2 and froming indicator Y is greater than 2. (Joreskog and sorbom, 1996), thus, the indicators are the indicators that significantly shape the variable X, Z1, Z2, And Y. Table 2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Critical Loading Probability Ratio 2 Factor () Ref 0.769 0.000 3.152 0.570 0.000 3.131 0.530 0.000 Ref 0.978 0.000 9.940 0.722 0.000 6.582 0.580 0.000 18.022 0.936 0.000 4.635 0.450 0.000 Ref 0,715 0.000 6.016 0,809 0.000 6.032 0,738 0.000 Ref 0.659 0.000 6.841 0,871 0.000 5.589 0,671 0.000 6.159 0.767 0.000

Variable Relationship crm1 Relationship crm2 Relationship crm3 Serv. Quality sql1 Serv. Quality sql2 Serv. Quality sql3 Serv. Quality sql4 Serv. Quality sql5 Satisfaction Cs1 Satisfaction Cs2 Satisfaction Cs3 Loyalty Cl1 Loyalty Cl2 Loyalty Cl3 Loyalty Cl4 source: Appendix

Information Very Strong Strong Moderate Very Strong Very Strong Strong Very Strong Moderate Very Strong Very Strong Very Strong Strong Very Strong Strong Very Strong

Parameters and Hypothesis Testing


To find out the causal relationship between each variable, was conducted to test the nul hypothesis which says that the relationship between the regression coefficient equal zero through the t-test in regression model. By considering the regression result in table 3, it is known that the Critical Ratio (CR) which is identical with the t-test in the regression analysis shows that all regression coefficient are significantly different from zero, thus causality in the model is acceptable.

Table 3. Final Model Parameter Estimation Regression Weights Standardized Estimate Serv. Quality <--- Relationship .699 Satisfaction <--- Relationship .405 Satisfaction <--- Serv. Quality .266 Loyalty <--- Satisfaction .877 Source: Appendix

S.E. .163 .152 .101 .163

C.R. 5.246 2.912 2.553 5.065

P .000 .026 .020 .000

Table 3 shows that the amount of the regression between the variables ofcustomer relationship management with service quality and value of 0.699 CR = 5.246 means that the variables have a powerful customer relationship management and significant impact on service quality variables. This means that hypothesis 1 is accepted. The amount of regression between the variables of customer satisfaction and CRM amount 0.405 and CR = 2.912, means that CRM variable strongly and significantly effect on customer satisfaction variable. This means that hypothesis 2 accepted. The amount of regression between the service quality variable with customer satisfaction at 0.266 and CR = 2.553 means that, the value of the service quality variable significantly effect onto customer satisfaction variables. This means that hypothesis 3 accepted. The amount of regression between the customer satisfaction variable with customer loyalty at 0.877 and CR = 5.065 means that, the value of the customer satisfaction variable significantly effect onto customer loyalty variable. This means that hypothesis 4 accepted. Table 4, shows in detail the relationship of direct effect, indirect and total effects in this research. Table 4. Direct effect, indirect effect, and total effects Pengaruh Direct effect Indirect Effect Cus. Rel. Management > Serv. Quality 0,699 0,000 Cus. Rel. Mgment > Satisfaction 0,405 0,186 Serv. Quality > Satisfaction 0,266 0,000 Cus. Rel. managemenent>Loyalty 0,000 0,518 Serv. Quality > Loyalty 0,000 0,233 Cus. Satisfaction > Loyalty 0,877 0,000 Source: Appendix (Amos Result).

Total Effects 0,699 0,591 0,266 0,518 0,233 0,877

There is an indirect effect of customer relationship management towards customer satisfaction variable through service quality in amount of 0.186. this means that service quality become a positive mediator onto customer relationship management in order to increase pizza hut customer satisfaction. This means that hypothesis 5 is accepted. There is an indirect effect of customer relationship management towards customer loyalty through customer satisfaction in amount of 0.355. This means that customer satisfaction become a positive mediator onto customer relationship management in order to increase customer loyalty in pizza hut restaurant. This means hypothesis 6 is accepted. There is an indirect effect of Service quality towards customer loyalty through customer satisfaction in amount of 0.233. This means that customer satisfaction become a positive mediator onto Service Quality in order to increase customer loyalty in pizza hut. This means hypothesis 7 is accepted

DISCUSSION
This research has found thatcustomer loyalty at Pizza Hut, Especially on Surabaya Darmo Branch can be explained significantly by customer relationship management, service quality, and customer satisfaction. Based on SEM analysis of the measurement model for each latent variable and its indicator is concluded that al the questionnaire items or indicators can be used. Model design is acceptable. Confirmatory factor analysis measurement model test, measure of exogenous and endogenous constructs models of all the variables compliant with cut-off value, goodness of fit indices, and t-count (CR) more than 2, so that all significant indicators of a variable is an indicator that is formed. The results of confirmatory factor model fit test of structural model shown in figure 1. Which was designed pretty well. These criteria include: RMSEA value of

0.038 (<0.08); GFI of 0.935 (>0.90); AGFI of 0.896 (>0.90), CFI 0f 0.976 (>0.95), TLI of 0.965 (>0.95) and Cmin-DF of 1.873 (<2). Based on the results of the analysis, the model was fit and feasible to use These findings may can become alternative model or way to managing customer and customer loyalty in Pizza Hut restaurant. In this context the effect of explanatory variables can be studied further to gain more comprehensive discussion.

The Effect Of Customer Relationship Management Towards Service Quality


Coefficient path value of customer relationship management towards service quality are 0.699 with critical ratio (CR) of 5.246. these values indicate customer relationship management contribution, in influencing service quality is significant and its influence is unidirectional, it means that the success of pizza hut in building CRM contributed to increased service quality, and vice versa. Customer relationship management is the process of building and maintaining profitable relationships with customers by providing products that are very valuable to customer and create satisfied customers. Schiffman and Kanuk (2004) emphasized that the Customer Relationship management is the way companies build relationships with customer in order to maintain customer loyalty and commitment to continue using the product the companies concerned Several attempts to do in an effort to improve the service quality, including through the empowerment of officers to be more to have the willingness and ability to manage relationships with customers. This can be done by providing an easy form to fill outgiving the bulletin or info to customers on a periodic basis, and implementation of a mechanism to reward customers who give good advice.

