You are on page 1of 47

[Pick the date

]

RANKO MATASOVIĆ

A Grammatical Sketch of Albanian for students of Indo-European

Zagreb 2012

Ranko Matasović University of Zagreb

A Grammatical Sketch of Albanian for students of Indo-European
1. Spelling
The modern orthography of Albanian, which will be used here, was adopted in 1908, at the congress of Monastir. It should be noted, however, that older linguistic books, such as Pokorny’s etymological dictionary, still use the antiquated transcription adapted by Gustav Meyer in the nineteenth century. Before that, Albanian used to be written in the so-called Elbasan or Todhri alphabet, which had developed from the cursive Greek alphabet. 1.1. Vowels <a, e, i, o, u> have more or less the Latin values (<e> is slightly more open than its Latin equivalent). <y> denotes a high front rounded vowel (German <ü>), and <ë> is a schwalike reduced vowel similar to French “e muet”. Final ë is not pronounced in Gheg dialects, which also have long and nasal vowels not reflected in writing. 1.2. Consonants There is little to be said about <p, t, k, b, d, g, s, m, n, v, z>. Stops are pronounced without aspiration, like in Romance. <q> and <gj> are palatal stops, like Sanskrit c and j. <th> and <dh> are voiceless and voiced interdental fricatives, respectively. <c> stands for the affricate /ts/, and <x> for /dz>, while <ç> is the voiceless affricate /tś/, and <xh> is its voiced counterpart /dź/. <sh> is /š/, and <zh> is /ž/, while <h> is a laryngeal fricative like English h. <nj> is palatalized n (/n͂/), and <j> is a glide like English y. There are two different r-sounds, a flap <r>, and a trill <rr>. Similarly, there are two l-sounds, a velarized sound represented as <ll> and a regular <l>.

2. Chronology
Nothing is known about Albanians until the 11th century, when they are mentioned by Byzantine historians. The Albanian language is mentioned for the first time outside Albania, in the Croatian city of Dubrovnik, in the vicinity of which there appears to have been an Albanian community. In 1285, a man named Matthew recorded this sentence in the context of investigation of a robbery: Audivi unam vocem clamantem in monte in lingua Albanesca. Not long after that, Anonymi descriptio Europae Orientalis (1308) states that the Albanian language is not related to any of the neighboring languages, and thus confirms that lingua Albanesca is indeed the predecessor of modern Albanian: Habent enim Albani prefati linguam distinctam a Latinis, Grecis et Sclavis ita quod in nullo se inteligunt cum aliis nationibus.

2

Much has been written about the origin of the Albanian language. The most probable predecessor of Albanian was Illyrian, since much of the present-day Albania was inhabited by the Illyrians during the Antiquity, but the comparison of the two languages is impossible because almost nothing is known about Illyrian, despite the fact that two handbooks of that language have been published (by Hans Krahe and Anton Mayer). A lot of enthusiasm for Illyrian was lost after it had been discovered that the only purportedly Illyrian inscription, the Ring from Kelaja Delmaçës, was actually in Byzantine Greek. The inscription was read, from top to bottom, ANA OHQH ICER, and there were a lot of speculations about its meaning and grammar. However, a careful paleographic and philological examination showed that the actual reading is, from bottom to top, KE BOHQH ANA, where KE is the usual Byzantine abbreviation of the word Kýrie ‘Lord’ (voc.). The meaning is thus ‘O Lord, help Anna!’ in straightforward Byzantine Greek. Since that discovery, which almost destroyed “Illyrology” as a linguistic discipline, reasonable doubts have been expressed whether the Illyrians spoke a single language, or a group of more or less related languages roughly corresponding to the Italic complex. It is a priori less probable to assume that a single language was spoken in the whole Illyricum, from the river Arsia in Istria, to Epirus in Greece, when such a linguistic uniformity is found nowhere else in Europe before the Roman conquest. Moreover, the examination of personal names and toponyms from Illyricum shows that several onomastic areas can be distinguished, and these onomastic areas just might correspond to different languages spoken in ancient Illyricum. If Illyrians actually spoke several different languages, the question arises - from which ‘Illyrian’ language did Albanian develop, and that question cannot be answered until new data are discovered. The earliest documents of the Albanian language stem from the 15th century. Besides a few almost unintelligible lines from the so-called Bellifortis Manuscript from 1405, the first sentence of Albanian we have is the baptism formula from 1462: Unte paghesont premenit Atit e birit et sperit senit “I baptize you in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost”. 1 It is preserved in a work by Paulus Angelus, the Archbishop of Dyrrachium (Alb. Durrës). From 1483 we have one Albanian sentence in the Renaissance comedy “Epirota” by Tommaso de Mezzo (draburi to clofto goglie = tramburë të kloftë golja “may your mouth tremble (from sickness)!”), and from 1497 the earliest document of Albanian of some length, the glossary by a German traveler Von Harff. Von Harff was an adventurer who wrote a kind of tourist guide in which he collected valuable information about various European languages including Basque, Modern Greek and Albanian. He provided his reader with the native equivalents of such useful phrases as “How much does this cost?”, “What is that”, and “Woman, I want to sleep with you”. There are also a number of Venetian documents from 13th-15th centuries in which sevearal Albanian names are mentioned, as well as a few nouns. The earliest documents of Albanian literature sensu stricto are from the 16th and 17th century. These are religious works associated with the Counter-Reformation movement, and most of them are in the Gheg dialect. The first Albanian book is Meshari by Gjon Buzuku (1555, preserved in a single copy), and this was soon followed by works of Lekë Matrënga (Catechismo di F. Ledesma tradotto da Luca Matranga, 1592, in Tosk), Pjetër Budi (Catechismo, 1618 and Spiegazioni della messa romana, 1621, Speculum confessionis tradotto dallo Specchio di confessione, 1612), Frang Bardhi (the author of the first Albanian dictionary – Dizionario latino-epirotico,1635), Pjetër Bogdani (Cuneus
1

In the modern language, this would be Unë të pagezoj për emrit të atit e të birit e të shpirtit shenjtë.

3

prophetarum de Christo salvatore mundi, 1685), and Nilo Catalano (Dizionario albaneseitaliano e italiano-albanese, 1694). Taken all together, very few books were published in Albanian in the 17th and the early 18th centuries. The first grammar of the language is Osservazioni grammaticali nella lingua albanese, published by Francesco Maria da Lecce in 1716, who also wrote a dictionary (in 1702) of some 13 000 entries. What we lack in early documents of Albanian, we gain by a close examination of the contemporary dialects. Albanian dialects are divided into Tosk (spoken chiefly in Albania south of the river Shkumbi) and Gheg (spoken in Northern Albania and in Kosovo, which is still part of Yugoslavia). The most salient difference between Gheg and Tosk is the so-called Tosk rhotacism: in Tosk, PAlb. *n > r word-internally and finally, whereas in Gheg n is preserved. Thus the ethnonym ‘Albanian’ is Arbër in Tosk, and Arbën in Gheg. The modern literary language is based on the Tosk dialect of Southern Albania whose native speaker was Enver Hoxha, the former dictator of Albania. Outside Albania and Kosovo, there are very archaic Albanian dialects spoken in Greece (Sofiko, Salamis), Italy (Vaccarizzo), and Croatia (Arbanasi). The comparative and historical research of Albanian is also fortunate in that the Albanian vocabulary is loaded with loan-words from Latin, Greek, and various forms of South Slavic, some of which are very old 2. Since we can discover the sound changes that affected these loan-words, we are often able to reconstruct in great detail the shape of Proto-Albanian native words. With what has been said in mind, we adopt the following chronology: 1. Pre-Proto-Albanian (? -1st century B.C.). This is the period before the earliest contacts of Latin and Albanian. 1. Early Proto-Albanian (1st century B.C. -6th century). This is the period of intensive borrowing from Latin into Albanian, before the earliest contacts with the Slavs. 2. (Late) Proto-Albanian (6th century - 15th century). This is the period of intensive contacts of Albanians and Slavs. 3. Early Albanian (15th century - 1800). Roughly, this is the period of the earliest Albanian writings, as well as the period during which most of the Turkish loan-words entered the language. 4. (Modern) Albanian (1800 - present).

3. Historical Phonology
The phonological system of the standard language can be represented as follows: Vowels: i y e
2

u ë a o

In Meyer’s Etymological dictionary of Albanian, of 5140 “keywords” 1420 are Romance, 540 Slavonic, 1180 Turkish, 840 Modern Greek, and only 400 have a more or less reliable IE etymology. 730 words have no etymology whatsoever. During the past century, I would say that the number of words with IE etymology has risen, while some of Meyer’s Romance etymologies have been rejected, but the number of loan-words in Albanian is still disproportionately high.

4

PIE *gwhermo. mish ‘meat’ < PIE *mēmso. In contemporary language the stress is regularly on the last syllable. Alb. vepër ‘work’ << L opera. jep ‘give’. PIE *nokwt. shok. lúle ‘flower’ (but muzé ‘museum’. e > i.> Alb.) exit’. PIE *h1ep‘take’ (Hitt. PIE *h1es(s)i > Alb. L vicīnus >> Alb. with a long vowel. Before a nasal followed by a fricative. cf. Early Latin loan-words stressed on the penultimate lost the unstressed initial syllable(s). Word-initial Latin o. cf. fqinj ‘neighbour’. natë ‘night’. cf. cf. L amicus >> Alb.‘hot’ (G thermós) > Alb. L imperātor >> Alb. cf. del ‘he exits’.2. with short e). Alb. Gheg hân /ha͂/ Consonants: stops p t q k b d gj g fricatives f v th dh sh zh h affricates s c ç x xh Resonants and glides: nasals m n nj ng laterals ll l rr r glide j 3.(cf. OInd. *e (of whatever source) becomes i.). Alb.(G dórpon ‘id. to the extent that there was such a vowel in the proto-language. Alb. L membrum < *memsrom. PAlb. etc. In closed syllables (before -CC-) the outcome is ja. a. but dilni ‘you (pl. mik ‘friend’. Vowels PIE *(H1)e > Alb. because they also affect Latin loan-words. Latin o is preserved. and OCS męso. Alb.The Gheg dialects also have nasalized vowels. a. Both of these changes must be dated after the Early PA. cf. jétë ‘life’ (but këtë’ ‘this’). cf. Alb. zjarm ‘fire’. L socius ‘companion’ >> Alb.g. evening meal’ < PIE *dorkwo. OHG haban ‘have’) > Alb. e-ep-zi ‘takes’) > Alb. je ‘you are’. Before two consonants and followed by i. 3. darkë ‘dinner. mamsa-.receives a prosthetic v-. i varfër ‘poor’ << L orphanus ‘orphan’ (<< G orphanós). Tosk hënë ‘moon’ vs. but there are exceptions. mbret ‘king’. fjalë ’word’ << L fabella.1. Stress Early Proto-Albanian probably had a dynamic stress on the first syllable. e. PIE *o > Alb. qiell ‘sky’ << L caelu. likewise heq ‘draw’ but hiqni. is represented as Alb. PIE *a. PIE *kap-mi ‘I hold’ (L capio. cf. cf. cf. kam ‘I have’ (note 5 . je in open syllables. cf.

dokë ‘custom. Word-initial u. L rota ‘wheel’). PIE *i remains. ne. but the reconstructed form *bhako.contradicts the rules of PIE root structure. nusë ‘daughter-in-law’. if it is dissimilated from *sūs < *suHs (Skr. tmer ‘fear’ << L timore. G théke.the similar semantic development ‘hold’ > ‘have’ as in Germanic). rreth ‘circle’ < PAlb. Alb. This process of substituting the plural form for the singular is quite frequent in Albanian. cf. júostas ‘girt’) > Alb. L lassus < *lh1d-to-) > Alb. Alb. tani ‘now’. gallum ‘cock’ >> gjel. This change appears to be Late PAlb. ditë ‘day’ < *di-ti. sū-). parallel to G me͂ lon but it is more probable that both the Albanian and the Greek words for . as Albanian is the only IE language in which the reflex of PIE *meh2ter means anything but ‘mother’. o. so that Proto-Albanian *a vocalism should be reconstructed in the root. PIE *meh2ter ‘mother’ > Alb. the resemblance of Alb ju and PIE *yuH. plak ‘old man’. qen. cf. u-. cf. *H2e) can be umlauted to e. The semantic shift is unusual. o. cf. It has been claimed that this is a loan-word from Latin (nuptiae ‘wedding’). urdhër ‘order’ << L ordine. Alb.. PIE *g’hesr ‘hand’ (Hitt. dorë (via a secondary a-stem *g’hesra). but originally plurals. since it affects Latin loan-words. rathá. uroj ‘wish. *a > e (and the velars get palatalized). cf. PIE *o. but the meanings do not match very well. perhaps also herë ‘time’ << L hora (the word-initial h. mi < *muHs ‘mouse’.) ‘broad beans’. After velars.> OHG wunscen ‘wish’. and is called singularization. Perhaps *uH > Alb. sg. ngjesh ‘I gird’ (n. Alb. PIE *eh2 (*a) > Alb. vánate ‘desire’). originally ‘bride’ < *nubhtyeh2 (cf. g. i. PIE *nos ‘we’ > Alb.‘be tired’ (G lēdeîn. L nubo : nupta). Lith. G kheír) > Alb. Alb. cf. since it was no longer pronounced in Latin by the time contacts with PAlb. pleq.(Gheg un) < *unh1. mollë ‘apple(-tree)’ can be from PIE *meh2lo-. cf. thi ‘pig’. Alb. qelq. congratulate’ << L orare ‘pray’. Latin unaccented o and o are reflected as Alb. Cf. especially in the plural. PIE *meh1(kwe) > Alb. *eh3. pl. PIE *leh1d. habit’. i lig ‘bad’ < *h3ligo.is from a prefix *en-). Alb. *uH seems to give Alb. cf. OCS dьnь < *di-ni). yuyam).(G zvnh.(G olígos ‘small’). and *oh1 > Alb. e. *rrathi (OInd.(cf.is preserved in uri ‘hunger’ < *un. PIE *yeh3s. ti < *tuH ‘you’. mos ‘prohibitive particle’. if it is from *to-nu < *to-nuH (OCS nyně ‘now’). which seems identical to G phakós ‘lentil’.‘chariot’. ju (cf. pemë ‘fruit’ << L pōmum.in this word is dubious. cf. jus. kissar. e. Lith.(zero-grade of *wenh1. calice ‘chalice’ >> Alb. lodhem ‘am tired’. pl. also Alb. cf. PIE *e and *eH1 > Alb. so it was probably borrowed from some substratum language. a (from PIE *o. OInd. Sometimes forms with umlauted e are synchronically singulars. motër ‘sister’. were possible). n. 6 . L canem ’dog’ >> Alb.‘you (pl. *yuH. bathë (pl. Alb. ‘apple’ were borrowed from some unknown substratum.could also be misleading. PAlb. However. cf. u after *y. arsye ‘reason’ << L ratione. One should also bear in mind that Alb. PIE *dheh1keh2 > Alb. Skr. kuptoj ‘understand’ << L computo ‘compute’. PIE *u is reflected as u.) > Alb.

