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PCBs l mt nhm cc hp cht nhn to c s dng rng ri trong qu kh, nhng chng b cm vo cui nhng nm 1970 nhiu nc bi nhng

ng ngu c g h cho m trng c h u nh n, nhng hp cht rt bn vng, hin nay chng vn cn tn t trong m trng. I. PCBs l g? PolyClobiPhenyl ( PCBs) l hn hp cc hp cht dn xut Clo ca Biphenyl C12H10-nCln (n l s cc nguyn t , tha i t 1 n 10). c n 210 ng ph n c tnh ca m ng phn ph thuc vo cu trc ca n. S nguyn t Cl c mt trong PCBs cng nhiu th hp cht c ng c c tnh ca cc ng phn PCBs ph thuc vo s ng v v tr th ca cc nguyn t c nht l nhng ng phn c Cl cc v tr 2, 3,7 v 8 . Cc PCB trong t nhin c chu k bn hu h ng trm nm (rt bn, bn h n c DDT). c ng phn ca PCB c th gy ra nhng tc ng lu di (mn tnh), ch yu l kh nng nh n ung th u quan trng l c phn hu sinh hc rt thp. Mc nguy him, c hi ca tng ng ph n hc nhau, nhng u c mt s c m chung: c tnh cao. Kh phn hu, c th tn ti nhiu nm thm ch hng chc nm trc khi phn hu thnh dng t c h h n C th ba h pht tn xa th o hng h hoc nc. Tch lu trong cc m m ng vt.

Tt c u l nhn to v c cu trc c bn tng t nhau hng c cu to bi cc nguyn t carbon, h r c o c nguyn t ny c kh nng to cc lin kt khc nhau nn chng c th to ra 209 o ph n t mc c hi ca chng hc nhau hng thng, PCBs rt bn vng u ny gii thch cho s tn ti dai dng ca chng trong m trng. nhit cao, PCBs c th chy v to ra cc sn phm ph nguy him - nh cc cht c d ox n hng c hu nh hng ba h ha ho tan trong nc u nh n, chng ho tan c trong cht bo v cc cht t ng t cng do g i thch v sao PCBs c th hnh thnh trong m ng vt tch t ua

chui thc n h tn t trong m trng

sng h, PCBs dnh vo cc lp trm tch n m chng c th c chn trong mt th g an d trc h chng c gi phng o nc v khng kh. Trong nc, s phn hu PCBs chm h n c th x ra di nh hng ca nh sng mt tri v cc vi sinh vt. Nhng sinh vt n cng ng a tr uan trng trong vic phn hu PCBs trong t v cc lp trm tch. PCBs trong khng kh c th chm ti mt t h ma tu t r ha n g n ch l tr o ng cc ht vt cht ca chng bng lc ht. Trong khng kh, PCBs b phn hu b tc ng trc tip ca nh sng mt tri. Mt khong ng n vi thng mi phn hu c mt na s ng PCBs ban u. PCBs c th tn t trong ng vt qua nhiu thi gian v theo chui thc n c tm thy trong cc m m ca ng vt sng trong nc hay trn mt t, c bit l nhng ng vt u ca chui thc n Do , con ng cng c th tch PCBs t thc n m h n Mt s o ng vt bao gm cn trng cc o ng vt khng x ng ng, ch m, c cc o ng vt c v c th phn hu hay bin i mt cht trong c th chng. ngoi tr , ngi ta pht hin th h m ng PCBs trong khng kh nng thn v cc vng su, vng xa thp h n cc hu th v khu cng nghip. Trong khng kh trong nh, mc tp trung cao h n 10 n trong khng kh ngoi tri. Ti nhng vng bin gn cc khu cng nghip, h m ng PCBs trong nc bin c xu hng cao nht. K t nhng nm 1970, h ng ta p t nhng hn ch ln vic sn xut PCBs th mc tp trung g m dn dn trong cc cht lng ng mi ca cc lp trm tch sng v trong c. Phi nhim PCBs on ngi b ph nh m ua ng t u ha ph nh m PCBs cha trong sa m. h hp, r ng tr nh c th b