The Effect Of Customer Relationship Management Towards Customer Satisfaction


Coefficient path value of customer relationship management towards customer satisfaction are 0.405 with critical ratio (CR) of 2.912. these values indicate customer relationship management contribution, in influencing customer satisfaction is significant and its influence is unidirectional, it means that the success of pizza hut restaurant in building CRM contributed to increased customer satisfaction, and vice versa Earlier described thath to achieve efficiency, service quality and customer satisfaction are the three things that a major concern, namely people, processes / procedures, and technologies. Several attempts to do in an effort to improve customer satisfaction by the management of Pizza Hut, among others, through the empowerment of officers to be more to have willingness and ability to manage relationships with customers. it can be pursued through the use of internet technology to facilitate the booking transaction and file a complaint or suggestion, and provides a number that can be reached.

The Effect Of Service Quality Towards Customer Satisfaction


Coefficient path value of service quality towards customer satisfaction are 0.266 with critical ratio (CR) of 2.533. these values indicate service quality contribution, in influencing customer satisfaction is significant and its influence is unidirectional, it means that the success of pizza hut restaurant in building service quality contributed to increased customer satisfaction, and vice versa. Service quality is the ability of pizza hut in providing all the expectations of customers in meeting their needs. In order to have service quality and customer satisfaction, then the restaurant should pay attention to the various dimensions that can create and improve their service quality. Services provided to customers will lead to satisfied customers for services whether or not a given. Some companies have long been aware that the product is not great enough to attract customers, which is more important is that makes the customer buy the product again because it is a good service from the company. As an alternative efforts to improve customer satisfaction, service quality can be done through the covering dimensin of reliability that focuses on the ability to provide services restaurant promised immediate, accurate and satisfactory. Responsiveness dimensin that focuses on the willingness to help customers and provide proper attention immediately. Dimensin of assurance that focuses on employees in terms of knowledge, competence, courtesy, and properties that can be trusted. Emphaty dimensin which focuses on the restaurant side actively attempts to create ease in establishing relationships, attention to diverse individuals, understand physical evidence that focuses on physical facilities such as staff, equpiment, and supplies the means of communication.

The Effect Of Customer Satisfaction Towards Customer Loyalty


Coefficient path value of Customer Satisfaction towards Customer loyalty are 0.877 with critical ratio (CR) of 5.065. these values indicate customer satisfaction contribution, in influencing Customer Loyalty is significant and its influence is unidirectional, it means that the success of pizza hut in building customer satisfaction contributed to increased customer loyalty, and vice versa. Customer satisfaction is a comparison between the results received by the customer with customer expectations. Where it received the results should at least be equal to expectations of customers, or even exceed them.

In an era of tight business competition, customer satisfaction is a priority. Effort should be made to satisfy customer needs profitably or are win-win situation is a state where both sides win and no one was injured. Therefore it is proper to do is pizza hut, customer satisfaction is a good bridge of customer loyalty, in other words a satisfied customer will lead to customer loyalty. As an alternative to efforts to improve customer loyalty, can be done through increased customer satisfaction that includes the dimensions of price and quality that refers to suitability of the price and quality of the product obtained by the customer when buying or ordering a product from pizza hut. Convenience of acquisition refers to the ease and convenience provided to customer and employees, especially in terms of communication related to ordering food, which helps give advice and opinions to customers who want to order foods.

The Effects Of Customer Relationship Management Towards Customer Satisfaction Through Service Quality
Previous description was explained that customer relationship management variables gave a significant effects on customer satisfaction, and then customer satisfaction gave a positive effects towards service quality. Based on the existence of these two significant effects, suggesting that the iterative customer relationships proved significant effect indirectly on customer loyalty. Thus service quality serves as an intervening variable in relation to customer relationship management towards customer satisfaction. Given this indierc effect, the improvement of customer relationship management in addition directly improved customer satisfaction and service quality, also providing an indirect effect on customer satisfaction through service quality. In accordance with the study of Mithas, Krishnan dan Fornell (Kusnadi, 2008),examined the effect of cutomer relationship management applications for customer knowledge and customer satisfaction, this research also supported by the the study of Wetsch Lyle R., (2006) which states by using the theory of justice to investigate the potential impact that could be caused by the involvement of customers in the implementation of customer relationship management of trust, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Efforts to improve customer relationship management, continuously enhance the service quality, which in turn can increase customer satisfaction into customer expectations of Pizza Hut.

The Effects Of Customer Relationship Management Towards Customer Loyalty Through Customer Satisfaction
Previous description was clear that customer relationship management variables gave a significant effects on customer satisfaction, and then customer satisfaction gave a positive effects towards customer loyalty. Based on the existence of these two significant effects, suggesting that the iterative customer relationships proved significant effect indirectly on customer loyalty. Thus customer satisfaction serves as an intervening variable in relation to customer relationship management towards customer loyalty. With the indirect effect is the improvement of customer relationship management in addition to directly improve customer satisfaction and service quality, also providing an indirect effect on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction. Efforts to improve customer relationship management on an ongoing basis, can be improve the service quality to customers, which in turn can increased customer satisfaction as pizza hut customer expectations.

The Effects Of Service Quality Towards Customer Loyalty Through Customer Satisfaction
Previous description was explained that the service quality variables exert significant effect on customer satisfaction, and then customer satisfaction give positive significant towards customer loyalty. Based on the existence of two significant effects suggests that the service quality proved to exert significant effect indirectly on customer loyalty. Thus customer satisfaction serves as an intervening variable in the relationship of service quality on customer loyalty. With the indirect effect is the improvement of the service quality in addition to directly improve customer satisfaction, it also provides an indirect effect on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction, it also provides an indirect effect on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction. Efforts to improve the quality of customer service, will be able to continuously improve customer satisfaction, which in turn will increase customer loyalty.

CONCLUSION
From the test results of the model in this study, can explained the relation between customer relationship management, service quality, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, has lead to the conclusion that the research model is an appropriate model to describe the satisfaction and customer loyalty for pizza hut restaurant.

