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This survey is about indoor air quality management in Malaysia. Outdoor and indoor air quality is important to human health. The average 70 kg adult inhales about 20m3 of air per day (Berne et al., 1998). Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants.

The average person sends approximately

90% of their time

indoors. Studies have indicated that indoor air is often dirtier and/or contains higher levels of contaminants than outdoor air. The indoor air quality (IAQ) in any building can be compromised by microbial contaminants (mold, bacteria), chemicals (such as carbon monoxide, formaldehyde), allergens, or any mass or energy stressor that can induce health effects.The quality of indoor air inside offices, schools, and other workplaces is important not only for workers' comfort but also for their health. Many factors can affect IAQ. These factors include poor ventilation (lack of outside air), problems controlling temperature, high or low humidity, recent remodelling, and other activities in or near a building that can affect the fresh air coming into the building. Sometimes, specific contaminants like dust from construction or renovation, mold, cleaning supplies, pesticides, or other airborne chemicals (including small amounts of chemicals released as a gas over time) may cause poor IAQ.

2. Objectives

Two objectives of this project are: 1 To study the Indoor Air Quality concept in Malaysia 2 To observe Indoor Air Quality Management in order to ensure compliances of regulation.

3. Literature Review Indoor pollution sources that release gases or particles into the air are the primary cause of indoor air quality problems in homes. Inadequate ventilation can increase indoor pollutant levels by not bringing in enough outdoor air to dilute emissions from indoor sources and by not carrying indoor air pollutants out of the home. High temperature and humidity levels can also increase concentrations of some pollutants. Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) has been tied to symptoms like headaches, fatigue, trouble concentrating, and irritation of the eyes, nose, throat and lungs. Also, some specific diseases have been linked to specific air contaminants or indoor environments, like asthma with damp indoor environments. In addition, some exposures, such as asbestos and radon, do not cause immediate symptoms but can lead to cancer after many years.

3.1 Pollutant Sources There are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home. These include combustion sources such as oil, gas, kerosene, coal, wood, and tobacco products; building materials and furnishings as diverse as deteriorated, asbestos-containing insulation, wet or damp carpet, and cabinetry or furniture made of certain pressed wood products; products for household cleaning and maintenance, personal care, or hobbies; central heating and cooling systems and humidification devices; and outdoor sources such as radon, pesticides, and outdoor air pollution. The relative importance of any single source depends on how much of a given pollutant it emits and how hazardous those emissions are. In some cases, factors such as how old the source is and whether it is properly maintained are significant. For example, an improperly adjusted gas stove can emit significantly more carbon monoxide than one that is properly adjusted. Some sources, such as building materials, furnishings, and household products like air fresheners, release pollutants more or less continuously. Other sources, related to activities carried out in the home, release pollutants intermittently. These include smoking, the use of unvented or malfunctioning stoves, furnaces, or space heaters, the use of solvents in cleaning and hobby activities, the use of paint strippers in redecorating activities, and the use of cleaning products and pesticides in house-keeping. High pollutant concentrations can remain in the air for long periods after some of these activities. 3.2 Indoor Air Pollutants

There are two categories of indoor air pollutants that can affect the quality of air in a home: particulate matter and gaseous pollutants.


Particulate Matter

Particulate matter includes dust, smoke, pollen, animal dander, tobacco smoke, particles generated from combustion appliances such as cooking stoves, and particles associated with tiny organisms such as dust mites, molds, bacteria, and viruses.

Particulate matter (PM) is composed of microscopic solids, liquid droplets, or a mixture of solids and liquid droplets suspended in air. Also known as particle pollution, PM is made up of a number of components, including acids such as nitric and sulfuric acids, organic chemicals, metals, soil or dust particles, and biological contaminants. Among the particles that can be found in a home are: Dust as solid PM or fumes and smoke, which are mixtures of solid and liquid particles.

Biological contaminants, including viruses, bacteria, pollen, molds, dust mite and cockroach body parts and droppings, and animal dander.

Particles come in a wide range of sizes. Small particles can be fine or coarse. Of primary concern from a health standpoint are fine particles that have a diameter of 2.5 micrometers (m) or less. These particles (described as respirable) can be inhaled; they penetrate deep

into the lungs where they may cause acute or chronic health effects. Coarse particles, between 2.5 and 10 m in diameter, usually do not penetrate as far into the lungs; they tend to settle in the upper respiratory tract. Large particles are greater than 10 m in diameter, or roughly one-sixth the width of a human hair. They can be trapped in the nose and throat and expelled by coughing, sneezing, or swallowing.