cf. g. In Latin loan-words L au > Alb. but its relation to G augé. cf. shteg ‘path’ < *stoygho. cf.)’.‘ear’ (L auris) Alb. ë is a reduced vowel. it would appear that *ay > e. vetë ‘self’. The outcome of *h2ey (*ay) is uncertain. G ónar). and *ow word-internally is uncertain. tërboj ‘enrage’ << turbare. OCS piti ‘drink’). Albanian y comes regularly from the sequence wi (and is spelled as ui in Early Albanian. The outcome of *h2ew. *h2ew and *h2ow seem to yield Alb. Huld) prefer to connect Alb. dhëmb ’tooth’ < *g’ombhos (G gómphos ‘comb’). L vinum).(OE sceotan). ve ‘egg’. gaz ’joy’ << L gaudiu. Diphthongs The outcome of PIE diphthongs is another source of dispute in the historical phonology of Albanian. qytet ‘city’ < L civitatem (Acc. regularly before a nasal followed by a consonant. OCS jugъ ‘south’ is far from clear. vesh ‘ear’. pyll ‘forest’ < *padule < L paludem ‘swamp (acc.(OCS stьza ‘id. Alb. cf.(G oi͂ nos. PIE *oy > Alb. cf.).seen in L vos.> -e-. so some scholars (Pedersen. cf. if it is related to G autós ‘id. Alb. as Haarmann (1972) thinks. when compared to G aíx. i. ag. hedh ‘throw’ < *skewd. *h2ow.’ < *stigheh2). The most often quoted example.is usually reflected as gj. tarb. aigós points to *h2eyg. pak ’few’ << L paucu. which must be somehow related to L ovum. a vrddhi to *h2owis ‘bird’). këndoj ‘sing’ << L cantare. but a native word corresponding to L taurus. agim ‘dawn’. cf. verë (Gheg venë) ‘wine’ < *woyno. 7 . Alb. At least word-initially. OCS j-aję (PIE *h2owyom.in Albanian.(but this word is likely to be a borrowing from a non-IE source).(cf.since *y. ëndërr ‘dream’ < *h3nro. Alb. Goth. similarly. e. Alb. edh ‘goat’. which usually occurs in non-syncopated pretonic. OCS vy. and is not altogether reliable. cáech. 3. ar ‘gold’ << L aurum.~ zero-grade *ph3i. pi ‘drink’. cf. ju to PIE *we. OIr. dimër (Gh. G taurós. and Alb. This rule seems to be contradicted by Alb. OIr. probably involves laryngeal metathesis (PIE *peh3i. a.> *pih3-. The following seem to be the most reliable etymologies: PIE *ey > Alb. It is difficult to find original instances of *iH in Albanian.3. which is from PIE *h2ews. brymë ‘icicles’ < bruma. be ‘faith’ < *bhoydeh2 (L fides < *bhid-). Alb. ve-. in Buzuku’s works). fryt ‘product’ < *fruti << L (pl. haihs. and nonapocopated post-tonic syllables. cf. dimën) ‘winter’ < PIE *g’heymon (G ce?mwn). as well as the regular outcome of L u in loan-words. cf. y can also be the result of umlaut. If ter ‘bull’ is not a loan-word from Latin. It also occurs in the first syllable of some native words. e. Alb. PIE *ew > Alb.’ (from ?*h2ewto-). e. then it would appear that *-aw. cf. If keq ‘bad’ can be connected to L caecus ‘blind’.) fructus.

just like any other *oy. of o-stems. Final *oy first developed to *e. n.(G ski<. n. pesë.. There is also the socalled ‘broken vowel. ujk (this is a dialectal variant of PIE *wlkwos ‘wolf’.) < *drk’ta. g. g. *ulkwos ‘wolf’ > Alb. The development of *e can be seen in the n. pl. at least in closed syllables. OInd. In Gheg dialects this diphthong is either monophthongized to u. grua ‘woman’. but as -e in closed syllables. ua. like in Proto-Celtic. The only universally acknowledged source for Albanian h-. PIE *dwoH ‘two’ > PAlb. cf.5. cf. vilkai ‘volwes’). kuptoj ‘I understand’ < *kuptao << L computare. Olc-). Auslautgesetze The development of vowels in final syllables in Albanian is difficult to ascertain. pl. cf. PIE *nokwtes ‘nights’ > Alb. and pl. By positing this change it is easy to account for the 1st sg. which is represented as uo in the early writers (Buzuku. cf. e.. of a-stems. to dorë ‘hand’) and in some difficult forms (e. Laryngeals in Albanian? The idea that at least one of the laryngeals was preserved in Albanian is due largely to Eric Hamp (1965). e. jam ‘I am’. of the consonant stems. (in open syllable) *esmi > Alb. e. dy. PIE *eh2 > *a is retained as -ë in open syllables. cf. and then shared the outcome of PIE *-uH > -i. drite ‘lights’ < *drk’tas. dritë ‘light’ (n. *dwu > *dwi > Alb. of mik << L amicus. g. 3. Hamp thought that PIE *h4. or krye ‘head’. of the o-stems in *-oy (an old pronominal ending also seen in L lupī. Final *e seems to be reduced to ë. but the etymologies offered by Hamp are rather poor (for a thorough criticism. e. n. dyer. this i was reduced to -j. motër ‘sister’ < PIE *meh2ter. e. see Ölberg 1972). but disappears in Hittite.There are a few diphthongs in Albanian. PIE *i seems to be lost in open syllables. and appears to be due to some kind of compensatory lengthening. After vowels.. *h2elbhi ‘barley’ > Alb. whose origin is very dark. or pronounced as ue (NE Gheg). buall ‘waterbuffalo bull’). g. present ending in -i of verbs such as di ‘I know’. perhaps also *penkwtis ‘five’ > Alb. olc ‘bad’ and names in Ulc-. g. Here are some rules that seem to apply quite regularly: PIE *o and *e are lost. that Albanian seems to share with Celtic. sg. 3. PIE *o (and *-oH) was probably narrowed to *u. often causing umlaut in the preceding syllable. 8 . miq ‘friends’. It occurs in some irregular plurals (duar. but preserved as -ë in closed syllables. Indeed. survives in Albanian as h. elb (G álphi). OIr. e. ye. hije ‘shadow’ < *sk’eh2i. (in closed syllable) *nokwtis > Alb. there are some words in Albanian that contain an unexplained h-.4. natë ‘night’. however. cf. cf. pl. g. sg. cf. which in his view colors *e to *a. Lith. Budi). and then it fell off. which occurs mostly in plurals. vrkas. is from PIE *sk’-. net. cf. g. pl. n. pl. of derë ‘door’ < *dhwor-. sg.

Although there do not seem to be any obvious counter-examples 3 to a sound law *h1/3V. anurj̆). Alb. In Latin loanwords. Alb. and Lith. and hekur ’iron’. Alb. G blothrós ‘high reaching’). aržilas ‘stallion’. mjaltë ‘honey’ < PIE *melit. n. so we should posit an original PAlb. PIE *r > r. ratha. PIE *newn (L novem. ligje ’law’ << L lege. and in this case the reconstructed laryngeal is PIE *h3 or *h1.> -r-.(cf. cf. Alb. In Tosk.(G méli.(OInd. by which *-n. like G ostéon.before front vowels. -e. frén. which is certainly related to L rota ‘wheel’. OIr. PIE *l > l. Alb. The PIE word for ‘testicle’ should be reconstructed as *h3org’his or *h1org’his.(G amélgo. PIE *m > m. L mulgeo. 9 . cf. Alb.yields Alb. Initial *wr.occurs in a word with clear IE correspondences with initial laryngeal is Alb. rreth ‘circle’.(L rapio. hirrë ‘whey’. Alb. hundë ‘nose’. The only case where Alb. ratha.). Resonants Resonants are generally preserved. cf.> -r-. etc. either related to or borrowed from G skórodon. perhaps emër (Gh emën) ‘name’ if from *h3nomn (Gr. and Alb. n. etc.6. bletë ‘bee’ < *mlVt-). PIE *n > n. chayá-). -n. uirge. rret ‘net’ 3 Alb.). sg.(German Rad ‘wheel’. hënë ‘moon’ < *sk’andna (L candor). which might point to a development *tH > th in Albanian. rreth ‘circle’ < PIE *(H)rōth2. hastai-. cf.(L vīnum). G ónar. asht ‘bone’ is more likely than not from PIE *Hh2osth1-. mjel ‘I milk’ < PIE *h2melg’.> Alb. eržilas. and Hitt. nāma. Skr. cf. numër ‘number’ << L numerus. herdhë ‘testicles’. cf. dáru-). PIE *doru-/dru.remains.‘chariot’ (PIE *(H)roth2o-) has an unexplained th rather than *t. rr-. hV-. cf. One should also mention that Alb. cf. seems to me out of the question. ossis. Alb. rjep ‘catch’ < *h1rep.OInd. hudhër ‘garlic’. Before resonants laryngeals disappear word-initially. nye ‘knot’. njeri ‘man’ < *h2ner.(G olígos ‘few’). one word is certainly not a solid basis for far-fetched conclusions. ligë ‘bad’ < PIE *h3ligo.‘chariot’). llar ‘laurel’ << L lauru. also Alb. lirë ’free’ << L liber. which is certainly cognate with G órkhis. rrënjë ‘root’ < *wrVd-n(OIr. Alb. ónoma. if related to L nodus. dru ‘tree’ < *drun-.in Latin loanwords is represented as ll. cf. 3. Word-initial l. OInd. The reflexes of laryngeals after syllabic resonants are discussed below. Skr. L os. Arm. push’. Eng. Alb.is probably due to singularization of an original plural.(G anér). G eréptomai). nëntë ‘9’ < *newn-ti-. lepur ‘rabbit’ << L lepore. verë ‘wine’ (Gheg venë) < *woyno. but as l. h.(OE molda ‘forehead’. cf. Alb. cf. cf. mal ‘hill’ < PIE *mlh3dh. but llaft << laude. This is also the case with Latin loanwords. milk).before back vowels (including a). Reconstructing the fourth PIE laryngeal to account for obscure Albanian words like heq ‘draw. unless one takes into account the Tosk rhotacism. ëndër ‘dream’ < *h3nr. mélitos. Word-initial r is usually represented as rr-. G ríza < *wridyā). *hardh(ë). but in view of the lack of further examples this remains a speculation.

Alb. zej ‘bake’ and G zéo ‘boil’. z. G árktos. cf. an.The only problem with this view is Alb. cf.(Hitt. If Latin r was preceded by a vowel. Unless one wants to blame this irregularity on the initial laryngeal. Alb. cf. ri. 3. succeed’. drithë ‘grains’ < PIE *g’hrd. Alb. krimb (Gheg krymb. rit ‘I rear’ ritem ‘I am growing’. *lH > Alb. zanë ‘fairy’ << L Diana. however. art). which Meyer relates to OInd. ranë ‘sand’ << L arena. namely PIE *y > Alb. the relation of this word to L vermis and Eng. z. of vij ‘come’ < *h1rg’h. Here are some examples: PIE *R: Alb.is preserved. NHG Gerste). OIr. and in which case Alb. since stops are devoiced word-finally in several dialects.is *dy-.‘head’).(G érkhomai. we can claim that word-initially PIE *r > Alb. *m > Alb. cf. fem. weben. arí ‘bear’ < PAlb.7. regaid ‘will go’). PIE *y > Alb. cf. succeeds’. murdhan.(OInd.(L hordeum ‘barley’. worm is unexplained. pple. The t instead of d in the Albanian word cannot destroy this etymology. vidhava. There are. Alb. gj. *rH > Alb. Lith. Alb. which seems plausible. OIr.’. Alb. vilnìs ‘id. cf. whereas PIE *n. Alb. krmi-. Syllabic resonants The traditional view is that PIE *r. hartagga-. li. i zi.<< L rete. rdháti to G álthomai ‘grow. as if from *yeh3dyeh2-. OCS prъvъ). it is represented as Alb. etc.). cf. L vidua. In Latin loanwords. gjykoj ‘judge’ << L iudicare. kirmìs). L ursus. al. in several cases PIE *r appears to yield Alb. rdháti ‘prospers. Namely. Alb. e zezë ‘black’ (fem. va ‘ford’ << L vadum. both in native words and Latin loan-words. Alb. *ar (-í is a productive suffix) < PIE *h2rtk’o. vej ’weave’ < *webhnyo (PIE *webh. r-. These reflexes would be similar to the reflexes in Celtic. Alb.(OInd.). if a laryngeal follows. etc. i parë ‘first’ < *prh3wo. júodas ‘black’. but perhaps the rather vague correspondence of meanings makes it not so attractive. ar where a following laryngeal cannot be reconstructed. PIE *w > v. n-gjesh ‘gird’ (OInd. Some think that there is another possibility. rdhnáti. am. Alb. v. Alb. Lith. mal ‘hill’ < PIE *mlHdho. jagen. with regular change of i > y before labials) ‘worm’ < PIE *krmi.). ar. and the change is confirmed by Latin loan-words. fedb. if related to Germ. rrobull ‘oak’ << L robur. gj. problems with the traditional view. PIE *widheweh2 ‘widow’ > Alb. vel͂t ‘walken’). The usual source of Alb.‘girt’. gjuaj ‘hunt’.is the only assured reflex of PIE *y. rrotë ‘wheel’ << L rota. rit has no etymology. OIr. yas. valë ‘wave’ < PIE *wlHnis (Lith. However. ardhur. Mayrhofer relates OInd. 10 . Alb. OCS po-jasъ). ar. or Alb. e ve (OInd.> Germ.(OInd. cf. cf. purva-. PIE *RH Alb. i bardhë ‘white’ < PIE *bhrHg’o-. the presence of laryngeal in this root is shown by the intonation of Latv. *l > Alb.

katër is a loan-word from L quattuor. dhëndhërr ‘son in law’ < *g’enh1. kaurn < PIE *g’rHno-. OInd. Lith. katër ‘4’ < PIE *kwetwores (OInd. sg. Stops PIE voiceless stops are preserved. e. gardh ‘fence. al-. but tells us little. tuvam. it would appear that *l. bhára.8. G téttares. Similarly. fjalë ‘word’ << L fabella. Huld’s derivation of Alb. OCS loky ‘pond’ (PIE n. Goth.‘mountain’). The development of PIE voiced and aspirated stops is unclear. Lith žambas). Alb. 3. It appears certain that reflexes of *g’ and *g’h are different in Albanian. from whatever source. L tu. cf. fe ‘religion’ << L fides.‘shining’).(L dūcō). One cannot find any convincing examples of reflexes of PIE *b in Albanian.(cf. žéntas. OCS dubokъ. prind ‘parent’ << L parente. even in loan-words. but this is improbable). G phére. Consonants 3. This change is late. in which case aspirated and voiced stops were still distinct in PAlb. Von Harff’s dictionary has nente for ‘9’. dubùs) is possible. sg. mjek ‘physician’ << L medicus. mbrënda ‘inside’ << per intu. Alb. whereas *g’h is reflected as d: PIE *g’ Alb. Alb. it has also been claimed that Alb. G lákkos. Alb. Alb. -mp-. if shurrë ‘urine’ is from *skrneh2 (see below). pacati. Alb. *lokus. The regular reflex of *g’ is dh. gen. gardas ‘enclosure. Alb. i bardhë ‘white’ < PIE *bhrHg’o. hedge’ must be considered a (?Germanic) loan-word (cf. are sometimes lost word-internally. Tosk liqér ‘lake’ is the same word as L lacus. gards ‘house. *lkwes). Alb. its vocalism would be irregular. Alb.(G pínō.(OInd. bhurjá. It is certain that *bh > b. pjek ‘bake’ < PIE *pekwoh2 (OInd. OCS ty). Lith. 11 . dhëmb ‘tooth’ < PIE *’gombhos ‘comb’ (G gómphos. Alb. cf. jñatí ‘relative’). which should be somehow related to L granum. píbati). Voiceless stops are voiced after nasals. ti ’you’ < PIE *tu(H) (OInd. cf. luaj ‘play<< L ludere. OInd. Note the same change in meaning as in OCS ząbъ ‘tooth’. mbledh ‘gather’ < *en-leg’oh2 (G légo ‘speak’. OE deop ‘deep’. bjer ‘bring’ (imperative) < PIE *bhere (OInd. Goth. liqe.8. nëndë ‘nine’ < *newn-ti-. e ve ‘widow’ < *widheweh2 (L vidua). but a similar development of *r > ur after a velar is attested in gur ‘stone’ < PIE *gwrH. nduk ‘pull’ < *dewk. since Early Albanian texts still have -nt-. Skr. Alb. Proto-Albanian *b and *d. but then Alb. L lego ‘read’). li-. A special problem is Alb. fortified town’). L coquo). yard’. cf. catvaras.1. but there are no examples. g.> Alb.We would also expect word-initial *l to give Alb.(Lith.(OCS gora ‘mountain’. det ‘sea’ from PIE *dhewboto. pi ‘drink’ < PIE *peh3i. If Alb. girí. We could posit a change *ar > ru after velars. grunë ‘wheat’. L fer).