The results of this study is important because there are stages of the effect from each factor and construct tiered walk by (recursive), it was the customer relationship management variable positively effect the service quality variable, and customer satisfaction. Service quality variable affecting the customer satisfaction variable, meanwhile the customer loyalty were being affected by customer satisfaction. The results of this research was a significant contribution, especially in management theory, customer behavior theory and customer relationship management concept in the restaurant business Based on the analysis results and hypothesis testing can be deduced as follows 1. Customer relationship management have a significant positive effect on service quality. This shows that ny increasing the customer relationship management will encourage the increased of service quality at pizza hut restaurant. 2. Customer relationship management have a significant positive effect on customer satisfaction. This show that by increasing the customer relationship management will encourage the increased of customer satisfaction at pizza hut restaurant. 3. Service quality have a significant positive effect on customer satisfaction, this show that by increasing the service quality will encourage the increased of customer satisfaction at pizza hut restaurant. 4. Customer satisfaction have a significant positive effect on customer loyalty, this show that by increasing the customer satisfaction will encourage the increased of customer loyalty at pizza hut restaurant. 5. Customer relationship management indirect positive effect towards customer satisfaction through service quality. This shows that service quality play a positive role as an intervening variable. 6. Customer relationship management indirect positive effect towards customer loyalty through customer satisfaction. This shows that customer satisfaction play a positive role as an intervening variable. 7. Service quality indirect positive effect towards customer loyalty through customer satisfaction. This shows that customer satisfaction play a positive role as an intervening variable.

REFERENCES
Dick, Alan S and Kunal Basu, 1994. Customer Loyalty: Toward an Integrated Conceptual Framework, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 22, No. 2, p. 99-113. Diputra, Y.B., 2007. Analisis Pengaruh Kualitas Pelayanan Jasa Dan Penetapan Harga Terhadap Loyalitas Konsumen Pada Hotel Arwana Di Jakarta,Skripsi. Engel, J.F., R. Blackwell, dan C. Minnard, 1995. Customer Behaviour. Eighth edition. The Dryden Press. Fort Worth. Hair, Joseph F, Rolph E. Anderson, Ronald L. Tatham, William C. Black, 1998, Multivariate Data Analysis, International Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Kotler, P., 2005, Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation And Control, New Jersey: Prentice Hall International.Inc. Kusnadi, A. M., 2008, Analisis Customer Relationship Management Dan Service Quality Terhadap Customer Value Melalui Customer Satisfaction Pada Bank Pemerintah Di Surabaya, Disertasi. Mithas, S., Krishnan, M.S., Fornel, C., 2005. Why do customer relationship management applications affect customer satisfaction?, Journal of Marketing, 69 (4), pp. 201-209. Oliver, Richard L., 1997, Varities of Value In The Consumtion Satisfaction Response, Advanced in Customer Research, Vol. 23, pp, 143-147 Parasuraman, A., Zeithami, Valerie A., dan Berry, Leonard L., 1988. SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale For Measuring Customer Perceptions Of Service Quality. Journal of Retailing Vol. 64 (Spring), pp. 12 40. Parasuman, A., Zeithml, Valarie, A., and Berry, L., 1991, Delivering Quality Service, Balancing Customer Perception and Expectation, New York, The Free Press. Payne, Andrian, 2000, Services Marketing, UK Ltd: Prentice Hall International. Schiffman, L. G dan Kanuk, L. L., 2004. Customer Behaviour, 6th edition Prentice Hall International Inc, New Jersey. Wetsch, L.R. Trust, Satisfaction and Loyalty in Customer Relationship Management: An Application of of Justice Theory, 2006. Journal Of Relationship Marketing, 4 (3-4), pp. 29-42. Zeithaml, Valarie, A., Parasuraman, A. 1996. Measuring The Quality Of Relationship In Customer Service: An Empirical Study. European. Journal of Marketing. Zeithaml, Valarie A., 1998. Customer Perceptions of Price, Quality and Value: A Means End Model and Synthesis of Evidence, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 52, No. 3, p. 2-22.

Pengaruh Customer Relationship Management dan Service Quality Terhadap Customer Loyalty Melalui Customer Satisfaction
Hotman Panjaitan Feliks Anggia B.K.P
( hotman_pp@yahoo.com) ( felikscp23@gmail.com)

Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Surabaya Abstract


In enjoying the foods, every consumer has their own different ways how to fulfill it. The way how to choose restaurant, which large and elegant with their luxury services, consumer expected to feel satisfy after they had sacrificed a large value. Besides, there is consumer which tends to choose, an ordinary restaurant, yet give satisfaction in the foods they had consumed. This research, was a descriptive research which using survey methods. There are four research variable: (1) customer relationship management with three dimension, are: man, process/procedure and technology, (2) service quality variable with five dimensions, are: physical evidence, responsiveness, assurance, reliability, and empathy, (3) customer satisfaction variable which come with three dimensions, are: price, convenience of acquisition and experience of employees, and customer loyalty with four dimensions, are: cognitive loyalty, affective loyalty, cognative loyalty, and acts loyalty. The result of research analysis through structural equation model with amos 18 on 100 respondents, shows that customer relationship management effects on service quality in amount of 0.6995. Customer relationship management effects on customer satisfaction in amount of 0.405. service quality effects on customer satisfaction in amount of 0.266. service quality effects on customer loyalty in amount of 0.877. This research, also found that customer relationship management indirect effects on customer satisfaction through service quality in amount of 0.186. Customer relationship management indirect effects on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction in amount of 0.355, and service quality indirect effects on customer loyalty through customer satisfaction in amount of 0.233 Keywords: customer relationship management, service quality, customer satisfaction, customer loyalty