hng thng, con ngi b ph nh m h n nhng thc phm b nhim c c bit l tht, c v gia cm. S hp th PCBs qua thc n i v ngi ln tng ti mc cao cui vo nhng nm 1970 nhng au g m vo nhng nm 1990 nh thng, chng ta cng b ph nh m v h m ng thp PCBs tn ti trong khng kh khi ht th, c trong nh ngo tr u nh n, t cc nh my s dng , mt cht n c th cao h n rt nhiu v cng nhn lm vic thng c ngu c nh m c cao h n do th g an cng t p xc n go ra, chng ta cng c th b ph nh m v h m ng thp trong nc ung mc d mc tp trung ca thng qu thp o c. h th o d cc ng t th ngh m, cc nh hoa hc cho b t ng vt, ph nh m PCBs vi mt liu ng ln c th gy ra bnh tiu chy, nhng h hn h hp, tnh trng b mt nc, phn ng vi cm g c au b suy gim hn m c pht hin l ph hu phi, d dy v tuyn tu h nh m vi liu ng thp PCBs trong mt thi gian ngn c th gy tr ngi cho chc nng ca gan v tuyn gip, cn trong thi gian di c th dn n ung th gan Nhng nh hng v kh nng nh n, c uan nh n v hot ng ca hocmon n cng c pht hin thy cc ng vt th nghim b ph nh m vi cc liu ng cao PCBs qua thc n trong mt thi gian di. Nhng c th c c cho n thc n c cha PCBs trong sut thi k mang thai v b sa, kt qu ngi ta pht hin thy nhiu con non gp h hn vic hc v ng x (cc phn x u kin, c u kin trong tp tnh sinh hot, kim sng ca chng). nhng con non ny, s pht trin ca h thng min dch v mt s cc c uan nh gan, tu n gip v thn cng b nh hng bi s ph nh m PCBs. Nhng ng vt trng th nh dng nh t nhy cm vi nh hng ca h n tha nh PCBs vi cc cu trc ho hc khc nhau hot ng theo cc cch khc nhau. Mt s PCBs hot ng ging cc cht dioxin v c th m tng ngu c ung th hng PCBs khc c th nh hng n s pht trin ca h thn kinh mc ph nh m cao. Phi nhim PCBs nh hng n sc kho ca con ngi nh th no? on ngi c th hp th PCBs bng vic n ha ung nhng thc phm b nhim c

mc d mc v liu ng t h n o i vic ht th khng kh b nhim c hoc qua da. Mt h c th hp th th o cc m ng t bo, mch mu v h bch huyt. Mc tp trung PCBs cao nht thng tm thy trong gan, m t bo, no, da mu i vi cc b m, ngi ta pht hin th o mu cung rn, nhau thai v sa m. c ng ng vt, cng c th bin i thnh cc cht tch t trong cc m v huyt t ng trong c th. Chng c th b bin i thnh cc cht khc bi tit c ua nc tiu v phn. t h xc nh c vic ph nh m PCBs ti mc no th nh hng n sc kho ca con ngi v nhng ngi khc nhau th b ph nh m vi s ng v s pha trn cc cht hc nhau, cng c th h c th b ph nh m cng lc vi cc cht c khc. Nhiu nghin cu cho thy c s lin quan gia ph nh m PCBs ngu c ung th h t u ho, gan da ng c ng tng H n na, h m ng PCBs trong mu cao c th lin quan t ung th h bch huyt. h nh m PCBs c th nh hng n qu trnh sinh sn ca con ngi, n lm gim kh nng nh n n ng thi lm gim s ng tinh trng ca nam gi u d n ra trong thi k mang thai v cho con b c th lin quan ti s ln ln v pht trin chm ca tr nh cng nh m g m kh nng m n dch. ph nh m cht n cng c th lin quan ti nhng nh hng n thn nh (nh tnh trng t lit au u), kh nng nh m bnh thng xu n h n, tha i ca da, c bit l cc chng pht ban v nga. Mt n ngh ng rng c th nghim s hp th tr n ng vt (nh h) s khc bit so v con ngi v c th ng vt nhy cm v h n Mt khc, cc c trng m con ngi b ph nh m c th t hay nhiu c h n hn hp cc dng cho nhng nghin cu tr n ng vt. Mc d nh g a cc th nghim nghin cu v thc tin ho n to n c th x ra, song nhng nh hng ca n sc kh con ng m trng l khng th chi ci.