G dúo. OHG gersta. Lith. L mag-nus). G kheír. doúratos < *dorwntos). duva.‘bull’ OIr.> G dóru. of vij ‘come’ < PIE *h1rg’h. etc. OCS derą). g. Toch.(L hordeum. Since the changes *g’ > dh and *g’h > d seem assured. d. dje ‘yesterday’ < PIE *dhg’hes (G khthés. urdhër ‘order’ << L ordine. L felo ‘suck’ (PIE *dheh1i-l-). one would expect PIE *d to give Alb. dam < PIE *dom(H)-). Since this is the expected outcome on structural grounds. Alb. Alb.is a causative built to the same root. A tsar) Alb. OEng. G méga. Alb. ditë ‘day’ < *ditV. NHG Zweig). branch’ < *dwogho. since the change *d > dh /r_ is regular and also affects Latin loan-words. Alb. Lith. L hiems. This is not a counter-example to *g’h > d. PIE *g’h Alb. degë ‘twig. A very small number of words seem to have Alb. Alb. Here are the 12 .(G érkhomai ‘I shall go’ = OIr. L here < *hesi. djeg ‘burn’ < PIE *dhegwh.(OInd. Alb.(if related to G deíro ‘peel’. Alb.(PIE *doru / *dru. E twig. dh for PIE *d. dahati. Alb. damya.(cf. perhaps also Arm. djerr ‘wasteland’ < *derno. kiššar.(G thúra. This etymology is a bit weak on semantic grounds. dem ‘small bull’ < *domo. ardhur. the question arises whether these forms are relics. dritë ‘light’ < *drk’ta (OInd.). L fores. gari). dimër ‘winter’ < PIE *g’heymon (G kheímon. pple. dru ‘tree’ < *drun. Alb. dorë ’hand’ < PIE *g’hesr (Hitt. PIE *dhogwheyoh2 > L foveo). G dérkomai). Alb. drithë ‘grains’ < PIE *g’hrd. and *dh to give Alb. drś. dh. if related to G the͂lus ‘feminine’.(OCS dьnь). both *d and *dh give Alb. regaid). degti). or do they show the results of a late development of d > dh.(OInd. PIE *dh Alb. geostra). derë ‘door’ < *dhworu. d almost without exception: PIE *d Alb. Alb. cf. dy ‘two’ < PIE *duwoH (OInd.‘see’. ndez ‘kindle’ < *endhogwheyo. Alb. mahi. OCS zima).Alb. madh ’great’ < PIE *meg’h2 (OInd. dele ‘sheep’. However. dvãras < PIE *dhwor / *dhurós).

gjind ‘people’ << gente. Alb. dhi can have dh rather than *d by analogy with edh ‘goat’. but the occurence of q in native words is. G mé-te.) gai͂ a ‘earth’. G khthón. Huld. It is easiest to explain these forms if one assumes that *-d. is often contested. whereby all the remaining velars (*k and *g) were palatalized to q and gj. G klínō ‘recline’). and in dhashë ‘I gave’ from forms with preverbs.) pélo ‘turn. 3.11. cf. with zero- 13 . which is probably the same word as OInd. perhaps also OInd. aorist to jep ‘give’ (PIE *deh3. ajá-. wosee goat’ (PIE *h2og’o-. etc. zjarr. the Albanian form implies a lengthened grade. dhi ‘hegoat’. G (Hom. j̆ermn ‘fever’. PIE *kwih1 ‘how’ > Alb. Alb.> -dh. Since Alb. Alb. L decem.). L censeo ‘reckon’). dh for PIE *dh. The first palatalization PIE *kweloh2 ‘I turn’ > Alb. sjell ‘bring. etc. L cieo ‘set in motion’ (cf. *s). G thermós ‘hot’ Arm.problematic forms: Alb. become’. e. sy ‘eye’. thom ‘I say’ < *k’ensmi. dhe ‘earth’ should be derived not from PIE *dheghom (Hitt. dhashë ‘I gave’. The second palatalization This process affects many Latin loan-words. fetch. PIE *h2og’o-). one should bear in mind that it seems certain that there were at least two palatalizations in Albanian: the first palatalization. g. Alb. L do. its occurence in native words is not alarming.rather than *i must somehow be analogical.‘sound’ (OCS zvonъ) > Alb. qind ‘100’ < centu. also G Hom. PIE *meh1-kwe > Alb. zjerm ‘fire’. In examining this view. In dhjetë ‘ten’ dh. mos (prohibitive particle). dhjetë ‘10’ < PIE *dek’m (G déka. qoj ‘wake. There are no instances of Alb. whereby labiovelars were palatalized to s and z before front vowels and *y. ósse. cf. This thesis. th. PIE Plain velars in Albanian? It has been claimed that the difference between the three PIE series of gutturals is preserved in Albanian before front vowels. 3.(cf. zë ‘voice’. e. tekan. OCS oči ‘eyes’). kío ‘go’. but still supported by the majority of Albanologists (e.). and Alb. and kinéo set in motion. si. if it should be derived from an old dual *h3kwih1 (G Hom. PIE palatalized velars are affected by neither palatalization (they yield Alb. etc. Perhaps this process can account for Alb. rouse’.(before the merger of voiced and aspirated stops).9. All these forms can be explained by positing a PIE root *keh1i-. lodhem ‘am tired’ < PIE *leh1d. OInd. PIE *g’hwen. cf. since this sound can be neither from PIE *k’ (it would have changed to th) nor from *kw (it would have been palatalized to s). Alb. g.10. gj has several other sources (PIE *y. cyavate). Its -y. if Alb.) but rather related to G (Hom. dare. It may be that th yielded f before a consonant.(G lēdeîn). which is also of uncertain origin. OPr. dh.‘praise’. sometimes referred to as Pedersen’s law. turn’. śams. and the second palatalization. Hamp. shëgjetë ‘arrow’ << sagitta.‘give’ > G dídomi. and Ölberg). move. PIE *gwhermos ‘heat’ > Alb. if it is related to NHG Ziege.. 3. d. qershi ‘cherry’ << cerasiu. ënfle ‘sleep’ is from *nthle < *n-k’loye. which seems to correspond to. g. in the same environment. Yet there are quite a few instances of q in Albanian that cannot be considered Latin loan-words.is generalized from compound numbers. but cannot be derived from.

smãkras. smech. PIE *supnos ‘sleep’ (G hupnós. since one would not expect *r to be lost before th (see Çabej 1972: 144). PIE *smek’ru ‘chin’ (OInd. Note. or *kesk’os. but this equation has with some justification been put into doubt. 2. cf. g. there are few examples of this change.12. since Latin borrowings regularly have Alb. PIE *g’onu. OCS sъnъ) > Alb. Alb. if one starts from *ghednyo.for L s-. this is by itself not an argument against Pedersen’s law. we have neuter kisman ‘time’. gj are from PIE words with labiovelars. In order to refute it. G klúo) > Alb.word-initially. those back vowels were subsequently . shumë ‘much’ << L summum. or “desatemized” palatals (on which see below). Desatemization in Albanian The development of PIE gutturals is further complicated by the fact that PIE palatals seem to be regularly depalatalized before resonants in Albanian 5. instances of PIE plain velars in Albanian should be taken seriously. the etymological connection of Alb. PIE *k seems to be preserved before PIE *e.’. Matasović. PIE *g’reh2u. kniu) > Alb. The development of *s word-medially is unclear. sh. gjuni. Lith. comrade’ << L socius. 4 14 . relating it to G gynḗ ‘woman’). L praehendo (praeda ‘spoils’ < *prai-heda).13. which can be represented as *s > *ś > *ź > gj. kohë ‘time’ which can be superimposed on OCS časъ ‘moment’.‘knee’ (OInd.. śmaśru-. since there does not seem to be an easy way to get rid of them. *gjaj in Albanian. PIE *sokwos ‘sap. wife’ (but note that there is a different etymology of this word. juice’ (G opós. gju. and 3. L genu. The e-vocalism of the attested form should then somehow be analogical. def. Alb. that the Albanian form actually implies a feminine noun *kesa. 3. Alb. perhaps also Hitt. and still in OPr./ *g’new. another explanation is possible. g. Poredbenopovijesna gramatika hrvatskoga jezika. OCS sokъ) > Alb. which later changed to o in Albanian. and whether this in turn preceded or followed the second palatalization. gjumë. 3. grua ‘woman. OIr. E get still seems fine to me 4. which would regularly give *gjanj. G gónu. The problem is whether *-d. mjekër ‘id. Moreover. quhem ‘am called’. gjak ‘blood’. It However. but there back vowels must follow the resonant. cf. e. must have been very early. gjuri.analogically or otherwise changed to front vowels. q. On the other hand. Zagreb 2008. jánu. however. though difficult. See R. or *kesk’a. PIE *k’lu. zamankur) > Alb.grade (and laryngeal metathesis) *kih1-. which makes the rule convincing. PIE *s PIE *s gives gj. gjej (gjenj in dialects) ‘find’ and G khandáno. kertù ‘id.was lost before or after *e > ja in the closed syllable. the problem of the validity of Pedersen’s law must remain open. one would have to devise a scenario in which 1. Since no such scenario seems to be forthcoming. shok ’friend. Again.‘old woman’ (G grau͂s) > Alb. 5 A similar rule applies in Balto-Slavic. All of the Albanian native words with k. the Slavic form is from a masculine *kesos. The change. śru-. Goth. In all such words the reflexes of PIE labiovelars preceded back vowels during the period of the first palatalization. qeth ‘cut’ has been compared to Lith. but no counter-examples. However few they are.. cf. Although many aspects of Albanian historical phonology remain unclear.’.‘hear’ (OInd.

(G húpnos). at least when stressed. gjumë ‘sleep’ < *supno. cf. but this is uncertain. *kl > q (kl’ is preserved in some dialects and in Buzuku). but which is more likely to be from something like *skrneh2. q is also the result of Latin c before front vowels. Diana > Alb. OIr. *gl > gj. Alb. cf. Consonant clusters In clusters involving two stops. Lat. Alb. In any case. pl. cf. Lat. gjëndër.-abl. dirsë ‘sweat’ < *swid-r. prift. In Latin loanwords. Word-initial *sw. Also in loanwords from Latin. *b(h)n and *pn > *mn > m..(Skr. Alb. amë ‘river-bed’ < *abno. *pt and *kt yield ft. *dy > z. shurrë ‘urine’. cf. luctāri ‘fight’ >> Alb. cf.before unstressed vowels. h is regular anyway.(L co-gnosco. perhaps in gjatë ‘long’. the first sibilant is dissimilated to th. śru. *dl > gj. also gjuhë if it is a loanword from G glõssa. if from *keso-. gaz ‘joy’. skatós ‘excrement’ (a r/n stem).(L amnis ‘river’. cf. quhem ‘I am called’ < *k’lusk’. In sequences *s. dirghá-. šehur ’id. gaudium > Alb. Latin loan-words have -sh.(OInd. dëshiroj ‘want’ << L desiderare. It has been claimed that PIE *s. if it is from PIE *-oysu (OInd. *rd > rdh. *h2eph3nes). shi ‘rain’ < *suH-(G húei ‘it rains’). Alb. G gignósko). jánu. A case can be made for the development *s > sh.(OInd. qishë. cf. cf. Early documents (Buzuku) and some dialects still have gl. natë ‘night’ < *nokwt-.(-të is a late suffix). cf.seems to yield Alb. glandula ‘gland’ > Alb. G gónu). -ešu). L luctor. cf. cf. 3. Alb.g.s. kafshë ‘thing’ << L causa. diell ‘sun’ < *swel. if it is from something like *dlHgho. but both Alb.’. njoh ‘know (a person)’ < *g’neh3V. (indefinite) -ësh. shtatë ‘7’ < *septm. gen. kohë and OCS časъ ‘moment’ can also be derived from PIE *kesk’o-. thaj ‘to dry’ < *sh2ewso. svedate ‘sweats’).(Skr.14. and thus related to G skõr. d-.. L presbiter (<< G presbýteros) ‘priest’ > *prepter >> Alb. Alb. faqe ‘face’ < L faciēs. as in kohë ‘time’. Zanë (a fairy). Clusters involving resonants are also simplified: *g’n > nj.wordinternally for Latin -s-. luftoj. and mish ‘meat’ < *mēso. shtatë ‘7’ < *septm. and the change *sk’ > Alb. aub < PIE *h2eph3on / gen. e. pjerdh ‘break wind’ < *perdoh2 (OInd. cf. pardate.(OCS męso). 15 .(OCS suxъ ‘dry’).> sh. svar-). rrëshinë << L resina. L ecclesia ‘church’ > Alb. A particular problem is presented by Alb. OInd. cf. cf. Alb. cf. G hu͂s. Lat. the first stop is lost very early. which has been related to Hitt. G pérdomai). Alb. thi ‘pig’ < PIE *suHs (L sus. tetë ‘8’ < *(H)ok’to. verdh ‘yellow’ < L viride.(G heptá).‘hear’). gju ‘knee’ < *g’nu.< *memso.has been claimed that the outcome is h.-dat. in qytet ‘town’ < civitātem.