PENDAHULUAN
Dalam menikmati makanan, setiap orang mempunyai cara tersendiri untuk memenuhinya. Dapat dengan memilih restoran besar, indah dengan layanan yang mewah, dengan harapan akan mendapatkan kepuasan setelah mengorbankan sejumlah uang pada restoran tersebut. Di samping itu, ada yang cenderung memilih restoran yang biasa tetapi memberikan kepuasan dalam rasa makanan yang disantapnya. Banyak yang beranggapan daripada makan makanan yang mahal tetapi tidak lezat, lebih baik memilih restoran biasa namun menghidangkan menu yang lezat sesuai dengan selera. Restoran Pizza Hut adalah restoran yang biasa, namun menawarkan menu dan rasa spesial pada masakan yang menjadi produk unggulannya. Misalnya menu serba pizza yang banyak menarik minat konsumen untuk mencoba dan mengulangi makan menu tersebut. Konsumen yang menjadi pelanggan setia Pizza Hut, adalah mereka yang sudah mengerti benar kondisi restoran, yang begitu ramai dan siap untuk antri apabila datang ke restoran tersebut pada waktu jam-jam tertentu. Sehingga tidak jarang mereka harus rela menunggu hanya sekedar mendapatkan tempat. Dalam era persaingan bisnis yang makin ketat di bidang jasa makanan, ternyata Pizza Hut masih dapat mempertahankan usaha beserta pelanggannya. Hal ini tentunya juga ditunjang dengan strategi dan usahausaha lain yang dijalankan dalam meningkatkan mutu produk dan mutu layanan untuk dapat mempertahankan keberhasilan yang diperoleh hingga kini. Salah satu cara yang digunakan pihak manajemen adalah dengan mengintensifkan pengelolaan manajemen hubungan pelanggan, dengan harapan kualitas layanan dapat dimaksimalkan. Apabila konsumen mendapatkan layanan yang baik maka konsumen akan puas dan apabila puas mereka akan menjadi konsumen yang loyal. Kotler (2005); Parasuraman et al., (1991) menyatakan bahwa kepuasan konsumen adalah tingkat perasaan seseorang setelah ia membandingkan antara kinerja yang dirasakan dibandingkan dengan harapannya. Produk atau jasa yang bisa memuaskan adalah produk atau jasa yang dapat memberikan sesuatu yang dicari oleh konsumen sampai pada tingkat cukup. Dalam konteks teori perilaku konsumen, kepuasan lebih banyak didefinisikan dari perspektif pengalaman konsumen setelah mengkonsumsi atau menggunakan suatu produk atau jasa. Jika kinerja berada di bawah harapan, konsumen tidak puas. Jika kualitas layanan melebihi harapan, konsumen amat puas atau senang. Kepuasan yang tinggi atau kesenangan cenderung akan menyebabkan konsumen berperilaku positif, terjadinya kelekatan emosional terhadap merek, dan juga preferensi rasional sehingga hasilnya adalah loyalitas konsumen yang tinggi. Berdasarkan uraian di depan maka permasalahan dapat dirumuskan sebagai berikut: 1. Apakah manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh terhadap kualitas layanan di Pizza Hut? 2. Apakah manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh terhadap kepuasan pelanggan di Pizza Hut?

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Apakah kulitas layanan berpengaruh terhadap kepuasan pelanggan di Pizza Hut? Apakah kepuasan pelanggan berpengaruh terhadap loyalitas pelanggan di Pizza Hut? Apakah manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh tidak langsung terhadap kepuasan pelanggan melalui kualitas layanan di Pizza Hut? Apakah manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh tidak langsung terhadap loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan pelanggan di Pizza Hut? Apakah kualitas layanan berpengaruh tidak langsung terhadap loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan pelanggan di Pizza Hut?

TINJAUAN PUSTAKA
Manajemen Hubungan Pelanggan
Manajemen hubungan pelanggan adalah proses membangun dan mempertahankan hubungan dengan konsumen yang menguntungkan dengan memberikan produk yang sangat bernilai bagi konsumen dan membuat konsumen puas. Schiffman dan Kanuk (2004) menekankan bahwa manajemen hubungan pelanggan merupakan cara perusahaan dalam membina relasi dengan para pelanggan dengan tujuan memelihara kesetiaan dan komitmen pelanggan untuk tetap menggunakan produk perusahaan yang bersangkutan. Terdapat tiga faktor pendorong suksesnya hubungan antara pemasar dengan pelanggan yaitu: 4. Customer value: rasio perbedaan antara manfaat yang diterima dengan sumber daya yang digunakan untuk mendapatkan manfaat tersebut. 5. Customer satisfaction: persepsi seseorang terhadap kinerja suatu produk dan jasa sehubungan dengan harapannya. 6. Customer retention: merupakan tujuan dari penawaran produk yang bernilai secara terus-menerus dan lebih dibandingkan dengan pesaing lainnya, sehingga konsumen sangat puas dan tetap loyal terhadap produk dan merek perusahaan.

Kualitas Layanan
Payne (2000) menyatakan kualitas jasa berkaitan dengan kemampuan suatu organisasi untuk memenuhi, atau melebihi harapan pelanggan. Fitzsimmons dan Fitz-Simmons mengatakan service quality didefinisikan sebagai seberapa jauh perbedaan antara kenyataan dan harapan para pelanggan atas layanan yang mereka terima. Sementara itu menurut Parasuraman (1998) kualitas layanan adalah harapan sebagai keinginan para pelanggan ketimbang layanan yang mungkin diberikan oleh perusahaan. Dari definisi di atas dapat dilihat bahwa kualitas layanan dapat disimpulkan sebagai sebuah tingkat kemampuan (ability) dari sebuah perusahaan dalam memberikan segala yang menjadi harapan pelanggan dalam memenuhi kebutuhannya.

Kepuasan Pelanggan
Engel, Blackwell dan Miniard (1995) mendefinisikan kepuasan sebagai evaluasi pasca konsumsi dimana, suatu alternatif yang dipilih setidaknya memenuhi atau melebihi harapan, alternatif tersebut setidaknya terlaksana sebaik yang anda harapkan. Menurut Kotler (2004), kepuasan pelanggan adalah perasaan senang atau kecewa seseorang yang berasal dari perbandingan antara kesan terhadap kinerja (hasil) suatu produk dengan harapan yang dimiliki. Dari beberapa uraian definisi mengenai kepuasan, maka secara umum kepuasan dapat diartikan sebagai suatu perbandingan antara layanan atau hasil yang diterima dengan harapan pelanggan. Dimana hasil yang diterima itu paling tidak harus sama dengan harapan konsumen, atau bahkan melebihinya.

Loyalitas Pelanggan
Loyalitas menurut Jacoby dan Keyner dalam Pedersen dan Nysveen (2004) dapat diartikan sebagai pembelian non random dari waktu ke waktu pada suatu merk di antara banyak merk yang dilakukan oleh pelanggan. Loyalitas adalah komitmen yang dalam untuk melakukan pembelian ulang atau memilih kembali suatu barang atau jasa secara konsisten pada masa yang akan datang. Dari definisi tersebut dapat dipahami bahwa loyalitas merupakan respon perilaku berupa pemilihan satu merek dari sekumpulan merek yang ada, dan diekspresikan dalam waktu yang panjang. Lebih lanjut Oliver (1997) menerangkan bahwa loyalitas berkembang mengikuti empat tahap yang dikenal dengan istilah Model 4 tahap Kekuatan Loyalitas (The Four Stage Model of Loyalty Strength) meliputi cognitive loyalty, affective loyalty, conative loyalty, dan action loyalty. Model ini memberikan gambaran bahwa pelanggan menjadi loyal lebih dahulu pada aspek kognitifnya, kemudian pada aspek afektif, dan akhirnya pada aspek konatif dimana selanjutnya dengan disertai motivasi dan komitmen yang kuat loyalitas konatif inilah yang akan menimbulkan perilaku loyal.