1. Khi nim PCB : l mt hp cht hu c c tn l PolyChlorinated Biphenyl. Cc PCB trong t nhin c chu k bn hu h ng trm nm (rt bn, bn h n c DDT). PCB l nhm hp cht m trong phn t ca chng cha 2 nhm phenyl c c oho, c pht hin trong chui thc n n uan n cc thu vc (sng, h) nh trong bn ng, cy c , sinh vt ph du, c, ng vt thn mm, cc loi chim sng quanh thu vc v l d nh n c cc m m ca nhng ngi c s dng tm, c lm thc phm trong ba n Cc nh khoa hc cho bit, h m ng clo (Cl) trong PCB cng cao th hp cht c ng c. PCB nh hng n h thn kinh, gan v c kh nng g ung th phn hu cc ngi ta phi nung vt liu cha n nhit cao, trn 1200oC. Tuy nhin khi nung, PCB c th bc th o h , ng thi c th chuyn ha thnh cc cht c hc h ng php n a tn km, va mt cng li hng an to n Do , ng na h dng ph ng php mi gi l phn gii ha hc c h gi ta dng lc c h lm cho phn ng xy ra, c th l dng nhng ht st p v cc cht c v bin chng thnh cht hon ton khng c hi 2. Cc ng dng ca PCB: - Cht l ng cch n trong bin th v t n - Cht lm mt trong vic truyn nhit nng - Cht dung mi trong mc lm giy than copy - Du b tr n - Keo gin - Cht xc tc trong cng nghip ha cht - Ph g a trong n - Cht ph b mt - Ph g a trong n Qua trn chng ta c th thy PCB c rt nhiu ng dng. V v , ng pht thi h ng nm tr n th gi cng nh Vit am cng rt ln. 3. Hin trng PCB ti VN T nc ta hin cn u mt kh ng kh ln cc cht hu c nh m kh phn hy (POPs) tch t tp trung hoc ph n tn trong m trng t, c bit

t thi k chin tranh. mt s n , ng d n phi ln ting cu cu v b nh hng qa nng n v sc kho m trng sng rong h , cc nh khoa hc v qun l vn ang oa hoa i cc d n th m tm ra cng ngh t u g i quyt bi ton v x l cc cht POP trn din rng Theo cc s liu cng b, Vit Nam cn kh ng du c cha PCB c th ln ti 19.000 tn, ch yu t cc my bin th n kiu c ng ng cht thi nguy h c tnh nm 2003 160 000 tn m nm, trong 130 000 tn t cc cht thi cng nghip, 21.000 tn t cc cht thi y t ca cc bnh vin, trm x v vin u dng, v 8.600 tn t sn xut nng nghip. Ngoi ra, mt s vng c d ng cc cht dioxin v furans trong t do hu qu ca vic s dng ti 72 triu lt thuc dit c trong thi k chin tranh 1961-1971. Vit am ang dng khong 300 loi thuc tr su, 200 loi thuc tr bnh, gn 150 loi thuc tr c , 6 loi thuc dit chut v 23 loi thuc ch thch nh trng cy trng. Cc ho cht bo v thc vt (BVTV) ny nhiu v c s ng v chng lo , trong c mt s loi thuc danh mc cm s dng, hn ch s dng v tn ng ht hn s dng. Cc cht hu c nh m kh phn hu (POPs) s dng cho nng nghip ch yu l DDT v HCB, hin nm ri rc cc ho a ph ng ch c x l, cn trong cng nghip phn ln , trong cc nh c nh: Du bin th v t n cng sut cao, cht l ng truyn nhit v h thng thy lc, ch to du b tr n v du ct gt, cht ho do cho n, dung m cho mc in ca giy copy khng cha cc bon, cht kt dnh, cht chng bt chy v cht do M n nhng nm 80, ngi ta mi pht hin tnh bn vng c tnh nguy hi ca i v m trng con ng , au hn ch v dn cm s dng. Cht c qun s do M s dng ti chin trng Vit am trc gm ba loi cht chnh: cht da cam, cht xanh v cht trng rong , cht da cam l cht cc c, c c tnh cao gp trm ngh n n loi ho cht m trng c nht v hin cn tn ti mt ng ln trong m trng t t cc m nng thuc 3 n ba : ng, Bin Ho v Ph Ct. V mt qun nh nc, Chnh ph ban h nh h th 29/1998/CT-TTg v tng cng cng tc qun l v s dng thuc BVTV v ha cht c hi gy nhim, kh phn hu, trong ngh m cm vic sn xut, bun bn, tng tr, vn chuyn v s dng cc loi thuc BVTV v cc cht POP nguy him trong danh mc cm s dng, ng thi thu gom v tiu hu cc cht n th o ng u trnh, cng ngh x l cht thi nguy h , m bo khng gy nhim m trng