PIE *sl > Alb. cf. Here are some examples: PIE *k’s > Alb. *lw > ll. OIr.(as in dëborë ‘snow’ besides borë ‘id. G lúkos). ll. In çoj (aor. i. with s-mobile (cf. safe’ (OInd. xhep ‘pocket’ << Tur. if from something like *sprk’to.‘spark’ (OEng. cy. Alb. ysle) > Alb. *petno. e. cy (2-3sg. Alb.g. cf. caporre ‘cow with long horns’. rouse’ if one assumes the development from *nq. shpend ‘bird’.‘whole. e.’. verna ‘alder’. *d-syu-t. sarva-. The consonants c and x are rather rare and occur in expressive words and those with obscure etymology. xhezve ‘small coffee pot’ << Tur.to nç-. çoban ‘shepherd’ << Tur. wake up’. In some cases.> OIr. cf. with the prefix n-). *ek’stos.and to Alb. we may have the root found in cy ‘drive’ and qoj ‘wake. gjallë ‘living’ < *solwo. Alb.> Alb. jashtë. furrë ‘oven’ << L furnax. *eg’hstos ‘outside’ (G Locr. gjashtë. *sek’sti. ékie ‘started to move’ if we assume that the Proto-Alb. G hólos ‘whole’). *spora ‘seed. cf. that which is sown’ > Alb. cezve ‘id. take to. Alb. that the development was from PIE *kyu-to.g. ekhthós. Italian leggere).g. çudi ‘wonder’ << Serb.’) and the dental suffix *-t. perhaps fruth ‘measles’. zh can mostly be derived from earlier clusters.(Gaul. especially from Turkish. ca ‘some’ besides disa ‘some’ (by syncope). xh. It has also been claimed that *sp.(from the past participle stem in *-to-?). PIE *h2us-li. acht ‘but’) > Alb. in lexoj ‘read’ (cf. or cep ‘edge’ besides dialectal step ‘edge’ (metathesis). pres. aftë ‘capable’ << L aptus).’. In some cases cappears to be from *ds-. aestimō). *rn > rr.(Lith. çuaj) ‘lift. ujk ‘wolf’ < *ulko. sh. f. vilkas. Alb. cf. The consonant f is common in Latin loan-words. which can be derived from *spetno-. PIE *sp. én ‘bird’). čudo ‘id. e. 16 . çizme ‘id.< *wlkwo. yll ‘star’. impel’ may be related to L cieo ‘move’ and G aor. but also from Slavic. which is abstracted from earlier n çonj (Buzuku. cep ‘id. OIr. also in loan-words.‘speckled’. Likewise. in which it develops from v. The developments of clusters involving *s are very complex. e. e.g. 3. The consonant x sometimes comes from Romance palatalized velars. L spurcus ‘dirty’).’.> shp-. ç is from earlier *š (written sh in Modern Albanian.‘6’ > Alb. cf. but they are also very frequent in loan-words. kofshë ‘hip’ << L coxa. cf.’. 15.g.(OInd. çmoj ‘estimate’ < *shmoj << Lat.’ çizme ‘boot’ << Tur. cyt) ‘drive. form contained the prefix *dë. çoban ‘id.*lk > jk. farë (G spóros). Alb. k. Other consonants Albanian consonants ç. cf. verr ‘alder’ < *werno. xixë ‘spark’. p before dentals (kafshë ‘animal’ << L causa. also in Latin loanwords. fajkua ‘falcon’ << L falconem.e. sprśni. fern). Alb.to Proto-Alb.

cf. Noun Noun has five cases (nominative. mish ‘meat’.. The ending GDAbl. Nominative plural is formed very differently for different classes of nouns.) -sh. b) change of the stem final consonant (mik ‘friend’ ~ miq). vajzë GDAbl. ka ‘ox’ ~ qe. grua ‘woman’ ~ gra. pl.1. shok GDAbl. vajzë ‘girl’ sg.1. It also has a very complicated system of suffixed definite articles. dative. –ler/-lar. and ablative) and two numbers (singular and plural). fshatar ‘villager’ ~ fshatarë. there are three types of plural formation. dem-i. The PIE declensional types were merged as o-stems (masculine and neuter). Many nouns have completely irregular plurals. this ending has been derived from the locative sg. and in some nouns they are combined: a) addition of the suffix (bri ‘horn’ ~ brirë).4.1. cf. Morphology 4.g. accusative. ā-stems (feminine). of dem ‘young bull’). although the more common PIE ending was *-oy (OCS vlъcě. natë ’night’ ~ net. bir ‘son’ ~ bij.g. zog ‘bird’ ~ zogj. shokëve. genitive. NAcc. derë ‘door’ ~ dyer. Albanian nouns are either masculine or feminine. GDAbl. NAcc. of vlъkъ ‘wolf’). As can be seen from the examples. Nouns and adjectives 4.g. L sg. ending –llerë. thes ‘sack’ ~ thasë. *-su. vajzash pl. c) Ablaut (grua ‘woman’ ~ gra). baba ‘father’ pl. 17 . shokë GDAbl. kujtim ‘memory’ ~ kujtime. lumë ‘river’ ~ lumenj. and i-stems (masculine and feminine) in Proto-Albanian. NAcc. -lläre (< Turk. depending on vowel harmony). baballarë. sg. vajza vajzave. ujë ‘water’. pl. o-stems is –u after velars and –i elsewhere (e. vajzaje pl. mik ‘friend’ sg. with a residual class of neuters denoting mostly mass nouns (e. djalë ‘boy’ ~ djem. with the possible exception of Loc. of the o-stems *-ey. Some nouns have the borrowed Turkish pl. shoku a-stems. Here are examples of indefinite paradigms: o-stems. shokësh Since final syllables were lost in PAlb. e. mik ‘friend’ ~ miq. which is preserved as (G-D-Abl. bri ‘horn’ ~ brirë. the PIE case-endings disappeared. vajzë ‘girl’ ~ vajza. bir ‘son’ ~ bij. so that for each noun has definite and indefinite declensional paradigms.

g.2.2.) të ndryshme (f. di dimë di dini di dinë jap ‘give’ ha ‘eat’ sg. this plural formation was influenced by other factors.) vs. 4.1. i mirë ‘good’. The gradation of adjectives is analytic. *h1(e)smes > jemi). of žena ‘woman’). âsht) contains an epenthetic *n (*ensti). plak ‘old man’ < *plako-. i madh ‘big’. e ndryshme (f. Verbs The history of the Albanian verbal system is largely unexplored. Albanian verb has two numbers (sg.) and distinguishes three persons. pl. There are very few things about it that can be stated with certainty. perfect. jam. these were probably influenced by the Slavic vocatives of the ā-stems (OCS ženo.g. më i madh se ‘bigger than’. pl. 18 .g. e. pl. e. pl.). and f. as in other Balkan languages. i ndryshëm ‘different’ (m. voc. In some cases. shumë i mirë ‘best’. imperative. in which *r changed to n in the sg. është (dial. the masculine and the feminine forms are often distinguished only by different forms of the article. It forms several tenses synthetically (present.). sg. sg. jemi jeni janë The athematic endings more or less straightforwardly go back to the PIE athematic present: PIE *h1esmi (Skr. jap jepim ha hamë jep jepni ha hani jep japin ha hanë ka ‘have’ sg. some adjectives have different forms for the m. and pl. subjunctive. thematic (punoj ‘work’.2. burro ‘husband’. The present tense In principle. Adjectives The adjectives have masculine and feminine forms. after causing palatalization of the preceding velar (e. Examples of the present tense of athematic verbs: jam ‘am’ sg. pl. and has many periphrastic tenses (future. and pluperfect). pl. there are two major conjugations. pleq < *plakī).g. neno ‘mother’. kam kemi ke keni ka kanë pl. optative. and imperfect). e. (Tosk rhotacism). vendos ‘decide’) and athematic (jam ‘am’. in gjarpër ‘snake’. i mirë ‘good’ (m. but the 3rd sg. gjarpinj we have an original n-stem.). and admirative). 4. Some nouns (both ā and o-stems) have a special vocative form. past (aorist).g. presumably under the influence of 3pl.g. ásmi) > Alb. 4. which was subsequently lost. të ndryshëm (m.The ablaut in the formation of plural in many nouns was caused by the adding of the suffix *-oy > ī. e.1. in the singular and in the plural.) vs. pl. jam je është di ‘know’ sg. e mirë ‘good’ (f. e. It also has a rather developed system of moods (indicative. kam ‘have’). future perfect.

dí-dō-mi ‘I give’.). cf. tund ‘to move. also rri ‘sits’ aor. sképō ‘cover’) and shoh ‘see’ < PIE *sōkw-sk’. Present stems formed with the suffix *-sk’. lord’ (cf.‘master. 1. Some linguists see it as aglutinated from the original *-te. etc. eci 2.(Gr. L possum ‘can’ < *potis sum). khandánō. vjen ‘comes’ aor. The progressive present form is formed by putting the particle po before the present tense form of the verb: po punoj ‘I am working’.which can perhaps be related to PIE *poti. The origin of the 2pl. dha < *dh3-s-t. 19 . Here are the paradigms of eci ‘walk’ and dua ‘want’: sg. dhamë dhatë dhanë The past tense of kam is formed from a suppletive stem pat. the athematic ending is from PIE *-mi (Gr. In some cases these presents are preserved as Alb. The past tense (aorist) Examples of the past tense (aorist): kam ‘have’ sg. pati pl. In the 1sg. punojmë punoni punojnë pl. lajmë lani lanë The origin of several endings is quite unclear. duam doni duan 4. –te) and the particle *nuH ‘now’ (Gr. –h.‘give’. place’ sg. dua do do pl. pa. There are many irregular verbs. erdhi and ha ‘eats’ aor. etc.(Gr. pl. gjej ‘find’ < ghed-n. prae-hendo.include fsheh ‘hide’ < *skep-sk’. dhashë dhe dha pl. tundo ‘strike’). The past tense of jap is also suppletive: it goes back to PIE *deh3. pate 3.janë < *(e)senti. pata 2.(Skr.). e. ending (-onj) still retains the nasal.2. while the thematic ending presumably comes from *-o-m. the 1.2. bind ‘to convince’ < *bheydh. patëm patët patën punoj ‘work’ sg. Here are three thematic verbs in the present tense: punoj ‘work’ sg. 1. etc. ending is disputed.(Gr.(Lat. sacate ‘follows’). e..). ecën pl.hëngri. punuam punuat punuan jap ‘give’ sg. punova punove punoi pl.g. ndenji. ecën 3. In Buzuku’s works. punoj punon punon laj ‘wash’ sg. laj lan lan vendos ‘decide. ecim ecni ecin sg. which acquired the sigmatic aorist (dhashë < *dh3-s-m.(Gr. vendos vendosim vendos vensosni vendos vendosin pl.< *nj. present stems in –j. sheh ‘sees’ aor. Several verbs form nasalized present stems. ny͂ n ). stir’ < *tud. sg. Lat. peíthomai).> Alb.g.

. These include the aorists in –t. e. ryj ‘enter’ aor.2. Skr. The asigmatic aorists are mostly from Late PIE thematic aorist formations. lojta. dogja < *dhēgwh. 1. also vesh ‘put on clothes’ aor. e. érkhomai ‘go’. putha. marr ‘take’ aor. *-w. ruo ‘rush’). hy< ‘enter’ aor hyra. cf.g. etc. dáhati ‘burns’).< *-n. These Albanian aorists include lava (aor.).g. Several verbs have the reflexes of the lengthened ē-grade in the past. which has been compared with the suffix found in Lat. Some authors think that the ending –shë is not actually from the sigmatic aorist.(Gr. e. but it is uncertain if these formations are really related. hedh ‘throw’ aor. hodha.. In many cases. v-perfects (amāvī ‘loved’. censeo ‘think’) and rashë ‘fell’ (aor. ishim ishit sg. rras ‘squeeze’ aor. which is suppletive: 1dhashë < *dh3-s-m dhame < *dh3-(s)-me 2 dhe < *deh3-s-s dhate < *dh3-(s)-te 3 dha < *dh3-s-t dhanë < *dh3-(s)-nt Other Alb.(Lat. of laj ‘wash’) < *leh3w. In the 2pl. gjaj ‘resemble’ aor. OIr. dita) and the aorists in –r. so we are dealing with original root aorists. regaid ‘will go’. but in roots with the vowel -e. isha 2. Several aorist forms are of obscure origin. theva (aor.3. Note that this aorist formation is rarer in Old Albanian authors such as Buzuku.). luaj ‘move. puth ‘kiss’ aor. etc. bëra. e. morra.(Gr. ishe pl. váste). the aorist preserves the PIE ending *-te.(Gr. The 1sg. and 3pl. shake’ aor.(cf. 4. OCS bredą ‘wade’).it was remodeled with the umlauted wovel –i-.‘dress oneself’ (Hitt. dava (aor. erdha ‘came’ (suppletive aor. of bie) < *(H)rew-s(Lat. ryjta. di ‘know’ aor. brodha < *bhrēdh. docuī ‘taught’.g.g.(e. These include. but rather from the agglutinated imperfect of the verb ‘to be’ (3 sg. dola. The lengthened ē-grade was generalized from the PIE sigmatic aorists. punoja punoje pl. bëj ‘do’ aor. bredh ‘jump’ aor. the aorist of the verb jap ‘give’. The imperfect The imperfect was originally formed from the present stem. In a number of cases analogical lenghtened ē-aorists were formed to roots in *a.(cf. formations that can be derived from PIE sigmatic aorist include thashë ‘said’ (aor. laps ‘weary’ aor. djeg ‘burn’ aor.The endings partially correspond to those of the present (e. of thyej ‘break’).g. gjajta. punonim punonit 20 .g. wešta. of thom) < *k’ns-s. Many Albanian verbs form the aorist with the suffix –v-. daíomai). vesha < PIE *wes. lapsa. to vij ‘come’) < *h1erg’h. which was lost in the present. so in many cases it represents an analogical extension. dal ‘go out’ aor.(by Tosk rhotacism).was actually part of the root. in the 1. Skr. rrasa). e. ishte). the imperfect of është ‘is’ and punoj ‘work’: sg. There are probable reflexes of the PIE sigmatic aorist in Albanian. ending –a might go back to PIE athematic (syllabic) *-m. loúō). of daj ‘divide’) < *deh2y.g.