Hipotesis Penelitian
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan. Manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kualitas layanan. Kualitas layanan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan. Kepuasan pelanggan berpengaruh signifikan terhadap loyalitas pelanggan. Manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh tidak langsung signifikan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan melalui kualitas layanan. 13. Manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh tidak langsung signifikan terhadap loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan pelanggan. 14. Kualitas Layanan berpengaruh tidak langsung terhadap signifikan loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan layanan.

METODE PENELITIAN
Penelitian ini adalah penelitian deskriptif (descriptive research) yang dilaksanakan dengan metode survey, mengenai pengaruh manajemen hubungan pelanggan dan kualitas layanan terhadap loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan pelanggan. Penelitian ini bermaksud untuk menjelaskan pengaruh antar variabel melalui pengujian hipotesis dan sekaligus melakukan eksplanasi terhadap beberapa variabel, dengan menggunakan metode random sampling. Estimasi yang digunakan adalah Maximum Likelihood Estimation (ML), dengan alat analisis Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Populasi adalah pelanggan Pizza Hut, dan jumlah sampel yang diteliti sebanyak 100 sampel yang ditentukan dengan menggunakan acuan (Hair et al.,1998).

HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN


Instrumen Penelitian
Instrumen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kuesioner, dimana kuesioner tersebut terdiri dari dua bagian yaitu: (1). Data tentang identitas pribadi responden. (2). Data yang berkaitan dengan seluruh variabel penelitian ini. Pengukuran untuk masing-masing variabel dilakukan dalam bentuk skoring menurut skala Likert, dimana angka 1 menunjukkan nilai terendah (sangat tidak setuju), dan nilai 5 menunjukkan nilai tertinggi (sangat setuju).

Uji Validitas dan Reliabilitas


Hasil pengujian validitas pada penelitian ini mendapatkan koefesien korelasi product moment lebih dari 0.3 pada semua item pertanyaan, ini berarti tiap butir pertanyaan dalam instrumen memiliki ketepatan dan kecermatan dalam fungsi ukurnya (valid). Hasil pengujian reliabilitas menghasilkan koefesien Alpha Cronbach mendapatkan hasil lebih dari dari 0.6 pada semua dimensi dalam variabel yang diukur, berarti instrumen terbukti memiliki keandalan yang dapat diterima. (Hair et al., 1998) Tabel. 1. Hasil Uji Reliabilitas dengan Cronbach alpha () Variabel Cronbach alpha () Standar Kesimpulan Man. Hub.Pelanggan (X)
mhp1 mhp2 mhp3 0,913 0,620 0,721 0,920 0,917 0,931 0,931 0,883 0,999 0,999 0,999 0,866 0,938 0,942 0,656 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 0,60 Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel Reliabel

Kualitas Layanan (Z1)


Sql1 sql 2 sql 3 sql 4 sql 5

Kepuasan Pelanggan (Z2)


Kpp1 kpp 2 kpp 3

Loyalitas Pelanggan (Y)


y1 y2 y3 y4

Sumber: Hasil uji reliabilitas

Pengukuran Model
Selanjutnya dilaku kan confirmatory factor analysis / construct validity terhadap model pengukur an (measurement model) manajemen hubungan pelanggan (X), ku alitas layanan (Z1), kepuasan (Z2), dan loyalitas konsu men (Y). Hal ini ditunjukkan pada Gambar 1.

Gambar 1. Uji Model dan Validitas Konstruct Besarn ya kontribusi masing-masing indikator (loading factor), ditunjukkan pada Tabel 2. Berdasarkan hasil uji statistic (Amos 18), maka didapat nilai dari CR (crical ratio) untuk setiap indikator pembentuk X, Z1, Z2 dan indikator pembentuk Y lebih besar dari 2 (Joreskog and Sorbom,1996), dengan demikian, maka indikator-indikator tersebut merupakan indikator -indikator yang secara signifi kan membentuk variabel X, Z1, Z2, dan Y. Tabel 2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Variabel Critical Loading Probabilitas Keterangan Ratio 2 Factor () Relationship mhp1 Ref 0.769 0.000 Sangat Kuat Relationship mhp2 3.152 0.570 0.000 Kuat Relationship mhp3 3.131 0.530 0.000 Sedang Layanan sql1 Ref 0.978 0.000 Sangat Kuat Layanan sql2 9.940 0.722 0.000 Sangat Kuat Layanan sql3 6.582 0.580 0.000 Kuat Layanan sql4 18.022 0.936 0.000 Sangat Kuat Layanan sql5 4.635 0.450 0.000 Sedang Kepuasan kpp1 Ref 0,715 0.000 Sangat Kuat Kepuasan kpp2 6.016 0,809 0.000 Sangat Kuat Kepuasan kpp3 6.032 0,738 0.000 Sangat Kuat Loyalitas y1 Ref 0.659 0.000 Kuat Loyalitas y2 6.841 0,871 0.000 Sangat Kuat Loyalitas y3 5.589 0,671 0.000 Kuat Loyalitas y4 6.159 0.767 0.000 Sangat Kuat Sumber: Lampiran Amos

Pengujian Parameter dan Pengujian Hipotesis


Untuk mengetahui hubungan kausalitas antar masing-masing variabel, dilakukan uji terhadap hipotesis nol yang mangatakan bahwa koefisien regresi antar hubungan sama dangan nol melalui uji-t dalam model regresinya. Dengan memperhatikan hasil regresi dalam Tabel 3, diketahui bahwa nilai Critical Ratio (CR) yang identik dengan uji t dalam analisis regresi terlihat bahwa semua koefisien regresinya secara signifikan tidak sama dengan nol, dengan demikian hubungan kausalitas dalam model dapat diterima.

