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Chapter 8: 8.5 - 8.6

Chapter 9: 9.3

Chapter 8: 8.7.6

A Basic Concepts

A-1 Evaluate

_

3

0

f(x) dx where f(x) =

_

_

_

x for 0 x < 1

2(1 + x) for 1 x < 2

x 1 for 2 x 3

.

A-2 Show that if f

e

is an even function and f

0

is an odd function, then

_

a

a

f

e

(x) dx = 2

_

a

0

f

e

(x) dx and

_

a

a

f

0

(x) dx = 0.

Hint: divide the range of integration into two parts and change the variable of inte-

gration in one of them. This is an important exercise, because it should help you to

understand what a dummy variable of integration is.

A-3 Find the indenite integrals of the following:

(a) 3x

2/3

,

(b) 2x

2

+ 3x 5 +

1

x

4

x

2

,

(c) 4e

2x

+ 2 cos (3x) 6 sin (2x),

(d) 2

x

(hint: 2 = e

ln 2

),

(e) sin

2

x.

A-4 Use partial fractions to integrate the following:

(a)

x

x

2

3x 4

, (b)

x

(x 2)

2

, (c)

3x 1

(x 1)(x

2

+ 1)

.

A-5 Use the given substitutions to integrate the following:

(a)

x

(1 + x

2

)

2

, with y = 1 + x

2

,

(b) sin

3

x cos

5

x, with t = sin x,

(c)

1

3 +

x

, with t =

x.

1

A-6 Integrate the following by parts:

(a) x sin x, (b) xe

3x

, (c) x

3

ln x, (d) e

2x

sin (3x).

A-7 Evaluate the following indenite integrals:

(a)

_

3

2

x

x + 1

dx, (b)

_

/2

0

x

2

sin x dx, (c)

_

6

4

12

(x 3)(x + 1)

dx.

A-8 Evaluate the following improper integrals by parts:

(a)

_

1

0

ln x dx, (b)

_

0

xe

4x

dx.

A-9 Show that

_

0

e

st

dt =

1

s

, for s > 0, and deduce the value of

_

0

t

n

e

st

dt, for

n = 1, 2, . . ..

A-10 Show that x(t) =

1

_

t

0

f() sin [(t )] d satises the dierential equation x +

2

x = f(t).

A-11 Evaluate the line integral

_

C

(x

3

+ y) ds, where C is the curve given in parametric

form by x = 3t, y = t

3

, 0 t 1.

A-12 Sketch the domain of integration and evaluate the following:

(a)

_

1

0

_

y

0

xy

3

_

1 + y

4

dx dy

(b)

_

a/

2

0

_

a

2

x

2

x

xy(x + y) dy dx (Hint: transform to polar coordinates).

A-13 Evaluate the following double integral (you will need to reverse the order of integra-

tion):

_

1

0

_

2

2x

e

y

2

dy dx.

2

B Applications

B-1 A solid hemisphere of radius a rests with its plane face on the ground. If the density

at a distance r from the centre is given by = m(a

2

r

2

), nd the total mass.

B-2 The solution of the rst-order linear system x = a x + b u, x(0) = 0 is given by

x(t) = b e

at

_

t

0

e

a

u() d.

Find the solution when the input function is u(t) = t (t 0).

B-3 A beam of length L is clamped horizontally at one end and loaded with a weight W

at the other. A force F is applied at a distance y from the loaded end. The resulting

total strain energy U is given by

U =

1

2EI

__

y

0

W

2

x

2

dx +

_

L

y

[Wx + (x y)F]

2

dx

_

,

where E and I are constants. The deection at y is given by

dU

dF

. Evaluate the

deection at y when F = 0.

B-4 The equation of the curve followed by a heavy cable hanging (without load) under

gravity can be shown to be y = c cosh (x/c). Find the arclength s for the interval

a x a, using the formula

s =

_

a

a

1 +

_

dy

dx

_

2

dx.

B-5 Find the length of a parabolic arch which spans a horizontal distance 2L and rises to

a height cL. (First nd an equation for the arch.)

B-6 The work done by a force

F in moving a particle along a curve C is given by

W =

_

C

F dr,

where dr = dx i +dy j +dz k. Fin the work done if

F = y i +z j +x k and the curve

is given in parametric form by x = t, y = t

2

, z = t

3

from (0, 0, 0) to (2, 4, 8).

B-7 The electrical attraction at a point situated at distance r from an innite plane

carrying surface charge density is given by

r

_

0

_

2

0

x

(r

2

+ x

2

)

3/2

d dx.

Evaluate the integral.

3

Some answers

A-1 7

A-3 (a)

9

5

x

5/3

+ c, (b)

2

3

x

3

+

3

2

x

2

5x + ln x +

4

x

+ c,

(c) 2e

2x

+

2

3

sin (3x) + 3 cos (2x) + c, (d)

2

x

ln 2

+ c, (e)

1

2

x

1

4

sin (2x) + c.

A-4 (a)

1

5

[4 ln (x 4) + ln (x + 1)] + c, (b)

2

x 2

+ ln (x 2) + c,

(c) 2 ln (x 1) ln (x

2

+ 1) + tan

1

x + c.

A-5 (a)

1

2(1 + x

2

)

+ c, (b)

1

24

(6 8 sin

2

x + 3 sin

4

x) sin

4

x + c,

(c) 2

x 6 ln (3 +

x) + c.

A-6 (a) sin x x cos x + c, (b)

1

9

(3x 1)e

3x

+ c, (c)

1

16

x

4

(4 ln x 1) + c,

(d)

1

13

e

2x

[3 cos (3x) + 2 sin (3x)] + c.

A-7 (a)

4

3

, (b) 2, (c) 3 ln

15

7

.

A-8 (a) 1, (b)

1

16

. A-9

n!

s

n+1

. A-11 14(2

3/2

1).

A-12 (a)

1

8

(

2 sinh

1

1), (b)

1

15

a

5

. A-13

1

4

(e

4

1).

B-1

4

15

ma

2

. B-2 x(t) =

b

a

2

_

e

at

1 a t

.

B-3

W

6EI

[2L

3

3L

2

y + y

3

].

B-4 2c sinh

a

c

. B-5 L

_

1

2c

sinh

1

(2c) +

1 + 4c

2

_

.

B-6

412

15

. B-7 2.

4

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