v nh hng n sc kho con ngi, x l nhim m trng do cc kho thuc V V c g ra B Khoa hc cng ngh, Cc M trng (thuc B ngu n M trng) cng phi hp vi T chc h tr nghin cu Cng nghip v Khoa hc thuc trng i hc tng hp k thut Na Uy tin h nh u tra v kim ban u t n cho Chnh ph v cng ngh x l, tiu hu ng POPs tn ng ny. 4. Gii php x l PCB tn d. Vn gii quyt cc cht c POPs tn ng l bi ton v cng nan gi i vi cc nh khoa hc v cc nh qun trong nc. Trn th gii c rt nhiu cng ngh c p dng ti cc quc gia, trong s c 9 cng ngh, theo tng kt nh g ca UNEP, l mang tnh thn thin m trng v gi thnh hp h n c, : dng t c chng, t x mng, h bng ho cht pha h , kh bng cht xc tc, kh bng kim, x ho n ho trung gian , xi ho mui nng chy, xi ho siu ti hn v Plasma. nc ta cng c mt s m h nh th m hoc c trin khai. Trong hi tho G i thiu v tham vn la chn cng ngh x l ho cht POPs tn u ti Vit am d n ra ngy 09/08/2007, do Cc M trng t chc, c 4 m h nh cng ngh c gii thiu cc cng ngh: s dng th u t nhit thp (Trung tm cng ngh x m trng - B t nh Ho hc), s dng l t x mng nh t cao ( ng t Ho ch m th m ti Hn Chng), s dng l t 2 cp c can thip lm lnh cng bc ( ng t M trng Xanh thc hin ti cc khu cng nghip) v Cng ngh phn hu sinh hc (Vin Cng ngh Sinh hc phi hp mt s n khc thc hin). Tuy c nhiu m h nh c a ra, nhng u t nh m hnh no l ph hp nht cho vic x l cc cht POPs ti Vit Nam va c th trin khai hiu qu trong u kin kinh t trong nc m vn m bo yu cu khng gy pht tn cht c ixin, furan hay cc cht c h hc ra m trng cho n nay vn cha t m ra u nh n, cc nh hoa hc cng nht tr cao rng cn s dng kt hp nhiu cng ngh ng thi mi c th gii quyt vn . u quan trng trc mt l cn xc nh c b tiu ch la chn cng ngh c c kt qu u tra c bn v s ng cng nh phn b, mc phn tn ca cc cht POPs t cc a ph ng r n c , t hp vi nhng

nghin cu nh g u cc cng ngh hin t t trong u kin thc t ca nc ta, mi hy vng t m ra c cu tr li t u x l POPs. 5. K hoch Quc gia x l cht nhim kh phn hu KH quc gia v ng c Stockholm v cc cht nhim hu c h ph n hu va c Th tng CP ph duyt ti Q 184 n nay, Vit am cm s dng 9/12 thuc bo v thc vt (BVTV) l cc cht hu c c hi. ham g a cng c ny, Vit Nam s xy dng v hon thin h thng php lut qun l an ton ha cht, gim thiu v tin ti loi b cc cht nhim hu c h ph n hu ng thi, phng nga, kim sot v x an to n i vi cc cht ny; tin ti kim sot, x l v tiu hy hon ton cc kho thuc BVTV nhng ha cht rt c h b loi b , cn tn u o nm 2010 K hoch tr n cng nhm x l trit cc khu vc nng v nhim thuc BVTV v Dioxins t cht c ha hc do M s dng trong chin tranh Vit Nam. go ra, ng PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyles) pht th o m trng cng c gim thiu; phn u loi b vic s dng PCB trong cc thit b, my mc o nm 2020 t u h an to n o nm 2028 G m thiu lin tc ng pht thi cc cht nhim hu c h ph n hu hnh thnh khng ch nh (Dioxins v Furans). Trong 12 cht hoc nhm ha cht hu c c hi (POPs), gm Aldrin, Chlordane, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Hexachlorobenzenne, Mirex, Toxaphene, DDT, PCB, D ox n Furan , n th m n , nc ta cm s dng 9 loi thuc BVTV l cc cht nhim hu c h ph n hy v hn ch vic nhp khu v s dng PCB. Cht nhim hu c h ph n hy (vit tt ting Anh l POPs -persistent Organic Pollutants) l cc ha cht rt c hi, tn ti bn vng trong m trng v rt kh phn hy. Chng c kh nng pht tn rng v tch t sinh hc cao trong cc m ca sinh vt, gy tc hi nghim trng cho sc kho con ngi (gy ra cc bnh v sinh sn, thn kinh, min dch, ung th, tn th ng g n ), a dng sinh hc m trng sng. ng c Stockholm chnh thc c hiu lc k t ng 14/ 5/2004 ng c nhm bo v cuc sng m trng thin nhin - c bit cho ngi ngho v cc nc ngho - bng cch cm sn xut v s dng mt s cc cht ho hc c h , c bit l Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans, v 9 loi