Tabel 3. Estimasi Parameter Final Model Regression Weights Standardized S.E. Estimate Layanan <--- Relationship .699 .163 Kepuasan <--- Relationship .405 .152 Kepuasan <--- Layanan .266 .101 Loyalitas <--- Kepuasan .877 .163 Sumber: Lampiran Amos

C.R. 5.246 2.912 2.553 5.065

P *** .026 .020 ***

Tabel 3 menunjukkan bahwa besarnya regresi antara variabel manajemen hubungan pelanggan dengan kualitas layanan sebesar 0,699 dan nilai C.R = 5,246 artinya variabel manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh kuat dan signifikan terhadap variabel kualitas layanan. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 1 diterima. Besarnya regresi antara variabel MHP dengan kepuasan pelanggan sebesar 0,405 dan nilai C.R = 2,912 artinya variabel MHP berpengaruh kuat dan signifikan terhadap variabel kepuasan pelanggan. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 2 diterima. Besarnya regresi antara variabel kualitas layanan dengan kepuasan pelanggan sebesar 0,266 dan nilai C.R = 2,553 artinya variabel kualitas layanan berpengaruh dan signifikan terhadap variabel kepuasan pelanggan. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 3 diterima. Besarnya regresi antara variabel kepuasan pelanggan dengan loyalitas pelanggan sebesar 0,877 dan nilai C.R = 5,065 artinya variabel kepuasan pelanggan berpengaruh kuat dan signifikan terhadap variabel loyalitas pelanggan. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 4 diterima. Tabel 4, menunjukkan secara rinci hubungan pengaruh langsung, tidak langsung dan pengaruh total pada penelitian ini. Tabel 4. Pengaruh Langsung, Tidak Langsung, dan Pengaruh Total Pengaruh Direct effects Indirect Effects Total Effect Man. Hub Pelanggan > Layanan 0,699 0,000 0,699 Man. Hub Pelanggan > Kepuasan 0,405 0,186 0,591 Kualitas Layanan > Kepuasan 0,266 0,000 0,266 Man. Hub Pelanggan > Loyalitas 0,000 0,518 0,518 Kualitas Layanan > Loyalitas 0,000 0,233 0,233 Kepuasan Pelanggan > Loyalitas 0,877 0,000 0,877 Sumber: Hasil Amos Terdapat pengaruh tidak langsung manajemen hubungan pelanggan tehadap variable kepuasan pelanggan melalui kualitas layanan sebesar 0,186. Artinya kualitas layanan berperan menjadi mediator yang positif terhadap manajemen hubungan pelanggan dalam peningkatan kepuasan pelanggan Pizza Hut. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 5 diterima. Terdapat pengaruh tidak langsung manajemen hubungan pelanggan tehadap loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan pelanggan sebesar 0,355. Artinya kepuasan pelanggan berperan menjadi mediator yang positif terhadap manajemen hubungan pelanggan dalam peningkatan loyalitas pelanggan di Restoran Pizza Hut. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 6 diterima. Terdapat pengaruh tidak langsung kualitas layanan tehadap loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan pelanggan sebesar 0,233. Artinya kepuasan pelanggan berperan menjadi mediator yang positif terhadap kualitas layanan dalam peningkatan loyalitas pelanggan di Pizza Hut. Hal ini berarti hipotesis 7 diterima.

PEMBAHASAN
Penelitian ini telah menemukan bahwa loyalitas pelanggan pada Pizza Hut khususnya pada cabang Darmo Surabaya dapat dijelaskan secara signifikan oleh variabel manajemen hubungan pelanggan, kualitas layanan, dan kepuasan pelanggan. Berdasarkan analisis SEM pada measurement model (pengukuran model) untuk masing-masing variabel laten beserta indikatornya menyimpulkan bahwa seluruh butir kuesioner atau indikator dapat dipergunakan. Model rancangan dapat diterima. Analisis model faktor konfirmatori pengukuran uji measurement model konstruk eksogen dan endogen dari semua variabel telah memenuhi persyaratan cut off value, goodness of fit indices, dan t-hitung (CR) lebih dari 2, sehingga seluruh indikator secara signifikan merupakan indikator dari variabel yang dibentuk. Hasil model faktor konfirmatori pengujian struktural model sesuai yang ditunjukkan pada Gambar 1., yang dirancang cukup baik. Kriteria-kriteria tersebut antara lain: nilai

RMSEA sebesar 0,038 (< 0,08), GFI sebesar 0,935 ( > 0,90), AGFI sebesar 0,896 ( > 0,90), CFI sebesar 0,976 (> 0,95), TLI sebesar 0,965 (> 0,95) dan CMIN-DF sebesar 1,873 (< 2). Berdasarkan hasil analisa tersebut maka model fit dan layak digunakan. Temuan ini dapat menjadi alternatif model atau cara pengelolaan kepuasan dan loyalitas pelanggan Restoran Pizza Hut. Dalam konteks ini pengaruh variabel-variabel penjelas dapat dikaji lebih lanjut untuk mendapatkan bahasan yang lebih komprehensip.

Pengaruh Manajemen Hubungan Pelanggan Terhadap Kualitas Layanan


Nilai koefisien jalur Manajemen hubungan pelanggan terhadap Kualitas layanan adalah 0,699 dengan Critical Ratio (C.R) sebesar 5,246. Nilai ini menandakan kontribusi manajemen hubungan pelanggan, dalam mempengaruhi kualitas layanan adalah signifikan dan pengaruhnya bersifat searah, artinya keberhasilan Pizza Hut dalam membangun MHP memberikan kontribusi terhadap peningkatan Kualitas layanan, demikian juga sebaliknya. Manajemen Hubungan Pelanggan adalah proses membangun dan mempertahankan hubungan dengan konsumen yang menguntungkan dengan memberikan produk yang sangat bernilai bagi konsumen dan membuat konsumen puas. Schiffman dan Kanuk (2004) menekankan bahwa Manajemen Hubungan Pelanggan merupakan cara perusahaan dalam membina relasi dengan para pelanggan dengan tujuan memelihara kesetiaan dan komitmen pelanggan untuk tetap menggunakan produk perusahaan yang bersangkutan Beberapa upaya yang dapat dilakukan dalam usaha meningkatkan kualitas layanan, antara lain melalui pemberdayaan petugas agar lebih memiliki kemauan dan kemampuan dalam mengelola hubungan dengan pelanggan. Hal ini dapat dilakukan dengan menyediakan formulir yang mudah diisi, memberikan buletin atau info kepada pelanggan secara periodik, dan diterapkannya mekanisme penghargaan bagi pelanggan yang memberikan saran yang baik.