kam punuar kemi punuar 2. In Buzuku’s works.3sg.nom. the nasal is still retained in 1. 2sg.from the verb ‘to be’ was re-interpreted as an imperfect suffix and it spread throughout the paradigm (expect in the 3sg. think. 1pl.ipf. 2pl. –ja.e.). sg. There is. do të punosh 3. which have vowel alternations: 1. do të punoj 2. Serbian (Torlak) će da radim ‘I will work’. the pluperfect is formed with the imperfect of ka. će da radiš ‘you will work’. Here is the future of punoj ‘work’: 1. etc. –nit. The future The future is formed analytically. –te. –je. In Gheg. ka punuar kanë punuar Pluperfect: kisha punuar kishe punuar kishte punuar kisim punuar kishit punuar kishin punuar The pluperfect corresponds quite well to the English pluperfect.4. punojshe ‘you were working’. 3.aor. –nim. Gheg punojsha ‘I was working’. present of the verb di ‘want’ and the subjunctive of the inflected verb (cf. -nje). i. –nin). piqte piqnim piqnit piqnin vritja vritje vriste vritnim vritnit vritnin As can be seen. piqja 2. (-një. how much has. learn-pple in two week “Mark thought how much he had learned in two weeks” 4. the element –sh.1sg. ke punuar keni punuar 3.sg. in general.2. 3pl. cf. do të punojë do të punojmë do të punoni do të punojnë 21 .5. and 2. likewise.). piqje 3. The perfect and the pluperfect. 4. with the 3rd sg.2. as in the Romance languages. etc. sg. The perfect is formed analytically with the present of the verb ka ‘have’. according to the same pattern as in the Balkan languages. These are the paradigms of punoj ‘work’: Perfect: 1. the endings are similar to those of the (asigmatic) aorist (1sg.3. ishte ishin punonte punonin Here are the paradigms of pjek ‘cook’ and vras ‘kill’. concordance of tenses: Marku mendoi sa shumë kishte mësu-ar për dy javë Mark.

ending –t may be from *-to(y) (Skr. the 2sg. The other tenses are formed analytically with the clitic u < *swom. present ending –sh may be from PIE *-so(y) (Skr. lahesha laheshe lahej pl. u hapa 2. lahet Imperfect sg. 4.g. jemi hapur jeni hapur janë hapur The aorist mediopassive is formed with the particle u which precedes the active aorist of the inflected verb (except in the 3sg. bhara-se ‘you carry yourself’). hapej pl. cf. jam hapur 2. which are essentially the imperfect active endings added to the suffix –esh-: sg.6.In the Gheg dialect. where there is no ending in the mediopassive): sg. Here are the paradigms of laj ‘wash’: Present sg. ka me shkrua ‘he will work’. hapeshe 3. imperfect ending –i is mysterious. the paradigm of the verb hap ‘open’: sg.2. The other present mediopassive endings were obviously influenced by the active paradigm. and the future with do ‘want’ and the subjunctive (e. je hapur 3. 1. e. e. The endings may be partially derived from the PIE middle endings. u hape 3. ështe hapur pl. The mediopassive The present and the imperfect of the mediopassive are formed synthetically. etc. hapeshe. The present subjunctive mediopassive is formed with të and the present mediopassive.in the mediopassive is unknown. lahesh 3.g. laheshim laheshi laheshin The origin of the suffix –e. do të lahem ‘I will wash myself’).g. hapesha 2. u hap pl. there is also the Romance-type future tense formed with the present tense of kam ‘to be’ and the (Gheg) infinitive: kam me shkrua ‘I will work’. 1. lahemi laheni lahen pl. 1. aorist u lava ‘I washed myself’. 1. lahem 2. The origin of the 2pl. u hapëm u hapët u hapën The imperfect mediopassive has its own set of endings. The perfect mediopassive is formed with the present indicative of the verb jam ‘to be’ and the participle. hapeshim hapeshit hapeshin 22 . and the 3sg. bharate).

opt. “Oh.g.sg. ending -sh-. be.3sg “They say that Gjoni is the culprit” fajtori the. but also evidentiality: U. girl. how beautiful.admirative. and it is not attested in the dialects of Greece and Italy. e. which was originally added to the aorist stem in –v. kerkov-a ‘sought’). Q-ofsh i gëzuar be-2sg. punofsha 2. sa e bukur qenka kjo vajzë Oh. In the 3rd person sg. punuake punuakeni 3. Some are clearly recent formations. be.after consonants. 1. punuakam punuakemi 2. qofshim qofshi(t) qofshin The suffix fsh.admirative.nom. b) The optative appears to have recent origin. punoftë hap ‘open’ sg. admiration. how beautiful is this girl!” Thuhet se Gjoni qenka one. punuaka punuakan The admirative expresses surprise. with the regular change of vsh > fsh. rejoice(participle) “May you be happy” 23 . ishte hapur ‘he/she had been opened’.(-sh. hapsha hapsh haptë jam ‘be’ sg. doubt.(e.sg.2. isha hapur ‘I had been opened’. -fshtë > -ftë. It appears that in Buzuku it functions as a focus marker. this. 4. it is formed with the suffix –fsh. The used to express wish and desire. hapshim hapshi(t) hapshin pl.culprit. like the admirative. The admirative is rare in Old Albanian (16-17th centuries).f.7.fsg. but it also occurs in some subordinate clauses including conditionals. The moods Most of the moods in Albanian have disputed origins.3sg. -ç-after –n-) and the (mostly) aorist/subjunctive endings: punoj ‘work’ sg. etc.The pluperfect mediopassive is formed with the imperfect of the verb jam ‘to be’ and the participle. ishe hapur ‘you had been opened’. qofsha qofsh qoftë pl. punofsh 3. which is derived with the present of the verb ka appended to the stem of the participle: a) The admirative of punoj ‘work’: 1.nom.has been explained as the analogical extension of the 2nd sg.g.says that Gj. punofshim punofshi(t) punofshin pl.

zemr-ën s’ma vë dot njer-i në gjumë even if sleep-1sg. do të të lajmër-oj if go-1sg. customs. and the 1. cheerful.subj. that now want.1sg. duty-acc. m. the 2.g. The subjunctive is the chief mark of subordination. finish.subj.aor. sg. –onjë). “Can you issue a visa to me?” Çfarë mund të blesh atje? what can buy.duties 24 . e.neg.3sg.acc. In Buzuku’s language.def. sg.A. inform-1sg.pres.Acc. endings still have the nasal (2.sg.opt heart-A. sg. let. ending is –0 rather than -oj.m “I hope he will be cheerful now” It is also used with verbs such as filloj ‘begin’ and the modals such as mund ‘can’ and duhet ‘must’: Ai filloi t’i krye-jë detyr-at he begin.3sg to be-3sg. to. të punosh 3.1sg.sg. 3. I will let you know” c) The subjunctive has synthetic forms preceded by the particle të.A. a visa. Here is the present subjunctive of punoj (there are also analytically formed perfect.pl.subj. sg. to England will you.fut.2sg. as it usually occurs in subordinate clauses.3sg.pl. të punojë të punojmë të punoni të punojnë The endings of the subjunctive are mostly the same as in the present active. the mediopassive ending is used.D. “He began to finish his duties” A mund të më lëshoni një vizë particle can to I. and pluperfect paradigms): 1. imperfect. –onjsh. të punoj 2. here “What can you buy here / what can one buy here?” A duhet të paguaj doganë? particle must pay.clitic.subj.def.2pl. to sleep “Even if I sleep.subj. to work-3sg. “no man”) will put my heart to sleep” Në shk-ofsha në Angli. “If I go to England.subj.opt. but in the 2sg.clitic part.dat. put particle man-Nsg.Edhe në fjet-sha. no-one (lit. in garden “He wants to work in the garden” Shpres-oj se tash do të je-të i hareshëm hope-1sg. with verbs of intention: Dëshir-on të pun-ojë në kopsht want-3sg. and 3.sg.

past duke pasë punuar).“Do I have to pay customs duties?” In some cases the use of the subjunctive is optional (it can be replaced by the indicative. dhënë ‘given’ (the nature of the cluster is difficult to ascertain in each individual instance). it is cliticized to the imperative form and written together: hap-e ‘open it’. kur “Every day.g. do të punoje 3. so we have thënë ‘said’. Albanian is poor when it comes to infinite forms of the verb. etc.g. le të thomi ‘let us say’. e. puno ‘work!’.). e) The imperative has just the forms of the 2 sg. shkruani. merr-e-ni ‘take (pl.) it’. of di ‘want’ and the particle të (as in the future) followed by the imperfect of the inflected verb: 1. Old Gheg lanë washed corresponding to Tosk and standard larë). hap ‘open!’) and the 2 pl. The most common form of the participle/infinitive shows the operation of Tosk rhotacism (cf. kthyer from kthey ‘return’. In consonant clusters rhotacism did not operate. When the imperative has a pronominal object. (ji ‘be!’. “May Kalosh Cami swear (it)!” Të shkojmë ‘Let’s go!” d) The conditional is formed with the 3rd sg. etc. 25 . fol-ur from flas ‘speak’. flisni. larë from laj ‘wash’. do të kishe punuar ‘you would have worked’. C.3sg. hapni). There are also the present and the past gerundive (present duke punuar. The infinite forms of the verb Like most Balkan languages. le të kenë ‘may they have’. 4. or to express a wish in the main clause (in this function it is parallel with the optative): Të bëjë be Kalosh Cami! do. trust K. e. (jini. dalë from dal ‘go out’. le të jetë ‘may he be’. qenë ‘been’. fol ‘say’. the object clitic precedes the 2pl. ending. punoni.2. in temporal clauses introduced by Çdo ditë.)’ it’.8. In the other persons an analytical construction with the imperative of la ‘let’ is used (cf. do të punoja 2. ki ‘have!’. The subjunctive may also be used as an adhortative. qe-në from jam ‘be’) and an infinitive formed from the participle (për të punuar). merr-e ‘take it’. In the plural. the English construction with let). It has an all-purpose participle formed from the aorist stem (punuar from punoj ‘work’. shkruaj-e ‘write it’. when…”.subj. shkruaj ‘write!’. thus we have pij-e-ni ‘drink (pl. do të punonte do të punonim do të punonit do të punonin The perfect conditional may be formed with the imperfect of the auxiliary ka ‘have’ and the participle (do të kisha punuar ‘I would have worked’.

asoje f. ti pl.). saj (clitic i) asaj. 4. The gerundive is formed analytically from the participle and the particle/adverb duke ‘while’. etc. tij atij ajo atë asaj. nōs). pronoun na is from PIE *no. 1. atyre.(see above). Acc. 2 pl. 1 pl. Abl.(L vōs. jus. is used as the personal pronoun.3. b) In the third person. but PIE *y. is inherited from PIE. 26 . The personal pronouns are inflected. It is inflected according to the following table: m.usually gives Alb. It is formed from the pronominal stem *ey. na ju The origin of 1sg. Pronouns a) Here are the forms of personal pronouns in the Nominative: sg. are: A/D mua (clitic më). të atij. perhaps related to G naí. N A D Abl.g.(Lat. pronoun is often thought to be cognate with Lith. moi. The 2pl. ata ata atyre asish. Skr. the demonstrative ai m. Gr. The suppletion in the 1 sg. is from PIE *tuH (OCS ty). emoí. meje. me. and the 1pl. emé. N A D Abl. The form of the 2sg. Abl. ai atë. *gj. A/D ty (clitic të).(Lat. ayam. A/D juve (clitic ju). Skr. cf. G hymei͂ s) with some kind of prothetic j-. unë is unknown. A/D neve (clitic na). īs. pl. 2sg. pronoun goes back to PIE *wes-/*us. duke larë ‘while washing’. the forms of the 1sg. Dat. yūyam (PIE *yuH-). unë 2. it has been derived from the reflexive u (< *swom) and a particle. ajo f.The Gheg dialect has the infinitive fomr formed with the preposition me ‘with’ and the participle (me shkrua ‘to write’). atyreve ato ato atyre asosh. e. so it is more likely that the Alb. It is used in many constructions in which Tosk (and the standard language) use the subjunctive in subordinated clauses. atyreve The origin of most forms is unclear. nesh. sg. atyre.

kas ‘who’.. If a verb has both a direct and an indirect object. girl-nom.m. i u Albanian. Ua jep librat “He givest them the books”. e. etc. ç(ë) ‘what’ may be from PIE *kwi. kuhā ‘where’) agglutinated with the demonstrative stem *so.def Note also the following construction: Mua më pëlqen kyo vajz-a me. presumably from the PIE interrogative stem *kwo. but not gender: 1sg.(Skr. has “clitic doubling”.Asg. This stem is also incorporated into çka ‘what’ The pronoun tjetër ‘another’ is from të jetër. quod.(Skr. m. The reflexive pronoun vetë ‘oneself’ has been connected with 27 . kyo f. and again with a clitic which agrees with it in case. Alb.sg. Italian mi piace questa ragazza). c) The proximal demonstrative pronoun is ky m. like most Balkan languages. u + e = ua. na + e = na e. A D më më 1pl. të të 2pl.f. na + i = na i. sa. më + i = m’i. a book. I + e = ia.g. “I bought a book” Unë i shkro-va nënë-s I Dsg. this.fem.The personal pronouns also have clitic forms which distinguish case (Dative and Accusative) and number. u + i = ua: Ma jep librin “He gives me the book”. quid ‘what’).1sg. e i 3pl.clitic buy-aor.pres. In the Acc.1sg. It appears that the interrogative kush ‘who’ contains the PIE interrogative stem *kwu.clitic write-aor. sg. “I like this girl” (cf. më + e = ma. and number: Unë e ble-va një libër I Asg. the dative and the accusative clitics merge into a single phonological word. OCS kъto).(Lat.(Lat. Skr. we have kë < *kwom.(OCS jeterъ). where jetër < *H1e-tero.D me.. të + i = t’i.def. ju + i = jua. ju + e = jua. A D na na 2sg. jua jep librin “He gives you the book”. which means that direct and indirect objects are coded twice: once with a full NP.D(clitic) like-3sg.sg. i + i = ia.indef. ju ju 3sg. “I wrote to my mother” mother-Dsg.f. person. të + e = ta. ‘this’). m.

“Look at yourself!” d) The possessive pronouns (used also as the genitives of the personal pronouns) form a complex system.aor. i cili i të cilit të cilit të cilin f.Nsg. here is the paradigm of the 1st person sg.1sg. të cilat i të cilave të cilave të cilat Nom. pl.def. It is inflected and freely combined with prepositions in reflexive constructions: S’kam gjë me vete neg-I. ‘with myself’)” Shiko vete-n look.have come here 28 . I.sg.G autós < PIE *h2ewto-. Gen.pl. pl. For illustration. clitic my with who-Acc. im tim tim tim pl. N G-D A Abl. të cilët i të cilëve të cilëve të cilët f. It is more or less synonymous with the particle që. e mi të mi e mi të mi sg.imperative self-Acc. that Dsg.def. sg. Dat. sg. pl.have thing with self “I don’t have anything on me (lit. ime sime time sime f. Moreover.clitic have seen “The man I saw” Grua-ja që I jap një dhuratë woman-def.Nsg.sg. e mia të mia e mia të mia e) The relative pronoun që (from the PIE interrogative/relative stem *kwo-) is indeclinable.clitic give. that Acc. e cila i të cilës të cilës të cilën m. it can be combined with the prepositions to express that the relativized noun functions as an oblique in the relative clause: Miq-të e mi me të cil-ët kam ardhur këtu friend-Nom. they are inflected for case and gender. It introduces the relative clause in which the grammatical relation of the relativized NP must be indicated by a resumptive dative or accusative clitic pronoun: Njeri-u që e kam parë man-def.(of disputed origin): m sg.pl. but its use does not require the resumptive pronoun in the relative clause. possessive pronoun: m. Acc. a gift “The woman I gave a gift to” There is also the inflected relative pronoun built from the stem cil.