thuc tr su rt c h ng c cng u cu x l trit nhng a m tng tr thuc tr su v ho cht c hi c cha O , cng nh t u hu cc cht PCB v cht thi c cha PCB. Tc hi ca PCB - V d in hnh Nhim c PCB, Dioxin trong du n - V n Kanemi Bo Asahi ngy 13/4/2007 cho bit vn ph nh m dioxin qua v n Kanemi Shoko tri qua gn 40 nm nhng h n vn mang tnh thi s, l th thch nng i vi Chnh ph Nht Bn trong vic a ra c mt bc tranh tng th ca c t d ox n i vi sc kh con ngi v xy dng mt ch cu cha hu hiu i vi nhng ng ang b tn th ng do nh m c c t trong du n Kanemi Soko l nh sn xut du n ch t sut t cm go ni ting ti Nht Bn, nm 1968 g ng c ha cht nghim trng cho h n 14 000 ngi trong 1 853 ngi l nhng nn nhn b ph nh m PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) rt nng, gy cc chng bnh mn tnh sut i v c th di truyn sang th h k tip qua sa m th o u tra o nm 1986 Bo Asah ng 10/10/1968 a t n nh u g a nh vng Fukuoka v Nagasaki mang cc chng bnh k qui tp th nh ch n ta run ry, mu da ni chm... g 15/10/1968, uan t thnh ph Ogura ra lnh nh ch vic bn du n ca Kanemi v cm cng ty ny sn xut v kinh doanh du n t cm go. 2 ngy au, i hc Kyushu lp o n u tra bnh do du n i s tham d ca rng b mn v sinh cng cng ca tnh mc d o n hng phi do Chnh ph t chc, ph nhn ngun tin du ny b nhim arsenic. Ngy 4/11/1968, qua 2 tun, o n u tra ca Vin nghin cu v sinh tnh Kochi cng b du b nhim hp cht chlorine hu c ng ng nghin cu chuyn mn ca i hc Kyushu chnh thc xc nhn nguyn nhn cc triu chng l ngi bnh l do du n c h m ng PCB 2000-3000 ppm t sn phm an c or 400 - mt ha cht c cha PCB khi gia nhit -chin xo to ra

hp cht

DD c hi.

an c or 400 - l sn phm ca Cng ty ha cht an gafuch c s dng lm dung mi trong quy trnh kh mi du cm ca an m L h ng n c sn xut trc thng 2/1968 v kh nng cao nht gy ng c cho ngi tiu dng trong khong thi gian t thng 3-10/1968. Mc d nguyn nhn nhim c c lm sng t , nu nh cc o n thanh kim tra c trch nhim lm vic nghim tc th s vic c pht hin trc 8 thng ngi b hi s gim thiu rt nhiu. S d 8 thng trc l thi k bt u c du hiu nhim c du n cng c xy ra v g b nhim du m u n u cht hng lot rong thng 2 3 nm 1968 ng g nhim lo du m u n u n b cht hng lot, c 400 000 con c t l ng trng sinh n xung thp bt thng trong s 2 triu con vng Kyushu, Shikoku thuc min am nc n n thc n trn du c h m ng PCB ca Cng ty Kanemi. S kin gia sc b ph nh m n b t ua trong t kim tra chiu l ca nhn vin th y ca tnh cho n khi du n ca cng ty ny gy tai bin cho ng t u dng trong c h n 100 ngi b t vong th s vic m c u Ngy 29/11/1968, thnh ph Bc Kyushu khi t Cng ty Kanemi vi phm Lut v sinh an ton thc phm. au , V n Kim st Fukuoka tip tc khi t Tng g m c cng ty v gim c ph n xng sn xut v t th u trch nhim gy th ng tch ngh m trng Mt khc, vic bung l ng qun l ca chnh quyn a ph ng cng b ngi dn truy cu trch nhim, h i phi c bin php thch ng gii quyt cho ngi b hi.