Pengaruh Manajemen Hubungan Pelanggan terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan


Nilai koefisien jalur manajemen hubungan pelanggan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan adalah 0,405 dengan Critical Ratio (C.R) sebesar 2,912. Nilai ini menandakan kontribusi MHP dalam mempengaruhi kepuasan pelanggan adalah signifikan dan pengaruhnya bersifat searah, artinya keberhasilan Restoran Pizza Hut dalam membangun MHP memberikan kontribusi terhadap peningkatan Kepuasan pelanggan, demikian juga sebaliknya. Sudah dijelaskan sebelumnya bahwa untuk mencapai efisiensi, mutu layanan, dan kepuasan pelanggan terdapat tiga hal yang menjadi perhatian utama, yaitu manusia, proses/prosedur, dan teknologi. Beberapa upaya yang dapat dilakukan dalam usaha meningkatkan kepuasan pelanggan oleh manajemen Pizza Hut, antara lain melalui pemberdayaan petugas agar lebih memiliki kemauan dan kemampuan dalam mengelola hubungan dengan pelanggan. Hal ini dapat juga diupayakan melalui pemanfaatan teknologi internet untuk memudahkan transaksi pemesanan dan menyampaikan keluhan atau usulan, dan menyediakan nomor yang dapat dihubungi.

Pengaruh Kualitas Layanan Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan


Nilai koefisien jalur kualitas layanan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan adalah 0,266 dengan Critical Ratio (C.R) sebesar 2,533. Nilai ini menandakan kontribusi kualitas layanan dalam mempengaruhi kepuasan pelanggan adalah signifikan dan pengaruhnya bersifat searah, artinya keberhasilan Pizza Hut, dalam membangun kualitas layanan memberikan kontribusi terhadap peningkatan kepuasan pelanggan, demikian juga sebaliknya. Kualitas layanan adalah tingkat kemampuan (ability) dari Pizza Hut dalam memberikan segala yang menjadi harapan pelanggan dalam memenuhi kebutuhannya. Agar layanan memiliki kualitas dan memberikan kepuasan kepada pelanggan, maka restoran harus memperhatikan berbagai dimensi yang dapat menciptakan dan meningkatkan kualitas layanannya. Layanan yang diberikan kepada pelanggan akan memicu puas tidaknya seorang pelanggan atas layanan yang diberikan. Beberapa perusahaan telah lama menyadari bahwa produk yang hebat tidaklah cukup untuk menarik pelanggan, yang lebih penting adalah yang membuat para pelanggan kembali membeli produk itu adalah dikarenakan layanan yang baik dari pihak perusahaan. Sebagai alternatif upaya meningkatkan kepuasan pelanggan, dapat dilakukan melalui kualitas pelayanan yang mencakup dimensi Reliabilitas yang berfokus pada kemampuan Restoran untuk memberikan layanan yang dijanjikan dengan segera, akurat dan memuaskan. Dimensi Daya tanggap yang berfokus pada kemauan membantu pelanggan dan memberikan perhatian yang tepat dengan segera. Dimensi Jaminan yang berfokus pada karyawan dalam aspek pengetahuan, kompetensi, kesopanan, dan sifat yang dapat dipercaya. Dimensi Empati yang berfokus pada upaya secara aktif pihak restoran untuk membuat kemudahan dalam menjalin relasi, perhatian kepada tiap individu yang beragam, memahami kondisi pelanggan, dan mampu memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan yang beragam. Terakhir dimensi Bukti fisik yang berfokus pada fasilitas fisik seperti karyawan, peralatan, dan perlengkapan sarana komunikasi.

Pengaruh Kepuasan Pelanggan Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan


Nilai koefisien jalur Kepuasan pelanggan terhadap Loyalitas pelanggan adalah 0,877 dengan Critical Ratio sebesar 5,065. Nilai ini menandakan kontribusi kepuasan pelanggan dalam mempengaruhi loyalitas pelanggan adalah signifikan dan pengaruhnya bersifat searah, artinya keberhasilan Pizza Hut, dalam membangun kepuasan pelanggan memberikan kontribusi terhadap peningkatan loyalitas pelanggan, demikian juga sebaliknya. Kepuasan pelanggan adalah suatu perbandingan antara hasil yang diterima pelanggan dengan harapan pelanggan. Dimana hasil yang diterima itu paling tidak harus sama dengan harapan pelanggan, atau bahkan melebihinya. Dalam era kompetisi bisnis yang ketat, kepuasan pelanggan merupakan hal yang utama. Usaha memuaskan kebutuhan pelanggan harus dilakukan secara menguntungkan atau bersifat win-win situation yaitu keadaan dimana kedua belah pihak merasa menang dan tidak ada yang dirugikan. Oleh karenanya sudah selayaknya hal ini dilakukan Pizza hut, kepuasan pelanggan adalah jembatan yang baik terjadinya loyalitas pelanggan, dengan kata lain pelanggan yang puas akan memicu terjadinya loyalitas pelanggan. Sebagai alternatif upaya meningkatkan loyalitas pelanggan, dapat dilakukan melalui peningkatan kepusan pelanggan yang mencakup dimensi harga dan kualitas yang mengacu pada kesesuaian harga dan kualitas dari produk yang didapat oleh pelanggan ketika membeli atau memesan sebuah produk dari Pizza Hut. Convenience of Acquisition yang mengacu pada kemudahan dan kenyamanan yang diberikan kepada pelanggan. Pengalaman karyawan yang mengacu pada hubungan antara pelanggan dengan karyawan khususnya dalam hal komunikasi yang berhubungan dengan pemesanan makanan, yaitu membantu memberikan saran dan pendapat kepada pelanggan yang hendak memesan makanan.