‘word’ fjala fjalën (i) fjalës fjalës fjalës gurët (i) gurëvet gurëvet gurëvet fjalët (i) fjalëvet fjalëvet fjalëvet When definite nouns are modified by (postposed) adjectives. gurit pl.) lulja e bukur 'beautiful flower': *lulja bukur (lule ‘flower’ f. and –a f. the adjectives have to be preceded by the definite articles. sg. ea. zogu. m. 'good boy' indefinite N djalë i mirë A djalë të mirë definite djali i mirë djalin e mirë 29 . sg.). cf. sg. agreement in definiteness: guri i bardhë 'white stone’: *guri bardhë (gur m. ‘stone’ sg. def.) < *ey-. gur-i. zog m. The numeral një ‘one’ serves as the indefinite article. e (f. The complex pattern of inflection of NPs can be illustrated with the following examples: m. gur ‘stone’ m.). sg. and f. def. f.). gurin G (i) gurit D gurit Abl. sg.) The connector used in these phrases is also inflected.g. the forms are: i (m.) < *tom. and e (f. The origin of the forms is disputed. the preposed article i (m.. së (Gen.). is in the nom. as it were. The postposed definite article is written together with the preceding noun. një gur ‘a stone’. but it is likely that the ultimate source is the demonstrative (the stem *ey. Both the definite and the indefinite forms of the article are inflected for case and number. sg. and f. creating. Nom.) gurit të bardhë 'of the white stone': *gurit bardhë (gur is in the gen. sg. NVA G D Abl.of Lat. sg. id may lie behind the masculine form in the nominative sg. and the whole compound is inflected as the definite NP: gur m.“My friends with who I have come here” 4. ‘stone’ is in the nom. të (Acc. and pl. e. fjalë f. GDAbl. The article Albanian has two sets of definite article forms..) and the postposed (clitic) article –i /–u (after velars) m. ‘bird’ def. is.def. m. def. Nom. guri Acc.4.

indefinite N vajza të mira A vajza të mira G i/e vajzave të mira D vajzave të mira Abl.g. 30 . djali të mirë f. vajze të mirë m. vajzash të mira i/e djalit të mirë djalit të mirë djalit të mirë definite vajza e mirë vajzën e mirë vajzës së mirë vajzës së mirë vajzës së mirë definite djemtë e mirë djemtë e mirë i/e djemve të mire djemve të mirë djemve të mirë definite vajzat e mira vajzat e mira i/e vajzave të mira vajzave të mira vajzave të mira With some (rather formal) terms for blood relatives the article has possessive function. pl. novem) dhjatë < *dek’m(-ti-) (Lat.G i/e djali të mirë D djali të mirë Abl. pénte) gjashtë < *sek’s(-ti-) (Lat. sg. etc. pl. trēs) katër < *kwetwores (Lat. duo) tre < *treyes (Lat. 'good girl' indefinite N vajzë e mirë A vajzë të mirë G i/e vajze të mirë D vajze të mirë Abl. octō) nantë < *newn(-ti-) (Lat.(Lat. i ati ‘his father’. i vëllai ‘his brother’.5. e ëma ‘his mother’. ūnus) dy < *dwoh1 (Lat. septem) tetë < *h3ek’tōw(-ti-) (Lat. sex) shtatë < *septm(-ti-) (Lat. djemësh të mirë f. e motra ‘his sister’. Gr. quīnque. i biri ‘his son’. e. decem). indefinite N djem të mirë A djem të mirë G i/e djemve të mirë D djemve të mirë Abl. The numerals The cardinal numerals from one to ten are derived directly from PIE: një < *h3oyno. Gr. quattuor. téttares) pesë < *penkwe (Lat. 4.

Alb. ndërsa ‘but’ nëse ‘if’ ndonëse ‘although’ The subordinating conjunctions (subordinators) introduce subordinate clauses: I.him to. buzë ‘by. qysh ‘since’. imb-. në ‘in. OCS prъvъ).subj. OIr. which cannot formally be connected to PIE *(d)wiH-dk’mtih2 (L vigintī. prō͂tos.As in most Balkan languages. larg ‘far from’. ‘Twenty’ is (një-)zet. parë ‘first’ is from PIE *prh3o.g. The ordinals are derived from the cardinal numerals with the suffix –të < *-to. The numerals from 30 to 90 are simple compounds: tridhjetë ‘30’. OCS jedinъ na desęte ‘11’: njëmbëdhjetë ‘11’. “It is not stated (implied) that he had read Macchiavelli” 31 .3sg. mbë). drejt ‘towards’. or the accusative (deri. mes ‘between’.pres. 4.pass. something “It appeared to him that she wanted to tell him something” Nuk pretendohet që të ketë lexuar Makiavelin not state. G perí) në ‘in. on’. gjatë ‘during’. A few take the nominative (nga ‘from. 4.sg. që. ose ‘or’ po. etc. etc. close to’.him appear. me ‘with. that she wanted to. për ‘for. They follow the noun they modify. ndaj ‘near’. and ‘100’ is qind << L centum. Skr. bri ‘beside’. up to’.3sg. about’ < *per(i) (L per.)..Acc. pesëdhjetë ‘50’.aor. e.3sg. cf. The Conjunctions and the subordinators Here are the commonest coordinating conjunctions: dhe. OCS vъ. The Prepositions Only a few Albanian prepositions have reliable PIE etymologies: mbi ‘on’ < *h2mbhi (G amphí. in) Most prepositions take the ablative case (afër ‘near’. anës ‘along’. OIr. towards’. by’. pa ‘without’.ipf.7. apo. lart ‘up’.). read Macchiavelli. on’ < *en(i) (L in.(Gr. te(k) ‘at. dymbëdhjetë ‘12’. the numerals from 11 to 19 are construed with the preposition meaning ‘on’ (Alb. etc. porse. to’). that have. për ‘for’). përfund ‘underneath’. edhe ‘and’ as… as ‘neither… nor’ a. gjer ‘until. L ambi-. etc.3sg. dytë ‘second’. jashtë ‘out of’. mbi ‘on’.6. Subordinators se and që introduce subordinate clauses with epistemic verbs: Atij iu duk se ajo matej t’i thoshte diçka to. e. so its etymology is a mystery. më ‘on’.him say. abhi-).

3pl.3pl.pres.II. by sikur ‘as if’: Besniku e mori aparatin fotografik në duar sikur t’ishte një relike B.g.if be. by sepse..g.. Causal clauses are introduced.3sg.pass. e. e.aor.3sg. a silly thing) is repeated many times. atëhere kjo është vijë when it repeat. in hands as. nga që ‘because’ Ato duan të arrijnë shpejt. “They wanted to arrive quickly. e. many time then it is line “When it (scil. to arrive.3sg. camera.aor. quickly because they are art. then it is the (party) line” III. by kur ‘when’ and pasi ‘after’: Kur ai pësëritet shumë herë.Nom.g.sg.Acc. Comparative clauses are introduced. Temporal clauses are introduced. tired. sepse ato janë të lodhura they want. because they were tired” IV.. a relic “Besnik took the camera in (his) hands as if it were a relic” 32 .clitic take.ipf.pl. Acc.

Rom. Alb. zakon ‘custom’ (OCS zakonъ ‘law’). Alb. drapër ‘sickle’ << G drápanon. bisedë ‘a talk. çoban). blavor ‘a lizard’). e. e. begati ‘richness’ (OCS bogatъ ‘rich’). often from Doric. asker). pusullë ‘note’ (OCS posъlъ). It should be noted. a dragon’ vs. coiară. etc. the “liquid metathesis” (baltë. faþs. haber ‘news’ (Tur. Rom. vëlla ‘brother’. gards. rri ‘sit’. porosit ‘request’ (OCS porąčiti). cf. Alb. brîu. i vogël ‘small’. Rom. drom ‘road’ << G drómos. etc. ésōsa ‘I arrived’.. etc. corpse’ (OCS trupъ). that many sAlbanian words have no generally accepted etymology. brez ‘girdle’ vs. The origin of these words is uncertain. sorrë ‘crow’ vs. -zet ‘twenty’. fat ‘husband’ << Goth. vatër ‘hearth’ vs. grusht ‘fist’ (OCS grъstъ). nevojë ‘need’ (OCS nevolja ‘trouble’).4. Some of these loanwords entered the language before some early Slavic sound changes in the 8th century. the change of *u to ъ (pusullë. Alb. e. keyif). varzë) ‘girl’. e. budalla ‘idiot’ (Tur. i bardhë ‘white’ vs. daltë). asqer ‘soldier’ (Tur. trup ‘body. Rom. hekur ‘iron’. vjedhull ‘badger’ vs. vajzë (dial. shtrungë ‘a shed for sheep’ vs. Alb. blato). Rom. sos ‘to end’ << G aor. krevet ‘bed’ << G krebbáti. boja). Rom. bojë ‘colour’ (Tur. strungă. OCS blato. but extinct ancient Balkan language) in Romanian. fog’ vs. nisi ‘island’ << G nēsí. For all we know. The lexicon In the preceding pages we have quoted numerous Albanian words with PIE etymologies. i rëndë ‘heavy’. dlijeto). urë ‘bridge’. also Croat. Alb. e.g.g.g. viezure. năpîrcă. Alb. avull ‘smoke. discussion’ (OCS besěda). nepërkë ‘serpent’ vs. Rom.. Alb. bollë ‘a big serpent. perhaps llërë ‘lower arm’ << G ōléna. haber). budalla). hoxha ‘moslem priest’ (Tur. baltë ‘mud’ (Cf. Alb. grusht). groshë ‘beans’ (Croat. vatra ‘fire’). however. where no Romance (or Latin) proto-form can be posited. mokër ‘millstone’ << G makhaná. abur(e). zog ‘bird’. e. An earlier stratum of loans include words borrowed from Ancient Greek. Early (mostly Byzantine) Greek loanwords include dhaskal ‘teacher’ << G dáskalos. zemër ‘heart’.g. hoca). daltë ‘chisel’ (Croat. Croat. and Albanian is no exception. Turkish loanwords are present in all languages of the Balkan area. qejf ‘pleasure’ (Tur. Rom. e. barz ‘swan’. they could be loanwords from some non-IE substratum.g. Rom. 33 . i bukur ‘pretty’ vs. Besides the Latin loanwords. Of particular interest are words attested in Albanian and Romanian. a se bucura ‘to rejoice’. They are most likely to be prehistoric loans from Albanian (or some closely related. helm ‘poison’. Rom. as well as a lot of Latin loanwords. shkumë ‘foam’ (cf.g. trëndafil ‘rose’ << G triantáphyllon. etc. vidra). mund ‘can’. etc. grašak ‘green beans’). the Albanian lexicon contains loanwords from several other languages. çoban ‘cowherd’ (Tur. vidër ‘otter’ (Croat. ri ‘new’. German Schaum). gardh ‘garden’ << Goth. Early Slavic loanwords are. balaur ‘big snake’ (cf. vatră (cf.g. There are a few Germanic loanwords which may have entered the language from Balkan Gothic. also Croa. etc.

abhi.>Alb. The novel is about an Italian general who comes to Albania after the 2nd World War to conduct the exhumation. to any other man. The general knew that. or *skenyo-. related to OInd. barti). 1936). 34 . Albanian partisans slaughter Germans and Italians by batallions (though Germans never had more than one division in Albania). Lith. 1) The following extract is from the best known novel of the greatest contemporary Albanian writer. G ámphi. Toch. Englished: Rain and snow were falling simultaneously on the foreign land. which is from PIE *bheroh2 ‘carry’. Sikur të mos ishte fillimi i vjeshtës. Negotiations between the two governments had begun already in spring. fall’ < PIE *bheryoh2 (L ferio ‘wound’. In the flashbacks from the war. He had come to Albania from a foreign country to search for the remains of the soldiers killed here in the last world war. rojat. por kontratat perfundimtare u nënshkruam vetëm në fund të gushtit. Sqota kishte qullur betonin e pistës së aeroportit. The mixture of rain and snow had soaked the concrete runway of the airport. kseînos. and the guards. taman në kohën kur filluan vranësirat e para.gives gj. Ajo lagte fushën dhe brigjet dhe shkëlqente mbi asfaltin e zi të xhadesë. but this would be the only example of it.SAMPLE TEXTS 1. përveç gjeneralit të porsaardhur. just at the time when the first grey days begin. binte is an aorist of bie ‘hit. The snow-storm covered the plain and the hills. and some passages are very well written. the novel is quite readable.” Etymological comments: mbi ‘on. Bisedimet midis dy qeverive kishin filluar që në pranverë. about’: preposition. Mbi tokën e huaj binte shi dhe dëbore përzier bashkë. Nevertheless. “The General of the Dead Army” is a literary monument of the Stalinist socialist realism with Albanian flavor. since PIE *s. but the final contracts were signed only by the end of August. and it was the rainy season. (preverb) imb-. and post-war Tirana is represented as a modern metropolis with car traffic. i huaj ‘foreign’ is from something like *ksenyo-. B swese ‘rain’. but to the general who had just arrived.in Albanian. and foreign embassies. Pra. The first possibility seems more probable in light of the Greek word for foreigner. shi has been compared to G húei ’it rains’. Ai po vinte ne Shqipëri nga një shtet i huaj për tërheqjen e eshtrave të ushtarëve të vrarë këtu në luftën e fundit botërore. OIr. ndërtesat. it was autumn. Ismail Kadare (b. As it still wasn’t the beginning of autumn. probably from PIE *H2mbhi. night clubs. sh. Ismail Kadare: Generali i ushtrisë së vdekur “The General of the Dead Army” (p. One could always posit an ad hoc rule “PIE *s. ishte vjeshtë dhe shiu kishte kohën e tij. Yes. and arrange for the repatriation of the remains of Italian soldiers. it would appear that this monotonous rain was a sad coincidence. Gjenerali e dinte këtë. and it made the black asphalt of the road shine. the buildings. It is homophonous with bie ‘carry’. tokë ‘earth’ has no etymology.in monosyllables. çdo njeriu tjetër. do t’i dukej ky shi monoton një koincidencë e trishtuar. but this cannot be true. although those things first appeared there only a couple decades ago.