NH GI RI RO HO CHT V VN QUN L CHT THI NGUY HI Thanh Bi, H Qu o, Phm Vit Hng1 1i hc khoa hc t nhin Summary:

Chemical risk assessment and toxic chemical management PCBs used in the electrical transformation oil are the cancer potential chemical. The research used the results of PCB contamination concentration in some soil samples of Hanoi area and applied some necessary data from the IPCS database for toxic chemicals to calculate the risks to get cancer due to contact with PCB-transformation oil contaminated soil. The calculation showed that the risk of cancer in the Yen Phu wastes dumping place is 92.4x10-6 T VN Vic qun l an ton ho cht cng nh c qun l cht thi nguy hi Vit Nam cn ang n mi m. Nu vic qun l ho cht v cht thi nguy hi khng c ch ng mc hay khng hp l v mt m trng th ho cht ni chung v cht thi guy hi ni ring s gy ra nhng tc ng su ti nhng thnh phn m trng, c bit l sc k con ngi v cc h sinh thi nhy cm khc, hoc cp tnh hoc mn tnh. Bi trnh by ny ch a ra t qu nghin cu bc u v ph ng php nh g ri ro ho cht i vi sc kho con ngi, c th l tim nng g ung th (carc nog n) do vic qun l mt loi cht thi c cha cht g ung th - polyclorobiphenyl (PCB) trongt du bin th th ra m trng mt cch thiu kim sot. PCB trong du bin th PCBs - polyclorua biphenyl - l mt hn hp cc cht aromat c, c sn xut bng cch clo ho biphenyl, c cng thc tng qut l C12H10-nCln (n l s cc nguyn t Cl, tha i t 1 n 10) (4) c n 210 ng ph n (1), c tnh ca m ng phn ph thuc vo cu trc ca n c ng phn ca PCB c th gy ra nhng tc ng lu di (mn tnh), ch yu l kh nng nh n ung th u quan trng c phn hu sinh hc rt thp (4). S nguyn t Cl c mt trong PCB cng nhiu th phn hu sinh hc cng thp c tnh ca cc ng phn PCB ph thuc vo s ng v v tr th ca cc nguyn t c nht l nhng ng phn c Cl cc v tr 2, 3,7 v 8 . Trong du bin th, c s dng nh ph g a c tnh cch n rt cao v thc hin chc nng chng ox ho, c t n th ng mi l Aroclor. Du bin th c coi l mt trong nhng ngun gy nhim PCB ln nht. Vic thi du bin th c cha PCB g n n nhng ngu c mc ung th cho con ng ng vt thng qua cc ph ng thc tip xc (nhim) hc nhau rong cc c d liu quc t v ho cht, c th t m c cc gi tr ca "h s tim nng g ung th - CPF" (carcinogenic potency factor). Xc nh ri ro ho cht (Risk) i vi PCB tnh ngu c hay mc ri ro (xc sut) g ung th ( L ), c th s dng cng thc chung sau (1):

Rrisk - Lng nhim trung bnh ngy (I) * H s tim nng gy ung th (CPF) I - L ng nhim trung bnh ngy ca nhng ngi sng trong khu vc nhim khi tip xc v t b nhim PCB (b qua nhim khng kh), c th xc nh qua cng thc sau: I = C * (CR * EF * ED)/ (BW * AT) rong : C: nng cht nhim (PCB) t m tip xc CR mc tip xc (L/ngy, m3/ngy hoc mg/ngy) CR = A * DA * ABS * SM EF: tn s (ng /nm) ED: di thi gian tip xc (nm) BW: trng ng c th (kg) AT: khong thi gian nghin cu ngu c (ng ) rong trng hp tip xc ca cht nhim ua da, i v ngi Vit nam, c trng ng c th trung bnh l 50 kg, din tch b mt da trung b nh t ng ng l 12965 cm2, vi mt s gi thit sau: A = % da b tip xc = 20% = 0.2 x 12965 cm2 = 2592 cm2 DA : mc dnh ca t trn da = 0.5 1 mg/cm2 ABS = mc hp th qua da = 6% SM : 15% = h s tip xc hiu dng (tc l do cu tc ca t ch c 15% cht nhim trong t c nhim o c th qua da) EF = tn s tip xc = 365 ngy, 2 ln/ngy ED: di thi gian tip xc = 20 nm A = 21900 ng (60 nm) h y: I = 0 16 * 10-6 * C (mg/kg.ngy) tnh ton tr s I, cn phi bit gi tr nng C. Khoa ho, i hc Quc gia H ni t n hnh nghin cu ph ng php c k kh (2) phn tch cc cht aroclor trong du bin th trong t t cc b rc t c kim sot. Kt qu vi cc mu t nh au (3): Mu S-1 S-2 S-3 S-4 S-5 Dng mu t t t t t Tng PCB 392 ppb 330 ppb 1426 ppb 18810 ppb 73285 ppb Ghi ch Xung quanh trm bin th Xung quanh trm bin th t t n b rc t ti khu vc nh m n Yn Ph t ti khi bi rc Yn Ph