Pengaruh Manajemen Hubungan Pelanggan Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Melalui Kualitas Layanan
Uraian sebelumnya sudah menjelaskan bahwa variabel manajemen hubungan pelanggan memberi pengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan, dan kemudian kualitas layanan memberi pengaruh signifikan positif terhadap kepuasan pelanggan. Berdasarkan keberadaan dua pengaruh signifikan ini menunjukkan bahwa manjemen hubungan pelanggan terbukti memberi pengaruh signifikan secara tidak langsung terhadap kepuasan pelanggan. Dengan demikian kualitas layanan berfungsi sebagai variable intervening pada hubungan manajemen hubungan pelanggan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan. Dengan adanya pengaruh tidak langsung ini, maka perbaikan manajemen hubungan pelanggan selain dapat meningkatkan secara langsung kepuasan pelanggan dan kualitas layanan, juga memberikan efek tidak langsung terhadap kepuasan pelanggan melalui kualitas layanan. Sesuai dengan studi Mithas, Krishnan dan Fornell (Kusnadi, 2008), menguji pengaruh aplikasi manajemen hubungan pelanggan terhadap pengetahuan pelanggan dan kepuasan pelanggan, penelitian ini juga didukung oleh studi Wetsch Lyle R., (2006) yang menyatakan bahwa dengan menggunakan teori keadilan untuk menyelidiki dampak potensial yang bisa ditimbulkan oleh keterlibatan pelanggan dalam implementasi manajemen hubungan pelanggan terhadap kepercayaan, kepuasan pelanggan dan loyalitas pelanggan. Upaya-upaya meningkatkan kinerja manajemen hubungan pelanggan, secara terus menerus dapat meningkatkan kualitas layanan, yang pada akhirnya dapat meningkatkan kepuasan pelanggan yang menjadi harapan pelanggan Pizza Hut.

Pengaruh Manajemen Hubungan Pelanggan Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Melalui Kepuasan pelanggan
Uraian sebelumnya sudah menjelaskan bahwa variabel manajemen hubungan pelanggan memberi pengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan, dan kemudian kepuasan pelanggan memberi pengaruh signifikan positif terhadap loyalitas pelanggan. Berdasarkan keberadaan dua pengaruh signifikan ini, menunjukkan bahwa manjemen hubungan pelanggan terbukti memberi pengaruh signifikan secara tidak langsung terhadap loyalitas pelanggan. Dengan demikian kepuasan pelanggan berfungsi sebagai variable intervening pada hubungan manajemen hubungan pelanggan terhadap loyalitas pelanggan. Dengan adanya pengaruh tidak langsung ini maka perbaikan manajemen hubungan pelanggan selain dapat meningkatkan secara langsung kepuasan pelanggan dan kualitas layanan, juga memberikan efek tidak langsung terhadap loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan pelanggan. Upaya-upaya meningkatkan kinerja manajemen hubungan pelanggan secara terus menerus, dapat meningkatkan kualitas layanan pada pelanggan, yang pada akhirnya dapat meningkatkan kepuasan yang menjadi harapan pelanggan Pizza Hut.

Pengaruh Kualitas layanan Terhadap Loyalitas Pelanggan Melalui Kepuasan Pelanggan


Uraian sebelumnya sudah menjelaskan bahwa variabel kualitas layanan memberi pengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan, dan kemudian kepuasan pelanggan memberi pengaruh signifikan positif terhadap loyalitas pelanggan. Berdasarkan keberadaan dua pengaruh signifikan ini menunjukkan bahwa kualitas layanan terbukti memberi pengaruh signifikan secara tidak langsung terhadap loyalitas pelanggan.

Dengan demikian kepuasan pelanggan berfungsi sebagai variable intervening pada hubungan kualitas layanan terhadap loyalitas pelanggan. Dengan adanya pengaruh tidak langsung ini maka perbaikan kualitas layanan selain dapat meningkatkan secara langsung kepuasan pelanggan, juga memberikan efek tidak langsung terhadap loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan pelanggan. Upaya-upaya yang meningkatkan kualitas layanan pelanggan, secara terus menerus akan dapat meningkatkan kepuasan pelanggan, yang pada akhirnya akan meningkatkan loyalitas pelanggan.

KESIMPULAN
Dari hasil pengujian terhadap model pada penelitian ini, mampu menjelaskan hubungan antara manajemen hubungan pelanggan, kualitas layanan, kepuasan pelanggan dan loyalitas pelanggan, telah menghasilkan kesimpulan bahwa model penelitian adalah model yang tepat untuk menggambarkan kepuasan dan loyalitas pelanggan terhadap restoran Pizza Hut. Hasil pada penelitian ini sangat penting karena terdapat tahapan pengaruh dari masing-masing faktor dan konstruk yang berjalan dengan cara berjenjang (rekursif), yaitu variable manajemen hubungan pelanggan mempengaruhi secara positip variabel kualitas layanan, dan kepuasan pelanggan. Variabel kualitas layanan mempengaruhi variabel kepuasan pelanggan. Sementara kepuasan pelanggan berpengaruh terhadap loyalitas pelanggan. Hasil penelitian ini merupakan sumbangan yang signifkan khususnya dalam teori manajemen, teori perilaku konsumen dan konsep manajemen hubungan pelanggan pada usaha restoran. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dan uji hipotesis dapat ditarik kesimpulan sebagai berikut: 1. Manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh signifikan positif terhadap kualitas layanan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan menaikkan manajemen hubungan pelanggan akan mendorong naiknya kualitas layanan pada Restoran Pizza Hut. 2. Manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh signifikan positif terhadap kepuasan pelanggan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan menaikkan manajemen hubungan pelanggan akan mendorong naiknya kepuasan pelanggan pada Restoran Pizza Hut. 3. Kualitas layanan berpengaruh signifikan positif terhadap kepuasan pelanggan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan menaikkan kualitas layanan akan mendorong naiknya kepuasan pelanggan pada Restoran Pizza Hut. 4. Kepuasan pelanggan bepengaruh secara signifikan positif terhadap loyalitas pelanggan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dengan menaikkan kepuasan pelanggan akan mendorong naiknya loyalitas pelanggan pada Restoran Pizza Hut. 5. Manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh tidak langsung positif terhadap kepuasan pelanggan melalui kualitas layanan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kualitas layanan berperan positif sebagai variable intervening. 6. Manajemen hubungan pelanggan berpengaruh tidak langsung positif terhadap loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan pelanggan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kepuasan pelanggan berperan positif sebagai variable intervening. 7. Kualitas layanan berpengaruh tidak langsung positif terhadap loyalitas pelanggan melalui kepuasan pelanggan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kepuasan pelanggan berperan positif sebagai variable intervening.

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