L capio. pl. *lob-ro. which has no etymology. béreg ‘bank (of the river)’. fushë ‘plain’ has no etymology. a verb with no etymology. ndertesë ‘building’ is a verbal noun from ndertoj ‘buildt’. and *g’he (cf. breg.dhe ‘and’. etc. Alb.‘carry’ was often invoked. thus we should suppose PIE *o-seh2 > PAlb.). or huic (Huld).< PIE *logw-. with obvious meanings. AB ma. embankment’ is a Slavic loan-word. cf.) and *t. In the contemporary language. júodas ‘black’ by Çabej. all from the PIE (prohibitive) negation *meh1. PIE seems to have had a bulk of very similar syntactic particles. PIE *s is claimed to have disappeared in the juncture.’). snowstorm’ has no etymology. kishte is the 3sg. each’. but this is far from established.(fem. where *-kwe is a conjunction (OInd. aeroport are all modern borrowings.). and j is a hiatus-filler. The all-purpose PIE verb *bher. because the PIE demonstrative showed suppletism of *s. This is supported by the plurals ata (masc. bashkë ‘together’ Etym? sqotë f. Latv. which is from *ge. L -que.). ‘rain and snow. haban ‘have’). qullur ‘drenched. e. This etymology depends.. d-. E and së are connecting particles that Albanian uses to bind head nouns to following dependent genitives. G mé. Goth. Croat. thus kishte qullur ‘had soaked’ beton. as if’. rojë ‘guardian’. mos is a negation. fem.). *seH2. lobur ‘weak’ < PCelt. I cannot say I am fully convinced of this. imperfect of kam ’have’. Etymology? ajo ‘she’. g. but there is no better explanation lagte is the imperfect of lag ‘to wet. i zi. The proto-form must have been PIE *g’o. and ai ‘he’ are usually derived from a particle a. und). wet. cf. shkëlqente is the imperfect of shkëlqej ‘to brighten’. e is probably from L et ‘and’ (conjunctions can be borrowed. Toch. un ‘and’ from Germ. however. but is otherwise unclear to me. ato (fem. so it can be related to G -ge. brigje ‘hill. OInd. Used as a participle with the imperfect of kam it forms the plusquamperfect I. Etymology? vjesht ‘fall. since PIE *g’h.(nominative sg. 35 . It is a rare word. The present stem is from PIE (athematic) *kapmi ‘hold’ (cf. dhe is usually combined with the prefix e-.. soaking’.(perhaps from the PIE pronominal stem *e-/*o-). -ca. was originally (an emphatic?) particle. xhade ‘road’ is a loan-word from Turkish (Tur. *ge. të is an (inflected) particle used for connecting the noun with a dependent genitive. but the imperfect stem is difficult to account for. çdo ‘every. but ishte also has unexplained i-. related to OInd. In any case. lobaid ‘putrescit’. sikur ‘if. fillim ‘beginning’ is a verbal noun derived from filloj ‘begin’. not found in some dictionaries. and the PIE pronominal stem *so. Perhaps analogy with ishte ‘was’ (from është) played a role.(masc. moisten’. pistë. Russ. e zëzë ’black’ has been related to Lith. cadde ‘id. but it is difficult to see both the semantic and the formal connection. dëbore ‘snow’ has no satisfactory etymology. It cannot be related to L hoc (Hamp).would have given Alb. The Albanian form should be derived from *meh1kwe. Perhaps can be compared to OIr. so ‘and’ is edhe. ha). unless this latter particle is identical with OCS že. *g’e.). *a-so > a-o > ajo. asfalt requires no explanation. brijeg ‘hill’. autumn’ has no etymology.(other cases and numbers). on his theory that PIE *y sometimes gives z in Albanian. ma. përzier ‘mixed’ contains the common prefix për.

h-. to the PIE D-Abl. and OIr. conditional. haštai. pl. tërheqjen is a verbal noun from the verb tërheq ‘to pull. L in. Hitt. 36 . -i is a productive suffix (cf. The proto-form was probably. në ‘in’ is the same proposition as G en. hartagga). These words have no etymology. etc. draw’. Standard Albanian tjetër probably owes its t.njeri. are attested only from 14th century onward. of course. above). Both are ultimately from L exercitus ‘army’. OInd. e. jetri in the dialect of Falconara. contained in the title of the novel. containing the prefix tër-. e (f. tu. Hitt. regaid ‘shall go’). literally ‘it would appear to him (t’i)’. ossis. PAlb. *kwo. and Shqiptar for ‘Albanian’.(cf. take back’.is. however. *H2nros. *H2ostH1. OIr.). also indefinite article (indeffinite articles usually come from the numeral ‘one’). was generalized. PIE *en. porsaardhur also means ‘newcomer’.‘just now’ and ardhur. Shqiperi as the name for ‘Albania’. and positing a laryngeal by-form *Hwolkeyo (Hamp) creates more problems than it solves. the interrogative-relative stem seen in L quod. As a noun.‘other’ can be compared to Umb. etro-. njeriu ‘man’ is identical to OInd. i (m. nr-. Though details are unclear to me. L sulcus ‘furrow’. ending *-bhyos vrarë ‘killed’ is related to the verb vras ‘kill’. and the root heq ‘pull. Both ethnonyms are etymologically unclear. sg. Ardhur is a (suppletive) participle of vij ‘come’. ari ’bear’ < *H2rtk’os. and a particle. which has no clear etymology. and it should be derived from PIE *h1rg’h. The ending -ve is not related.) viz. adjectives and nouns are connected by means of an inflected particle. heq (Salamis helk’) is usually compared to G hélko ‘draw. is still preserved in the Albanian enclaves of Southern Italy and in Croatia (Arbanasi). Alb. *yetro. G anér ‘man’. cf. if *s can be lost in juncture (Huld). óin. *kwo-seh2. gen. probably from something like *kwo-so. progressive imperfect of vij ‘come’. Arbëresh. ai ‘he’ is the masculine of ajo (cf. kjo are demonstratives.to the particle të (crasis). Do t’i dukej is 3sg. a word with impeccable PIE etymology. dukem ‘seem. In Albanian. though some prefer *H3estH1. Dialects show that the original form had j-. pull’. porsaardhur is compounded from porsa. another’. acc. is attested in OInd. appear’ is a middle verb. comparable to L per. G perí. because L status does not mean ‘state’. g. G érkhomai. shtet ‘country’ must be from Italian stato. gjenerali is the definite form. but this etymology has serious flaws: PIE *scannot give Alb. Etym? një ‘one’. The earlier ethnonym. për to is a preposition. nga ‘from’. perhaps *tu (a similar particle. rather than from Latin. PIE *H2ner. koincidence e trishtuar ‘a sad coincidence’. asthi ‘bone’. which is a Latin loan-word (venio >> Alb. trishtuar is a loan-word from Latin (tristis). vij). G ostéon. Eshtrave të ushtareve are both in the genitive plural case. eshtër ‘bone’ is a pluralized form of asht ‘bone’. tjetër ‘other. OCS jeterъ ‘other’. *H2ner-m. The vocalism of the Albanian word shows that the shape of the acc. ky. it is certain that një is the same word as L unus. fem. këtu ‘here’ contains the PIE interrogative-relative pronominal stem *kwo-. ushtar ‘soldier’ is related to ushtri ‘army’. PIE *oynos (or *H3eynos). Of course. from the root duk-. def. L os. gjeneral does not require an etymological explanation. OIr. po vinte is the 3sg. in. as some people claim.

etc. with dialectal final devoicing. Since PIE *medhyos ‘middle’ (OInd. or. Hoxha. of filloj ‘begin’ (see above). dhi‘insight. adjective containing fund ‘end.‘first’ (cf. mjez ‘middle’. bottom’. vranesirë is a rare word. It can be translated as ‘gloomy day’.‘to be’. is found in Baltic (Lith. from L fundus. and has no clear etymology. qeveri ‘government’. Croat. 37 . prvi). d(u)vá. forma). There is also Alb. but its vocalism is unclear. cf. and kishin filluar is 3pl. dy ‘two’ can be derived directly from PIE *duwoH (OInd. dinte is 3 sg. agreeing in gender with the feminine noun kohë. The change ct > pt is also characteristic of Balkan Romance. kur ‘where’). See the Phonology section. end’. Serb. 372-381) This delightful piece of conversation gives us insight into the mindset of communist dictators. taman ‘just’ is a Turkish loan-word attested in most languages of the Balkans. perfundimtar ‘final’. OInd. taman ‘just’. knowledge’. mjet ‘middle’. cf. filluan is 3sg. Croat. pranverë ‘spring’ is from Romance (VLatin?) primavera por means ‘but’. The etymology of this word suggested by Meyer (who relates it to L betere ‘to go’) is anything but persuasive. 2. kur ‘when’ is either from L qua hora (it has to be an allegro-form. the etymology is obscure. Lith. e tij ‘his’. in consequence’. pìrmas) and Germanic (OEng. kohë ‘time.luftë ‘war’ is from Vulgar Latin luctu. but in such short forms there is always the possibility of chance correspondence. This verb is usually compared to OInd. tamam. L duo. plusquamperfect I. The masculine form would be i tij. ishte is 3 sg.). madhya-) gave Alb. i parë ‘first’ should be derived from PIE *prHwo. purva-. since the vocalism does not match). u nënshkruam ‘was signed’ is passive aorist of nënshkruej ‘to sign’.) besjeda ‘talk. Vepra. season’ is certainly the same word as OCS časъ ‘moment’. center’. as if from PIE *medho-. or from something like *kwur. *kesk’o. *prHmo-. more probably. XIX. The political background of the meeting is the dispute between Albania and the Soviet Union about the Soviet submarine bases on Albanian territory in the early sixties. fund ‘bottom. A dialogue between Enver Hoxha and Khrushchev (abridged from E.(see above). Another form. Tur. imperfect of di ‘to know’. but the protoform is disputed: either *keso-. This just might be true. Etymology? filluar is the participle of filloj ’begin’. pra means ‘therefore.(cf. which contains the Latin loan-word shkruej < scribo. (arch. Gusht ‘August’ is obviously from L augustus (mensis). midis ‘between’ is the same word as midis ‘middle. It was published in Enver Hoxha’s Collected Works and artistically adapted in a novel by Ismail Kadare. negotiation’ is another loanword from Slavic. from L fundus. botëror ‘world’s’ is an adjective from botë ‘world’. speech’. the history of midis is unclear. As usual with such words. pres. Bisedim ‘conversation. imperfect of është < *H1es.

def. of çështje ‘question’ << L quaestio paska thënë ‘allegedly said’ (admirative. of thom ‘say’) 38 .) << L socius ushtarak ‘soldier’. Për nëndetëset ne kemi marrëveshje të firmuara që i njohin të drejta shtetit shqiptar. me ju nuk mund të bisedosh. one cannot talk with you. We have signed treaties about the submarines that recognize the rights of the Albanian state. 3 sg. you spat on me. por asnjëherë nuk i jemi përkulur askujt. Kh: Nëndetëset janë tonat. We hfought without bread and we were barefoot. Kh: You are getting excited. Kh: Comrade Enver. E: Ju gjithnjë thoni se ne jemi gjaknxehtë. Përkthyesi a ei di rusishten? E: Mos u kapni pas përkthyesit. you will make a big mistake. Unë mbroj interesat e vendit tim. Does the interpreter speak Russian? Do not take it on the interpreter. mos e ngrini zërin! E: Nëse do të hiqni bazën. Territori i bazës është yni. ne luftojmë per socializmin. Enver Hoxha (E): Lidhur me çështjen e ushtarakëve ne u kemi folur shokëve tuaj. ai e di fort mirë rusishtën Englished: Kh: One of your comrades told our soldiers that Khrushchev is no Marxist.(L ligo). You should watch your soldiers better. The territory of the base is ours. E: We have discussed the question of the soldiers with your comrades. do not raise your voice! E: If you pull out with your naval base. I defend the interests of my country. sg. Kh: Shoku enver. we are fighting for socialism. E: Tuajat dhe tonat. Shikojni mirë ushtarakët tuaj. Why would it be in our interest that our soldiers should quarrel in the Vlora naval base? While you draw “documents” that one of our comrades allegedly spoke thus or otherwise. Etymological comments: shoku ‘comrade’ (def. he speaks Russian very well. Kh: Ju shtrembëroni fjalët e mia. sg.Khrushchev (Kh): Një shoku juaj u ka thënë ushtarakëve tanë se Hrushovi nuk është marksist. Ne kemi luftuar edhe pa bukë e të zbathur. E: You always say we have warm blood. Kh: Ju nxeheni. but we never bowed to anyone. Ç’interes kemi ne që ushtarakët tanë grinden në bazën e Vlorës! Kurse ju nxirrni “dokumente” se një shoku ynë paska thënë kështu e ashtu. do të bëni një gabim të madh. Kh: You distort my words. E: Yours and ours. Kh: The submarines are ours. from the same root as ushtri ‘army’ << L exercitus lidhur is a participle of lidh ‘bind’ < PIE *leyg’. çështjen Acc. ju më keni pështyrë. Nom.

fort ‘strongly. zëri ‘voice’.and the suffix –th-. of shtet ‘state’ from Italian stato. def. cf. ũ përapë tʹ i jes ëndë shtepī. qysh ai më martë këte bukë. bite’ . marrëveshje ‘understandings’ is compounded from marr ‘take’ and vesh ‘ear’ (< *h2ows-. Englished: 1 At that time Jesus said to his disciples. of drejt << L directus shtetit Gsg. ʺThere was a very rich man who had a steward. for you can no longer be steward. OCS uxo ‘ear’). Romanian bucă ‘food’. firmuara Npl.(L co-gnōsco). sg. OE deop ‘deep’). winja ‘pasture’). def. but the phonetic development is doubtful. të bisedosh (2sg. since he took this bread from me. of the participle of firmoj ‘sign’.zërin Acc. kemi luftuar is 1pl. the etymology of gjithë is disputed: it is usually segmented into gji. ũ dī qish të banj.” 3 And the steward said to himself. 2 He called him and said to him. gjaknxehtë ‘warm-blooded’ is a compound containing gjak ‘blood’ < *h2esr ‘blood’ (L sanguis) fjalët (Acc. from Italian firmare njohin 3pl. from Slavic (OCS besěda ‘talk’).) from fjalë ‘word’ << L fabella ‘tale’. from *g’hwono. perfect of luftoj ‘fight’ << L luctare bukë ‘bread’ is probably from L bucca ‘mouth. E grishi. 4 I know what to do. qi kish një spenxatuor. Ënd ʹate mot: tha Jezu dishipujet vet: Ish një nierī fort i begatë. (they said that) he was wasting all his goods.is derived from PIE *sem. A passage from Buzuku (1555) in Old Gheg (Luke 16. and he [the steward] was put into great dishonour before him. of bisedoj ‘talk’).” Etymological notes: 39 . of vend ‘place. e i tha: Qish anshtë këta qi ü gjegjem ën teje ? A më arësye ën gjithësei kē përdām. so that still I may stay in their houses. and I am ashamed to go begging. 3. and the element gji. of njoh ‘recognize’ < *g’neh3-sk’. pl. ai tue i faruom gjithë gjanë e tī. perhaps from *dhewbeto-. country’ is derived from the ve ‘to put’. 4. vendit Gsg. me votë për dyer kam dhunë. 1-4) in transcription. E tha spenxatori ëndë vetëhenë: Qish të banj. def. drejta ‘rights’ is Acc. subj. se em zot më muor bukënë tʹeme e ũ mā spenxatuor nukë të jēm? ũ me mihunë nukë mundinj. nëndetëset ‘submarines’ (Npl. pres. ”What shall I do. cf. përse ti mā nukë të mundnjësh këha paret mā me përdām.‘one’ (L semel ‘once’). 2. Middle Greek boúkka ‘biscuit’. ipf. gjithnjë ‘always’ is compounded of gjithë ‘all’ and një ‘one’. e kǖ kle shtīm ëndë të madhe desgracje përpara tī. very’ << L forte 3.(OCS zvonъ ‘sound’). pl. of zë. since my master took my bread and I am not to be a steward anymore? I am not strong enough to dig. 1.) is a compound containing det ‘sea’ (of disputed origin. region. “What is this that I hear about you? You must hand me over the proof of all. of unknown origin (perhaps related to Goth.

