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Exercises: Integration

Relevant Sections of MEM


Chapter 8: 8.5 - 8.6
Chapter 9: 9.3
Chapter 8: 8.7.6
A Basic Concepts
A-1 Evaluate
_
3
0
f(x) dx where f(x) =
_
_
_
x for 0 x < 1
2(1 + x) for 1 x < 2
x 1 for 2 x 3
.
A-2 Show that if f
e
is an even function and f
0
is an odd function, then
_
a
a
f
e
(x) dx = 2
_
a
0
f
e
(x) dx and
_
a
a
f
0
(x) dx = 0.
Hint: divide the range of integration into two parts and change the variable of inte-
gration in one of them. This is an important exercise, because it should help you to
understand what a dummy variable of integration is.
A-3 Find the indenite integrals of the following:
(a) 3x
2/3
,
(b) 2x
2
+ 3x 5 +
1
x

4
x
2
,
(c) 4e
2x
+ 2 cos (3x) 6 sin (2x),
(d) 2
x
(hint: 2 = e
ln 2
),
(e) sin
2
x.
A-4 Use partial fractions to integrate the following:
(a)
x
x
2
3x 4
, (b)
x
(x 2)
2
, (c)
3x 1
(x 1)(x
2
+ 1)
.
A-5 Use the given substitutions to integrate the following:
(a)
x
(1 + x
2
)
2
, with y = 1 + x
2
,
(b) sin
3
x cos
5
x, with t = sin x,
(c)
1
3 +

x
, with t =

x.
1
A-6 Integrate the following by parts:
(a) x sin x, (b) xe
3x
, (c) x
3
ln x, (d) e
2x
sin (3x).
A-7 Evaluate the following indenite integrals:
(a)
_
3
2
x

x + 1
dx, (b)
_
/2
0
x
2
sin x dx, (c)
_
6
4
12
(x 3)(x + 1)
dx.
A-8 Evaluate the following improper integrals by parts:
(a)
_
1
0
ln x dx, (b)
_

0
xe
4x
dx.
A-9 Show that
_

0
e
st
dt =
1
s
, for s > 0, and deduce the value of
_

0
t
n
e
st
dt, for
n = 1, 2, . . ..
A-10 Show that x(t) =
1

_
t
0
f() sin [(t )] d satises the dierential equation x +

2
x = f(t).
A-11 Evaluate the line integral
_
C
(x
3
+ y) ds, where C is the curve given in parametric
form by x = 3t, y = t
3
, 0 t 1.
A-12 Sketch the domain of integration and evaluate the following:
(a)
_
1
0
_
y
0
xy
3
_
1 + y
4
dx dy
(b)
_
a/

2
0
_

a
2
x
2
x
xy(x + y) dy dx (Hint: transform to polar coordinates).
A-13 Evaluate the following double integral (you will need to reverse the order of integra-
tion):
_
1
0
_
2
2x
e
y
2
dy dx.
2
B Applications
B-1 A solid hemisphere of radius a rests with its plane face on the ground. If the density
at a distance r from the centre is given by = m(a
2
r
2
), nd the total mass.
B-2 The solution of the rst-order linear system x = a x + b u, x(0) = 0 is given by
x(t) = b e
at
_
t
0
e
a
u() d.
Find the solution when the input function is u(t) = t (t 0).
B-3 A beam of length L is clamped horizontally at one end and loaded with a weight W
at the other. A force F is applied at a distance y from the loaded end. The resulting
total strain energy U is given by
U =
1
2EI
__
y
0
W
2
x
2
dx +
_
L
y
[Wx + (x y)F]
2
dx
_
,
where E and I are constants. The deection at y is given by
dU
dF
. Evaluate the
deection at y when F = 0.
B-4 The equation of the curve followed by a heavy cable hanging (without load) under
gravity can be shown to be y = c cosh (x/c). Find the arclength s for the interval
a x a, using the formula
s =
_
a
a

1 +
_
dy
dx
_
2
dx.
B-5 Find the length of a parabolic arch which spans a horizontal distance 2L and rises to
a height cL. (First nd an equation for the arch.)
B-6 The work done by a force

F in moving a particle along a curve C is given by
W =
_
C

F dr,
where dr = dx i +dy j +dz k. Fin the work done if

F = y i +z j +x k and the curve
is given in parametric form by x = t, y = t
2
, z = t
3
from (0, 0, 0) to (2, 4, 8).
B-7 The electrical attraction at a point situated at distance r from an innite plane
carrying surface charge density is given by
r
_

0
_
2
0
x
(r
2
+ x
2
)
3/2
d dx.
Evaluate the integral.
3
Some answers
A-1 7
A-3 (a)
9
5
x
5/3
+ c, (b)
2
3
x
3
+
3
2
x
2
5x + ln x +
4
x
+ c,
(c) 2e
2x
+
2
3
sin (3x) + 3 cos (2x) + c, (d)
2
x
ln 2
+ c, (e)
1
2
x
1
4
sin (2x) + c.
A-4 (a)
1
5
[4 ln (x 4) + ln (x + 1)] + c, (b)
2
x 2
+ ln (x 2) + c,
(c) 2 ln (x 1) ln (x
2
+ 1) + tan
1
x + c.
A-5 (a)
1
2(1 + x
2
)
+ c, (b)
1
24
(6 8 sin
2
x + 3 sin
4
x) sin
4
x + c,
(c) 2

x 6 ln (3 +

x) + c.
A-6 (a) sin x x cos x + c, (b)
1
9
(3x 1)e
3x
+ c, (c)
1
16
x
4
(4 ln x 1) + c,
(d)
1
13
e
2x
[3 cos (3x) + 2 sin (3x)] + c.
A-7 (a)
4
3
, (b) 2, (c) 3 ln
15
7
.
A-8 (a) 1, (b)
1
16
. A-9
n!
s
n+1
. A-11 14(2
3/2
1).
A-12 (a)
1
8
(

2 sinh
1
1), (b)
1
15
a
5
. A-13
1
4
(e
4
1).
B-1
4
15
ma
2
. B-2 x(t) =
b
a
2
_
e
at
1 a t

.
B-3
W
6EI
[2L
3
3L
2
y + y
3
].
B-4 2c sinh
a
c
. B-5 L
_
1
2c
sinh
1
(2c) +

1 + 4c
2
_
.
B-6
412
15
. B-7 2.
4