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TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING

INTRODUCTION TO PIPING ENGINEERING

DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0001 Rev. Page : R0 : 1

Uhde India Limited

CONTENTS Page 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 Cover Sheet Introduction Knowledge Required for Piping Design Latest Developments in Piping Design Techniques Piping Design Function and Size of Organisation 1 2 2 3 3

Annexure-1 Typical Material Cost Breakdown (Major Items) Annexure-2 Typical Home Office Engineering Man-hour Breakdown Annexure-3 Typical Field Labour Cost breakdown

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TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING


INTRODUCTION TO PIPING ENGINEERING

DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0001 Rev. Page : R0 : 2

Uhde India Limited

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INTRODUCTION:

Pipes and piping systems are the veins and arteries of chemical process plants used for transporting liquids, vapours, slurries, solids etc. under various conditions, as imposed by the process design of the plant. The network of pipes is subject to extremes of temperature, pressure, flow and combination of these. In addition, they are subject to corrosion, erosion, toxic condition and radioactivity, all of which calls for proper piping design enabling trouble free operation of the plant over a long period of time. Capital cost of piping forms a large portion of the investment in the plant exceeded only by that of major equipment. Pie Chart (Refer Annexure-1) shows the relative cost of various material components of a plant. As can be seen from the chart, piping accounts for nearly 15% of the overall material cost. Pie Chart (Refer Annexure-2) shows the man-hour effort that goes in to design engineering at home office for various engineering disciplines. Normally, out of the total engineering effort covering project management, detailed engineering, procurement, inspection and expediting, etc., 65% of the hours are required for detailed engineering. Out of this, 25% is required for piping engineering alone, the balance 40% accounting for civil, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation engineering. Progress in piping engineering being very much dependent upon the feed back of equipment data (static and rotating) as also on control valves and other inline instruments, a close monitoring of the schedule of orders for these equipment and follow up with vendors for data and drawings is required to finalise Piping Plans, generate Isometrics, order bulk Piping Material as well as Piping Speciality Items and release drawings to site for speedy construction and thus facilitate prompt start up.

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KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED FOR PIPING DESIGN: Apart from having in-depth knowledge of piping design one should have understanding of material costs, metallurgy, piping fabrication methods and related costs to be able to provide the most economical design. Piping design being central to detailed engineering effort, working knowledge of other disciplines like civil, mechanical, electrical, instruments and process engineering is required appreciate their problems / requirements and to be able to seek the right information from them to proceed with his / her own work of piping design. Pipes and pipelines are always subject to fluid pressures at varying temperatures. This results in expansion and contraction of the pipes inducing stresses which get transferred to equipment like pumps / compressors and other static equipment or rotating equipment resulting in breakdowns. A good knowledge of structural engineering is therefore necessary for analysing and solving such problems. Needless to say that a thorough understanding / knowledge of safety codes and practices is a must for any one involved in chemical process plant design and engineering. Ability to visualize in 3 dimension and infinite patience are the hallmark of a good piping engineer. To be able to visualize piping schemes in various alternatives and choose the most appropriate one is basic to good piping engineering practice. Piping engineering being a team effort, good communication skills, good interpersonal relationship, ability to wok either as member or as a leader of the team, be open to suggestion and application of new methods, materials and design are important qualities that enable one to deliver quality work.

TRAINING MANUAL- PIPING


INTRODUCTION TO PIPING ENGINEERING

DOC No. : 29040-PI-UFR-0001 Rev. Page : R0 : 3

Uhde India Limited

3.0

LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN PIPING DESIGN TECHNIQUES The trend in recent years has been to develop and employ better techniques in piping design to save time and also to improve accuracy. Computers are being extensively used to obtain speedy solutions to more complex problems of plant design and to solve problems of stresses in piping. Recent past has seen development of software for production of piping detail drawings, piping isometrics, bill of material, estimation and cost control. Piping Engineer has therefore the added responsibility in understanding and upgrading his / her knowledge on the application of a growing number of techniques of this nature helping speedy work execution. The most revolutionary advancement in the Piping Design in recent past had been the concept of 3D Modelling of the Plant by using sophisticated Software such as PDMS. This provides an opportunity to build the entire plant on soft media in a 3D environment to the last degree of detailing, to be able to identify and rectify practically every problem related to design and construction prior to actual commencement of erection activities at the Site.

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PIPING DESIGN FUNCTION AND SIZE OF ORGANISATION The size and scale of operations of a design engineering company does not affect either the piping design requirements or the underlying design principles and practices. As the volume and complexity of work and the number of projects executed increase, so does the degree of specialization increase. Piping layouts, piping specifications, detail drafting and material listing begin to emerge as functions handled by separate Specialist Groups within the department. There is little apparent similarity between piping design performed by a team of say ten engineers from a small office and by a large company having hundreds of piping design engineers. The job performed in both the cases is identical and has the same degree of relative importance to the whole project design organisation. The real difference lies in the number of projects handled by the design office. In a small office, the flow of work is such that each project is substantially completed before the succeeding project commences. This requires a flexible organization with a small group, who is responsible for all aspects of design. In a large organisation, however, not only a large number of projects are executed simultaneously but the size of the projects also vary. This requires different group of people with a high degree of specialization for economic and administrative reasons. In either case, piping design is the most lengthy and complex part of the whole design work and almost would be on critical path of the project engineering schedule.

M ajor equipments 60%

Instruments 5%

ANNEXURE-1

TYPICAL MATERIAL COST BREAKDOWN (MAJOR ITEMS)


File: Annexure to C-1

E le ct E q r ic a l u ip me nts

P a in t in g io n n s u la t I s n g es & s i ild c tu r tio n B u ru da St un Fo

Typical M aterial Costs of 2% M ajor Equipment Commodities and 2% 8% Sub-Contracts

8%

Piping 15%

D etailed E ngineering 65%


g ip in 2 5 % P n e sig D

T ypical H om e O ffice E ngineering M an-hour B reakdow n

Im plem entation 35%

ANNEXURE-2 TYPICAL HOME OFFICE ENGINEERING MAN-HOUR BREAK DOWN


File: Annexure to C-1

Piping 40%

M ajor Equipm ents 20%

T ypical Field L abor C osts

Instrum ents 10%

Buildings Structures & 15% Foundations

Electrical 15%

ANNEXURE-3 TYPICAL FIELD LABOUR COST BREAK DOWN


File: Annexure to C-1