'the dispenser') kle shtīm 'was put'. Etym? bukë. found in some handbooks. bukën(ë) 'bread' << L bucca (see above) di 1sg.. bëj.'(sky-)god' (G Zeús). without etymology. 3. dishipujet 'disciples' < L discipuli vet 'own'. sg. def. of grish 'call upon'.(G autós) ) nierī 'man' (Std. of marr 'take' me mihunë Gheg infinitive of mih 'dig'. is too speculative). master'. 3 sg. sound'). kle is the Old Albanian form of Std.(Skr. kam 1sg. but this is disputed.'man' (G anḗ r fort 'very' < L forte begatë 'rich' < Slavic (OCS bogatъ) kish 'had'. of jem 'be'). Etym? arësye 'proof. subj. grishi aor. pres. subj.mot 'time' < PIE *meh1-to-. etc. dhī.) me votë Gheg infinitive of votoj 'vote.'big' (L magnus etc. qe 'was' (aor.'insight') t'. unë < *h2ew-nu (?). of mund 'can' (impersonal in Std. of di 'know'. Etym? martë opt.'to measure' (Skr. of marr 'take'. njeri) < PIE *h2ner. of jes 'stand.). etc. është) gjegjem 'I hear' (Std. Etymology unknown (sometimes speculatively connected with Lith. OCS dvьrь). from the root *meh1. gjëri).) anshtë Gheg 3 sg. perhaps related to jetoj 'live' << L aetas 'life' shtepī 'house' << L hospitium 40 . in the phrase votë per dyer 'beg for mercy' (lit. probably from PIE *bheh2. 3sg. 3 sg. muor aor. Etymology unknown (the connection with L iūs 'soup'. shame'. of derë 'door' < *dhwōr. reflexive particle < *h2ewto. of ka 'have' (< *kap-mi. implore'. pres. gar͂ sas 'voice.(L fores. Std. of madh 'big' < PIE *meg'h2. of jam 'be' (Std.. perhaps from *dhiH. 'ask by the doors'). Acc. tha aor. ipf.'say' (L fari) zot 'lord. arsye) << L rationem ũ 'I'. see above). gjanë pl.'one'.) desgracje < Italian disgrazia gjithë 'all' < ? (perhaps related to PIE *sem. dëgjoj).) spenxatuor < Italian dispensatore (lit. pres. Alb. māti 'measures'. Some derive it from *dyew. of gjë 'thing' (Tosk gjë. sg. remain'. L capio. Etym? madhe fem. Etym? mundinj 1sg.jes 1sg. and shtīm is the Gheg participle of shtie 'throw'.(L censeo. reason' (Std. 3sg. where *h2ew. pres. OCS měra 'measure'). where dyer is the pl. but this is too far-fetched.is the reflexive particle (G autós) të banj 'do' (1sg. vow. pres. of thom 'say' < PIE *k'ens. Gheg form of Std. 'have' dhunë 'damage'.

pl. said.3pl.sg.3pl.sg. seen Cinderella the.gen. again has asked what could to be under the.sg.fem. from Tagliavini 1937).pl. Cinderella (Fragment of a folk story in the Gheg dialect from Arbanasi in Croatia. them has asked what has to be under barrel. Ass soon as bút-in e kan iq the.stepmother and the.sg. [Croatian] beautiful girl under the trough ai i ko bo me iq but-in.3pl.4.son the. has gone to ja mát kapúcën. But the third time kur gjél-i ko kantát thi párën er: Kikiríku when the. e ató prap i kan thán da nu(k) ko kurgj.gen. Bir-i i kral-i(t) ko vót me thought to.king-gen. after little time those.as her has put on foot has seen her da bash ësht e thoj that just was hers ái búkër e ko mar e ko kunór. but they.shabby.son the. ma ató son of king..the. Bír-i i král-it i ko puvét qish ko me ken shoto bútit. Apéna he them has made to raise the.3pl.fem.pl astonished and more a. again him have said that not has nothing.her see all so the.lot of all the. remained të qudítum e mo shum pe gji maqi-a e bí-at të 'thói kur e the.rooster has started to sing e bír-i i kral-it prap ko puvét qish munje me kén shoto but-it and the. it have.3pl. Ma të trétën er and they. ali gjél-i ko zan me kantát him have.3pl.soon. apéna ja ko šti në kamb ko po her measure the.shoe-acc.fem have.fem. come to her to beg(mercy) and athoi jo bo mílo math gji atá qish i kan bo e ju ko lan 41 . thought mendúa m'e po gji ashtú të shtrancäte.barrel. that not has nothing.sg.sg.3pl.barell-acc.barrel-acc. but the. pe të dyte grue kan art në jat me lyp e of the second wife have.fem daughter-nom.. dressed all in gold on.girl. as.sg. of her when her kan po Kucocénera të víshët gji n or inveqe ató kan have.Asg.. The. raised gji ka(n) mbét all have.contrary they. i kan than da nu(k) ko kúrgj. math pak mot këtó bí-at he nicely her has taken and has married.rooster has sung as first time: Cock-a-doodle-doo lipa cura pot koritu.king-gen.fem.

herë) is usually derived from Lat. as well as bijë ‘daughter’ have been derived from a PIE root *bhey. L mānus ‘hand’.g. këmbë) is from Vulgar Latin camba ‘leg’ (cf. bhā-). gra is usually derived from the PIE word for ‘woman’. inveqe ‘on the contrary’ is from Italian (invece). but details are unclear. r and rr (there is only ordinary r in Arbanasi). bash ‘just’ is from Croat.> *gr-. It also shows some special phonological developments. ardhur) is a participle derived from the PIE root *h1erg’h. mar (Standard Alb. marr) ‘take’ is usually connected with G márē ‘hand’ (which is a dubious word). Standard bëj. smat ‘with’. Etymological comments: apena ‘as soon as’ is. from Italian appena. ba͂ . G érkhomai). baš bir -i‘son’. etc. the merger of Alb. give a wink’).lot money NOTE: This dialect has undergone strong influences from both Croatian and Italian (the Venetian dialect). art ‘come’ (Standard Alb. kamb ‘foot’ (Standard Alb. ía ‘one’). w grua ‘wife. gjel-i ‘rooster’ is from L gallus. h and the Gheg nasal vowels. Skr. It. w kur ‘when’ has been compared to Lith. kral ‘king’ is from Croatian (kralj). but the initial h. The connection with L fīlius ‘son’ is impossible. Tagliavini’s informants in 1937 were all trilingual.was lost in Latin pronunciation in the 1 century BC). The vocalism is due to singularization. mendua ‘thought’ (Standard Alb. pl. kantat ‘sing’). where *sih2. make’ (Gheg. mat ‘measure’ is probably from PIE *meh1.‘shine. occuring in the Gheg infinitive (preceding the participle) is probably related to OE miþ ‘with’ and Skr.is st unexplained (h. but I doubt this etymology.‘measure’ (OCS měra.‘shoot. probably through Croatian (cf. spring’ (Gr. *g enh2 (G gynḗ. a. PIE *meh2. kantat ‘sung’ is from Italian (cantare). e. the change of Alb. but-i ‘barrel’ is from Venetian (cf. woman’. eirgg ‘go!’. Gr.). phîty ‘sprout’.‘to suck’.‘this’ (cf. ghithë) has been derived from PIE *sih2-k’o-.(cf. appear’ (G phaínō. as well as in some syntactic constructions (e. bo ‘do.). with irregular change of *gn. Italian botte). This can be seen in many loanwords from both languages. club’. hōra.to them it made merciful after all that what him have done and them has given shum shola. bir ‘stick. of course. the loss of some final consonants. kur͂ ‘where’ (PIE *k ur?). Arm. L mētior). j *banyō ‘make appear’. q to [tš].‘go’ (OIr. the sporadic change of th to s and of dh to l. Croat.g. etc. the existence of Romance-type analytic causative with bëj ‘do’ + infinitive. the loss of Alb.(G hélkō ‘draw’). OCS žena. participle bërë) is derived from Proto-Alb. which is a loan from L mente42 . as this is from PIE *dheh1-i. er ‘time’ (Standard Alb.is the feminine form of the demonstrative *so. gj to [dž]. dial. da ‘that’ is the Croatian subordinator (da). gamba). the use of Croatian subordinator da. from PIE *bheh2. also OCS manąti ‘give a sign. mendoj ‘measure’) is a denominative verb built from mend ‘thought’. As speculative as any Albanian etymology. heq) is usually derived from PIE *selk. the change of a to o. gji ‘all’ (Standard Alb. me ‘with’. iq ‘raise’ (Standard Alb. etc.

Gheg. za͂) ‘catch.). but this is not very helpful.‘praise’ (L censeō. quditum ‘astonished’ is from Croatian (čuditi ‘astonish). assuming the operation of Pedersen’s law). thanë) is the participle of thom ‘say’. Italian soldi). mila ‘dear’ pak ‘a little’ is from L paucus parë ‘first’ is from PIE *prh3. zë. Italian sotto).milo ‘merciful’ is from Croat. Hitt. shtrancatë ‘shabby’ is from Venetian (cf. kuenzi. The often-quoted derivation from PIE *spek’.‘see’ (G sképtomai. shoto ‘under’ is from Venetian (cf. prap ‘again’ has been derived from the preposition për and some particle (? *apë. shola ‘money’ is from Venetian (cf. Tosk. zan (Standard Alb. start’ etymologically obscure. mio. which is generally derived from PIE *k’ens. pashë) is the suppletive aorist stem to shoh ‘see’. grasp.‘first’ (cf. Italian stracciato) shumë ‘a lot’ is from L summum ‘the highest’ than (Standard Alb. para ‘before’). G prō͂ tos< *prh3to-). hanti. It has wh been derived from PIE *g en. etc. 43 . L –spicio) is difficult.‘strike’ (Skr. pa. if not impossible. po ‘seen’ (Gheg.

Dettelbach: J. Wiesbaden 1966. Der türkische Einfluss auf das Albanische. Gjinari. Hamp. E. “Albanian”. Tiranë 1988. Gosturani. Columbus 1984. J. Tiranë 1989.REFERENCES Boretzky. V. 2008. G-B. Der Altalbanische Text Mbsuame e Kreshterë (Dottrina cristiana) des Lekë Matrënga von 1592. Strassburg 1891. Studime gjuhësore I-VIII.) In honorem Holger Pedersen. 1998-9: 47‐172. “Zur Vorgeschichte des albanischen Lautsystems”. Albanische Etymologien. KZ 86/1972: 121-135. N. Ölberg. auf Grund des Vokalsystems. ed. Gjuha shqipe dhe historia e saj. Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë / Università degli Studi di Napoli l’Orientale. “Einige Überlegungen zur Laryngaltheorie (an Hand des Albanischen)”. Joachim. Rasmussen (ed. Berlin 1992: 835-922. E. Demiraj. Leiden 1998. A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian Language. A reader of historical texts 11th-17th centuries. bal’tijskij I rannebalkanskij glagol. Leningrad 1968. Desnickaja. in: J. Atlasi Dialektologjik i Gjuhës Shqipe. P. Amsterdam-Atlanta 1997. Linguistisch-kulturhistorische Untersuchungen aus dem Bereiche des Albanischen. Das albanische Verbalsystem in der Sprache des Gjon Buzuku (1555). Demiraj. Meiser & O. Prishtinë 1988. E. Matzinger. Tiranë 1986. Klingenschmitt. Sj. Albanian Etymological Dictionary. in: Evidence for Laryngeals. Prishtinë 2004. M. “Messapisch und Albanisch”. Çabej. I-II. Leiden 2000. “Evidence in Albanian”. Huld. Hackstein. Çabej. 44 . Firenze 1971. Çabej. E. F. W. “Das Albanische als Glied der idg. V. Fiedler. Orel. Gramatikë historike e gjuhës shqipe. International Journal of Diachronic Linguistics and Linguistic Reconstruction 2/2005: 29-54. Wiesbaden 1975-6. Die Sprache 18/1972: 132-154. Untersuchungen zum indogermanischen Wortschatz des Albanischen und zur diachronen Phonologie. Elsie. Dialektet e gjuhës shqipe. Prishtinë 1970. V. I-II. Camaj. H.H. Haarmann. Erster Teil ‐ Allgemeine Erörterungen“ Ponto‐Baltica 8‐9. Camaj. H. Der lateinische Lehnwortschatz im Albanischen. Jokl. Sprachfamilie”. Wiesbaden 2003. 2007. G. Orel. V. Berlin 1923. Lafe. M. Jorgji. Demiraj. J. W. “Über einige Lautregeln des Albanischen”. Sh. La parlata albanese di Greci in provincia di Avellino. A. E. Moskva 1981. “Albanian and Armenian”. H.) Indo-European Numerals. Kortlandt. Gjinari. Mamp. Avviamento alla linguistica albanese. Hyrje në historinë e gjuhës shqipe. Den Haag 1965: 123141. Albanische Wortbildung. V. R. Albanskij jazyk i ego dialekty. Basic Albanian Etymologies. Innsbruck 1972. G. Wiesbaden 1994: 221-233. Wiesbaden 2005: 261-274. Ivanov. Genc ”Der italienische Einfluss auf das Albanische. 2006. in: Sprachkontakt und Sprachwandel. Xh. M. Gvozdanović (ed. M. Hamburg 1972. Eine Einführung in die albanische Sprachwissenschaft. M. Palermo 1995. Röll. Bahri Beci. Indoevropejskie istoky. by G. P. in: J. Pellegrini. Gjovalin Shkurtaj. Early Albania. KZ 94/1984: 243-251. Ölberg. Meyer. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der albanesischen Sprache. E. Slavjanskij. Matzinger. N. Hock. B.

“PIE *e in Albanian”. 45 . Amsterdam 2008: 591608. Lehnwörter. Das Slavische Lehngut im Albanischen. 1. in: Evidence and Counter-Evidence. C. Die Sprache 44/2004: 70-85. Vol I. Fs. Firenze 1937. de Vaan. L’albanese di Dalmazia. “The prehistory of the Albanian vowel system: A preliminary exploration”. M. Vermeer. München 1997. Xh. Kortlandt.Tagliavini. Ylli. W.

= particle pl. = singular 46 . = future G = Genitive indef. = plural pres. = aorist D = Dative def. = optative part. = Armenian Croat. = feminine fut. = Turkish W = Welsh B) Grammatical terms A = Accusative Abl. fem. = Old English OHG = Old High German OIr. = Ablative aor. neut. = negation opt. = indefinite ipf. = Serbian Skr.ABBREVIATIONS A) Languages Alb. = Romanian Russ... = Italian L = Latin Lith. = Russian Serb. = definite f. = Old Irish ON = Old Norse PIE = Proto-Indo-European Rom. = Albanian Arm. = neuter neg. = Croatian G = Greek Goth. = Hittite It. = present sg. = Lithuanian OCS = Old Church Slavonic OEng. = Gothic Hitt. = masculine N = Nominative n. = Sanskrit Std. = Standard (Albanian) ToA = Tocharian A ToB = Tocharian B Tur. = imperfect m.

< = is derived from << = is borrowed from * = unattested form 47 .