Ti bi rc Yn Ph ( 5), n c h nh u d n c ng quanh khu vc bi rc thiu kim sot, c th tnh c gi tr I (Lng nhim trung b nh ng ) nh au: I = 0.16 x 10-6 * C = 0.16 * 73.285 ppm * 10-6 = 12 * 10-6 mg/kg.ngy S dng gi tr F i v 7 7 (trong c s d liu) ( 1 ), c th tnh c nguy c (xc ut) mc ung th i v d n chng trong ng xung uanh b rc nh au: Risk =I x CPF Risk = 7.7 (1/mg/kg.ngy) * 12 x 10-6 mg/kg.ngy = 92.4 * 10-6 i vi nhng ho cht v cht thi c tim nng g ung th, ngi ta khng s dng khi nim ngng, tc l khng c mc an ton. Tuy nhin khi nghin cu mi quan h "mc tip xc - phn ng" i vi cht c kh nng g ung th, ng ta dng khi nim "mc chp nhn". C th trong trng hp cht g ung th, ngi ta chp nhn mt gi tr ri ro (xc sut) nht nh E A u nh gi tr mt phn triu (10-6) h trong trng hp ny xc sut mc ung th ti khu vc nghin cu so vi tiu chun M t qu trn 92 ln. Gi thit s dn c ngu c t p xc v t bi rc trong khu vc nghin cu (bi rc Yn Ph) 5000 ng , h cc trng hp b mc ung th do nh m PCB ca du bin th ua con ng tip xc vi da (M) tnh cho sut c cuc i, s l: M = RISK * Dn s = 84.7 * 10-6 * 5000 = 0.425 ng t c th tnh c i v trng hp khu vc 4 (nh m n Yn Ph c), na c b tng ho, ch c tr m o mt s l nh n ch , do c ngu c tip xc v t nhim du c PCB. V cch t cc gi thit t ng t nh tr n, c th tnh c ngu c mc ung th cho tr em ti khu vc s l: 0.17 x 10-6 x 7.7 = 1.3 x 106 nh gi kt qu tnh ton v tho lun T nhng kt qu tnh ton v ngu c mc ung th do t p xc v m trng nhim PCB theo mt cch tuy cn rt n g n nh tr n, c th rt ra mt s nhn xt n uan n vic qun l cht thi nguy h nh au: Vi nhng v tr nh 1 2, nhng khu vc ngi ra vo rt hn ch (trm bin th), th ngu c mc ung th do t p xc v t nhim PCB c th b qua, tuy nhin cn tnh n vic thi trc tip du c o t nh y s c ngu c g nh m nc ngm, con ngi c th s dng nc ngm do c mt ngu c n o i vi cc khu vc S3, S4 v S5, nhng s liu phn tch PCB v tnh ton ri ro mc ung th do ng , do nhng khu vc loi ny cn c xem xt trn quan m kim sot cht thi nguy hi. Vit nam, c tnh ton b ng du nhp t L n X c, rung Quc v Rumani trc c cha PCB l vo khong 27000 - 30000 tn. Mt phn ng du ny thi ra m trng hin vn cha c qun th o ng cch un l cht thi nguy hi. Do

n ny cn c uan t m h n na khng ch bi cc nh qun m trng, cc nh nghin cu cng ngh m trng, m cn bi nhng ng m cng tc nh gi ri ro ho cht v s dng nhng kt qu nghin cu nh g n o cc u tr nh ra quyt nh v qun l cht thi nguy h , cng nh nhng doanh nghip lin quan n pht sinh cht thi