Respirable particles are directly emitted into indoor air from a variety of sources including tobacco smoke, ozone reactions with emissions from indoor sources of organic compounds, chimneys and flues that are improperly installed or maintained, unvented combustion appliances such as gas stoves and kerosene or gas space heaters, woodstoves, and fireplaces. This category of particles also includes viruses and some bacteria. Among the smaller biological particles found in a home are some bacteria, mold fragments and spores, a significant fraction of cat and dog dander, and a small portion of dust mite body parts and droppings. Larger particles include dust, pollen, some mold fragments and spores, a smaller fraction of cat and dog dander, a significant fraction of dust mite body parts and cockroach body parts and droppings, and skin flakes.


Gaseous pollutants

Gaseous pollutants come from combustion processes. Sources include gas cooking stoves, vehicle exhaust, and tobacco smoke. They also come from building materials, furnishings, and the use of products such as adhesives, paints, varnishes, cleaning products, and pesticides.

Gaseous pollutants include combustion gases and organic chemicals that are not attached to particles. Hundreds of gaseous pollutants have been detected in indoor air. Sources of indoor combustion gases such as carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide include combustion appliances, tobacco smoke, and vehicles whose exhaust infiltrates from attached garages or the outdoors.

Sources of airborne gaseous organic compounds include tobacco smoke, building materials and furnishings, and products such as paints, adhesives, dyes, solvents, caulks, cleaners, deodorizers, cleaning chemicals, waxes, hobby and craft materials, and pesticides. Organic compounds may also come from cooking food; from human, plant, and animal metabolic processes; and from outdoor sources. Some electronic air cleaners and laser printers may generate the lung irritant ozone by design or as a by-product.

4. Material and Method

4.1 Indoor Air Quality Investigation

The goal of a building investigation is to identify and solve indoor air quality complaints in a way that prevents them from recurring and which avoids the creation of other problems. To achieve this goal, it is necessary for the investigator(s) to discover whether a complaint is actually related to indoor air quality, identify the cause of the complaint, and determine the most appropriate corrective actions

An indoor air quality investigation procedure is best characterized as a cycle of information gathering, hypothesis formation, and hypothesis testing. It generally begins with a walkthrough inspection of the problem area to provide information about the four basic factors that influence sick building syndrome: The occupants The HVAC and Ventilation System The possible pollutant pathways The possible contaminant sources

4.2 Develop an IAQ Profile of the Building

To understanding of the current IAQ situation in the building To find the factors that influence the building IAQ profile focused on identifying and reviewing records, blue print, as built drawing and operating instructions Conducting Walkthrough inspection to document information on HVAC system practices and conditions by qualified inspector Indoor Air Sampling to estimating and pointing the possibility factors to IAQ problems

4.3 Address Existing and Potential IAQ problems

identifying potential or existing problems as well as to gain the feedback on the causes(s) and solution(s) to any problem(s) MSDS for all chemical cleaning solutions must be review and put into the IAQ profile as well

4.4 Communication with Tenants/Occupants about Their Role in Maintaining Good IAQ

It is important for building occupants to understand that their activities can create indoor air quality problems and their cooperation is critical for maintaining Good IAQ in their Building

Building management is responsible for notifying building tenets about the conditions, policies or activities that may have a significant adverse IAQ impact.

4.5 Establish Procedures for Responding to IAQ complaints

Establishing procedures for responding to and resolving complaints will ensure that all complaints are handles in a consistent and fair manner such as complaints form, incident log forms, occupant interview forms or occupant diary forms. 5.0 Expected Result Expected result for this research might be as follow 1) IAQ profile for selective building 2) Existing and potential IAQ problem for selective building

3) Survey result from tenants 4) Establishment of procedures for responding to IAQ complaints 5) Conclusion for the best practice for IAQ management based on cross sectional study

6.0 Budget Approximation For this research, approximate around RM 5000 are required to complete it.


Tang G. Lee, Denise D. Biasio and Antonio Santini, 1996. Health and The Built Environment: Indoor Air Quality

D. Riley,et al., 2001. Indoor Air Quality Management and Infection Control in Health Care Facility Construction.

John D. Spengler, Jonathan M. Samet and John F. McCarthy, 2004. Introduction to the Indoor Air Quality Handbook

Department Of Occupational Safety And Health, Ministry Of Human Resources Malaysia, 2005. Code of Practice onIndoor Air Quality

World Health Organization, 2009.WHO guidelines for indoor air quality : dampness and mould

H.E. Burroughs and Shirley J. Hansen, 2011. Managing Indoor Air Quality